The Unicorn,the Ficus Religiosa and the Egyptian Bata

We have discussed the close relation the Harappan Bharats have with the Egyptians in Bharata the language of the Harappans(pp 85-95). The vedic Aarya is not the horse riding and Ephedra sacrificing steppe Aaryan. Bhaarata is Aarya and Melukaah(Hebrew-king). His asva is the bull and his soma is rice . He is most likely an Afro-Asian .Numerous Egyptian words have their counterparts in Bharata . Phara-oh is Bhara-ta ( prabhu-bhadra- bull,king) . Their chief god the Ra – Harmachis bird is Bharata Ra-vi(bird) karmasaakshi(the sun).Their Isis is Bharata Usha(aja,iisa); Osiris(Serapis,usra,Rudra-bhadra) or Apis(hapis-aspa, Vrishaa kapi.Hanuman,Sugriiva etc are kapi purusha or kaavi purusha-saffron clad ministers of Rama –the king-migrating to Lanka-Ganga region from Harappa. ) is Savitri ; Wepwawet(wolf god,prabhaata-dawn,prakaasa-light) or

Sed(dog god,teja-light,sada-rice) is Soma(bhadrarice,vrika-wolf,Varaaha-Vishnu,vriihi- rice,svaana-dog); Khnum(ram-headed god) is Daksha(ram headed).The Egyptian priests used to partially shave of their hair to make a bhadra(circle = patta) and note the bhadra on the forehead of the Harappan priest king(DK1909).The Brahmins shave their hair to make the puurvasikha or the pascimasaakha like the tail of the Fig leaf (patra-leaf;bhadra-head,bull,light,a staff;bharata-fire,light) to indicate light. The Egyptian priests used to wear white(bhadra) robes(like the robes of the Christian priests) to denote the white Sun and the pavitra(saavitra) worn by the Bharadvijas(Bharats).They used to have ritual bathing in the river Nile.Note the Great Bath of Harappa used for the saavitra bathing and the Deepaali bathing in the month of Asvina(narakacaturdasi).The location of Egyptian and Assyrian mummies at Lothal(cf.the unicorn and the lamassu) further establishes the link between the cultures.Along with trade there

was exhange of knowledge in all fields including religion and riuals. The Christian traditions also have the same roots through Mitraism (cf.Dr.S.Radhakrishnan:Eastern religion and western thought :5.3 Roman empire and the cult of Mitraism) . The Egyptians have a very popular story of two brothers called Anpu(Asva,soma) and Bata(bhadra-bull,bhraatri-brother,praata-dawn) (Ancient Egypt Myth and History-Chapter 4 .The peasant who became king.Geddes& Grosset) like the Asvins(asva-bull;soma bhadra is split into soma and bhadra) of the Bharats.Anpu is also ambu(jiivawater,life),amsu(ray),ambily(the moon-Malayalam) etc. Light is considered as water and life. Mihira ,the sun,is said to wet the earth. Anpu(cf.Soma,Aruna) is the elder brother and had a wife whom Bata looked upto her as his mother(Night is wife of the moon.At dusk she becomes the wife of the sun. At dawn she is his mother.Sarasvati-prabhaata-dawn is

considered as Brahma’s daughter and wife.Kanya-the virgin is both sandhyadusk and kalya-dawn).Bata fed the bulls and tilled the fields. Oneday Anpu’s wife tried to seduce Bata who was carrying a burden of two measures of barley and three of wheat. (Bata=bhadra=panca=five;bhadra=va-two,tra-tri-three). Pancama (five) is vandana(worship cf.kolam),bandhana(restraint cf. Drupada bandhana,bull taming),vancana(deceit cf.Potipahar’s wife and Joseph,Judas and Jesus in the Bible), santaana(child),samdhaana(union), sandhya(dusk) and sayana(sex). Bata refused to have sex with his brother’s wife upon which she lied to Anpu that his brother tried to molest her. Anpu got furious and tried to kill Bata in ambush(vancana). But Bata was told by his bulls(Bata=bhadra=bhaasa- light,bhaasha-speech) about the danger and he ran away to the other shore of the river of crocodiles(naraka-Hades,night; nakracrocodile;Makara-Capricorn; note the fish eating alligator in the Harappan

