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CONSTRUCTION AND

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT


endorsed for

Carpentry and
JoineryOperations

16
1

UNIT 16 Carpentry and Joinery Operations

Introduction
Did you know that hanging a door is one of the most common tasks that carpenters do
in the construction industry? Doors have a variety of functions: they provide security and
privacy, as well as excluding drafts and making buildings weatherproof.
In this unit, you will build on the skills and knowledge you gained in Unit 6: Exploring
Carpentry and Joinery Principles and Techniques. You should have already completed
Unit 6 before starting this unit.
You will learn about health and safety legislation requirements in carpentry and joinery,
which relate to employers and employees in the construction industry.
You will have to produce a setting-out rod for a door. You will also need to use this
setting-out rod to mark out and then make a door. You will then hang this door on a door
frame. Finally, you will have to fit a mortise lock that will allow the door to belocked.
Assessment: This unit will be assessed through a series of practical assignments that will be
set and marked byyour teacher/tutor.

Learning aims
In this unit you will:
A explore health and safety regulations and legislation requirements in performing
carpentry and joinery tasks
B demonstrate practical skills and safe working techniques to carry out joinery tasks
C demonstrate practical skills and safe working techniques to carry out carpentry tasks.

I enjoy working with wood because it is a sustainable


natural product. Thats why I decided to take this unit.
My dad is an electrician and a property developer, but I
wanted to learn a different trade. I think its a good idea
to have two different trades in our family. I like the idea
of becoming a property developer, but I want to have a
trade to rely on for myself when I start doing up houses.
Karen, 17-year-old aspiring carpenter

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

UNIT 16 Carpentry and JoineryOperations

BTEC

Assessment Zone

This table shows what you must do in order to achieve


a Pass, Merit or Distinction grade, and where you
can nd activities in this book to help you.

Assessment criteria
Level 1

Level 2 Pass

Level 2 Merit

Level 2 Distinction

Learning aim A: Explore health and safety regulations and legislation requirements in performing carpentry and joinery tasks
1A.1
1A.1

2A.P1 Maths
English
2A.P1

2A.M1 Maths
English
2A.M1

2A.D1 Maths
English
2A.D1

Identify the requirements of a given


health and safety regulation or
legislation that applies to employees
carrying out carpentry and joinery
tasks.

Describe health and safety


requirements for employees and
employers when performing a
practical task in carpentry and
joinery.
See Assessment activity 16.1,
page 12

Explain health and safety


requirements for employees and
employers when performing a
practical task in carpentry and
joinery.
See Assessment activity 16.1,
page 12

Justify the health and safety


requirements in use for a practical
task in carpentry and joinery.
See Assessment activity 16.1,
page 12

Learning aim B: Demonstrate practical skills and safe working techniques to carry out joinery tasks
1B.2
1B.2

2B.P2 English
Maths
2B.P2

2B.M2 English
Maths
2B.M2

Select the resources required for a


framed, ledged and braced door, with
guidance, to include:
scheduling the resources.

Select the resources required for a


framed, ledged and braced door, to
include:
calculating the resources required,
including allowance for wastage
scheduling the resources.
See Assessment activity 16.2,
page 16

Discuss the resources required for a


framed, ledged and braced door, to
include:
their advantages and
disadvantages
the appropriateness of the
resources selected
the resource calculation, including
allowance for wastage
scheduling the resources.
See Assessment activity 16.2,
page 16

1B.3
1B.3

Maths
English

2B.P3 English
Maths
2B.P3

2B.M3 English
Maths
2B.M3

2B.D2 English
Maths
2B.D2

Measure, mark out and produce a


setting-out rod for a timber door to a
given specication, with guidance:
4 mm overall dimensions.

Measure, mark out and produce a


setting-out rod for a timber door to a
given specication:
3 mm overall dimensions.
See Assessment activity 16.2,
page 16

Measure, mark out and produce a


setting-out rod for a timber door to a
given specication:
2 mm overall dimensions.
See Assessment activity 16.2,
page 16

Measure, mark out and produce a


setting-out rod for a timber door to a
given specication:
1 mm overall dimensions.
See Assessment activity 16.2,
page 16

1B.4
1B.4

2B.P4 English
Maths
2B.P4

2B.M4 English
Maths
2B.M4

2B.D3 English
Maths
2B.D3

Measure, mark out and produce a


timber door with joints to a given
specication:
joint gaps not exceeding 3 mm
3 mm overall dimensions
smooth nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.3,
page 17

Measure, mark out and produce a


timber door with joints to a given
specication:
joint gaps not exceeding 2 mm
2 mm overall dimensions
square
not twisted
smooth, true and neat nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.3,
page 17

Measure, mark out and produce a


timber door with joints to a given
specication:
joint gaps not exceeding 1 mm
1 mm overall dimensions
square
not twisted
smooth, true and neat nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.3,
page 17

Maths
English

Maths
English

Measure, mark out and produce a


timber door with joints to a given
specication, with guidance:
joint gaps not exceeding 3 mm
4 mm overall dimensions
smooth nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.

Assessment Zone UNIT 16

Assessment criteria
Level 2 Pass

Level 1

Level 2 Merit

Level 2 Distinction

Learning aim C: Demonstrate practical skills and safe working techniques to carry out carpentry tasks
1C.5
1C.5

2C.P5 English
Maths
2C.P5

2C.M5 English
Maths
2C.M5

Select the resources required to hang


a timber door and t a mortise lock,
with guidance, to include:
scheduling the resources required.

