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Selecting ANSI Class Metering Current Transformers

Selecting ANSI Class Metering Current Transformers

RATIO

CURRENT

One of the most common uses of current transformers are in metering and power usage, where a 5 Amp secondOne
of the
most common
uses
current
are in
powerorusage,
where
ary
current
transformer
is applied
to aofpanel
metertransformers
or a power meter
formetering
displayingand
amperage
recording
power.a 5
Amp secondary current transformer is applied to a panel meter or a power meter for displaying
When
extremely accurate measurement is required, or when revenue is generated from a power meter, ANSI class
amperage or recording power. When extremely accurate measurement is required, or when revenue
current
transformers
generally
selected.
Theclass
following
tabletransformers
describes the characteristics
of selected.
the ANSI class
is generated
fromare
a power
meter,
ANSI
current
are generally
The
following
table
describes
the
characteristics
of
the
ANSI
class
transformer.
transformer.

50:5

ANSI METERING CLASS @ 60 Hz

BURDEN IN
OHMS

B0.1

B0.2

B0.5

B0.9

B1.8

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

2.4

TURNS RATIO

PERCENT
ACCURACY

 The primary selection criteria is the burden placed on the secondary of the transformer. This is the impedance

Applications

of the instrument that is connected to the transformer. This value is generally given in ohms or VA (volt-amps).

The primary selection criteria is the burden placed on the secondary of the transformer. This is the
impedance
the instrument
that is at
connected
to the
value is the
generally
 For
ANSI class of
transformers,
the headings
the top of the
tabletransformer.
B0.1 through This
B1.8 organize
accuracygiven
of in
ohms
or VA (volt-amps).
For
ANSIplaced
classon
transformers,
at the
top aofburden
the table
the
transformer
according to the
burden
the secondary.the
Forheadings
example B0.1
means
of 0.lB0.1
through B1.8 organize the accuracy of the transformer according to the burden placed on the
ohms.
secondary. For example B0.1 means a burden of 0.l ohms.
The accuracies listed under the burden values are given in percent. These values are for a full
 The
accuracies
listedPercent
under the
burden values
arethat
given
percent. received
These values
arethe
for transformer
a full scale reading.
scale
reading.
accuracy
means
thein reading
from
at the
Percent
means
thethe
reading
received from
theoftransformer
at theaburden
willratio
be within
the
burdenaccuracy
listed will
be that
within
percentage
given
ideal. Hence,
50 to listed
5 turns
transformer
with
50
Amps
through
the
window
will
output
5
amps
+/0.3%
in
the
secondary
into
a
0.1
ohm
percentage given of ideal. Hence, a 50 to 5 turns ratio transformer with 50 Amps through the window will
burden. The current in the secondary will be somewhere between 4.985 and 5.015 amps.
output
5 amps +/- 0.3% in the secondary into a 0.1 ohm burden. The current in the secondary will be some
When the instrument connected gives the burden to the transformer in VA (volt-amps) the table
where
between
and 5.015
amps. Since the transformer has a 5 amp secondary, using Ohms
can be
used 4.985
to determine
accuracy.
Law, the impedance can be determined. A burden of 5 VA must be equal to the current squared
 When
connected
givesThus,
the burden
the transformer
in VA (volt-amps)
table canofbethis
used to
timesthe
theinstrument
impedance
in ohms.
5VAto/ (5X5)
= 0.2 Ohms.
Thus, thethe
accuracy
transformer-meter
system
would be 0.6%.
determine
accuracy. Since
the transformer
has a 5 amp secondary, using Ohms Law, the impedance can be
If the impedance
or be
chosen
headings,
interpolation
to determine
determined.
A burdencalculated
of 5 VA must
equal falls
to thebetween
current squared
times use
the impedance
in ohms.
Thus, 5VA /
accuracy.
(5X5)
= 0.2 Ohms. Thus, the accuracy of this transformer-meter system would be 0.6%.
In general, the lower the burden, the higher the accuracy.
is critical
to understand
that the
accuracy
a full scale
This accuracy will
 IfIt the
impedance
calculated or chosen
falls
between ratings
headings,are
usefor
interpolation
to reading.
determine accuracy.
only be maintained from 20% full scale and up. Below this, and the accuracy worsens greatly.
to select
transformers
the majority of readings will be within the 20 to 100%
 InAlways
general,strive
the lower
the burden,
the highersothethat
accuracy.
full scale range.