seals

denoting Makaraasva). From there he narrated

the whole truth to his brother witnessed by Ra and cut a piece of his flesh and flung into the river .It was eaten by a fish(asva-bhadra-bull,light;bhaataBata- dawn,light.The aruna varna-red colour of dawn in Pisces is from this blood.Bhadra is the lord for this angle.).Anpu was moved and beckoned his brother to comeback. But Bata did not oblige and went to live in the valley of the flowering Acacias(cf.aakaasa-the sky) upon which Anpu returned home and killed his unfaithful wife.Bata kept his soul(aatma-soul,suma-flower,somabull,tanu- body) in the highestblossom(suma-soma-the noon sky) of an Acacia tree ( aakaasa-the sky,prakaasa- light,Vriksha- tree,vrisha- bull,purusha-man) as was told to his brother before they parted. Later he married the beautiful daughter of Ra and divulged the secret of his Soul to her. In course of time the fame of her beauty reached the King of Egypt to whose warriors Bata’s wife revealed the secret of the soul of her

husband . They killed him by felling(sunset) the Acacia tree(purusha =vriksha) and took away his wife . The king married her and thus she became the queen of Egypt. In the meantime by an omen Anpu realized that his brother was killed. He went to the valley and made his brother live again by germinatingthe seed containing Bata’s soul in a paatra (jar,bhadra-Bata,praata-dawn) containing water(bhadra- Bata). In the morning(praata-dawn,paatrajar,bhadra- water,light,a girl,bull) maarthanda(dead egg of the sun) gets life by the amsus(Anpu).Bata now took the form of a sacred bull(bhadra) and Anpu sat on his back(cf.kakudstha-Indra; note the horned archer and the

horned deities in the Harappan seals; the Asvins

etc.Kirana-ray-

is arrow and horn.Ina-the sun- is yama-two. In matsa-Pisces-he rise from praata-dawn which is shown as bhadra-bull. ) and they reached Pharaoh’s palace where again Bata revealed his identity to his ex-wife. She was

frightened and she got the bull killed by the king’s men. But one drop of blood fell on the right side and one drop fell on the left side of the gate of the king’s palace and overnight two Persea trees grew there(purusha-vrishavriksha-rakta –raksha cf.lamassu of the Assyrians.Dvaara-door-is bhadra.Also note M-318 where a bhadra-Bata- is portrayed as the door keeper.It is the duty of Bhadra-Rudra- bull to make everything bhadra- safe and full cf.Gandharva guarding soma bhadra fields) and the people began to worship the sacred trees like the sacred bull(vrisha-vriksha). Oneday the queen happened to stand under one of the Bata trees,when the tree revealed his identity to her and scolded her for her infidelity and causing his death. Upon this the queen ordered the trees to be cut down for building two royal seats(bhadraasana=soma also) out of them. She was overseeing the carpentry work when a chip of the wood entered her mouth which made her give birth to a boy(vriksha-purusha- praja-putra-son). Thus Bata became the son of his

wife. Upon the death of the king(bhadra) Bata became the king (bhadra) and he punished the queen for her wickedness. At the end of thirty years of his reign, the Sed(bhadra- soma) festival was celebrated and his elder brother became the king of Egypt. Trimsat(thirty) is trina(grass),druma(tree),drona ( a vessel,soma), mrita(dead) –sada (rice), Sed(bull’s tail festival). Thus it is a

tale of the bull’s tail as seen in the Harappan script

.Compare

the placing

of the soul of Bata in the Acacia(the heavens) tree and his becoming the Persea(Bhadra) trees to the deities in the Fig trees in the Harappan seals, the bulls tied to the Fig trees(vataasvattha vivaaha) and the Unicorns linked to the trunk of the Fig tree( John Marshal’s Mohanjo-daro pl.CX11 No 387 a Fig tree itself is shown with two unicorn heads projecting out from its stem in a Gaayatri pose. ) . Bata(bhadra) standing as two trees on either side of the gate of the Pharaoh(bhadra) may be compared with the two Asvas (unicorns) linked to the trunk of the Asvattha. And there is a religious ceremony

called Vataasvattha- vivaaha(marriage) by engrafting the Ficus Indica with the Ficus Religiosa. Asva(bull,king) is Asvattha(Fig-bull or king of trees) by association of the words. Asvattha is ushas(dawn). Hence the marriage is between the sun and dawn. Kalyaana (marriage) is kalya(dawn.cf.the kalyaana of Caana-kalya- where Jesus performed his first miracle.It is another form of tying the bull to the Pippala .Also note K-65 where kalyaana is shown by salyaspear,na- fight). The Asvattha (Ficus Religiosa) and the Vata vriksha(Ficus Indica) are the chief members of the Ficus family.The Asvattha is also called Pippala,Kshiiravriksha,Calapatraa,Bodhidruma,Kesavaalaya etc.The Vata vriksha is also called Nyagrodha,Bahupaada etc. The tying of the asva( bulls) and the linking of the bhadraasva(unicorns) to the Asvattha in the seals justify the meaning of the name of the tree as Asvattha = asva(bull)ttha(stha-stand) → under which bulls stand.In later usage this was converted as- under which horses stand - as the term asva began to be