Select the resources required to hang


a timber door and t a mortise lock,
to include:
scheduling the resources required.
See Assessment activity 16.4,
page 18

Discuss the resources required to


hang a timber door and t a mortise
lock, to include:
their advantages and
disadvantages
scheduling the resources required.
See Assessment activity 16.4,
page 18

1C.6
1C.6

2C.P6 English
Maths
2C.P6

2C.M6 English
Maths
2C.M6

2C.D4 English
Maths
2C.D4

Measure, mark out and t a pair of


steel butt hinges to a timber door
and frame, with guidance:
gaps around hinges not to exceed
3 mm
hinges do not bind
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.

Measure, mark out and t a pair of


steel butt hinges to a timber door
and frame:
hinge positions as per
specication
gaps around hinges not to exceed
3 mm
hinges do not bind
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.5,
page 18

Measure, mark out and t a pair of


steel butt hinges to a timber door
and frame:
hinge positions as per
specication
gaps around hinges not to exceed
2 mm
hinges do not bind
smooth, true and neat nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.5,
page 18

Measure, mark out and t a pair of


steel butt hinges to a timber door
and frame:
hinge positions as per specication
gaps around hinges not to exceed
1 mm
hinges do not bind
closing tolerance is consistent
smooth, true and neat nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.5,
page 18

1C.7
1C.7

2C.P7 English
Maths
2C.P7

2C.M7 English
Maths
2C.M7

2C.D5 English
Maths
2C.D5

Measure, mark out and t a mortise


deadlock to a timber door and its
frame:
which works the fore plate and
keep
gaps not to exceed 3 mm
correct position of lock keep
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.6,
page 20

Measure, mark out and t a mortise


deadlock to a timber door and its
frame:
which works the fore plate and
keep
gaps not to exceed 2 mm
correct position of lock keep
smooth and true nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.6,
page 20

Measure, mark out and t a mortise


deadlock to a timber door and its
frame:
which works the fore plate and
keep
gaps not to exceed 1 mm
correct position of lock keep
smooth and true nish
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.
See Assessment activity 16.6,
page 20

Maths
English

Maths
English

Maths
English

Measure, mark out and t a mortise


deadlock to a timber door and its
frame, with guidance:
which works the fore plate and
keep
gaps not to exceed 3 mm
complying with safe working
practices, including the use of
personal protective equipment.

English

Opportunity to practise English skills

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Maths

Opportunity to practise mathematical skills

Assessment Zone UNIT 16

How you will be assessed


The unit will be assessed by a series of internally assessed tasks set by your teacher/tutor. You will
need to show an understanding of health and safety requirements in a carpentry and joinery working
area. The assignments will contain a scenario to help you focus on what to include in your written
evidence.
You will also have to complete the following practical tasks:

make a door
mark out and fit a pair of steel hinges
mark out and fit a mortise deadlock.
Make sure that you meet the assessment deadlines in order to get useful feedback from your
assessor. The unit specification will give you extra guidance about the evidence requirements for
each grading criterion.

Learning aim A

TOPIC

A.1

Health and safety regulations


and legislation
Introduction
Health and safety is vital in the construction industry. It is set out in regulations and
legislation and enforced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). In this topic, you will
learn about the health and safety regulations that affect carpentry and joinery tasks.

Remember
These regulations mean that
both employers and employees
have responsibility to make the
workplace safe.

Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974


The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HASAWA) is the main law used in the UK to
enforce safety on construction sites. Everyone on site from employees to supervisors,
contracts managers to visitors, subcontractors to employers has duties under this Act.

Employers duties
Under HASAWA, employers must fulfil certain duties to ensure the safety and wellbeing
of their employees. Table 16.1 lists these duties and gives compliance examples.

Key terms
Legislation laws passed by
central government.
Compliance following rules or
standards.
Operative a hands-on worker
on a construction site, for
example, a carpenter or tiler.

Table 16.1 Employers duties under HASAWA

Duty

Example of compliance

Ensure the health and safety of all


employees.

Carry out regular safety inspections


and audits of the scaffolding on which
carpenters and joiners work.

Provide and maintain plant and systems


of work.

Provide adequate access equipment,


such as a mobile tower to access high
places.

Provide safe systems of work, including


ensuring safety and the control of risk
in connection with the use, handling,
storage and transport of substances.

Undertake suitable risk assessments


and method statements for work
activities involved in carpentry and
joinery.

Give information, instruction, training


and supervision.

Train all operatives for the work they


are undertaking.

Produce a health and safety policy when


they have five or more employees.

Write a policy and make it available to


the whole workforce.

Provide free equipment required for


safety.

Provide all required personal protective


equipment (PPE) for free and ensure
that it is used.

Provide facilities for employees welfare


at work.

Provide site accommodation, toilets,


and washing and drying facilities.

Consult and cooperate with employees


on health and safety.

Elect a site safety representative.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

UNIT 16

Employees duties
As an employee, you also have certain responsibilities under this Act. You must make
sure that you work responsibly and behave safely on a construction site. Table 16.2 lists
these duties.
Table 16.2 Employees duties under HASAWA

Duty

Compliance

Take reasonable care for the health and


safety of yourself and others.

