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MUDLOGGING ...

for dummies
CONTENTS
s
s
s
s
s

GENERALITIES: PAST & FUTURE PRESENTATION


SUMMARY
Introduction: AIMS & PURPOSES
SENSORS, DATUM & DATA
GAS:
DEFINITION, ORIGIN,
MEASUREMENTS, INTERPRETATION

PRESSURE:

GENERALITIES: Hydrost., Overburden, Pore Pressure


FORMATION: SOBG, dexp, ...
WELL MEASUREMENTS: LOT, FIT, SBT,Csg Test

s
s
s
s
s
s

SAMPLING: PROCESSING and DESCRIPTION


LABORATORY: PREPARATION and ANALYSIS
CORING:
EQUIPMENTS and OPERATIVE TECHNICS
REPORTING: DGR, GWR and DDR
ANNEXES
CONCLUSION
TOOLBOX

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

module 6.1
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB
October 1998

GENERAL PRESENTATION
S U M M A RY
MUDLOGGING: on the road again ...
from ... STONE AGE BIBLES
to ... 21st century BIBLES => TOOLBOX module 6.1)
THEMATIC RESEARCH
ALPHABETIC RESEARCH
TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS: examples (Toolbox module 5.2)
GEOLOGICAL WELL REPORT (Toolbox module 7.0)
MUDLOGGING AUDIT (Toolbox module 2.1)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DATA
DISPATCHING

GWR

MUDLOGGING
RECORDING

REPORTING

PREPARING

MUD
LOGGER

DATA
ENGINEER

SAMPLE
CATCHER

DRILLING
WELLSITE
GEOLOGIST

A
TT
I OI
O
N

WELL MONITORING

P
R

MUD PARAMETERS

TESTING
DATA ACQUISITION

N
O

RR
EE
GG
UU
LA
L

DATA MANAGEMENT

LI
S
A

LITHOLOGICAL & GAS DATA

DRILLING EVENTS

EL I
TN
YG

INTERPRETATION

IL
L

DS
RA
I FL

LOT

. . . Natters
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Field . . .

DATA DISPATCHING

FIT

N
SS

EVALUATING
CIRCULATING
CO
FIS
RIN
HIN
HP
G
HT
G
LOGGING

WELL FOLLOW-UP

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Loggi
ud

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

ng

STONE AGE BIBLES ...


USEFUL, BUT:
- DIFFICULT TO MANAGE (heavy, huge, ...)
- BORING RESEARCH & READING

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

... 21st century BIBLES


WEB site
INTRANET

TOOLBOX
module 6.1

WSG
AIMS
...

CD

SENSORS

LA
BO
RA
TO
RY

JOB PURPOSES

SAM
PLIN
G
CO
RIN
G

S
XE
NE
AN

REPORTING

S
GA

E
UR
S
ES
R
P

L O G

THE TRICKS OF THE TRADE


. . . Natters
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Field . . .

FILES:
- STRICKLY A4 SIZE
- MAINLY VISUAL
- ESSENTIAL TEXT
- FAST CONSULTATION
- EASY TO UPDATE
THEMATIC RESEARCH
ALPHABETIC RESEARCH
LINKAGE between FILES
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

THEMATIC RESEARCH
TOOLBOX - module 6.1
INTRODUCTION: AIMS
DATUM, SENSORS & DATA
GAS
PRESSURE
SAMPLING
LABORATORY
CORING
REPORTING
ANNEXES
KEYWORDS INDEX RESEARCH
CONVERSIONS & EQUIVALENTS
UNIT CONVERTER
BASIC WELLSITE GLOSSARY
International SPELLING CODE
...

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Mudlogging KEYWORDS index research

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

EASY RESEARCH Press to

OPEN

CUTTING
DESCRIPTION
SHEET

BASIC
GLOSSARY
(GB - F - E)

UNIT
CONVERTER

OIL FIELD
ABBREVIATIONS
More ?

MUDLOGGING
AUDIT

KEYWORD
GENERAL INDEX

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

GEOLOGICAL
WELL REPORT

TECHNICAL
DATA SHEETS

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS


SENSORS

EQUIPMENTS

DRILLING

MUD

GAS

LABORATORY
TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS

Geoservices

sensor type & model

sensor type & model

Geoservices

Geoservices

equipment & model

GAS EQUIPMENTS

DEGASSER

MEASURE

MEASURE
MEASURE

Features & Benefits:


n Can easily be rigged up, does not normally require maintenance.
n True real-time measurement.
n Pipe velocity is actually calculated allowing real surge and swab calculations.
Principle: A notched wheel with teeth rotates with the cable drum and two
proximity sensors detect the movement of the wheel which send pulses to the ALS
system. The pulses are computed in hook movement knowing initial characteristics of
the drum and the line.
Manufacturer: Turck

Unit: Si 3.5 K 10 Y0

Range: 48 pulses/turn

.
Sensitivity: 1/48th of the DRW drum revolution

Alarm: YES (HI/LOW)

Accuracy: +/- 1cm

Repeatability:+/- 1 pulse

Dimens.: N/A

Weight: N/A

Features & Benefits:


n Light and compact.
n Accurate, intrinsically safe.
Principle: The sensor emits an ultrasonic wave which is reflected at the surface of
the fluid. An accurate measurement of the time taken to the wave to return gives the
distance to the level of mud.
Manufacturer:Milltronics

Check & frequency:


n Check of the agreement with the Drillers depth with the pipe tally.
n During each trip or every 5 days: physical inspection of the sensor.
n Recalibrate each time the cable is changed.

