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Andrew Del Genio

Government Mid-Term
Period 2
1. Northwest Ordinance-An act passed by congress in 1787 that would provide ruling for
how parts of the Northwest Territory would become states. This listed a bill of rights for
governed for each new territory. The Northwest Ordinance states that there would be a
three-stage process admitting the new states into the union, a bill of rights to govern the
peoples rights, and a division of the Northwest Territory. The ordinance also enforced
education and banned slavery. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=8
2. Virginia Plan-A preface to the U.S constitution, consisting of a system for the
government. The Virginia plan was originally drafted by James Madison to create a
national government consisting of three branches of power. The executive, legislative
and judicial branches, which serve as a check and balance to prevent too much power in
one area. The separation of power formed a strong central government present in todays
society.
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=7
3. New Jersey Plan-In response to the Virginia plan giving congress more power. Under the
New Jersey Congress can collect and set taxes, making federal laws above state laws.
Allowing equal representation from all states, 2 senators were selected for the senate
pleasing small states. And the House of Representatives were based on the population of
residents in the state favoring big states. http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educatorresources/americapedia/americapedia-constitution/new-jersey-plan/
4. The Great Compromise-During 1787 a constitutional convention was held to amend the
articles of confederation for state representation. A delegate from Connecticut named
Roger Sherman proposed the great compromise. The great comprise was set up to form a
two legislative houses. The house consisted of the representatives, who favored large
states and senate, which favored small states.
http://www.congressforkids.net/Constitution_greatcompromise.htm
5. Necessary and proper clause-From the McCulloch vs. Maryland, the state of Maryland
wanted to tax the bank of the United States since it resided in Maryland. McCulloch
argued that it was unconstitutional to tax the governments money. The case ruled that
congress has implied powers as Necessary and Proper for the implementation of its
implied powers.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/antebellum/landmark_mcculloch.html
6. Supremacy Clause-Through the McCulloch v. Maryland case expressed government has
the right to impose laws even if it isnt stated in the constitution. The supremacy clause,
found in the constitution, dictates that the federal law is the law of the land. This gives
federal law power over state laws. If the powers of the constitution are not expressed they
are still eligible to the implied powers given unless it is deemed as unconstitutional.
http://litigation.findlaw.com/legal-system/the-supremacy-clause-and-the-doctrine-ofpreemption.html
7. Commerce Clause-Article 1, section 8, clause 3 of the constitution allows congress to
regulate commerce with foreign nations and across the states. With two types of
commerce: interstate, trade, business, and movement of money across states. Intrastate,
trade, business, and movement of money outside the country. This clause was put in place
to rid rivalry completion between state power that could hold major means or production

Andrew Del Genio


Government Mid-Term
Period 2
or commercial advantage.
http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Commerce+Clause
8. Fugitive Slave clause-Enforced by congress in 1793 the Fugitive Slave Clause is made
to return a runaway slave to the state they came from. The slave cannot be exempt from
their duties and must be taken back to the area of their owner. Anyone who aided the
escape and did not obey these rules would face legal consequences. The fugitive slave act
wasnt repealed until 1864 by lack of enforcement in the north.
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fugitive-slave-acts
9. Clean Air Act (1970)-Not until the Clean Air Act of 1970 the government started to aide
in the pollution control. This act regulated the amount of air pollution from industrial and
mobile sources in the area. This act was put in place due to high levels or air pollution
across the region.
http://www2.epa.gov/lawsregulations/summary-clean-air-act
10. Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act (1974)-Enacted in 1974 to limit speed
on the highway to conserve fuel in times of crisis. The oil prices of 1973 spiked and the
supply of oil was widely falling. Originally the states had discretion of a maximum speed
limit until they were all based to 55 MPH. Not all motorists or even state governments
followed this law until harsh consequences were enacted for those who did not follow the
rule. This act reduced many highway casualties, and saved gas prices.
11. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)-Imposed in 1990 as a civil right act to aide
individuals with disabilities. The ADA forbids discrimination against people with
disabilities. This is effective in public life, jobs, schooling, and transportation. This
guarantees that people with disabilities are granted the same rights as other Americans.
The ADA covers, Miscellaneous, telecommunications, public accommodations,
government, and employment. https://adata.org/learn-about-ada
12. Motor Voter Registration Act (1993)-Made it easier for individuals to register to vote in
the elections. This was enacted to increase voter turnout across the nation-giving people
the option to register when they get their license. This did not increase the voter turnout
but it does account for 80% of voter registration today.
http://definitions.uslegal.com/m/motor-voter-act-the-national-voter-registration-act-of1993-nvra/
13. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (1995)-Assures that federal mandates wouldnt be
imposed in state and local government. Meaning that legislation could not be forced
unless provided the finances to carry them out. This also applies to any provisions in
legislation or regulation on state and local government.
https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40957.pdf
14. Welfare Reform Act (1996)-A way for the government to limit the number of
individuals who use government aide. The government feels as the services provided
when the Great depression hit has become too much as a crutch for low-income families.
The origin of welfare services was to help low-income families who could not fulfill
financial, education and health obligations. In 1997 when the act was enacted was a
promise the leaders of the country to end welfare. http://www.welfareinfo.org/reform/

