FOPDT 1

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FOPDT 1

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture 5

Process examples

1

Process models

model of the process, model simplification, identification

model

reality is complex

process

maintains the essential characteristics, describes the process

one process can be described by the several models

Model is used on purpose:

- similarity of appearance - material model

- understanding of the process, predicting of the behavior to

- change the process (properties) in desired direction

efficiency, safety, control, etc.

How to develop a model?

experimental data / empirical model / so called "Black box"

K.Vassiljeva

Lecture 5

2013

based on the components and the laws of nature: differential equations, state-space representation, and transfer function

combined method, so called "gray box"

How to check the model?

The model is always approximate, the model must be

"Accurate enough" to describe the process

"Simple" to calculate

Model should be specified or simplified if needed. The model is specified if its features can be changed in the area that interests us (closed

system behavior).

The model is simplified if its parameters are insignificant.

Our goal: We are looking for models that describe what is important

for the process in a closed system. These models allow you to choose the

controller, the descriptive reality as similar to the behavior of a closed

system, will provide answers to key questions:

When the system is stable, what are the characteristics of the system?

Example 1 Heater

model of the system models of the components

W (s) =

K1

K2

K3

1 + T1 s (1 + T2 s)(1 + T3 s) 1 + T4 s

K.Vassiljeva

2013

Lecture 5

Actuator

j

p4

p3

p2

Sensor

Heater

p1

Time constants: T1 , T2 , T3 , T4

(poles p = 1/T )

Simplification: the model reduction

state-space representation A, B, C, D

transfer function W (s)

non-critical states?

do not consider others, First Order model.

too simple to describe the system with required accuracy, can be

used to describe the components

2. Take into account two important poles p1 , p2

do not consider others, Second Order model.

more accurate model, not exact, there are better models

in real word where are not purely first or second order systems, there

are additional precesses which impacts should be considered.

3. Several distant poles p1 , p2 , . . . with time constants T1 , T2 , . . .

time constants are summarized and provided as delay W (s) =

P

es Ti

K.Vassiljeva

Lecture 5

2013

Important dynamical feature of the object provided as time constant, insignificant - as delays (models FOPDT, SOPDT)

1.1

FOPDT model

W (s) =

K

e s

1+T s

(1)

where

Kp - process gain: the ultimate value of the response (new steadystate) for a unit step change in the input.

T - Time constant: measure of time needed for the process to adjust

to a change in the input.

- Delay: the time at which output of the system begins to change

minus the time at which the input step change was made [3].

three parameters: K, T, simple but moderately complex

describes the dynamics of the system with sufficient accuracy

controller are working on their basis

easily obtained with simplification of the complex models

easy to identify

The problem: if the highest insignificant time constant (T2 ) is close to

the important time constant (T1 )

Example 2 Approximation with FOPDT

ISS0080 Automation and Process Control

K.Vassiljeva

2013

Lecture 5

1

eTp s ;

1 + Tp s

(2)

1 Tz S eTz s

(3)

order system can be approximated as follows:

Kp

Kp

1

1

(1 + T1 s)(1 + T2 s)(1 + T3 s) 1 + T1 s 1 + T2 s 1 + T3 s

Kp

eT2 s eT3 s

(1 + T1 s)

Kp

=

e(T2 +T3 )s

(1 + T1 s)

Example 3 Skogestad method [5]

The largest neglected time constant should be divided between the smallest retained time constant and the time delay:

for the first order model:

T10 = T1 + T2 /2,

= 0 + T2 /2 +

Tpi +

i3

Tnj

(4)

T10 = T1 ,

T20 = T2 + T3 /2,

= 0 + T3 /2 +

X

i4

K.Vassiljeva

Tpi +

Tnj (5)

Lecture 5

2013

Tz /Tp

Tz /

1 + Tz s

1

1 + Tp s

Tz /Tp

Tp /Tp

Tp Tz

for Tz Tp

for Tz Tp

for Tz Tp

(6)

for Tp Tz 5

where Tp = min(Tp , 5 ) Tz

Kp e(T3 /2+T4 )s

Kp

1.2

SOPDT model

Ke s

W (s) =

(1 + T1 s)(1 + T2 s)

(7)

used if T2 >

setting of the parameters is not an easy task!