Always look around to see who is next


to you, below you and above you
when you are working on a platform
to ensure that your actions will not put
their health and safety in danger.

Cooperate with the employer to enable


the employer to perform or comply
with their duties under the Act.

Follow any training, instructions or


inductions given by an employer on
safety.

Correctly use anything provided for


health and safety.

Wear the PPE provided in accordance


with instructions, such as footwear,
gloves and a hard hat.

Do not misuse or damage anything


provided for health and safety.

Use equipment as trained and report


any damage to safety equipment.

Activity 16.1
In groups, discuss why it is important that both employers and employees have
responsibilities for health and safety in the workplace.

The Work at Height Regulations 2005


Carpenters and joiners may have to work at height when working on roofs and
staircases. Falling from height is one of the most common causes of fatalities and
major injuries in the UK construction industry. As a result, the Work at Height (WAH)
Regulations 2005 were introduced.
Any work at height has the potential for an accident caused by falling. You need to be
extra careful when working at height and not overreach.

Employer duties
The WAH Regulations clearly state that working at height should be avoided unless
there is no alternative. No work at height should be undertaken unless it has been
properly planned and the risks assessed. The area where work at height is to take
place must be safe.
Working at height is often affected by weather conditions, and any work should take
account of this. For example, windy weather may make working conditions dangerous,
and work may have to be stopped.
7

TOPIC

A.1

Did you know?


The WAH Regulations require
higher safety standards than
previous regulations. For
example, all scaffolding must
now have netting, so things do
not fall off the side.

Employers must provide safety equipment or take other measures to prevent


employees falling from height or to reduce the consequences of falling from height.
These include:

mobile elevated platforms


harnesses
airbags
safety netting
installing fittings that can be cleaned from the inside.
This equipment must be inspected regularly to make sure it is fit for use. Employers
must also provide training to anyone who has to work at height.
Fragile surfaces and falling objects are common risks in many construction environments.
For example, fragile or old roofs made from brittle materials may give way, or operatives
working above you on the scaffolding may drop tools or materials. Employers must
control these risks.

Activity 16.2
You are working in a carpentry company that frequently needs its employees to
work at height. What precautions can you take personally? What control measures
can the carpentry company take?

Employee duties
Employees also have duties under the WAH Regulations. They must report any safety
hazards and stop if they think it is unsafe to work. They must also follow any training
or instructions. They should use any safety equipment according to the training and
instructions they have been given.

Construction (Design and Management)


Regulations2007
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM) were introduced
to help reduce the number of accidents and injuries that happen in the design and
construction of buildings.

Key terms
Toolbox talk a talk given
on a construction site by a
competent person about a
particular aspect of health and
safety.
Method statement a written
document stating how to do a
task in a safe manner.

Contractor duties
Under these Regulations, an employer is called a contractor. This is because it is
contractors that undertake the work on site. Table 16.3 on page 9 lists the duties of
contractors.

Employee duties
Employees must cooperate with their employer so that their employer can comply with
the CDM Regulations. For instance, they should take part in any toolbox talks on the
site, obey site rules and set a good example as a competent carpenter or joiner.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

UNIT 16

Table 16.3 Contractor duties under CDM Regulations

Duty

Compliance

Plan, manage and monitor their own work and that of


others.

Produce a method statement covering the


construction and installation of a trussed roof.

Check the competence of all employees.

Check all qualifications of carpenters and joiners.

Train employees and give information.

Audit training records and plan training for all


carpenters, joiners and labourers.

Make sure employees have adequate welfare facilities.

Provide the required site facilities (for example, toilets


and a canteen).

Cooperate with others and coordinate work to ensure


the health and safety of all.

Have regular safety meetings with the workforce.

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992


The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 cover
all activities where a person does the lifting instead of a
machine. The Regulations require employers to have in
place risk assessments and method statements, to avoid
manual handling accidents.
Under these Regulations, employers need to:

avoid manual handling as far as possible if injury could


happen

assess unavoidable manual handling tasks, and reduce


the risks as much as possible

limit the weight of loads or make the load lighter


if the load cannot be made lighter, then make it easier
to lift by using equipment

train staff how to lift correctly, or reduce the distance an


object is to be manually carried.
Under the Regulations, employees need to:

cooperate with their employers and follow any systems


of work put in place for their safety

correctly use any equipment provided for their safety,


and not misuse or damage it

inform their employer if they identify any hazardous


handling tasks, and make sure that their actions do not
put anyone else at risk.
Always use correct manual handling techniques to avoid strain
orinjury.

TOPIC

A.1

Key terms
Inhalation when a substance
enters the body via breathing.
Absorption when a substance
enters the body through the
skin.
Ingestion when a substance
enters the body through the
mouth.

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health


Regulations 2002
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 control
the use of hazardous substances on site. Employers are required to ensure the correct
storage, transportation and handling of hazardous substances, as well as to know what
to do in the case of spillage, inhalation, absorption or ingestion.
There are many chemical substances that are used on construction sites. In carpentry
and joinery, these can include:

timber preservatives
varnish
wood dust
glues.

Employer duties
Table 16.4 lists the duties of an employer on a construction site and gives an example
of how each duty is met.
Table 16.4 Employer duties under COSHH

Toxic. You may see this


warning on substances used in
carpentry and joinery.