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15. Freedom of Information Act (1966)-Enacted in 1966, gives people the right to access
information from the government. Agencies must release any information that is
requested for purposeful reasons. It does not require information to be disclosed is if
information if protected by law of disclosure. The executive branch is responsible for the
administration of FOIA across the government.
http://www.foia.gov/about.html
16. Pendleton Act (1883)-Passed in January of 1883, after President James Garfield was
assassinated. George Pendleton, a senator from Ohio brought upon the law that federal
jobs were awarded based on merit and competitive exams than having ties to political
organizations. This overturned the Jackson era with the spoil system basically granting
certain favors for political support. Today the law covers 90% of the federal employees,
whereas it only covered 10% when it was first enacted.
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=48
17. Hatch Act (1939)-Enacted in 1939, limits any political activity of federal employees.
Political activity included going against your party to support an opposing organization.
Anything under government property that you use to support and opposing party
including uniform, vehicle, or even a display of buttons violates the Hatch act.
http://www.archives.gov/legal/ethics/hatch-act.html
18. Federal Election Campaign Act (1974)-In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt imposed a
campaign finance law to ban corporate contributions for political use. The federal
Election Campaign act of 1971 increased the revelation of secret campaign contributions.
And not until 1974 the acts limited the amount of contributions for campaigns. Opening
the FEC (Federal Election Committee) to regulate the law by disclosing financial
information, forbid, and limit contributions and oversee funding for elections.
https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-sciencetextbook/campaigns-and-elections-8/the-role-of-money-in-campaigns-and-elections66/the-federal-election-campaign-act-370-8400/
19. Ethics in Government Act (1978)-Allows the release of certain financial documents to
the public to be appointed by the president to certain executive, legislative, and judicial
positions. In midst of the Watergate Scandal this act was put into place to reduce
government corruption. Creating the Office of Government Ethics, issuing rules, and
regulation of ethics and conduct.
http://definitions.uslegal.com/e/ethics-in-government-act-of-1978/
20. Lobbyist Disclosure Act (1995)-Instilled in 1995 to regulate and disclose lobbying the
federal government. Due to the increase of lobbying in the capital and unfinished reforms
called for a reform. Lobbyist are required to register with the clerk of House of
Representatives and the secretary if senate. This aided to less misguided information on
bills and more honest lobbying ties.
http://www.cleanupwashington.org/lobbying/page.cfm?pageid=38
21. Rule 22-Allows the Senate to end a debate on the floor. In 1917, the rule initially
required two-thirds vote to end debate. When this occurs and the debate ends it is known