applied for horses instead of the bulls. But asvattha is also asvastha( from the cala-trembling,patra- leaves),asva(bull)-tata(father),sahas(power),sahaja (born together) etc.It is the asva(bull,king) among the trees. Asva is agna(the sun,fire,man), aksha(eye,wheel,yoke),aakaasa(svarga-the sky,turagahorse),avasa(the sun,king,food,salvation),aja(a ram,Aries),usha(dawn), pasu(cattle),vasu(rays), vacas(bhaasha-language) etc. Saptaasva(seven bulls) is sabda (vacas) that is asva.Asvattha being asva(agna)-stha(seated), the yajna(sacrificial)- agna(fire) is generated from it by churning the arani made from its wood.Its tender leaves are fiery red giving the appearance of a blazing fire.Its bark gives the white kshiira(milk) indicating the presence of siira(suurya- the sun) in its trunk. Tree(dru) is srii(fire,the sun). Druma is Drona( a vessel, Bharadvaaja) . Drona is soma(bull,rice).Soma is srava or bhadra(rice,king,bull). Vata(vrita,bhadra) is asva(avasa-king). Hence these trees are called Arayaal(araca-king,aal-Ficus=Asvattha) and Peraal(bhadra-

vata,aal-Ficus) in Malayalam . Plaksha(a Banyan) is vriksha(a tree) and prakaasa (light). Prakaasa is prabhaata(dawn); viira(vaara-tail)-bhadra(bull) which is the Sed;vrika(wolf)-iisa(god cf.Wepwawet). Another import of the bhadra-asvattha images comes from drumatree,Drona(Bharadvaaja),soma(moksha-the sky) etc.Vana(a tree) is nabha(the sky). Thus the asva( bull) tethered to the asvattha or the god in the asvattha tree is the sun tied to dawn,light and the sky.

A patra is a leaf.Patra is bhadra(circle

,bull,king,auspiciousness,soma,a

girl,light,water ),paatra(ukha-jar

),Bhaarata(fire),purusha(man

,

,

)

etc. A Fig leaf (Asvattha-king’s abode) has a long tail like the horn of the Unicorn and can denote the king’s(asva-avasa-king) well as in Mohenjo-daro. It can also denote the king and the priest.

Thus a Unicorn bhadra

,

is

another form of the Fig leaf patra

,

da-pa -ra

denoting the

Harappan Priestking, the Bharadvaaja clan(with their tuft), Bhaarata varsha(Aaryaavarta-India), a purusha(man,bhadra-Rudra) and his linga(phallus) etc. The Tamils during the celebration of the Makarappongal( Winter Solstice,Christmas) perform Soma bhadra vandana ( worship of rice) by cooking rice with sugar and call it cakkara(sugar)- Pongal(rise). But cakkara(madhu-sugar;maatu- cattle;soma-bull,rice) is Sakra(Indra),cakra(bhadra-circle,bull,soma) and srava(rice). Then they celebrate the maattu (bull)-pongal(rise) by decorating the bulls and performing bull- baiting games also as seen during the Harappan period(M-312). In the Sed the king(bhadra) had to tame the Apis bull (kapi vrisha;kapi-ape,vrisha-bull. But kapi vrisha is kaavi srava-brown rice. Kaavi is kashaaya- brownish red, decoction of boiled herbs. Gaayatri being

Kaavi srava brought soma from heaven to earth taking the form of the Syena falcon. Syena is dhaanya-grain.). Interestingly the Tamils use the flowering puulai(ceruula- Malayalam) plants to decorate their houses during this time. Its appearance is similar to the ripe ears of rice which is the Somabhadra.And puulai is called bhadrika,bhadraa,go-raksha-gamja etc. in Sanskrit all of which indicate soma bhadra (cattle and rice) and Ca-ndra(the moon; sa-Indra;sa-netra)-the

Moon(soma) god -indicated by the Fish(bhadra,asva

) symbol in the

Harappan seals. Keeping the bhadraa(puulai) at the dvaara(gate) of the vaasra(house) gives the appearance of vaara(tail) of the vaasra(bull,house) and reminds one of Bata ,the Sed and the Harappan seals we have already

discussed. Patra (leaf

) being srava(ear,rice,soma

) ,drava(fish

) and

dru (tree,drava=bhadra=bull) the Fish signs are associated with the Fig leaf and tree motifs in the Harappan seals as the parokshapriya (secret) style

scripts were derived by rebus association of similar words. Note this example. Paada is feet , a quarter and deva(god). Pa is water,egg,leaf etc. and

da is a mountain . Hence paa-da =

(fish),

,

etc.

is paada(pa,da) .