10

Duty

Compliance

Conduct COSHH risk assessments.

Carry out risk assessments for the use


of wood glues.

Provide control measures to prevent


harm to health, and maintain them in
good working order.

Provide appropriate PPE and control


measures as required to lower the risk
to an acceptable level.

Make sure that control measures are


adopted and used.

Monitor and check that all controls are


in place.

Give information, instruction and


training to employees and others.

Train all employees on glue manufacturers


recommendations about product use.

Provide monitoring and health


surveillance in appropriate cases.

Provide regular health checks by the


company doctor.

Plan for emergencies.

Provide evacuation plan in the case


ofspills.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

UNIT 16

Employee duties
The COSHH Regulations also contain duties that an employee must fulfil when
handling substances that may cause harm. Table 16.5 lists these duties, and gives
suggestions about how to comply with them.

Table 16.5 Employee duties under COSHH

Duty

Compliance

Attend relevant training provided by


the employer.

Undertake the training and achieve


certification on the use of glues.

Report hazards and risks.

Advise supervisors of hazards and risks


associated with carpentry and joinery.

Use control measures.

Use PPE provided for personal protection.

The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005


The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 were introduced to protect workers
hearing at work. Loud noise can damage your hearing, and so can prolonged exposure
to not-so-loud noise.
Employers need to carry out a risk assessment. From this, they then need to make a
plan to reduce or remove the risk.
If an employee is exposed to noise levels of 87 decibels or above, then this must be
reduced or eliminated. The level of 87 decibels is similar to the loudness of busy road
traffic when you are at the side of the road. Employers also need to:

provide hearing protection and keep it in good condition


train employees to use this hearing protection
carry out hearing health surveillance of employees. This involves testing the levels
of noise in the workplace. It also involves testing the hearing of employees, to
identify issues.
As always, employees have a responsibility to cooperate with their employers and wear
the PPE provided.

Just checking
1 Why do we need health and safety legislation?
2 What is the difference between a hazard and a risk?

Employers may have to provide


ear defenders if noise cannot be
eliminated at source.

Did you know?


If you are standing 2 metres
away from a person and you
cannot hear what they are
saying over the noise around
you, then you are in an area
that is excessively noisy and
you could be damaging your
hearing.

3 What is a risk assessment?

11

TOPIC

A.1

Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations


1998

Key term

The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) require that
all work equipment must be inspected, maintained and tested to keep it at a safe
standard, and that it is suitable for its intended purpose. Operatives must be trained
so that they are competent to use the equipment safely.

Competent having the


qualications, training,
knowledge and experience to
be able to do something.

Assessment activity 16.1

English

You are the health and safety representative at


a joinery shop. The workshop area has several
woodworking machines that make excessive noise
when they are being used. This is a hazard. You need
to advise your employer about what should be done
to prevent these machines damaging the hearing
ofstaff.

1 What does an employee have to do when working


in the joinery shop? Design a poster to display in
the joinery workshop to make sure employees do
not damage their hearing.
2 Describe what health and safety measures an
employer must take when their staff are exposed to
noise in the joinery shop.

Tip

Do not just list an employers requirements explain why these requirements are needed.

Learning aims B and C

TOPICS

B.1

C.1

Resources used for joinery and


carpentry
Introduction
In these topics, you will learn about the resources used in carpentry and joinery in order
to produce a framed, ledged and braced door.

Setting-out tools
When producing your door, you will use the same setting-out tools covered in Unit 6
(pages 15051). Now you are going to think about when and how you might use these
in your practical activity.

Key term

Activity 16.3

Requisition list a list of


everything needed to complete
a task, including all tools,
materials and equipment.

You are working at a construction site which is a two-hour drive from the carpentry
firm. You will be removing and fitting a new door. Produce a requisition list of all
the tools and materials you will need on the job.

12

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

UNIT 16

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

Hand tools and equipment


When producing your door, you will use almost all the same hand tools as in Unit6
(pages 1512). You will also use some that may be new to you.

Jack plane
This is used for planing longer lengths of timber, or possibly the edge of a door. It is
different from a smoothing plane, because the base is longer.

Discussion
Think about the different effects
produced by a smoothing plane
and a jack plane when planing
timber.

Cordless drill
Cordless drills are powered by a battery instead of plugging them into the mains.
Cordless drills are used to drill holes as well as to drive in or take out screws.
Most cordless drills are in the range of 10V to 24V. The voltage of a battery is the amount
of power available. Batteries also have amperage measured in ampere hours (Ah). A
higher number of ampere hours means the battery holds more charge and will run for
longer.

Remember
Have a spare charged battery
to hand. This means that if
the battery you are using runs
down, you do not have to wait
for it to charge before you can
continue.

Torque is the amount of turning force the drill will use. You can adjust the torque to suit
the job you are doing. For example, you can set the torque so a woodscrew is driven into
timber at the correct depth. If the torque is set too high, the screwdriver bit could break.
When drilling holes in timber, a small drill bit needs a fast speed to cut the timber.
Alarge drill bit requires a slower speed setting.

Screwdriver bits and drill bits

Did you know?


Torque is the turning force of
the drill, and speed is how fast
the drill rotates.