Unit: The Probe

CONTRACTOR Reference:
TOTAL Experience :
-

Manufacturer:Geoservices

Voltage: 8V DC

Unit: GZG

Features & Benefits:


n Compensation of sample weight between 0.90 and 1.10 g.
n Memory capacity up to 800 calcimetries.
Principle: A corrosive attack of a known amount of rock using hydrochloric acid,
some carbon dioxide is produced. A sensor records the pressure increase and a
microprocesseur calculates the percentage of carbonates contained in rock samples.
Manufacturer:

Range: 0.3 - 5 m

Sensitivity:3 mm

Alarm: YES (HI/LOW)

Type of Output:
N/A
Sensitivity: N/A
Accuracy: N/A

Accuracy: +/- 5% of Full Scale

Repeatability:

Dimens.: 79x57x24 cm.

Dimens.: N/A

Weight: 1.5 kg

MAINTENANCE

Check & frequency:


n Once per shift: check levels of pits, clean sensor if necessary.

Voltage: 12 to 30 V DC

CONTRACTOR Reference:
TOTAL Experience:
-

Range: N/A
Alarm: NO
Repeatability:N/A
Weight: 38 kg

Type of Output:

Range: 0-100%

Sensitivity: 0.1 %

Alarm: NO

Accuracy: 1 %

Repeatibility:

Dimens.: 240x270x300 mm

Calibration & frequency:No calibration.

Calibration frequency:With pure CaCO3 as reference.


Check & frequency: Every 5 days and before a new section check the calibration
and adjust if necessary.

OPERATING MODE
Power: 120/140 W
Purpose 1: Gas Out
Purpose 2: Gas In
Operating limits:
CONTRACTOR Reference:
TOTAL Experience:
-

OPERATING MODE

Voltage: 220/380 V AC

location: Flow Line.


location: Suction pit.

Power:
Accessories: Electronical balance. Printer.
Operating limits:0 -> 50C.
CONTRACTOR Reference:
TOTAL Experience:
-

TOOLBOX - module 5.2


. . . Natters
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Field . . .

Weight: 11 kg

MAINTENANCE

Check & frequency:


n Several time per shift: check for steady mud flow from outlet.
n Once per shift: Check gas line air tightness.
n Every 5 days: Check gas transit time, lubricate pump diaphragm, inspect screen
assembly and blade for wear.

OPERATING MODE
Sensor location:Over the pit, at least 0.3m over the maximum mud level.

CHARACTERISTICS

MAINTENANCE

for GASLOGGER
and
for RESERVAL

Calibration & frequency:With a tape measurer.

Operating limits:-40 -> + 60C

Unit:

Certification:

CHARACTERISTICS

Type of Output:
Analogic. 4 - 20 mA

Power:

OPERATING MODE

Operating limits: -25 -> +70C

Principle: The mud is pumped into a degasser tank where an agitator extracts the
hydrocarbon gas.

Aim: To measure and record the amount of carbonates contained in rock


samples and quantify Calcite and Dolomite.

Certification: EEx ia IIC T4

MAINTENANCE
Calibration & frequency:By physical comparison of actual vertical movement of
the travelling block.

Sensor location: On the shaft of the drawworks.

Features & Benefits:


n Independant of mud level variations in the mud return circuit.
n High efficiency of degassing and constant performances quite independant of mud
parameters (density, viscosity, solids content,etc).
n Good extraction of gases from the mud (85%) with equal performances on heavy
and light gases.

CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTICS

Power:

Aim: To extract gases from mud at a constant rate with equal performances on
light and heavy gases.

MEASURE

Aim: To measure the mud level in the pits and to know the pit volumes.

Certification: EEx ia IIC T6


Type of Output:
Pulses. 3 to 8 V

LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS

ULTRASONIC

MUD SENSORS

Aim: To measure the rotation of the Drawworks drum and so the hook
movement.

AUTOCALCIMETER

GZG

PIT LEVEL

DRAWWORKS
DRILLING SENSORS

equipment & model

Geoservices

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Voltage: 220V AC

Geological Well Report


MUDLOG

TEXT.doc

PORE PRESSURE
PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

SAMPLING SEQUENCE

DATA TRANSFER (ASCII)

TOOLBOX - module 7.0


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOGGING AUDIT
TOOLBOX

MUDLOGGING AUDIT
C O N T E N TS

SUB

TOTAL

DIRECTION EXPLORATION GISEMENT


Dpartment Subsurface

AUDIT SUMMARY

Sum-1

CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS

Rec-1

EQUIPMENT and SAFETY AUDIT

Eq&S

Environment

SUB TOOLBOX
TOOLBOX
MODULE 2.1
module
2.1

MUDLOGGING AUDIT
D. GARDETTE
REF : DG/970606-1

PREDEFINED CHECKLISTS
TAG SUGGESTED ANSWERS
and ADD YOUR COMMENTS...

RIG CHARACTERISTICS
SENSORS REVIEW

Eq&S-1/5
Eq&S-2/5

Mudlogging
UNIT

Eq&S-3/5

LABORATORY 1/2
LABORATORY 2/2

Eq&S-4/5
Eq&S-5/5

TECHNICAL and CREW AUDIT

Tech

SENSORS accuracy

Tech-1/8

GAS

combustible

- Degaser
- Detector
- Analyser
non combustible - Detector &Analyser

Tech-2/8
Tech-3/8
Tech-4/8
Tech-5/8

COMPUTER 1/2: Data acquisition and processing


COMPUTER 2/2: Networking and softwares

Tech-6/8
Tech-7/8

CREW (Awareness and performance)

Tech-8/8

ANNEXES: Gas flow-charts:

- Degaser
- Detector
- Analyser

Ann-1
Ann-2
Ann-3

ANNEXES: Nominal gas values for Detectors & Analysers

June 1997

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

BAKER HUGHES INTEQ (BHI


GEOSERVICES
HALLIBURTON
SPERRY-SUN (SSDS)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Ann-4 a-b
Ann-5 a-b
Ann-6 a-b
Ann-7 a-b

INTRODUCTION
SUMMARY
- Rigsite CONTRACTORS
- Rigsite RESPONSIBILITIES
- MUDLOGGING CREW: Householder
- MUDLOGGING AIMS (1): scope of work, data ... what for?
- MUDLOGGING AIMS (2): how?, and Conclusions
- MUDLOGGING JOB PURPOSES
- ML & well behavior: WASH OUT examples
- ML & well behavior: FLOW-CHECK & CIRCULATION
- WELLSITE GEOLOGIST JOB PURPOSES
- WELLSITE GEOLOGIST AIMS
- WELLSITE GEOLOGIST: JOB SPIRIT

. . . Natters
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Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

RIGSITE CONTRACTORS

TOOLPUSHER

GEOLOGIST

MUDLOGGING
LOGGING
(WL & LWD)

CO- MAN

DIRECTIONAL
DEVIATION
POSITIONING
CORING
MWD

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

DRILLING
&
RIG
MAINTENANCE

DRILLING
MUD
CEMENT
CASING
ROV, ...

