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1) Tasks
Page 8
a. ESP has been introduced in our country to face the students
need in English, because every student has different needs
and interests and the student could be analyzing the linguistic
characteristic of their specialist are work or study. If the things
that they study are not based on their needs and interests,
it will infuence their motivation and the effectiveness on their
learning. And Many students also studied English in Indonesia to
mastering English and hoping that they can get a job with
his/her English. So by learning ESP courses they can be
specialist and doing well and better in his/her job, for example
English for medical and English for laws, if he know much about
ESP, of course they can master in their job.

Its claim : Tell me what you need English for and I will tell
you the English that you need. I think this claim is justifiable for
ESP because if we know the students main purpose of ESP is to
teach English based on the students needs.

c. a.

Three ways in which relevance can be achieved : 1). The

expansion of demand for English to suit for particular
needs, 2). The development in the fields of linguistics,
3). The educational psychology.

b. The language learning process will be running well if the

students have high motivation to study. If there is no or

less motivation in language learning of course the
language learning
will not be better and faster.


Tasks Page 14 - 15


Our country I mean Indonesia have applied The beyond the

sentence and Skills and strategies approach. In learning English
it is focused on language at the sentence level, the second
phase of development shifted attention to the level above the

b) Why do you think EST has set the trends in the

development of ESP?
Because English for science and technology has always set
continuous to set the trend in theoretical discussion
in ways of analyzing
language and in the variety of actual teaching
c) I agree with the statement of Allen and Widdowson (1974) very
much, because the students can study or learn English by many
good methods and strategies. They also can use many kinds
material, but they have a problem in understanding the culture.
They are still unfamiliar with the English use. They have less
experience to talk with the native speakers of English or maybe
they dont have any experience to perform English at different
communicative acts.


An information leaflet about the Brazilian ESP project

summarizes its aims as follows:
The specific purpose most common within the
universities is the reading of specialist literature in English.
Consequently there is a consensus within the project to
focus on the
teaching of reading strategies with the use of authentic
materials and
the use of the native language in spoken classroom
discourse. The teaching of grammar is based on the
minimum necessary for
understanding academic text. The emphasis is largely on
a general course content to cover common problems
reading strategies), rather than specific
courses according to the students
subject specialism (e.g. English for
- Because the Brazilian ESP project has seen an
attempt to look below the surface and to consider not
the language itself but the
thinking process that underlie language use.
- I dont think that this approach is a justifiable response to

the needs of the students because the students will have

low motivation if they are taught more general than specific
I think the students will not have a high motivation and
they will have difficulties in using native language in spoken

classroom because they have less experience in practicing

their English at the specific area of the students subject
specialism. The teacher on the other hand also will have a
little bit difficulties in teaching their students..



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1. Our tree gives only a few examples of ESP courses.

Complete the branches at the top, by adding other
a. English for Internist : English for Medical Studies
b. English for Electronic Technician : English for
Technician c. English for Banking : English for
d. English for Letter Writing : English for Secretaries
e. English for Educational Psychology : English for
Psychology f. English for Senior High School :
English for Teaching
2. What different would you expect to find between and
EOP course and EAP course for doctors? In what way do
you think occupational and academic needs differ?
a. The different in EOP course and EAP course for
doctors is that
EOP is specific but EAP is in general
b. Occupational and academic needs differ in the learning
3. In the theory, there is no difference between ESP and
general English teaching; in practice. However, there is a
great deal difference. I think I disagree with this
statement. ESP and General English teaching are different.
General English teaching only concern to English for
communication purposes, to teach the students to
communicate, studying four language aspects, listening,
reading, speaking, and writing. While ESP try to teach
students based on their needs and interest.



Tasks Page
a. The questions that I think is important to ask as a preliminary
to designing an ESP course are; What does the students need to
learn?, What aspect of language will be needed?, and What topic
areas will need to be covered?


The term communicative is a learning approach or

method used and described the materials for the purpose
of learning. The features of communicative materials would
be: a). Teacher-centered learning, b). Describe the
materials in classes, c). Much speaking and describing
the materials by the teachers, d). The students will be
good listeners in the process, e). The materials involved
with general components



Tasks Page
a. I think that classical and structural descriptions still have a value
in ESP. classical or Traditional grammar for example can still
deepen our knowledge of how language operate. Descriptions
of the language based on the grammars of the classical
languages, Greek or Latin. The form of word would change
according to whether it was a subject, object, indirect object
and so on. Structural linguistics also have a value because it can
varying the words within these Structural frameworks, sentence
with different meanings can be generated.
b. I think the concept of communication competence is ESP is

very important. If we view language as part of a

communicative whole, it is clear that language use shows
considerable variety. The whole communicative act is made
up of a number of contextually dependent factors.
c. Continue

the analysis of texts A and B on p.29.

