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CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS


MODERN MANS INHERITANCE?
Dr. Ronald Sequeira

Milagres A

Introduction
The earths atmosphere is a mixture of gases, predominantly Nitrogen ( N ~ 78.1 %)
followed by Oxygen (O ~ 21 %) and a relatively minor component, Argon (Ar) whose
abundance is a little over 0.9 % (on a volume basis). While these gases account for almost all
of the atmospheric gas mixture, what little of it remains includes a number of gases which
have abundances ranging anywhere from an order of magnitude below parts per thousand
(or ppt) to parts per million (ppm) by volume and even lower, as shown in the Table
below to the leftC.
The so-called inert gases, viz. Ar, Ne, He, Kr and
Xe are spread over 5 orders of magnitude in their
abundances which range from a value as low as 0.09
ppmv for Xe to 9340 ppmv for Ar.

An alternate schematic of the composition is shown in the Pie Chart and Table above
(right)G which collates the abundances of the residual non-Ar minor and trace atmospheric
gases in descending order, clearly showing their total to be no more than 0.04 % by volume.
Greenhouse Gases and Climate
These minor and trace gases , however, are not to be ignored since they have considerable
bearing either on the earths climate (or climate change), or on human health, comfort and,
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in general terms, their well- being. For instance, CO , CH and NO absorb and hold heat
radiated by the earths surface, and later re-radiate part of it back towards the Earth - thus
increasing the atmospheric temperature. These are three well-known Greenhouse gases.
They are variable in their atmospheric residence time (or turnover time), which plays an
important role in their climatic impact.
Climate, in a broad sense, could be described in a number of different ways. Yet, it
most commonly depicts the temporal variability of weather elements e.g. temperature about
an average representing an extended convenient (but arguably arbitrary) time period
considered, for instance 10, 30, 50 yr, and so forth. Official Weather data records based on
actual measurements by regional networks, such as, the Meteorological Offices in the U.K,
India and the U.S. are available only for the last 140 years, or so. The time series for such
recorded data may be graphically represented to observe and study the pattern of climate
change.

FIG. 2: HISTORICAL VARIATIONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS


FIG. 3 NITROUS OXIDE LEVELS (1750-2010 A.D.) H
Nitrous Oxide Variations
On the other hand, direct observational weather records are not available for time
periods prior to this, especially pristine and historically ancient ones, e.g. geological time
scales of tens of thousands and/or millions of years. Time series for such historically old and
ancient periods are possible only by making use of reconstructed data deduced indirectly or by proxy- from fossils or other undistubed climate records preserved in Nature, e.g. in
tree rings, deep sea sediments, polar ice sheets, rocks, and so forthand the data woven
together to yield a reasonable time-series, after checking for consistency among the results
obtained through the utilisation of various sources/techniques/methods employed to
generate the data.
One such reconstruction in Fig. 2 shows a startling feature of the historical variability
of atmospheric CO since 400000 years B.P. (B.P. is Before Present) down to the present time.
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The plot clearly shows a trend of anomalous global scale increase in the CO level during the
last 2000 yr or so, more precisely since around 1750 A.D. ( P.S. inset at the top of Fig. 2).
Corroborating results are also obtained from the record for variation since 1750 A.D. of
atmospheric N O shown in Fig. 3H. The conclusion is that the increase in NO levels as well
as similar increase in CO are due to human activities, including inputs which did not exist
prior to 1750 A.D or prior to the advent of the Industrial Revolution - pinpointing to the
anthropogenic origin of the observed climate change.
(to be continued)

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27

LETS MAKE THIS MENACE A SOLACE


- Komal D'Souza
Should we be thanking those bunch of
Americans who about 50 years ago had
themselves involved in the debut
experimentation involving the sending of a
text, matter-of-factly testing the virtual
existense of internet or should we just be
cursing them? Taking the present scenario
into consideration its quite obvious we thank
them but then as we ponder over this a little
deeper, it provokes us to start cursing it
silently under our breath. What makes us do
it? Cyber crimes and cyber bullying? The
young addicts? The cons of it? Facebook?
Blanketed chat rooms? Fake manipulators?
The innocent lives put at stake by infiltrators?
Spams? Im sure atleast another dozen cons
are rummaging your mind. Newspapers and
news channels screech out the terrifying
virtual-world incidents which shook the lives
out of the victims as they even manage to
make us shudder in fear. The fear of such
mishaps detonating in our life someday some
time, that fateful moment. Often of a
reprising fear as it, to some, takes them back
to the ruinous day of a similar affair once
having taken place with. The fear of our loved
ones falling into the heinous net of the
internet. Those thoughts that hover over our
mind shouting out reality, of what the world
is becoming, is turning into.
Even then, after all of this, do we
disconnect that wire that connects our

landline to the modem and then our personal


computer or that of the kids in the house?
Do we resolve to not activate internet packs
on our phone once this months pack dies
out? Do we delete our facebook/twitter/
linkedin accounts? Or do we uninstall
whatsapp? Yeah yeah yeah, I can read your
thoughts. Am I lame? Nope! I was just trying
to prove my point here that no matter what,
the sky falls down or a fireball comes flying
down from heaven, neither you nor I will
add ghee to the fire i.e, our a moments
thoughts of doing the above mentioned, but
rather douse it completly. Yes, we are all
intellectual, period.
Is the virtual world really that evil?
Though the tendency springs up within us
to blame and curse the internet for all the
bad upraisals around us, we still tend to stick
to it. We all are aware that without the
advent of this mega-feature, we would still
be sending those limited-character Telegrams
and wait for a reply for days and weeks all
together. We would never have experienced
feeling close to our loved ones though they
are across seas and oceans all together. We
would never be introduced to comfort and
ease, luxury and biz. The tiny world we are
living in right now wouldnt have been this
way if it was not for the internet. There are
millions of ways to constrain ourself to use
this present in a the best possible manner not

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falling prey to the devious intentions of evil


minds. Playing dirty pranks on another
person, faking ones identity, immorale
surfing and all the other gormless acts of ours
need to rest in peace urgently before more
devastation sweeps into our lives and before

Gg

we ourselves fall prey to obnoxious traps. It


takes nothingmore than the right keys typed
and a safe click of the mouse to make a
dreading menace turn into a solace; not a
bane but a boon.

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Drama Troup Remuneration and Travel
Printing of pamphlets
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Dance costumes
Total

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Karnataka Konkani Sahithya Academy through
Catholic Sabha Udupi Pradesh
Banners , Printing and honouring sponsor
Sponsors: Alwyn Bakery Udupi, Rebello Flour Mills Nejar @ Rs 2500 each
Parishioners Sponsors:
Finance Committee 3 members @Rs 2500,
Henry D'Souza Kallianpur A
Mrs Reena Fernandes
Mrs Gracy D'Souza Edbettu
Mr Ransom D'Souza Edbettu
Tiffin Sponsors:
Mrs Merlyn Martis,Mrs Slvy Lewis & Mrs Jyoithi Lewis @ Rs 933 each
Dinner to troup Sponsor: Mr Ozwald Cornelio, Kakkunje
Costume sponsor : Mrs Merlyn Martis
Non Parishioner Sponsor:
Mrs & Mr Jerome Saldanha Perampally

Amount
22000
1,688
2760
2254
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2100
1180
33094
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