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

RIGSITE RESPONSIBILITIES
Rigsite
GEOLOGIST

MUDLOGGING

CO-MAN

TOOLPUSHER

position

ACQUISITION
EVALUATION

Rigsite
role

DECISION
EXECUTION

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOGGING Householder
YOUR
BOSS?

MY BOSS
YEAH!

OUR TEAM

MUDLOGGER

SAMPLECATCHER

DATA
ENGINEER

MUDLOGGING
CREW
WELLSITE
GEOLOGIST
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOGGING: AIMS (1)


SCOPE OF WORK

Provide Oil Companies with validated measurements /samples related to


geological, drilling and mud parameters, as per Client specifications.
COLLECT

STORE

MANAGE

DISPATCH

WELL INFORMATION

PARAMETERS

DATA

DATA ON REQUEST

DRLG

MUD
GAS

DATA ... WHAT FOR?


MONITOR & EVALUATEOIL & GAS SHOWS
CONFIRM or ADJUST FORMATION PRESSURE ESTIMATION
ESTABLISH ACCURATE & COMPREHENSIVE DOCUMENTS, REPORTS, ...

INFORM

( IN REAL TIME) PEOPLE INVOLVED IN WELL MONITORING

OF ALL PLANNED EVENTS .... or .... IN CASE OF UNFORECASTED EVENTS =>

. . . N atters
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Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ALERT

MUDLOGGING: AIMS (2)


HOW?

INSTALL ALL REQUIRED SENSORS


CONTROL SENSORS RELIABILITY and ACCURACY
RECORD CONTINUOUSLYALL MEASURED PARAMETERS
NOTIFY ANY EVENTS OBSERVED
PREPARE SAMPLES FOR DESCRIPTION & ANALYSIS
ASSIST, when needed , FOR CORE RECOVERY, TESTING OPERATIONS, ...

CONCLUSION: the MUDLOGGING ...


... M ONITOR
O BSERVE but should
N EVER
E NSURE
Y OURSELF

but it is a ...

SECURE
A SSISTANT for
VISUALIZING & for
EVALUATING
R ESERVOIR

MUDLOGGING is a HIGHLY VALUABLE SERVICE


at LOW PRICE (only 2-3% of well cost: 1500-2000 USD/d)
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOGGING : JOB PURPOSES


WELL FOLLOW UP ...
PARAMETERS

EVENTS

DATA
ACQUISITION

DOCUMENTS

RECORDING

REPORTING

?
BS

MONITORING
&
DETECTION

. . . N atters
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Field . . .

QUICK
UNDERSTANDING
& FAST
REACTING

... ON A ROUTINE BASIS


TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ML & well behavior examples: WASH OUT


DRILLING
Possible ORIGIN:
. very abrasive formations (hd SLST, Pyrite, ...)
. and/or deviated wells (Drillpipe along casing)
PHENOMENA:
Abnormal friction/wear along Drill-pipe / BHA
upto create a hole along pipe => Wash pipe
Surface DETECTION in Mudlogging unit:
Injection Pressure (SPP) slowly reducing to fast
dropping (=> Flow-Rate may increases)
Final Consequence => FISHING! (if not detected)
How to solve the situation?
POOH with heavy sluginside pipes
and check every stand prior breaking
the strings: then locate the WASH-OUT
Other: TWIST-OFF, but no forewarning signs!
Lost nozzles on bit (check hydraulic report)

Mudlogging crew => INFORM


Drlg Supervisor => DECIDE & ACT: WOO
. . . Natters
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Field . . .

GEOLOGY

Possible origin:
. formations poorly
cemented, indurated, ...
. and/or inappropriate
drilling fluid (mud)

Refer to chapter
SAMPLING

Mudlogging crew
=> DECIDE & ACT
then ... INFORM
=> Drlg Supervisor
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ML & well behavior: FLOW-CHECK & CIRCULATION

AIM

OBSERVATION of WELL ANNULAR LEVEL

WHEN?

. after a fast DRILLING BREAK


( unexpected event)
. after breaking a core, prior POH
(no slug pumped)
. to check possible swabbing,
( while pulling out at shoe depth), ...
WHY? to check if well is still in equilibrium
in static conditions; observed if any
Gain or Losses... and report rate (vol/ time)
HOW? Stop circulating ( Pumps OFF)
Stop adding mud into Active sum
( transferring, mixing, diluting , ...)
Duration : at least 15 min ... fct(depth, OH length)

Water

15 min
5
0

EVENT

time

ACTIVE
PITS

Oil
-

ACTIVE
PITS

Gas
-

ACTIVE
PITS

Requested by . . . DRILLING SUPERVISOR

. . . N atters
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Field . . .

AIM

WELL CONTROL

WHEN?

. prior performing SBT, LOT, FIT, ...