You will use twist drills to drill holes to take the woodscrews when you fit a hinge.
Drilling a row of larger holes in a line is also a good way to start when you are cutting
out a mortise for a lock.
There is a huge range of woodscrews available. There are screwdriver bits made to fit
every type of woodscrew. Some common examples are slotted, Phillips and Pozidriv
screwdriver bits.

Holding and securing work


When making your door, you will use almost all the same holding and securing tools as
in Unit 6 (page 153).
You may also use a door trap or door block. When carpenters fit a door, they use this
to hold the door on its edge while they work on it. The door trap or block consists of a
wedge, which holds the door on its edge in a slot. This stops the door falling over.

Materials
Softwoods
Softwoods are usually used in areas that will remain unseen or unfinished. Most
softwoods that are seen have to be painted, varnished or stained. As a general rule,
softwoods are better value and more sustainable than hardwoods.

Link
For more on sustainability,
see Unit 11: Sustainability in
Construction.

13

TOPICS

B.1

C.1

Just checking
1 Can the torque on
a cordless drill be
adjusted?
2 Name a hardwood and
a softwood. Describe
a use for each type of
wood.

Softwoods include:

Pine this is a straw-coloured timber, which is relatively cheap compared with other
timbers.

Cedar this has a reddish-brown wood grain. It has good natural resistance to rot
and insects. For this reason, it is popular for use outdoors.

Hardwoods
Hardwoods look much more appealing than softwoods but can be expensive. They
are also scarcer and less sustainable than softwoods. This is because the trees that
produce hardwoods grow more slowly than trees that produce softwoods, and so it
takes longer to replenish hardwood forests.
Hardwoods include:

Ash this is pale and has many uses, including panelling and ooring. It is often
used for tool handles.

Oak this is long-lasting and very tough, but it is also expensive and can be difficult
to work with. It can split when nailed.

Machined softwood
Key terms
Tongue and groove the
tongue slots into the groove of
another board, forming a joint.
Escutcheon plate this is the
small plate that covers the
keyhole on both sides of the door.

Did you know?


To remove a slotted screw that
has been painted, you must rst
clear the paint from the slot. If
it is still difcult to remove the
screw, try tightening the screw
a tiny bit rst, and then try to
remove it.

You have already looked at some manufactured boards in Unit 6 (pages 1545).
Machined softwoods are also a useful way of covering large areas. These types of
boards include tongue and groove and vee-jointed board (TGV), which are also called
matchboard. The vee joint makes a visual feature of the joint.

Woodscrews
You may use Pozidriv, Phillips or slotted screws in your practical task, although
slotted screws are not used very often these days.
Pozidriv screws come in varying sizes. The length can vary from 12 mm to 150 mm,
while the gauge (the diameter of the screws shank) can vary from 2 mm to 6.5 mm.

Door furniture
In your practical task, you will use the following door furniture:

A mortise deadlock this is a simple lock that fits into a mortise in a door.
A keyhole escutcheon plate this is the small plate that covers the keyhole on both
sides of the door.

Steel butt hinges these are used to hang the door on the door frame.

Activity 16.4
List all the door furniture on a door in your workshop. Calculate the cost of all
these from a building supplier.

Link
For more about abrasive
papers, see Unit 8: Exploring
Painting and Decorating
Principles and Techniques.

14

Abrasive papers
You are likely to use the same sorts of abrasive papers as you used in Unit 6. Seepage
157 of the student book for information about abrasive papers.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

TOPICS

B.2

UNIT 16

C.2

Safety equipment and measures


Introduction
Safe working practices and the correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are
very important in the construction industry.
In Unit 6, you learned about the different safety measures that carpenters and joiners
use when working. These include risk assessment and the selection and use of PPE.
See pages 15760 of Unit 6 for more information about this.
In this unit, you will use a cordless drill. You should wear safety spectacles when using
a drill, in case a drill bit breaks. You should also keep your other hand well out of the
drilling, cutting and rotation area, in case the drill slips.
You should set the drill with the correct speed and torque. Use an appropriate-sized
cordless drill for the task that will not cause excessive tiredness. For example, a
cordless drill that you are using all day should not be too heavy.

Activity 16.5
When using a cordless drill to fix plywood to a timber-framed wall in a building,
you may be using the drill all day.
1 What are the hazards and risks involved?
2 What can you do to avoid or reduce the risks?

TOPIC

B.3

Knowledge and techniques


in joinery
Introduction
In this topic, you will learn how to fit hinges and a mortise lock.

Preparing wood to receive screws


There are three stages in preparing wood to receive screws. These are:
1 drilling the pilot hole
2 drilling the clearance hole
3 countersinking.
15

TOPIC

B.3

Did you know?


Some manufacturers produce
a drill bit that combines the
clearance hole and countersink
stages.

The pilot and clearance holes take the main part of the screw. The pilot hole is smaller
than the clearance hole because of the tapered shape of the screw. The pilot hole is
drilled first, then the clearance hole. These holes need to be drilled with the correct
size of twist drill bit.
The countersink takes the head of the screw so that it sits below the surface of the
timber. This can then be filled. The countersink is drilled using a countersink bit.

Setting-out rods
You learned about setting-out rods in Unit 6 (page 163). You now have to measure,
mark out and produce a setting-out rod to make your own door.