 It is critical to understand that the accuracy ratings are for a full scale reading. This accuracy will only be

CRmaintained
MAGNETICS,INC.
544full
Axminister
Fenton,this,
Missouri
63026
USA worsens
636.343.8518
from 20%
scale andDrive
up. Below
and the
accuracy
greatly.E-MAIL:
Alwayssales@crmagnetics.com
strive to select

transformers so that the majority of readings will be within the 20 to 100% full scale range.

CR Magnetics, Inc. 3500 Scarlet Oak Blvd. St. Louis MO USA 63122 V: 636-343-8518 F: 636-343-5119
Web: http://www.crmagnetics.com

136

E-mail: sales@crmagnetics.com

Tyco Electronics Corporation


Crompton Instruments
1610 Cobb International Parkway, Unit #4
Kennesaw, GA 30152
Tel. 770-425-8903
Fax. 770-423-7194

Current Transformers

Current transformers (CT's) provide a simple, inexpensive and yet accurate means of
sensing current flow in power conductors. They are available in 3 basic configurations:
1. Ring Core CT's are available for measuring currents from 50 to 5000
amps, with windows (power conductor opening size) from 1" to 8"
diameter.
2. Split Core CT's are available for measuring currents from 100 to 5000
amps, with windows in varying sizes from 1" by 2" to 13" by 30". Split
core CT's have one end removable so that the load conductor or bus bar
does not have to be disconnected to install the CT.
3. Wound Primary CT's are designed to measure currents from 1 amp to
100 amps. Since the load current passes through primary windings in the
CT, screw terminals are provided for the load and secondary conductors.
Wound primary CT's are available in ratios from 2.5:5 to 100:5 (Models
189 and 190 are examples of wound primary CT's).
CT's used with watt transducers enable the owner to control demand as well as monitor
building and/or tenant power consumption. When CT's are used with Current
Transducers, the result is an excellent method of diagnosing the performance of fans,
pumps, chillers, etc. The Model 4CMA and 4CTV Current Transducers provide
alarms for each motor so the owner is warned immediately of any abnormal operating
condition. Low pump flows will be alarmed if the strainer is dirty or the coupling is
broken. Low fan flows will be alarmed if filters are dirty, belts are slipping, or dampers
(fire, smoke, etc.) are closed. High motor loads will alarm if bearings are dry or worn, or
belts are out of alignment.
CT's are designed to handle motor inrush currents, so no extra precaution is needed to
monitor motors.

Monitoring Multiple Loads With One Watt Transducer


There are two methods of monitoring multiple loads with one watt transducer. All loads
must be fed from the same service and the voltage must be sensed from one source.
1. The first method can be used to monitor up to 5 feeders with wide ranging
loads. The secondaries of the feeder CT's are connected to a Model 190
Summing Transformer. The output of the summing transformer is
connected to the input of a WT Series Watt Transducer. Typically the
CT ratios must be the same, but different ratios can be used with a
specially built summing transformer. Each summing transformer must be
connected to one phase only. It takes three summing transformers and
fifteen feeder CT's to monitor and totalize five three-phase loads.
When using summing transformers, add the primary CT currents to
calculate the kW and kWh outputs. For example, when summing five
1000:5 CT's use a CT ratio of 5000:5 to determine the outputs. When
using low amperage (200A) CT's with a summing transformer, be sure to
check the burden on the CT's as the summing transformer adds burden.
2. The second method is to parallel CT inputs at the transducer.
This method would require:
1. balanced loads,
2. same ratio CT's,
3. paralleling at transducer only,
4. grounding at transducer only,
5. burden capability to be reduced by the number of CT's (e.g., 3
CT's give 1/3 capability),
6. CT's to be oversized so the total secondary current does not
exceed the 5 amp rating, which reduces accuracy. Since this
method requires ideal conditions, it is generally better to use a
summing transformer.

CT Accuracy
A CT is most accurate at rated current with a low burden (load). Accuracy decreases
with increased burden (load) or low line current. In sizing CT's the conductor size and
distance is important. Improper sizing of current transformers or long secondary
conductor runs with undersized cable can result in poor accuracy.