(=> drilling circulation: code F)
. to check lithology at TD
(=> geological circulation: code G)
. for mud and/or well conditioning
( prior possible rising MW)
. After a positive Flow-Check: gain ...
( circulate through Choke Manifold)
WHY? to clean out annular volume
( gas cut mud, cuttings)
to homogenize mud properties ( U tube)
to determine coring point depth (code G)
to set casing shoe depth, ...
(to wait on weather, orders, contractors, ...)
HOW? Stop drilling ... Flow-Check; then
... Resume circulating (Pumps ON)
Duration : at least ONE Bottom-updepending on
... LAG TIME / LAG STROKE
Requested by . . . DRILLING SUPERVISOR
WELLSITE GEOLOGIST

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WELLSITE GEOLOGIST: JOB PURPOSES


WELL FOLLOW UP ...
LOGGING: wireline , LWD

DRILLING

MUDLOGGING

INPUT

MWD & MUD

CORING & TESTING

GEOLOGICAL INTERFACE

LITHOLOGICAL
IDENTIFICATION
& CORRELATIONS

SAFETY: HP/HT
RISK EVALUATION

(FACIES)

OUTPUT
RESERVOIR & FLUIDS
CHARACTERIZATION

GAS & SHOWS


INTERPRETATION

REPORTING:
MUDLOG, GWR, ...

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

... ON A ROUTINE BASIS


TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WELLSITE GEOLOGIST AIMS


REACH TARGETS
ANTICIPATE

FOLLOW
DRILLING
PROPOSAL
(Casing,
(Mud,...)

Casing depth
Coring depth
Pressure regime
RISKS, ...

FIND RESERVOIRS
&
IDENTIFY FLUIDS

EVALUATE

(CONTACTS
QUANTIFY Hcb)

GAS

Phi

Sw

Pp
Pf

OIL

...

WATER

SAFETY FIRST
REACT
to hazardous &
unexpected events

. . . Natters
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Field . . .

(people, equipments & RIG)

SAVE MONEY

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WELLSITE GEOLOGIST: Job spirit


AVAILABLE 24h/day
PROMPT TO REACT

FAST TO DECIDE
(VELVET GLOVE)

(IRON FIST)

COMPETENT

SECURE

AUTHORITY

ACCURATE
CONVIVIAL
in any circumstances

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DATUM, SENSORS & D A T A


SUMMARY
- REFERENCE DEPTHS: Onshore & Offshore
- Well PROFILES
- Well PROJECTION: horizontal & vertical views
- HORIZONTAL DRAIN NOMENCLATURE
- RIGSITE SENSORS LOCATION (simplified)
- DATA: real time & delayed
- LAG TIME: definition & control
- LAG TIME: interpretation & consequences
- DRILLING SENSORS
- MUD SENSORS
- Technical Data Sheets: TOOLBOX module 5.2

. . . Natters
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Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

REFERENCE DEPTHS
ONSHORE

(-)
(+)
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

ZERO reference
SUB-SEA depth

RTE / (KB)
Rotary Table Elevation
(Kelly Bushing)

PERMANENT DATUM

RTE / KB
riser
Water
Depth

TVDMSL origine

TVDBRT origine

(+)

Ground
Level

OFFSHORE

MSL
(Annual)
Mean
Sea Level

Sea Bed
or
(Sea Floor)
TD

TMDBRT

(Terminal Depth)

(Below Rotary Table)

PILOT
HOLE

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WELL PROFILES
ONSHORE

OFFSHORE

LAND RIG

SWAMP-BARGE
(0 - 20m)

JACK-UP

SEMISUB
DRILLSHIP

(20 - 100m)

(80 - 2000m)

KOP
(Kick Off Point)

ROV

GO ON THE
GAME, GUY!

(Remote
Operating
Vehicule )

BU
(Build Up
section)

E R W well
extended reach well
ii

SLANT
well

Jii well

DOP

VERTICAL
well

(Drop Off
Point)

TMDBRT
(Below Rotary Table)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

BOPs
+PGB

HORIZONTAL
well/drain

Landing
phase

PILOT HOLE

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ULTRA
DEEP
WELL

WELL PROJECTIONS
HORIZONTAL VIEW

WELL
HEAD

VERTICAL VIEW

delta X

WELL
HEAD

we
ll
pr
of
ile

delta Y

DEPARTURE at
CURRENT DEPTH

CURRENT
DEPTH

CURRENT
DEPTH

we
ll
pr
of
ile
VERTICAL SECTION
at CURRENT DEPTH

S
Departure= (deltaX)2 + (deltaY)2

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

PROJECTION PLANE:
AZIMUTH N140

Azimuth
N140

ANGLE
(inclinaison)

DISTANCE

TVD
DEPTH

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

HORIZONTAL DRAIN NOMENCLATURE


AIM

dip calculation depends on TST, Drilled Thickn. and on Apparent Vert. Thickn.

Layer follow-up
along azimuth drain
TST: True Stratigraphic Thickness

TOP

Drilled
Thickness
between
TOP-BTM

(Reference Thickness inside drain)

TST

VERTICAL
well

Apparent
Vertical
Thickness

BTM

TVD

Layer identification
TVD: True Vertical Depth
TMDBRT

PILOT
(Below Rotary
Table)HOLE

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

WELL TRAJECTORY

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SENSORS: SIMPLIFIED RIGSITE VIEW


Note
zoological nomenclature missing:
DOG HOUSE
MONKEY DECK
GOOSE NECK
MOUSE HOLE
CAT WALK
WIDOW MAKER!
POOR BOY !!

Crown Block
Travelling Block
& Hook (old)
=> TOP DRIVE
Pit level
Temp IN
Resist.IN
Dens.IN

SPP
swivel
Stand Pipe
hoose

DRILL FLOOR
(DRUM missing)
Kelly Bushing
Rotary Table
RPM, TRQ
ROP => Depth
HKPos, H 2S

Mixing pit
(hoopers)

RESERVE PIT

H 2S
mud Pump
and SPM
Choke
Manifold

WOH on
dead line
(=>WOB)

SUCTION PIT

Pit level

desanders
& desilters
(to sand trap)

RETURN PIT
Degaser, Dens.OUT
Resist.OUT, H 2S

SAND TRAP
Well head
WHP, CP
BOPs
CAVE
H 2S

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Temp OUT

to RIG DEGASER

Flowmeter
on Flowline

TRIP TANK
POSSUM BELLY
&
SHALE SHAKER

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DATA : REAL TIME or DELAYED?