Discussion
What is the advantage of using a
setting-out rod?

Remember that your door will only be as accurate as your setting-out rod, so your rod
should be as close as possible to the door specification.
Marking off, also known as taking off, is when you transfer the measurements of the
door onto your timber. It is covered in Unit 6 (page 163).

Assessment activity 16.2

Maths

Measure, mark out and produce a setting-out rod for a timber door.

Tips

The ner your tolerances, the better your setting-out rod will be. Any inaccuracy in the setting-out rod will affect
the dimensions of your nished door.

Aim to have tolerances of less than 3 mm overall dimensions.


The best setting-out rods will have tolerances of around 1 mm overall dimensions.

Using rebated timber sections


A rebate is a cut-away part of timber that a panel fits into. This panel could be plywood
or glass. For example, a window frame will have a rebate so that the glass will sit in it.

Key terms
Tenon this is a projecting
piece of wood made to slot into
a corresponding hole (mortise)
in another piece of wood.
Rail the horizontal parts of the
frame of a door.
Haunch when one side of a
tenon is cut away, the remaining
part of the cut-away side is
called the haunch.

Did you know?


The haunch stops the rail
twisting and forms a stronger
joint.

16

A stepped mortise and tenon and a bare-faced tenon


You have already seen a mortise and tenon in Unit 6 (Figure 6.5, page 162). A stepped
mortise and tenon is just another version of a mortise and tenon, but the shoulders are
stepped or staggered rather than in line. This allows the rail to fit right into the rebate.
A bare-faced tenon only has one shoulder.
Pay close attention when cutting the shoulders for a good fit.

Assembling a door frame


Before assembling the frame, you should clean up all the inside surfaces with a plane,
as these will be difficult to clean up after assembly. When your frame is ready to
be put together, you should first assemble it with no glue, to check that everything
fits properly. You should then glue the frame together on a at surface, and hold it
together with sash cramps until the glue sets.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

UNIT 16

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

Positioning the brace


The brace is a piece of timber placed diagonally along the door to stop the door from
dropping. When the door is hanging on its hinges, the brace is under compressive
stress and keeps the door in place.
The position of the brace depends on which side of the door the hinges sit. It is
important to hang a door with the brace in the right position, otherwise the door will
drop. From the bottom hinge, the brace must point up and away from the hinges.

Finishing techniques

For more about compressive


stress, see Unit 3: Scientific and
Mathematical Applications for
Construction.

Link

You will need to use a smoothing plane to remove any uneven surfaces on the frame.
You will then give the door a final sanding.

Assessment activity 16.3

Link

Maths

Measure, mark out and produce a timber door with joints to the specification given
to you by your teacher/tutor. The joint gaps should not exceed 3 mm and the
overall dimensions should be within 3 mm.

For more about nishing


techniques, see Unit 8:
Exploring Painting and
Decorating Principles and
Techniques or Unit 18: Painting
and Paperhanging Operations.

Tips
Your nished door should have a smooth surface. Practise using different kinds of abrasive papers to see which gives
the best nish.
You must comply with safe working practices, so look back at Unit 6 to refresh your knowledge of safe working
practices before beginning your practical task.
To achieve a Merit, your door must:

To achieve a Distinction, your door must:

have joint gaps not exceeding 2 mm


be within 2 mm of overall dimensions
be square and not twisted.

TOPIC

have joint gaps not exceeding 1 mm


be within 1 mm of overall dimensions
be square and not twisted.

C.3

Knowledge and techniques


in carpentry
Introduction
In this topic, you will learn how to hang a door by fitting a pair of steel butt hinges to your
door and door frame. You will also learn how to fit a mortise deadlock.

Written information
Location drawing
This is a oor plan of a building that identifies the position of each door and the
direction in which it opens. Each door in the building has a reference number that links
to the door schedule.

Link
For more information about
different kinds of drawings, see
Unit 5: Construction Drawing
Techniques.

17

TOPIC

C.3

Door schedule
The door schedule contains all the information about every door in the building. This
includes the type of door, the hinges and any door furniture or signs.

Assessment activity 16.4

Maths

You are a junior carpenter working on a new housing development. Your supervisor
has asked you to select the resources that you will need to hang a timber door and
fit a mortise deadlock.

Tip
To push yourself further, you should discuss the resources you need rather than just listing them. Discuss means that
you will select the necessary resources, and then consider the advantages and disadvantages of the tools, equipment
and furniture you have selected.

Fitting steel butt hinges


Key term
Flush at the same level. For
example, the hinge plate will
be recessed to sit level with the
surface of the timber.

A typical door is hung on two or three hinges, depending on the weight of the door.
Doors are hung within a door frame, which contains the doorstop or rebate that the
door closes onto.
You need to mark out carefully using a pencil and a tri-square, then cut timber from
the frame and door so that the hinge plates will sit ush with the surface of the timber.
Hinges are commonly made from steel and are secured with eight screws each.
When hanging a standard door with two hinges:

the top hinge should be 150 mm from the top of the door
the bottom hinge should be 225 mm from the bottom of the door.

Assessment activity 16.5

Maths

As before, you are a junior carpenter working on a new housing development. Your
supervisor has asked you to demonstrate your skills by measuring, marking out and
fitting a pair of steel butt hinges to a timber door and frame.
The hinges must be positioned as specified and must not bind (discussed on page
19). The gaps around the hinge plates should be as small as possible and not
exceed 3 mm.

