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The term per cent means for every 100. The numerator of the fraction is called the rate per cent. Percentage is usually denoted by the sign “%” and sometimes shortened as p.c. Percentage explains the increase, the decrease , profit, loss, commission, brokerage etc. With the unit as 100. To get the per cent profit, the formula to be used is as follows : Per cent profit = e.g. : is called 5 per cent( or 5%)

5, which is the numerator is called the rate per cent. Also, 3% means ( or 3 out of 100).

Percentage is the standard way of comparison of two quantities. If we want to compare two fractions Therefore, Also, = and = , make the denominator 100 for both the fractions. = 14% ---> means 14 out of 100

= 32% ---> means 32 out of 100. >

Therefore,

Note the following 1) 5% of Rs. 200 means 5/100 × 200/1 = 10( ‘of’ means multiplication) 2) 75% is equivalent to 75/100 = ¾ 3) increase % = increase/original × 100/1 Before attempting questions on percentage, it is advisable to learn all short forms of percentages. 1) 5% = 5/100 = 1/20 = 0.05 2) 6 ¼ % = 25/400 = 1/16 = 0.0625 3) 10 % = 10 / 100 = 1/10 = 0.1

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Percent & Percentages 4) 12 ½ % = 25/100 = 1/8 = 0.125 5) 16 2/3 % = 50/300 = 1/6 = 0.166

6) 20 % = 20/100 = 1/5 = 0.2 7) 25% = 25/100 = ¼ = 0.25 8) 33 1/3 % = 100/300 = 1/3 = 0.33 9) 40% = 40/100 = 2/5 =0.4 10) 50% = 50/100 = ½ = 0.5 11) 60% = 60/100 = 3/5 = 0.6 12) 66 2/3 % = 200/300 = 2/3 = 0.66 13) 75% = 75/100 = ¾ = 0.75 14) 80% = 80/100 = 4/5 = 0.8 15) 90% = 90/100 = 9/10 = 0.9 16) 100% = 100/100 = 1 17) 125% = 125/100 = 5/4 = 1.25 18) 150% = 150/100 = 3/2 = 1.5 Illustrative Examples 1. Usha deposits Rs. 500 in postal savings account. If this is 20% of her monthly income, what is her monthly income ( in rs)? Solution :Given, 20% of his monthly income = Rs. 500 20% = 1/5th of monthly income. Monthly income = Rs. 500 × 5 = Rs. 2,500. 2. In a container of fruits, there are 25% apples, 40% chikoos and the rest are pineapples. If there are 2000 fruits in the container, how many pineapples are there in the container ? Solution :Given,

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Percent & Percentages Total numbers of fruits in the container = 2000 Apples are 25% of them = ¼ of 2000 = 500 Chikoos are 40% of them = 2/5 × 2000 = 800 Pineapples are ( 2000 – 500 – 800) = 700 3. In an examination, a candidate who scores 25% of the maximum marks, fails by 60 marks. Another candidate who secures 42% of the maximum marks gets 8 marks more than necessary for passing. Find the maximum marks and the percentage necessary for passing. Solution :Let us assume that the maximum marks are ‘m’ Marks scored by the first candidate = 25% of m = m/4 But this candidate failed by 60 marks. Therefore, marks required for passing = (m/4 + 60).................(1) Marks scored by the second candidate = 42% of m. This candidate has got 8 marks more than necessary for passing. Therefore , minimum marks for passing ( 42m/100 – 8)......(2) Since the passing marks are same for both candidates, we can equate (1) and (2) (m/4 + 60) = (42m/100 – 8) 42m/100 – m/4 = 60 + 8 42m – 25m / 100 = 68 17m = 6800 ∴ m = 6800/17 = 400 Minimum marks for passing = (25% of 400 + 60) = 100 + 60 = 160 ∴ % necessary for passing = (160/400) × 100 = 40%.

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