DATA TYPE

DRILLING

MUD

GEOLOGICAL

ACQUISITION
MODE

REAL TIME
DATA
downhole events
visible on surface
=> instantaneous data

DELAYED
DATA
downhole events , carried
by mud, after LAG TIME
=> immediate data
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Depth
TRQ
RPM
SPM

ROP
WOB
SPP
WHP

PITS & FLOW


(gain & losses)

MW data:
Temp OUT
Density OUT
Resistivity OUT

GAS &
CUTTINGS
(analysis &
observation)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

LAG TIME
=> ELAPSED TIME (BY MUD) FROM BOTTOM TO REACH SURFACE

L a g T im e =

A n n u lar Vo lum e
Flow Rate

Lag Stroke =

Annular Volume
stroke nb
( Stroke vol) * (Pump eff . )

with

m in

AV = (OH vol + IDCSG vol) - (OD IRON vol in hole)


FR = S
( troke vol) * (Pump efficiency %) * (SPM)

Note:

. if riser (offshore) => Take into account booster pump to improve FR in riser annulus
. short cycle => (Surface -> Bit) + (Bit -> surface)
. long cycle => (short cycle) + (transit time on surface: from return pit to succion pit)
. LAG CHECKS, to be performed during pipe connection (short cycle):
. Calcium Carbide lag (CaC2) => Acetylene peak (C2H 2) on chromato. (WBM mud only)
. Crushed brick lag => First arrival easily seenon Shakers screen (reddish grained)
. Rice lag => Not expensive, but not easy to check on Shakers (milky-whitish-light tan)
. Eventually Mica => in case of LWD (warning: possible effect on WL response)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

LT Interpretation & Consequences


LTobserved > LTtheoritical

LTobserved < LTtheoritical

Cuttings arrive late regarding to ROP


Hole Enlarged
=> CAVINGS
reducing hole cleaning efficiency
Shale shape & size (poping, propeller,...)

Cuttings arrive early regarding to ROP


Tight Hole
=> STICKY HOLE
Shale hydration (Monmorillonite)
in both cases
DRILLING PROBLEMS
IN
VIEW ... as delta P

=> Carefully check lithology


on all sieves
BUT, IT MAY ALSO BE DUE TO:
- Wrong Pump efficiency (Toolpusher data) and/or false adjustment (Data Engineer)
- Incomplete or erroneous pipes dimensions (OD & ID) and volumes, ...

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DRILLING SENSORS
SENSORS
items

MEASUREMENT
mounting on

method

principle

PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS

WOH Weight On Hook ...................................


Dead line
orHook Load
=> WOB Weight On Bit
computed from Archimees law
(or buoyancy effect)

SPP Stand Pipe Pressure ....................... Stand pipe Manifold


CP Casing Pressure .....................................
Diverter Manifold
and WHP Well Head Pressure
Hydraulic system

TRQ Torque ................rotary table (RT)


Electrical line

measuring strain
on force triangle
(klbs or tons)

HYDRAULIC

measuring variations
of steel diaphragm
(psi or bars)
measuring capacitance
of detecting diaphragm
(psi or bar)
CURRENT TRANSDUCER

HALL effect: measuring electrical field


flowing in motor cable (Amp)

ELECTRIC

ROP Rate Of Penetration & Depth


Drawwork
...
axle

HKPos Hook Position / Travelling Block


RPM Revolution or ........................................... Rotary Table
Rotation Per Minute

or Top Drive

PROXIMITY SWITCH

measuring crown sensor


counter
(logic condition: 0 or 1)

SPM Strokes Per Minute ....................................


Pump piston
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUD SENSORS
SENSORS

MEASUREMENT

items

mounting on

above mud tank

method

principle

Echo pulse (ultrasonic)

ACOUSTIC

PITS Volume ..............................


mud
in tank

Flow Rate .......................................................flow


line
TEMP ...................................

Potentiometer (paddle)

ELECTRIC

IN ........suction pit
OUT .......
possum belly

COND. / RESIST...................

Potentiometer (floater)

Platinium resistance

IN ........suction pit

Toroidal induction coil


OUT .......
possum belly
IN ........suction pit

Mud Weight / DENSITY.....

OUT .....gas trap


IN ....... stand pipe
OUT .......
possum belly

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Differential pressure

HYDRAULIC

Gamma ray absorption

(NUCLEAR)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SENSORS MEASUREMENT & SPECIFICATION


M E T H O D

MUD &
DRILLING
sensors

HYDRAULIC

ELECTRIC

ACOUSTIC

NUCLEAR

WOH / WOB
SPP
CP / WHP
T
TRANSDUCER TRQ (diaphragm)
DENS. / MW
Current
TRQ (Hall effect)

P R I N C I P L E

Pressure

PROXIMITY switch

0
(counter)

POTENTIOMETER
RESISTIVITY
ULTRASONIC
RADIOACTIVE

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

ROP / Depth
HKPos
RPM
SPM
PITS Vol. (floaters)
FR (paddle)
COND. / RESIST.
TEMP
PITS Volume
(ultrasonic)
(DENS. / MW )

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

G A S : DEFINITION & MEASUREMENT


S U M M A R Y (1/2)
DEFINITION
- GAS SAMPLING HISTORY
- GAS TYPES RECORDED
- GAS SHOWS: Definition
Origin or sources
Swab & Surge
Gas Events vs warning!
Main ranges
- MUD DEGASSING ON SURFACE
MEASUREMENT
- GAS MEASUREMENT CHAIN
- DEGASSER TYPES
- GAS LINES:efficiency
main & back-up
- DETECTOR:principles
- DETECTORS for ACID GASES
- H2S: HYDROGEN SULPHIDE => the Killer gas
- CHROMATOGRAPHY: problems to solve
principles & efficiency
- FID: total gas & chromatography
- TCD: total gas & chromatography
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

G A S : INTERPRETATION
S U M M A R Y (2/2)
INTERPRETATION
- LOG/LOG DIAGRAM (SNPA)
- PIXLER PLOT

(BAROID)

- TRIANGLE METHOD (GEOSERVICES)


- Wh, Bh, Ch RATIOS

(EXLOG)

- LIGHT HYDROCARBON RATIOS: interpretation


- RATIOS ACCURACY
- GAS NORMALISATION: AIM
- GAS NORMALISATION: magic! or bluff?

