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DECEMBER -2009 Editorial Alcoholic preparation of drugs and food products are not a new idea but back several millennia. Asavas and Arishtas are important formulations of Ayurveda carrying the same. Such preparations not only are self preservatives but also carry more quantity of metabolites giving better base of drugs for maximum absorption across the cellular membrane. The reason is quite apparent as they bring with them both water soluble and alcohol soluble extracts. Such preparations are byproducts of fermentation. These processes have been developed for the manufacture of a vast range of materials from chemically simple feedstocks, such as ethanol, right up to highly complex protein structures. The advent of this latter range of products and processes has revolutionized the practice of clinical medicine and many areas of fundamental research only skilled individuals are needed in this area. Generally it is said that fermentation is the conversion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol. Specifically, it is use of fermenting agent to change sugar into alcohol or the use of bacteria to create lactic acid in certain foods. Fermentation occurs naturally in many different foods given the right conditions, and humans have intentionally made use of it for many thousands of years for their purpose. Human has made this natural phenomenon commercial by extracting the uses for their benefits. Beer is made by taking a grain, such as barley, wheat, rye etc. by germinating and drying and pulping it into a mash. This mash is then mixed with hot water to start the automatic fermentation. Then the liquid is transferred to fermenting vessel and yeast is added. Like all other cases of fermentation, the yeast starts using the sugar present with mash to converting them in alcohol and carbon dioxide. For wine, grapes are crushed to release the sugar-rich juices, which are then either transferred quickly away from the skins or left to rest for a time to absorb some of the flavor, tannins, and color of the skins. Then yeast is added. After few weeks the wine is ready. Specific blends are given as per the trade name and specific procedures of individual company. Vol 1.90 Pickling foods are prepared by submerging them in a salty water solution with vinegar. Over time, bacteria create the lactic acid that gives the food its distinctive flavor and helps to preserve it. Yogurt, a milk product is made by adding a number of special bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus to milk and keeping it at the proper temperature. The bacteria begin converting the sugar in the dairy to lactic acid, eventually creating yogurt. For all these processes, fermentation skills and knowledge are essential. The new fermentation-derived medicines, including biopharmaceuticals are driving force for systematic research into drug/receptor interactions, function of membrane proteins in health and disease. They are powering our capability to combat serious diseases in the human population, including cancers, degenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer’s, and increasingly common complaints of developed societies such as asthma. It is time in clinical medicine as new agents for the fermentation routes enter the market. The ‘new’ fermentation products, therapeutic proteins, antibodies (simple and conjugated) are more complex and costly than previous products, but, in essence, the need to focus upon the fermentation step is now clearer than ever. The potency, efficacy, stability and immunogenicity of these products are determined by the upstream or fermentation stage. The acquisition of this practical science need more skills based on demonstration, explanation and repetition. In This Issue 1) Standardization Of Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) And Its Bheda 2) Properties Of Goghrita With Special Reference To Its Murchhana 3) Polyphenols And Their Bioactive Properties 4) harmacognostical Evaluation of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sw., A Weed Medicinally and Economically Important 5) Formulation Profile (Series-A/11) CHITRAKA GHRITA 6) Herbal Drug Profile (Series-A/12) AYAPANA

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DEC -2009

STANDARDIZATION OF KADAMBA (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) AND ITS BHEDA Dr. M. Philipananad Kumar*
Introduction: Ayurveda deals with the uses and any specific identity of drugs with their various synonyms. Number of drugs may have similar appearance or use; hence the controversy is automatic concept over here. Kadamba is not apart from this. Kadamba is an important ayurvedic drugs mentioned with number of ayurvedic lexicons. The gargle of leaves is used in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Various synonyms are suggested in different Nighantus as: • Pravrishi : Blossom in the rainy season