What further differences can you see? Account for the
a) Text A and Text B on p.29 are
b) Text A is spoken language while Text B is written


Look at the dialogues on pp.33-34. What knowledge

enables us to interpret them? How are we able to imagine
a context for them?
Can I go out to
Have you cut the grass yet?
Its raining.
I think I will go out for a walk.
Its raining.
The knowledge that enables us to interpret the
dialogues is discourse (rhetorical) analysis.
The contexts are the sociolinguistic context and
discoursal meaning.

e. Look at the extract from Reading and

Thinking (p.36). a. What are the exercises

trying to teach?
The exercises try to teach the way to use and choose
b. What sort of learners do you think would benefit
from this material?
The learners who are interesting in modeling.


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The interest of linguistic research and language teaching

is different.
Techniques of linguistic analysis - however well they may
lend themselves to linguistic research - are equally
applicable to language teaching is of course open the

38 f.



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The rules of a behaviorist methodology conflict with the

cognitive/ affective views of learning in ways of learning
process and results. In which, behavioral methodology
suggest that learning results from pleasant or unpleasant
experiences in life while cognitive views of learning suggest
that learning is based upon metal processes.


Structural pattern drills have a useful role to play in

a language teaching is to assure a systematic and efficient
progression in the classroom from mechanical learning to
the internalizing of competence. Thus, *Paulston (1971)
said language learning is partly habit formation, but
meaning and communication must also be included in the
learning activities. The students can recognize the
characteristic features involved in language manipulation
and require free transfer of learned language pattern to
appropriate situations and allow the speaker to add new
information about the real world.
*(Paulston, Cristina Bratt. 1971. The Sequencing of
Structural Pattern Drills. A Paper Presented at Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages). Online.

c. The importance to language teaching of the view of

language behavior as rule-governed activity is to transfer
what was learnt in one- stimulus-response that learning
consist not of forming habits but of acquiring rules, in which
individual experiences are used by the end to formulate
hypothesis. This hypothesis is then tested and modified of
subsequent experience to find the underlying pattern or
system. It can then used in a novel situation to predict
what is likely to happen, who is an appropriate response or

Try to do the reading strategies tasks in figure 12.

What strategies did you use to get your
The strategies I used to get the answers in figure 12 are
problem- solving task, cooperative learning, and group
b) How did you feel about the experience? Did you find
it satisfying
I think, to get the answers of question given, its
satisfying that makes me curious to
know the
answers in where the learning process allows the
learners to think about and try to make sense



Tasks Page

of what they see, feel and


e. One of the tasks in figure 12 comes from a general

component; the
other is from a Science
a) Which do you think is which?

For activity A, the issues come from the Economics

general component while activity D, is talking about
the references suggested to read and deal with science
component. So, the issues or problems are not related
with the references provided as sources of information
to get the answers.

Do you see any significant diferences between them?

Yes, there are significant differences between the two
activities in figure 12.

f. In fact, the students learn the language mostly

because of various needs to motivate themselves in
learning language targets. It can be said that they learn
language resemble instrumental motivation.

The models of learning (p.49) have network connections to

link the communication of the learners mind. Then, they
have also motivation to do so to establish the existing links.
Here a set of precepts for a learning-centered
methodology: 1) Determine the learning topic to be
discussed, 2) The topic should be dealt with students
background, 3) Give learners more opportunities to solve
the tasks. i.e. a group discussion, 4) The teachers as a
model and facilitator in class processes, 5) Motivation the
learners to so the best



Tasks Page

a. We have stressed above that it is an awareness of need

that characterized the ESP situation, but awareness is a
matter of perception and perception may very according to
ones standpoint
b. How might you analyze the needs of secondary school
learners? What
results do you think you would get?: The analysis of its
curriculum, The achievement of target, Evaluation (good
mark), Motivation in the class
c. The language centre process can also be critic for being
a static and inflexible procedure, which can take little
account of the conflicts and contradiction that are in
horrent in any human Endeavour once the initial analysis of
the target situation is done. The course designer looked
into a relentless process.

Make an analysis of your own learners needs using the

Framework for analyzing target needs, Compulsory,
Apparent need, Money, Achieve, To improve English


Analyze your own teaching / learning situation using the

Framework for analyzing learning needs : Learning
Methodology, Sort of techniques, Competence of teachers,
Teachers knowledge, The cultures of the English speaking

f. The result of the needs analysis constructed we have to

show that it is a complex process, involving much more
than simply looking at, what the learners will have to do in
the target situation, here are the following reconstruct: 1)
Determine the learning topic to be discussed,
2) The topic should be deal with students background, 3)
Give learners more opportunities to solve the tasks, 4) The
teachers as a
model and facilitator in class process, 5) Motivate the learner
to do



Tasks Page

An awareness of need affect an ESP course is based on the

matter of perception
according to ones standpoint.


To analyze the needs of secondary school learners, it should

be based on : 1). The analysis of the curriculum, 2). The
achievement of target,
3). Evaluation, and, 4). Motivations

c. The language center process can also be criticized for being a

static and inflexible procedure, which can take little account of
the conflicts and contradiction that are inherent in any human
endevour once the initial analysis of the target situation is done.
d. Analyzing target needs must be based on: 1) Necessities, 2)
Lacks, and, 3). Wants.