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as a cloture. Recently the cloture was lowered to three-fifths if the house. A cloture is
vital in both the house and senate with filibusters. http://rule22.wordpress.com/what-isrule-22/
22. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act (1974)-Nixons refusal to disburse 12
billion on congressionally appropriated funds 1964 Congressional Budget and
Impoundment Act was initiated. This changed the role of congress in the federal budget
process. This created standing budget comities in the house and senate, a budget office
and moved the fiscal year from July 1st to October first. Congress gained more control
over the budge process. Also, reducing the presidents impoundment authority.
http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/ROHO/projects/debt/budgetcontrolact.html
23. War Powers Act (1973)-Requires the president must notify congress 2 days ahead that
military action would be done. And military personal cant be in a state of conflict for
over 60 days, including an additional 30 for a withdrawal period. Still the presidency
must act decisively with congress in order for any action to be taken during wartime.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-war-powers-act-of-1973-definitionsummary.html
24. Independent Counsel Law-The Watergate Scandals of the Nixon term caused a major
uproar in distrust of government officials, which brought upon the Independent Counsel
Law. These were set investigation on supposed government officials from the Carter
administration to the Clinton administration. The investigations were conducted under the
office of Independent Counsel. It is supposed to be renewed every five years but resulted
in expiration by 1999.
http://www.infoplease.com/spot/indepcounsel1.html
25. Presidential Succession Act of 1947-Originally the president pro tempore and the
speaker of the house were in line of the presidents succession until congress removed
them with cabinet members. Not until July of 1847, Harry Truman signed the Presidential
succession act. This placed both officials back in place but put the speaker ahead of the
pro tempore.
https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Presidential_Succession_Act.htm
26.
27. Whistle Blower Protection Act-Initially, the Whistleblowers rights were addressed by
congress as part of the Civil Reform Act of 1978. It was later updated to its own
Whistleblowers Protection act providing federal employees with specific rights if they
blow the whistle. If there is any fraud or abuse in the federal government an employee
can speak upon it without loss of job or position and safety from prosecution.
http://oig.ssa.gov/whistleblower-protection/history
28. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002-March 2002, the Bipartisan Campaign
Reform Act banned soft money contributions to political parties. Soft money is
nonfederal contributions towards the partys campaign or political purpose. It can be used
for political party activates. Many public interest groups viewed them as unconstitutional
but the court this law.
http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/bcra

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Government Mid-Term
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29. National Environmental Policy Act (1969)-Required that federal agencies would
consider environmental factors on environmental impacts. Agencies must consider
multiple alternatives to the proposed actions being taken in an environmental setting. This
act requires a detailed record for a purpose to take action in a highly environmental area.
http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/
30.
31. Equal Pay Act of 1963-Signed by President John F. Kennedy, in 1963. Required that an
employer must give equal pay to male and female in an establishment. This was one of
the first anti-discrimination laws enacted on gender. Women continually fought the labor
war to receive equal treatment and pay from and employer. From this several other bills
were enforced to change discrimination in the workforce for everyone including women.
http://www.nps.gov/subjects/civilrights/equal-pay-act-1963.htm
32. Civil rights Act 1964-After Kennedys speech on equal rights for race publicly aired he
was assassinated. This didnt end his idea; The Civil Rights Act signed by the following
president, Lyndon Johnson, outlawing segregation in major public areas. It also ended
racial discriminatory practices in the work force. Opposition quickly grew originally as a
bill with many filibusters until it was threatened to be sent to the floor without committee
approval.
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=97
33. Voting Rights Act of 1965-Signed under President Lyndon Johnson, it allowed blacks to
vote. Disbanding many legal barriers like literacy test at voter registration, and began
investigations on poll tax. After that voter turnout increased among African Americans in
Mississippi from 6% to 59%. This law also provided protection to non-English speaking
individuals.
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act
34. Open Housing Act of 1968 (Title VIII)-Passed in 1968, prohibited racial discrimination
on the sale of private homes. This also covered people of religious, national origin,
gender. Certain sized families may also not be turned away from house ownership. This
law wasnt well supported until the Civil Rights Act was put into place in 1968.
http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Open+Housing+Act
35. Higher Education Act of 1972 (Title IX)-In June 1972, the Higher Education act was
passed. It prohibited discrimination on gender in any education program or activity. It
was not originally covered in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This energized the womens
rights movement after it slowed from womens suffrage. This played a major part in
collegiate and high school for young women.
http://www2.ucsc.edu/title9-sh/titleix.htm
36. Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975- President Gerald Ford singed
the Education for all Handicaps Act in 1975. This provided education to students with
disabilities who didnt receive proper education. Any child with special needs was offered
free and public education. At the same time students had to be identified as special needs
as a major part in the law.
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.zipkin/the_education_for_all_handicapped_children_act