Paada

+ paada

=

= ardha(half,arkka-the sun) ,dvipaat(man cf.matsa-

fish,marta-man) . The fish is also drava(fish) which is srava(ear,rice,soma).

Compare

=

with the figure of rice(soma bhadra=viira bhadra-the

sacrificial asva- bull ) . Vaara(viira-hero,miina-matsa-fish) is water, a roof(soma-the sky),a gate(hence Bata was sacrificed at the gate of the king’s palace) and the hair of the tail of the asva-bull(cf. the bunch of bhadraapuulai). Note this figure of rice (soma) available in Google rice grain structure (from www.Mehrangroup.com/rice/ricegrain)

bull- fish →

soma- bull →

Note how Bata becomes soma bhadra(rice- bull) and Sed (bull’s tail) is sada( soma-rice) sacrifice.The hull with the small hairs is the ox-hide of the soma bull.The bran(cf.brown,praana-life,sraana-soma-rice bran gruel) is the blood and life. Soma is sona(fire,blood,red) and life was considered to be in the blood(The life of a creature is in the blood.Leviticus.17.11). Hence the flesh of the soma raaja( rice-bull-king) was eaten as purodaasa(puroda=bhadra=bull,king, srava-rice;aasa=vaaja=food;Bharadvaaja) and his blood(bran) was drunk as sraana(soma,praana;rakta-blood,raksha-

salvation) which was said to give eternal life(drinking life gives eternal life naturally.cf. We have drunk soma and become eternal. RV.8.48.3.). This secret of the Sed(Soma) is incorporated in the Holy Eucharist( The bread of God is he who comes down from heaven.I am the bread of life.Everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life.John.6.Bhojana-food is putra-son. Sariiraraksha-food is sariira-body and rakta- sona-blood.Somasona is brought from the heavens to the earth by Syena.), the Sraavana(sraana,Onam) festival of the Keralites,the Pongal festival of the Tamils etc.

Vijayabhaarati.

References

1. Deciphering the Indus script (DTIS). Asko Parpola. 1994. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2. The Indus script: texts,concordance and tables(ITCT).Iravatham Mahadevan.1977.ASI,New Delhi. 3. An Introduction to Indus writing (AIIW). Bryan wells. The University of Calgary . 1998. Canada. 4. Ancient Egypt – Myth and History (AEMH). Geddes and Grosset Ltd. 1997. New Lanark. Scotland. 5. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian (ACDME). Raymond O Faulkner .1991. Griffith Institute. Oxford. 6. The Hebrew – Greek Key Word Study Bible. 1996. AMG International Inc. U.S.A. 7. Sanskrit - English Dictionary. Sir Monier Monier Williams. 1999. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 8. Sanskrit – Malayalam Dictionary. Kanippayyuur Sankaran Naambootirippaatu. 1996. Pancaangam Pustaka Saala, Kunnamkulam, Kerala. 9. Sabdataaraavali. Sriikantesvaram G. Padmanaabha Pilla .April 2000. National Book stall , Kottayam, Kerala. 10. Puraanic Encyclopedia (PEP). Vettam Maani. 1991. Current books, Kottayam. Kerala. 11. The Rigveda (RV). OMC Narayanan Nambotirippatu. 1995. D. C. Books .Kottayam. Kerala. 12. The Vedic people (VP). Their History and Geography: Rajesh Kochhar. 2000. Orient Longman. Hyderabad. India.

13. A Phrenologist Amongst The Todas (APATD). William E. Marshall. 1995. Asian Educational Services. New Delhi. 14. Iythareya Brahmanam(IB) .V.Balakrishnan,Dr.R.Leela Devi . 1992 .The Vidyarthi Mithram Book Depot,Kottayam,Kerala. 16.Life In Ancient India In The Age of The Mantras : P.T.Srinivas Iyengar .Asian Educational Services-1991 17.www.mohenjodaro.net/17.2.2008(WMN) 18.www.harappa.com/indus2/index.html17.2.2008(WHCOM) 19.www.harappa.com/indus/indus1.html17.2.2008(WHCOM) 20.Bharata-the language of the Harappans.Vijayabhaarati.scribd.com

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