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS Sampling: HISTORY


< 1930s

> 1930s

rule of thumb method

Mudlogging Blooming

Based on
. shows estimation
. depth levels
uncertainty

Lagged depths with


associated lithology
(off-line Cabin)

oily appearance,
petroleum odor,
...
Qualitative method:
=> Identification by
. centrifugation (oil)
. ignition ( gases)
=> no quantitative
evaluation

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

=>Degaser calibration:
Steam Still analysis
(VMS 1950s, constant vol)
=>Hot Wire systems:
(Thermal Conductivity Detector)
(Catalytic Combustion Detector)

.total gas detection and


.components identification
Combustibles: C1...C 4, H 2 .
Other gases: H 2S,CO2,N 2,

(1980s) -> PRESENT

Fast & Accurate ...

Integrated
services
(on-line Unit)
=> Degasser efficiency
improvement
(constant flow & vol)
=> FID system:

FUTURE

R & D

Micro-indices
on surface:
. detection
. analysis
(geochemistry)
borehole &
fluid travel
contamination?

(Flame Ionisation Detector)

from > 5 min to < 1 min


only for
combustible gases
(C1 ... C 5)
and optional hot wire
for other gases

Downhole
measurements
. in-situ data(?)
&
. horiz. wells
(geosteering)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS TYPES RECORDED


HYDROCARBON Gas

NON-HYDROCARBON Gas

alkanes series

Inert gas

(CnH 2n+2)
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5
nC5
(C6

N2
H2
He
(Rn

Methane
Ethane
Propane
iso -Butane
normal-Butane
iso -Pentane
normal- Pentane
Hexanes )

Nitrogene
Hydrogen
Helium
Radon)

Polar gas or acid gas


H 2S
CO2

Hydrogen Sulfid
Carbon Dioxide

POLAR
DRY
INERT
HUMID
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS SHOWS: definitions


GAS SHOWS on surface is reflecting a combination of:
LIBERATED Gas

PRODUCED Gas

CONTAMINATED Gas

RECYCLED Gas

from formation
WHILE drilling

from formation

from other sources

AFTER drilling

than formation itself

by
breaking the
rock pore space

Connection Gas
(air slug)
Swab Gas / LCT
Trip Gas, ...
=> short duration

as
mud additives
(chemical reacting),
bit, turbine effects, ...

Remaining in the
mud (whatever origin),
then recirculating
downhole

FORMATION
Gas (FG)
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

due to
imperfect degassing
on surface

minimun gas value


(almost constant):
BACKGROUND Gas (BKG)
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ORIGIN of GAS SHOWS


GAS RECORDED on surface
DRILLED GAS
LIBERATED (L)

NON DRILLED GAS


RECYCLED(R )
PRODUCED (P)
&
CONTAMINATED(C)

GAS from Fault


GAS from SHALE
(cavings)

P
L

. GAS from Gas

Surface mixing
New additives
Downhole chemical
reactions
...

. GAS from Oil


. GAS from Water
( Dissolved)

affecting
L

BACKGROUND GAS

GAS from CUTTINGS


Other Produced GAS: Pipe Connection, Swabbing/LCT, Trip Gas, ...
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SWAB

&

SURGE

POOH

RIH

SWAB & SURGE


function of:
- pipe velocity
- annulus diameter
(hole, pipes)
- mud rheology
(MW,Visc)
delta Pmud
GAINS

final
CONSEQUENCE
on both cases

delta Pmud
LOSSES

EMW

injection

suction

imbalance between mud pressure and formation fluid pressure


and possible KICK
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAFETY: GAS EVENTS WARNING!


Total Gas (TG)
nil
BKG

1 std

traces

Peak heights increase


=> back to baseline
between each gas event
Initial Baseline

(peaks becoming wider)

SYMMETRICAL peaks

Qualitative ALERT method

IDENTIFY Origin of gas observed


INDICATORS (possible gas origin)

P > 0

ASYMMETRIC peaks

G
BK

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

- increased between
each gas event

- PIPE CONNECTIONS
- SWAB GAS TEST
- LCT (Long Connection Test)
- TRIP GAS
- BACKGROUND GAS (BKG)
Miscell: survey
false connections
carbide ( Lag-Time check)
FORMATION Gas

P 0
BKG increase
=> back to new baseline
- shifted between
each gas event

. . . based on gas observations


when circulation stopped

P < 0

Phenomena emphasized IF:


cumulative gas events
recycled gas
rig degasser OFF(Poor Boy)
INFORM and Precise :
Change to new baseline (based on MW)
Lithology (Phi-K) associated to peaks
Gas observed= BKG + Gas eventorigin

GAS EVENTS reflect


PressureRegime and/or
Formation fluid content
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS SHOWS: scale range


=> Blow-out
=> Kick

100

Spectacular=> Muster point


Exceptional to Dramatic

too late!
-> Life jacket

80

Risky to Hasardous
Daring to Lucky

Delta P > 0

Questionable

60

Gas (%)
observed

Delightful to Interesting

Delta P < 0

Promising

40

Nice (or

Lovely)