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Government Mid-Term
Period 2
37. Voting Rights Act of 1982-The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was not carried out in many
places, which caused congress to impose another reform. The Voting Rights act of 1982
was renewed and expanded, becoming more understandable. This allows blind, disabled,
illiterate can now be assisted while voting and without discrimination.
http://www.civilrights.org/voting-rights/vra/history.html
38. Civil Rights Act of 1988-Also known as The Civil Liberties Act of 1988. It granted
$20,000 and a formal apology from Ronald Reagan. This was for the Japanese ancestry
who was directly affected by the U.S during World War II. Japanese were put into
internment camps and tortured because they were thought to be the enemy at war.
39. Civil Rights and Womens Equity in Employment Act of 1991-Protected women from
discrimination in the workplace. Allowing the women to receive financial paybacks,
reduce discrimination and assure womens safety in the workplace. Women were then
granted equal opportunity in the workforce.
https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/1
40. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993-President Clinton signed the Family and
Medical Leave Act in 1993 as the nations 1st and only law made to give assistance for
individuals to meet the dual demands or work and family. Individuals used this to take
time off for personal matters at home without the fear of losing their jobs or health
insurance. This grants 3 months of unpaid leave to care for a newborn or recover from a
serious health condition. The FMLA was not profitable to most citizens who needed
money so it eventually progressed and joined the National Partnership, to promote a paid
leave program.
http://www.nationalpartnership.org/issues/workfamily/fmla.html
41. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)-Put in place in January of 1994, to
support the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This created the worlds largest trade
area, soaring trade agreements in the United States. NAFTA was created to eliminate
tariff barriers, investment restrictions, and protect property rights.
http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/north-american-free-trade-agreement-nafta.html
42. Tax Reform Act of 1986-The second of two Reagan Tax cuts that lowered the top tax
rate of 50 percent to 28 percent. It also raised the bottom tax rate from 11 percent to 15
percent. Congress intended to simplify the tax code, and eliminate tax shelters. This was
the first time in American history where income tax top tax rate was lowered and the
bottom rate would increase. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/taxreformact1986.asp
43. ?
44.
Social Security Act (1935) - In 1934, President Roosevelt
developed a committee to investigate the concept of social security. In
1935, the committees recommendations became the foundation of the
Social Security Act. It was the first act of this kind in the U.S. providing
unemployment insurance, aid to the poor, and pensions for the elderly.
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetails
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45.
Medicare (1965) President LBJ signed Medicare into law July
30, 1965. It went into effect in 1966. Medicare was targeted at the
elderly and was paired with Medicaid which was directed at the poor.
This was a big feat for liberal politicians who strived to accomplish this
for many years prior.
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46.
Gramm-Rudmann-Hollings (1985) Gramm, a Republican
Senator from Texas; Rudmann, a Republican Senator from New
Hampshire; and Hollings, a Democratic Senator from South Carolina;
championed this act in 1985. Passed due to concern over large (and
growing) federal deficits of the 1980s. It was much needed at the time.
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetails
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47.
Water Quality Improvement Act (1970) - Potential accidental
water polluters can protect themselves from the liabilities they face
under federal water regulations by purchasing marine pollution
insurance. This insurance covers losses such as cleanup, damage to
natural resources, legal defense and civil penalties. Mobile drilling
units, cargo owners and operators, ship yards, and marina owners and

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operators are examples of businesses that can benefit from having this
type of insurance coverage
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/water-quality-improvement-actof-1970.asp
48.
Medicaid (1965) Passed in pair with Medicare in 1965. It went
into effect in 1966. Medicare was directed at the elderly, while its
Sister Act was directed at the poor.
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49.
Endangered Species Act (1973) Passed in 1973 to protect
animal populations that are rapidly declining due to human influences.
Rescue efforts have since been developed, along with laws preventing
human temperament with the animals deemed endangered.
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50.
National Security Act (1947) Post World War II, and during
the Cold War some legislation and laws needed to be passed in the
name of national security. With this heightened concern of national
security, the National Security Act was passed in 1947.
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51.
Goldwater-Nichols Act (1986) This Act has changed the Joint
Chief of Staff System. Instead of parochial protection of individual
service interests, but joint-ness. Perspectives, forces, and doctrines
each genuinely integrated.
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52.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1970) Debate
over environmental protection rapidly grew during the 70s. In 1970,
much action was taken from EPA to the National Environmental Policy
Act (NEPA), the Clean Air Act, etc. EPA required health-based standards
for local air quality.
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53.
Affordable Care Act-The Affordable Care Act puts consumers
back in charge of their health care. Under the law, a new Patients Bill
of Rights gives the American people the stability and flexibility they
need to make informed choices about their health.
http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/