A. Dhanvantari Nighantu: 1.Dharakadamba and, 2. Dhulikadamba B. Raja Nighantu: - 1. Dharakadamba, 2. Dhulikadamba and, 3. Bhoomikadamba C. Madana pala Nighantu: - 1. Dhulikadamba, 2. Nipa and, 3. Rajakadamba D. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu: - 1. Rajakadamba, 2. Bhoomikadamba, 3. Dharakadamba and, 4. Dhuli Kadamba Materials And Methods: For the standardization of different Kadamba, different parameters were touched as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Collection Macroscopic study Microscopic study Phytochemical Analysis U.V. Visible Spectrophotometer study The leaves of specified drugs were collected after proper taxonomical identification with help of various floras. The trees of origin of drugs were properly watched and their all characters were matched with the characters given with various synonyms. After confirmation only, the parts of drugs were collected. The macroscopical study of the drugs was based on organoleptic characters perceived by our sensory organs. The microscopical studies were done after fixing them in Alcohol and Acetic acid solution in ratio of 3:1 for 2 days and then processing by NIN method. The microtone sections were taken in T.S. plane and studied for anatomical features. The phytochemical analysis of drugs were segmented in physico-chemical, qualitative and quantitative studies. The physico-chemical study included parameters like: 1. Moisture content 2. Total ash 3. Acid insoluble ash 4. Water soluble ash 5. Alcohol soluble extractives 6.Water soluble extractives 7. pH of alcohol soluble extractives and water soluble extractives. The qualitative tests covered the testing for the presence or absence of carbohydrate, protein, saponin and starch. Spectrophotometer analysis of alcoholic extracts of leaves of these three plants was also studied. (Continued next edition..........)

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Vrittapushpa : Flower is round and yellowish Halipriya : The smell of kadamba was liked by Balaram Sidhupushpa : Flower has got fragrance like sugarcane Lalanapriya : Attracted by the female Sindhupushpa : Mostly grown in sindhupradesh Karnapuraka : it is used for ear disorders or used as ear ornament Surabhi : Flower has got fragrance Pravrishenya : Flowers during the onset of rain

Manonnathi : Its pleasure to mind Based on these characters, uses etc. described as synonyms different types of Kadamba with diversified botanical recognition are suggested by name of Kadamba, Dharakadamba, and Dhulikadamba. Charaka has mentioned kadamba in kashaya skandha, vedanasthapana, sukrasodhana, mutravirechana dasemanis. The action of drug has been explained as tridoshahara. Susruta has explained Nipa and Kadamba separately and has included Kadamba in Rodhradi gana and Nyagrodhadi gana with special indication in yoni doshas. In four important nighantus, various types of Kadamba are given as:

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DEC -2009

Properties Of Goghrita With Special Reference To Its Murchhana
Dr. Jagadish Mayya Dr. Kiran Salunke Dr. Narapa Reddy Dr. Prafulla Shetty Dr. Shukla Das

Deparatment of Bhaisajya-Kalpana, A.L.N.R.M.A.M.C., Koppa (Karnataka) Introduction: The cow is considered by every Hindu a sacred animal because she gives life-giving products like milk, ghee and her urine. All of them are important with various medicinal uses. Ghee is essence of milk. It is needed for all religious ceremonies like yagna, marriage etc. By the clarification of milk at high temperature, ghee is obtained. It is anhydrous milk fat. It is by far the most ubiquitous indigenous in the hierarchy of Indian dietary. It is having number medicinal uses in itself other than being carrier and parts of different other medicines. According to Ayurveda ghee builds the aura, makes all the organs soft, builds up the internal juices of the body, basis of all immunity. It is known to increase intelligence, refine the intellect and improve the memory. It is important dietary part to carry away the all toxins resulted from any alteration in body physiology. Sushruta has claimed its healing properties. It is having various medicinal uses individually or in combination with other drugs. To increase the potency as medicated agent, usually murchhana process is done in ghee. Such processing was introduced in later ages of Ayurveda and is not mentioned with Samhitas or old texts. BhaisajyaRatnawali has dealt this process as: In toxicating Exhilarating Strengthening Augmenting To penetrate To enhance To spread over Materials and Methods: For the purpose of Murchhna of Goghrita, kalka of Triphala, Mustha and Haridra were taken along with Nimbu swarasa for the purpose of Bhavana. First of all, pure ghrita was prepared after collecting the milk of cow. During the preparation it was attendted carefully to avoid any contaminatioin. Then prepared ghrita was taken and it was mildly heated to convert it in liquid state. On the other side, kalka was prepared from triphala, haridra and mustha separately. Now, prepared kalka of three mentioned drugs were added slowly and stirred regularly for uniform mixing. It was further added with four parts of water in reference to the quantity of the ghrita taken. The process was continued till the Siddha lakshana of ghrita mentioned with Ayurvedic texts was achieved. This was known by testing the kalka portion visually which being easily rolled in varti form. The foam in ghrita was also disappeared. The characteristic odour of kalka drugs appeared with the ghrita. These were considered as lakshana of Sidhha ghrita. Then ghrita was brought for analysis in quality control laboratory of our college. Both ghrita before and after the murchhana, were analyzed chemically on the parameters mentioned with the Pharmacopoeial Standards For Ayurvedic Fromulations, published from C.C.R.A.S., New Delhi. (Continued next edition..........)