Fair to Slightly
Weak to Poor

20

Disappointing

Nil

0
-50

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

50

100

delta P (bars) influence


TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUD DEGASSING on surface


Decanting tube
(water)

Drill String

loss of free gas


Bell Nipple

(Air + Gas)

DEGASSER

AIR
inlet
Possum
Belly

GAS
BUBBLES
and
CUTTINGS

Flow
line

GAS LINE
to Unit

Shale
Shakers
Gas
Trap

loss of free gas


(=> recycled in part) MUD PIT(s)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS MEASUREMENT CHAIN


DEGASSER

DETECTORS

GAS LINE

gas
elution

No

Yes

Located in possum belly:


(shale shaker header box)
either immersed: mud level
non-constant &agitator
or degassing at constant
mud volume & flow via
a suction probe

Gas + Air
mixture
to
Mudlogging
cabin
(mini 2 gas lines)

TOTAL GAS
detection
&
H 2S, CO2, ...
(FID burner with H2 flow
and/or TCD based on
Wheatstone bridge)

EFFICIENCY ?
PLUGGING ?

PLUGGING ?
LEAKING ?

CALIBRATION ?
SENSITIVITY ?

CALIBRATIONS ?
ACCURACY ?
REPEATABILITY ?

CARRIER

OBSERVER

ANALYSER

EXTRACTOR

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

4
CHROMATOGRAPHY
combustible gas
(FID, TCD)
non-combustible gas
(TCD)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DEGASSER TYPES
EFFICIENCY = fct ( degasser location , chamber volume vs degassing time, mud type, ... )

GAS TRAP
EFFICIENCY (%)

THE LONGER THE MUD


UNDER AGITATOR,
THE GREATER THE EFFICIENCY

(100) immersed
types
STEAM STILL
Constant mud volume
(reference degasser )
(50) -

SUCTION PROBE
Constant mud flow &
Constant volume
Qantitative Gas
Trap Measurement
Constant
mud flow

BASIC
Variable mud flow
Discontinuous
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

Continuous

GAS EXTRACTING
MODE
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DEGASSER

DETECTOR

GAS LINES EFFICIENCY


DETECTOR

DETECTOR

DEGASSER

DEGASSER

NEITHER TOO LONG ...


(C 3 + analysis)

LENGTH

...NOR TOO SHORT


(safety reasons)

APPROPRIATE GAS LINES LENGTH => TRANSIT TIME TO UNIT < 100 sec
depending on AIR + GAS mixture flow rate through Monoflex
and on motor pump suction efficiency

FLOW RATE

NEITHER TOO FAST ...

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

...NOR TOO SLOW

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS LINES: main & back-up

AT LEAST, 2 INDEPENDANT GAS LINES per DEGASSER

MAIN GAS LINE


GAS LINE
SPARE GAS LINE

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DETECTORS: principles
TOTAL GAS

CHROMATOGRAPHY

CONTINUOUS PROCESS

BATCH PROCESS

for

for

UNDIFFERENTIATED GASES

INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS

QUANTITATIVE measure

QUALITATIVE measure

CCD

TCD

FID

CATALYTIC COMBUSTION

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

FLAME IONISATION

No combustion
Detection of
non-combustible gases

Very low threshold


(5-20ppm)
High repeatability

High threshold (>500ppm)

Accurate only for


combustible gases

(NO LONG EXISTS)


ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Low threshold detection


(100ppm)

Poor detection for


non-combustible
C6+ cause breakdown of
filament (Platinum)
High T filament (800C)

Very high sensitivity to H 2


Low sensitivity to Hcb
other than Methane

Need continuous
H 2 supply

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ACID GASES DETECTORS


CO2

<= QUANTITATIVE RESULTS =>

Infra-Red ABSORPTION principle


CO2 ATTENUATES the IR RADIATION
EMITTED BY THE SOURCE (IR beam)
Voltage proportional to CO2 content
=> accuracy: 1000 ppm (0.1%)

H 2S

1- SEMICONDUCTOR principle
H 2S REDUCES THE METAL OXIDE COATING
TO METALLIC SULPHIDES
Conductivity proportional to H 2S content
=> accuracy: 1 ppm (0.0001%)
warning: humidity reduces sensor sensibility

2- DELPHIAN MUD DUCK


warning: CO2 highly absorbed by basic
water contained in WBM and also
in OBM (water phase)

CO2

IDENTIFY SOLUBLE SULPHIDES IN THE MUD


related to mud pH (>10) & temperature
warning: operating ONLY in water base mud

DRAEGER hand-held (QUALITATIVE RESULTS)

graduated tube filled with


HYDRAZINE
(N 2H 4)
... turning to BLUE-PURPLE
( +/- 10 %)

H 2S

graduated tube filled with


silicagel impregnated
with LEAD ACETATE
... turning to DARK-BROWN
( +/- 10 ppm)

** DETECTOR AVAILABLE FOR ALL GASES (various reactants) with various SENSITIVITY RANGES **
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2S) SAFETY


%

ppm

H2S concentration

0.1 1000
0.07

700

0.05

500

0.02

200

THE KILLER GAS


DEATH => 1 min

UNCONSCIOUSNESS
DIZZINESS

KILL SMELL
0.01 100

20

0.001 10

breathing ceases after 30 min


=> prompt artificial respiration
STINGS EYES & THROAT
within 3-5 min

H2S

HEADACHE
0.002

DEATH => 15 min


permanent cerebral injury

safe
for 8 hours

ROTTENEGGS
EGGS
ROTTEN
odourodour

ACID GAS
COLORLESS
DEADLY GAS

FLAMMABLE ( blue flame )

sg=1.18 (heavier than air)


Highly CORROSIVE to certain metals

H2S effects
. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CHROMATOGRAPHY:problems to solve
hey, guys!

Question: HOW TO BE FAST AND ACCURATE FOR


SEPARATING GASEOUS COMPONENTS MIXTURE (AT A MAXIMUM MUD FLOW)
and for
AVOIDING CONTAMINATION BY SUCCESSIVE & REPEATING MEASURES ?