Tips
A 23 mm gap between the door and frame allows the door to close on the frame, and also gives enough clearance
for coats of paint on the door and door frame.
You must comply with safe working practices, so look back at Unit 6 to refresh your knowledge of safe working
practices before beginning your practical task.
To achieve a Merit, you need to make sure:

the gaps around hinges do not exceed 2 mm


the hinges do not bind.

To achieve a Distinction, you need to make sure:


Look at how you mark out the
hinge.

18

the gaps around hinges do not exceed 1 mm


there is an even gap around the door and frame when closed.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

UNIT 16

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

Fitting a mortise deadlock


A mortise deadlock is so-called because it fits into a mortise. You will chisel out the
mortise for the deadlock and then drill a hole in which to fit the key.
Be careful when chopping out for the foreplate because this is the part of the lock that
is seen. People will judge the quality of your work by the accuracy of the chisel work.

Key term
Foreplate the face of the lock
that is visible on the edge of
the door.

Take plenty of time to practise your chiselling technique.

Binding
A door is said to be binding when the door does not shut because there is something
wrong on the hinge side of the door. There are different reasons a door may be
binding, as Table 16.6 shows.
Table 16.6 Causes and solutions to doors binding

Reasons

How to rectify

Hinge plate recessed too deep on the


door or frame.

Put card behind the hinge plate to pack


out.

Screw heads too large.

Reduce the screw size.

Door binding on doorstop.

Adjust the door position or move the


doorstop on the hinge side.
19

TOPIC

C.3

Using a cordless drill


Safety considerations
When using a cordless drill with a small drill bit, you will use it at a fast speed setting.
Because the bits are small and get hot, they are more likely to snap. It is therefore
important to wear eye protection when using a cordless drill.
When drilling holes, the drill bits should be sharp and you should choose the correct
drill bit for the task. Also select the correct screwdriver bit for the woodscrew. If you do
not use the correct screwdriver bit, then you will be pushing the drill excessively, and
this will make the fixing more difficult to do.
You should use a cordless drill of the correct voltage this means it will have enough
power to turn the woodscrew or drill bit.
Constantly using a cordless drill can lead to tiredness in your arm or hand. It is good
practice to have adequate rest periods. You could do this by sharing the task so one
person is not doing all of the drilling.

Torque settings
You can adjust torque settings according to the task you need to do. Small screws
require a lower torque setting than larger screws. It is important to choose the correct
torque setting, as this will help the drill last longer. It also reduces the risk of slipping,
or the screw or screwdriver bit breaking.
For more about torque, see page 13.

Using different speeds


In general, small drill bits use a faster speed setting, while large drill bits use a slower
setting.
When drilling into hard materials, start with a slow speed and then increase the speed
gradually. Before breaking through the surface on the other side, slow the speed
down again.

Key term
Keep a metal plate with
an attached metal box that
receives the mortise lock bolt,
and locks the door.

Assessment activity 16.6

Maths

Measure, mark out and fit a mortise deadlock to your timber door and its frame, and
make sure it works. Around the foreplate and keep, the gaps should be as small as
possible and not exceed 3 mm, and the lock keep should be correctly positioned.

Tips
Make sure that you work safely at all times by following the safe practices covered in Unit 6.
Practise your chiselling technique to make sure that you can produce a neat mortise before starting your practical
task. It is good idea to practise cutting in the keep on a scrap piece of timber rst.
To achieve a Merit, you need to:

make sure that the gaps do not exceed 2 mm


the work has a smooth, true nish.

To achieve a Distinction, you need to:

20

make sure that the gaps do not exceed 1 mm


the work has a smooth, true nish.

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

Carpentry and JoineryOperations

UNIT 16

WorkSpace
Will Jackson
Apprentice carpenter
Im working as an apprentice carpenter for a
local carpentry firm. The work is very varied
and we fit doors, windows, fences and gates.
Recently, we even built a greenhouse.
My day starts with loading the van in the
morning with tools and materials. We then go
to the house that requires the work. The first
thing I do when I get to the house is lay out
the dust sheet in the work area. Next I check
all the doors to be replaced and the new
doors to be fitted to see that they are all the
correct sizes. I take off all the old doors that
will be replaced and put them outside the house.
At the moment, Im assisting a more experienced
carpenter who is fitting new interior doors. I help cut
out for the hinges on the doors and door frames.
My future plans are to complete my
apprenticeship, and my employer says Ill
get a pay rise when I do that. I hope
to have my own company one day,
when Im older and have got
enough experience.

Think about it
1 Why is punctuality important in Wills
working day?
2 What have you learned in this unit that
would help you to do Wills job?
3 When accepting a delivery of doors
from a door manufacturing company,
Will notices that one of the doors is
damaged. What should he do?

21

Glossary
A

Absorption when a substance enters the body through


the skin.

Keep a metal plate with an attached metal box that


receives the mortise lock bolt, and locks the door.

Competent having the qualifications, training,


knowledge and experience to be able to do something.
Compliance following rules or standards.

Legislation laws passed by central government.

Method statement a written document stating how to


do a task in a safe manner.

E
Escutcheon plate this is the small plate that covers the
keyhole on both sides of the door.