AÉæwÉkÉ Íxɬ bÉ×iÉ, bÉ×iÉ qÉÑNïûlÉ
It means processing of ghee with aushadh (usually herbal drugs). With a glance it can assumed that murchhita ghee is nothing but the carrying the various metabolites of plants used in murchhana with them, being as carrier. In Ayurveda, murchhana process is performed to remove the ama dosha of ghee, to enhance the veerya of ghee and for giving the ghee longer stability. The process has various meaning carrying in Ayurveda as:

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DEC -2009

POLYPHENOLS AND THEIR BIOACTIVE PROPERTIES Ravindra Prakash M.Pharma (Ayu.) Final Year V.J. Shukla M.Sc., Ph.D. (Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry) PGTSFC, IPGT&RA, Gujarat Ayurved University (To continued previous edition......) To prevent oxidative damage of cells, lipids & DNA It has also anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro studies of quercetin found in apples, red grapes, onion, citrus fruit, tomato, broccoli and other green leafy vegetables, has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting both release synthesis of histamine and other allergic/ inflammatory mediators. 2. Flavones have similar C-ring structure as flavonols with a 2 -3 double bond but they lack a hydroxyl group. Luteolin, one of the common flavone, plays an important role in the human body as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger, an agent in the prevention of inflammation, a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism and an immune system modulator. Dietary sources include celery, green pepper, thyme etc. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9, an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many pharmaceutical drugs in the body. Apigenin is described as a nonmutagenic bioflavonoid which is present in leafy plants and vegetables (e.g., parsley, artichoke, basil, celery) and has significant chemopreventive activity against UV-radiation. Current research trials indicate that it may reduce DNA oxidative damage; inhibit the growth of human leukemia cells and induced these cells to differentiate; inhibit cancer cell signal transduction and induce apoptosis; act as an anti-inflammatory; and as an anti-spasmodic or spasmolytic. 3. Isoflavones are flavonoids with similar structure to oestrogens having hydroxyl groups in C-4 and C-7 in a configuration analogous to that of the hydroxyls in the estradiol molecule. This confers pseudo-hormonal properties including the ability to bind to oestrogen receptors and consequently, they are classified as phytoestrogens. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Papillionaceae family plants such as soybeans, peanuts. Soybeans contain principally genistein, daidzein, and glycitein derivatives; highest levels of genistein and daidzein in psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia). Isoflavones and isoflavone-rich foods possess activity against cancer, including certain types of breast and prostate cancer. Genistein acts as a phytoestrogens, antioxidant & anti-cancer agent. An extract of the fruits of Psoralea corylifolia (Bakuchi) has been shown to act as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Flavan-3-ols are the most complex subclass of flavonoids existing both as monomers, such as catechins, and polymers such as proanthocyanidins. Catechins are predominantly found in green tea but also in many types of fruit as well as red wine and chocolate. Proanthocyanidins, which are also known as condensed tannins, are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ol monomers. As the condensed tannins can form a complex with salivary proteins, they are responsible for the astringent character of fruit, such as in grapes, peaches, apples, pears and berries and beverages including wine and tea. Anthocyanins are a conjugated form of anthocyanidins and are the pigments dissolved in the vacuolar sap of the epidermal tissues of flowers and fruit which exhibit a pink, red, blue, or purple colour. The most commonly found anthocyaninidins are cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvidin, which are invariably found as sugars conjugates in plants. In the human diet, anthocyanins are found in red wine and certain leafy and root vegetables but they are most abundant in fruits. Tannins are found in red wine, tea, and nuts. They are large molecules. Many flavonoids in