1.3

Empirical model

identification

process model based on experimental data:

test, observation of the I/O signals - "black box"

planning

ISS0080 Automation and Process Control

K.Vassiljeva

2013

Lecture 5

operating point, the input (step response, value), what to measure

how much time it takes, safety requirements

test

presence of the non-linearity

are other inputs stable?

structure of the model

what is known?

what is needed to control the process

CRI - Control Relevant Identification

parameters estimation

graphical, statistical (regression analysis)

evaluation of the model

how accurately the model describes the data?

verification

additional check with other data

K.Vassiljeva

Lecture 5

model structure

2013

test type

model parameters

step impulse 2 impulses PRBS

1. order

2. order

FOPDT

X

X

X

SOPDT

ARX

Kp , T

Kp , T /,

Kp , T,

Kp , T1 , T2 ,

X

Step response

does not contain information about the high-frequency behavior

does not have theoretical advantages

works well with a noise; if signal/noise ratio <5 it is hard to found

the derivative

not perfect step change in the input causes the error

rise time ts = 0.1 of the input signal causes the measurement

error of a delay up to 20%

Simple identification tests provide a simple process models, which can

be used to design the control system with limited features. Sometimes

that is enough.

Other methods

Two impulses

ISS0080 Automation and Process Control

K.Vassiljeva

2013

Lecture 5

(b) PRBS

1.4

input step change u at time instance 0

Register a reaction curve in response to a step change in the input

from one steady-state value to another y1 y2 (see Fig. 2)

The process gain Kp

Kp =

y

y(t )

=

u u(t )

(8)

Locate the inflection point of the process reaction curve and draw a

tangent (puutuja / ) along it. The intersection of the tangent line and the time axis y1 corresponds to the estimate of time delay

K.Vassiljeva

Lecture 5

2013

calculate the time constant T = [A B].

Numerical Application of 63% Method

Time delay can be found like in previous method: = [0 A]. Time constant T can be obtained by looking at the 63% response time. Calculate

the 0.63 y of the output signal. Mark the time instance then output

value is equal to it, so T = [A C]. More accurate technique.

Two-Point Method

y 0 = (y y1 )/(y2 y1 ). Here the time required for the process output to

make 28.3% and 63.2% of the long-term change is denoted by t28.3% and

t63.2% , respectively. The time constant and time delay can be estimated

ISS0080 Automation and Process Control

10

K.Vassiljeva

2013

Lecture 5

T = 1.5(t63.2% t28.3% )

= t63.2% T

(9)

(10)

T = 0.721(t80% t20% )

(11)

= 1.161t20% 0.161t80%

(12)

transfer functions is the amount of time required to assure that the process is approaching a new steady state. That is, the major limit is the

time required to determine the gain of the process. For large time constant processes it is often desirable to use a simpler model that does not

require a long step test time [1].

K.Vassiljeva

11

Lecture 5

2013

12

K.Vassiljeva

Bibliography

[1] B. Wayne Bequette Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation. Prentice Hall, 1998.

[2] William L. Luyben, Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control for

Chemical Engineers. McGraw-Hill, 1990.

[3] Jose A. Romagnoli and Ahmet Palazoglu Introduction to Process

Control. Taylor and Francis, 2006.

[4] F. G. Shinskey, Process Control Systems: application, design, and

tuning. McGraw-Hill, 1996.

[5] Sigurd Skogestad, "Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID

controller tuning", Journal of Process Control, Volume 13, Issue 4,

June 2003, Pages 291-309.

13

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