O
Operative a hands-on worker on a construction site, for
example, a carpenter or tiler.

F
Flush at the same level. For example, the hinge plate will
be recessed to sit level with the surface of the timber.
Foreplate the face of the lock that is visible on the edge
of the door.

H
Haunch when one side of a tenon is cut away, the
remaining part of the cut-away side is called the haunch.

I
Ingestion when a substance enters the body through the
mouth.
Inhalation when a substance enters the body via
breathing.

22

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

R
Rail the horizontal parts of the frame of a door.
Requisition list a list of everything needed to complete a
task, including all tools, materials and equipment.

T
Tenon this is a projecting piece of wood made to slot
into a corresponding hole (mortise) in another piece of
wood.
Tongue and groove the tongue slots into the groove of
another board, forming a joint.
Toolbox talk a talk given on a construction site by a
competent person about a particular aspect of health
and safety.

Index
A
abrasive papers 14
access equipment 6, 7, 8
apprentice case study 21
ash 14
assessment
activities 12, 16, 17, 18, 20
criteria 34
methods 2, 5

B
bare-faced tenon 16
binding, rectifying door 19
brace, positioning 17

C
carpentry
apprentice case study 21
techniques 1721
written information 1718
cedar 14
chemical hazards 10
chisel work 19
clearance hole 15, 16
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations
(2007) 89
compliance examples 9
contractor duties 8, 9
employee duties 8
control measures
COSHH 10, 11
work at height 8
Control of Noise at Work Regulations (2005) 11
cordless drill 13, 15
bits 13
safety 15, 20
speed of 20
torque settings 20
COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health)
Regulations (2002) 1011
employee duties 11
employer duties 10
countersinking 15, 16

D
door

causes of binding 19
hanging 2, 18
hinges 18
setting-out rods 2, 16
trap/block 13
door frame
assembling 16
finishing 17
door furniture 14
door schedule 17, 18
drill see cordless drill
drill bits 13

E
ear defenders 11
equipment
health and safety 6, 7, 8
PUWER 12
escutcheon plate 14

F
foreplate 19, 20

H
hand tools 13
handling heavy loads 9
haunch 16
health and safety 612
legislation 612
policy 6
risk assessments 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act (1974) 67
compliance examples 6, 7
employee duties 7
employer duties 6
method statements 6, 8, 9
health surveillance 10, 11
hearing protection 11
hinges, steel butt 14
fitting 18

J
jack plane 13
joinery techniques 1517

23

Index

K
keep 20

L
legislation, health and safety 612
lifting heavy loads 9
location drawing 17

M
machined softwood 14
Manual Handling Operations Regulations (1992) 9
marking off 16
matchboard 14
materials 1314
hardwoods 14
softwoods 1314
method statements 6, 8, 9
mobile elevated platforms 8
mortise deadlock 14
fitting 17, 19
mortise and tenon 16

N
netting, safety 8

O
oak 14

P
Phillips screws 13, 14
pilot hole 15, 16
pine 14
Pozidriv screws 13, 14
PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) 6, 7, 10
noise protection 11
using drills 15
preparing wood for screws 1516
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
(1998) 12

R
rail 16
rebate 16, 18
regulations, safety 612
reporting hazards 7, 8, 11
requisition list 12
resources 1215
risk assessments 6, 15
COSHH 10
24

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment

manual handling 9
noise 11
working at height 7

S
scaffolding safety 6, 8
screwdriver bits 13
setting-out rods 2, 12, 16
slotted screws 13, 14
removing stuck 14
smoothing plane 17
softwoods 1314
machined 14
steel butt hinges 14
fitting 18
stepped mortise and tenon 16
sustainability of timber 2, 13

T
taking off 16
techniques
carpentry 1721
joinery 1517
timber 2, 1314
tongue and groove board 14
toolbox talks 8
tools and equipment 1215, 20
torque 13, 15, 20
toxic substances 1011
training
COSHH 10, 11
safety 7, 8, 9

V
vee-jointed board 14

W
weather conditions and work at height 7
welfare facilities 6, 9
wood glues 16
COSHH requirements 10
wood, types of 1314
woodscrews 13
correct bit 20
preparing wood for 1516
types 14
Work at Height Regulations (2005) 78
employee duties 8
employer duties 78

Acknowledgements
The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their
photographs:
(Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top)
Pearson Education Ltd: Jules Selmes (19); Gareth Boden (18); David Sanderson (9, 11).
Photos.com: Mark Bowden (4); Jacek Chabraszewski (2); dzmitri mikhaitsow (21).
Shutterstock.com: Ecelop (10). Veer/Corbis: naumoid (5); Irina Tischenko (3); 350jb (Banner).
All other images Pearson Education
Picture Research by: Caitlin Swain
Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance for any
unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any
subsequent edition of this publication.

25

Published by Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex, CM20 2JE.
www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk
Text Pearson Education Limited 2013.
Typeset by Phoenix Photosetting, Chatham, Kent, UK
Original illustrations Pearson Education Limited 2013
Illustrated by Phoenix Photosetting
Picture research by Caitlin Swain
Indexing by Torquil Harkness
The right of John Murray-Smith to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in
accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Unit 16 first published 2013.
17 16 15 14 13
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978 1 446906 46 0
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26

BTEC First Construction and the Built Environment