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DEC -2009 Medicinal uses of Polyphenols: Most of the polyphenols have anti-inflammatory properties, antimicrobial activities, anti-carcinogenicity properties etc. Extracts from onion and various flavonoids induce the cellular antioxidant system. A high intake of polyphenols is likely to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. They have well marked wound healing properties especially with various types of tannin.

foods also occur as large molecules (tannins). These include condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), derived tannins and hydrolysable tannins.Absorption of Polyphenols: Gallic acid and isoflavones are the wellabsorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides. The least well-absorbed polyphenols are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catechins, and the anthocyanins.

(To continued previous edition......) Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sw., A Weed Medicinally and Economically Important Dr. Anupama Mutthige Dr. Vidyavathi Hiremath Dr. Pallavi N.S. Dr. Sunanda K. Dr. Sreeparvathi (2nd Year P.G., Dept. of Dravyaguna, ALNRMAC, Koppa) Under Guidance of Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha M.Sc., Ph.D. Materials and Method: The study was restricted to macroscopical, microscopical and preliminary phytochemical tests, i.e. qualitative tests. The macrscopical characters were observed based on the sensation felt by sensory organs while anatomical study was based on the free hand sectioning method. For the phytochemical studies, preliminary qualitative tests were done as per the methods mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Few qualitative tests were only done looking to the more importance of referred constituents for the mentioned plants. The result of these tests were considered to be given in inference forms based on the intensity of colour. These intensity of colour might be indication of concentration of related constituents. Result Macroscopy: The leaves were glabrous, digitate nearly or quite to the base. The lobes were elliptic or lanceolate with subentire margin. The size of leaves was 1-3 inch in diameter with 1-2 inch long petiole. The colour was greenish while taste was characteristic with nil odour. Microscopy: The surface preparation of the leaves shows paracytic type of stomata. The outline of the transverse section shows its dorsiventral nature. Detailed sectional study exposes the single layered

Outline of Transverse Section of Upper Portion

Epidermis and Palisade cells

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epidermal cells both in lamina portion and midrib region. In midrib region, the epidermis is followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma cells in upper midrib region while 2-3 layered in lower midrib region. In lamina portion, it is followed by palisade cells in upper portion while lower epidermis is followed by spongy parenchyma cells of mesophyll cells. Presence of prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate was also marked in mesophyll region. The ratio of palisade cells to that of spongy parenchyma cells was almost 2/3. The midrib portion exposes the vascular bundle in middle where xylem elements are followed by phloem elements. Qualitative Tests Of Leaves For The Presence of Various Constituents S. No Phytochemicals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carbohydrate Phytosterol Alkaloid Flavonoid Tannin Saponin Quantity (mentioned as inference) ++++ +++ +++ +++ ++ +

Spongy and Palisade Parenchyma

Discussion: Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sw., a weed commonly found in India is extensively used in Brazilian folk-lore in rheumatism and inflammations. Due to presence of beneficial phytosterol, tannin and flavonoid it might be used in rheumatism and inflammations. The seed of other plants of same family like Ipomoea purga, I. turpethum and many other plants are used for the purpose of purgation. This is due to presence of particles of resin with them. Similarly this drug can also used for clearing the channel. The alkaloid present with this drug simulates the nerves which might also be helpful for the purpose. Due to this simulation, this drug can also be used in various skin diseases where skin looses its sensation. This drug has received a vast scope for further study.