Burden (load) Information On CT's

The external load (e.g., meters, transducers, etc.) applied to the secondary of a CT is
called the burden. The burden can be expressed in volt-amperes:
VA = I2 x Z
Z = Total CT secondary impedance
I = Secondary current
(Generally 1 or 5 amps)
Total burden is the sum of:
1. Device (transducer, meter, etc.) Burden - Furnished by the manufacturer.
2. Burden of Interconnecting Leads - can be calculated by using the above
formula. Use conductor resistance (total to the device and back) for Z (See
Power Equations for chart of impedance of wire sizes).
3. Internal Burden of CT Windings - This is so small that it can generally be
ignored.
Exact burden calculations are usually not necessary unless the CT ratio is below 200:5.
If necessary, see the section on burden calculations
The VA burden that a CT will handle varies with the ratio and physical size of the CT.
The burden capacity for each Model CT is specified on the data sheet. A small 50:5
Model 2RL will only handle 1 VA of burden capacity. A large 2000:5 Model 170RL
will handle a burden capacity of 100 VA.
As a rule of thumb, use a 1 amp input (WT-1) watt transducer for a 200 amp or less
feeder. The 5 amp (WT-5) transducer can be used for feeders less than 100 amps when
connected to wound primary CT's (Model 189).

Sizing CT's
On new construction, size the CT to handle about 80% of the circuit breaker capacity. If
the building is served by a 2000 amp breaker, use 1600 amp (2000 x 0.8) CT's.
For older buildings, the peak demand can generally be determined from the power
company or from past billings. In this case add 20 to 30% to the peak demand and size
the CT's for this load. If the peak demand was 500 kW, the peak current on a 480/3/60
system would be:
500,000 / (480 x 1.73 x 0.9 pf) = 669 amps
This assumes a 0.9 power factor. (Peak current would be higher with a lower power
factor.) Use CT's about 20% larger. 800:5 CT's would be a good selection.

For older buildings with no demand history, size the CT's the same as for new
construction. Where possible, use multi-tap CT's so that the ratio can be reduced if the
maximum load is much less than 80% of the breaker size.
CT's that are used to monitor motor loads can be sized from the nameplate full load
motor amps.

Selecting CT's
A "Selection Guide" is provided in this catalog to aid in selecting the type of CT for your
application. Non-standard ratios can be obtained by looping the conductor through the
window to add or subtract current flow. (See Example in Figure 2.)
The relationship of the ratio of primary and secondary turns is expressed in the following
formula:
Ka = (Kn Nsa) / Np
Ka = Actual transformation ratio
Kn = Nameplate transformation ratio
Transformation ratio = primary current / secondary current
Nsa = Number of secondary turns added or subtracted
(To Add - loop X1 lead through H1. To Subtract loop X1 opposite H1)
Np = Number of primary turns

3 Primary Loops + 2 Secondary Loops added


Example: An application requires a 20:5 CT ratio, but only a 50:5 CT is
available. Using the above formula it can be determined that by using 3 primary
loops and adding 2 secondary loops that a 20:5 actual ratio will be obtained.
Ka = (Kn Nsa) / Np
= (10 + 2) / 3
= 4

Actual CT Ratio = 20:5

Mounting CT's
CT's are generally located in the main breaker panel or in branch distribution panels
where space is always at a premium. Since CT's do not have to be installed 90 degrees to
the conductor run (the conductors can go through the CT at any angle) they are generally
held in place with plastic tie wraps. CT's with mounting feet are available if appearance is
important and there is enough room to accommodate this type of mounting arrangement.

Installing CT's
Window type CT's should be mounted with the H1 side of the
window towards the power source. The X1 secondary
terminal is the polarity terminal (Figure 3).The polarity marks
of a current transformer indicate that when a primary current
enters at the polarity mark (H1) of the primary, a current in
phase with the primary current and proportional to it in
magnitude will leave the polarity terminal of the secondary
(X1).
If a CT test switch is used, the switch must have a "make-before-break" contact pattern to
assure that the CT is not open-circuited during transition.
Normally CT's should not be installed on "Hot" services. The power should be
disconnected when the CT's are installed. Many times this is not possible because of
critical loads such as computers, laboratories, etc. that cannot be shut down. Split core
CT's should not be installed on "Hot" uninsulated bus bars under any conditions.
On existing cable installations where the monitoring point is not close to a cable end,
small ring core CT's can be shunt installed on #8 cable or smaller by using Hot Tap
insulation piercing connectors similar to those made by 3M. A parallel shunt through the
CT is connected to the power cable as shown in (Figure 4). Tape all bare ends.
Check your work before leaving the installation. Make sure all connections are tight and
the installation is neat.

Summary
CT's are inexpensive, accurate devices for monitoring current. If properly sized and
installed, they will give many years of trouble free service with no adjustments to make.
Call Kele for help with your specific applications.

CAUTION: Never open-circuit a CT secondary while the primary is energized.


High crest voltages may occur across the open secondary circuit. To avoid personal
injury or equipment damage, the secondary must always be short-circuited or
connected to a burden. NOTE: A buzzing transformer is an indication of an open
secondary.