Vascular Elements

Paracytic Stomata

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DEC -2009

Formulation Profile (Series-A/11)
CHITRAKA GHRITA Dr.Vishwanath M.D(Ay) Dr.Mahesh.M.Madaalageri Nagaraja R. (Ref: Bhaishajya ratnavali 41/214-215) Ingredients : Murchita ghrita 1300 gms, Chitraka kwatha 8.125 ltrs. Dadhi manda 5.2 ltrs Aranala 2.6 ltrs Kalka dravya : Pippali, Pippali moola, Chavya, Chitraka, Nagara, Talisa patra, Haridra, Daru haridra, Sweta jeeraka, Krishna jeeraka, Maricha, Yavakshara, Saindhava lavana-each 25 gms Method of preparation: The Murchita ghrita was taken in the quantity of 1.3 kgs in a wide mouth vessel and melted by giving mandagni. Then the Chitraka kwatha was added about 8.125 ltrs to the liquified ghrita, along with the kalka dravya about 325 gms was added a little by little with continuous stirring. The other drava dravyas like aranala 2.6 ltrs and dadhimanda 5.2 ltrs was added. The sneha paka was carried out under mandagni and sneha siddi lakshana were observed. When the kalka attained varthi form, the sneha was taken out of fire and filtered through a clean cloth, kalka dravya was put in to nishpeedana yantra and ghrita was collected. Uses: for extranal use Anti inflammatory action. Chemical Analysis: Loss on Drying Refractive index at 400C Acid value Saponification value Iodine value : 1.8 % : 1.4555 : 2.8 : 230 : 38

Herbal Drug Profile (Series-A/12)
AYAPANA 1. Prof. M.Vidyasagar 2. Prof. K.S.Sanjay 3. Dr. Hari Venkatesh 4. Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha

Botanical Source: Dried whole plants of Eupatorium ayapana Vent. from family Asteraceae. Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalayas up to the heaight of 8,000 feet. This plant is also cultivated in garden throughout India. English: Ayapana Ayurvedic: Vishalyakarani, Ayaapaana Habit: This is a smooth, profusely branching perennial herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. It is half-woody at the base, and creeping and rooting at the lower part. The young shoots have a somewhat mealy appearance owing to the presence of small particle of a white, balsamic exudation. The leaves are smooth, opposite, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, triplinerved, pointed at both ends, and distantly toothed or nearly entire at the margins. The many flowering heads are each 6 to 13 millimeters long and bear about twenty pink flowers, which are 6 to 7 millimeters long. The achenes are narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 millimeters in length. The pappus is about 3 millimeters long. Part/s Used: Whole plant and leaves Chemical constituents: The plant contains daphnetin dimethyl ether, hydrangetin, daphnetin-7 -methyl ether, umbelliferone daphenetin, ayapin and herniarin. The lea-

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ves contain ayapanin and ayapin, with pronounced haemostatic properties. It contains 1.14 % volatile oil. The leaves also contain carotene and free vitamin C (25 mg/100 g); there is 100% increase in vitamin C content on frying the leaves in oil. Uses: The plant is cardiac stimulant, laxative, emetic, expectorant, bechic, antiscorbutic, alterative. It is used in ague, also in dyspepsia. Leaf is anticholerin, haemostatic. A aqueous extract of dried leaves and shoots exhibits cardiac stimulant activity, increasing the force of the heart-beat but diminishing its frequency. According to Dymock, an infusion of the leaves has an agreeable and somewhat spicy taste, and is a good diet drink. The bruised, fresh leaves are one of the best applications known for cleaning the face of a foul ulcer. The Pharmacopoeia of India records that the whole plant is aromatic, with a slightly bitter subastringent taste, and is believed to be a good stimulant, tonic, and diaphoretic.

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New Reseacrhes In Medical Science
• Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) has identified the trichohyalin gene as the one that is mainly responsible for creating curls in hairs. Binge eating disorder typically includes periods of excessive overeating. New research from the US suggests that smoking soon after waking could increase even a light smoker’s risk of lung cancer. In U.K., researchers have linked cases of severe childhood obesity to missing DNA that runs in families.

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For All Pharmacopoeial Analysis, Standardization of Single as well as Compound Drugs, with Spectrophotometer, Flame Photomeneter, Photomicrograph etc. at nominal charges Contact: Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha CIPR, DIM, PGDEE, M.Sc., Ph.D. Quality Control Laboratories, ALN Rao Memorial Medical College, Koppa Your Suggestions and Queries are invited.

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Editor: Prof (Dr.) M.Vidyasagar & Co-Editor: Dr.Prashant kumar Jha Research Co-ordinator Dr. Mahesh.M.Madalageri
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