Answer: yes, absolutely right, Mr ONURB,


IT DEPENDS ON ANALYSIS SYSTEM
EFFICIENCY ... mainly BASED ON ...
Heu!
it depends ...
IF THERE IS WIND,
IF ITS HOT ...

SAMPLING RATE
(TEMPERATURE
& PRESSURE)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

and
on

PROCESS ACCURACY
(COLUMNS and/or
CAPILLARY TUBES)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CHROMATOGRAPHY:principles & efficiency


1

=> DIFFERENTIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE


SAMPLE COMPONENTS BETWEEN 2 PHASES:

COLUMNS
Length: 6-20 ft
ID: 0.125 - 0.25 inch

CAPILLARY TUBES

ONE STATIONARY
solid phase
as
SILICAGEL,
SQUALANE, ...
packing (coating
film thickness)

stainless
or
aluminium
made

ONE MOBILE
liquid phase
with
GAS SAMPLE+CARRIER
(Air, He )
percolating through
or over the solid phase

Length > 300 ft


ID < 0.03 inch

TEMPERATURE & PRESSURE EFFECTS


Temp & Press.
QUICK and POOR ELUTION
=> bent or coiled
for compactness

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

C1C2 C3 C 4 C 5

Temp & Press.


SLOW and GOOD ELUTION
C1 C 2

C3

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

total gas & chromatography : FID


response(mV)

SCHEMATIC CHROMATOGRAM

C1

(after Geoservices)
C2

C3

iC4

nC4
peak
area

iC5

ionisation
chamber

nC5

iC5

BASELINE

time
analysis
# 300 sec

Retention
time for C1

signal
backflush(*)
P2 > P1

Gas line
GAS in
(mixture)
manual
injection

P1
C 6+C 4 C 1
C2 C3 C5

Precut
elution

purge

speed up

H2
Main elution
(separation)

C4 C
C 5 C 2C
3

TOTAL GAS detection line

(*) Backflush starts only when compoundsof interest have passed


through the PRECUT column (depending on selection of cycles)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

waste
effluent

Air

total gas & chromatography : TCD


SCHEMATIC ANALYSIS CHROMATOGRAM
(after Geoservices)

SI column
deflection

H2

C1

BASELINE

RT C 1

COMMUTATION

(SILICAGEL)

# 120 sec

SI
(slow)

Gas line
GAS in
(mixture)

SQ column
(SQUALANE)

composite peak
(H 2/C 1)

C2

C3

iC4

peak
length

thermal
conductivity
chamber

BASELINE
(long cycle)
(short cycle)

# 120 sec

C4C3 C 1 H 2
C2

time
# 250sec

signal
waste
effluent

2 columns with
different characteristics

manual
injection

SQ
(fast)
C 6+C 4 C 1
C2 C3 C5

WHEATSTONE
BRIDGE
H2
C4 C3 C2 C
1

TOTAL GAS detection line


. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

nC4

Air

commutation valve

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

LOG/LOG Diagram (SNPA)


100000

S.N.P.A. (1950s), now ELF

(C2/C1)x103

developed over Lacq gas& oil field (France)

10000

gas ratios used:


(C2/C1) x 103
(C3/C1) x 103
based on production gas data (DST)

1000

DRY GAS dissolved in water

2
100

GAS with CONDENSATE

1
3
4

GAS with OIL

10

(C3/C1)x103

... grading to TARS & BITUMEN


1
1

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

10

100

1000

10000

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

100000

PIXLER PLOT (Baroid)


PIXLER (1969) modified FERRIE (1981)
Texas and Louisiana experiences

C1/C2

C1/C3

C1/C4+

C1/C5+

(no free gas)

Non-productive Gas

gas ratios used:


C1/C2
C1/C3
based on production
C1/(iC4+nC4)
gas data (DST)
C1/(iC5+nC5)

(dry gas)

Productive Gas

=> LINES ARE DRAWN BY CONNECTING


INDIVIDUAL RATIOS
Comments:
- Plot basically based on C1/C2 ratio

(volatile oil)

Productive Oil

(see ratios accuracy)

- Steep slopes are usually


a tight reservoir criteria
- Negative slope might be a water zone

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

(wet gas)

(heavy oil)

Non-productive Oil

(tars, bitumen)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

TRIANGLE METHOD (Geoservices)


so-called POTATO PLOT (early 1970s)
C2/C(1-5)

4 /C
(15)

developed in Middle-East, extended to Europe & Africa

gas ratios used:


C2 / (C 1+ C2+C3+C4+C5) based on production
C3 / (C 1+ C2+C3+C4+C5)
gas data (DST)
C4 / (C 1+ C2+C3+C4+C5)
1 - TRIANGLE (size & orientation) defines FLUID TYPE:

upward
a apex
downward

b
c

dry

low GOR:
Tars

GAS
c
b

wet

OIL

high GOR:
Condensate

5)

2 - HOMOTHETIC CENTER defines PRODUCTIVE ZONES:


by drawing 3 lines from initial plot apexes (A,B,C)
to sample ratios apexes (a, b, c)
IF HOMOTHETIC POINT IS INSIDE brown POTATO

/C (1
C3

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Wh, Bh and Ch ratios (EXLOG)


EXLOG (1985), now BHI

Wh ratio
Ch ratio
Bh ratio

gas ratios used based on drilling:


(C 2 + C 3 + C4 + C5)
* 100
(C1 + C 2 + C 3 + C 4 + C5)

2 - BALANCE

( C 1 + C 2)
Bh =
( C 3 + C 4 + C 5)

3 - CHARACTER

Ch =

Wh

< 0.5

Fluid

DRY GAS

17.5 - 40

GAS

Bh

Fluid

Bh

> 100

dry Gas

>>Wh

coal bed

> Wh

GAS

> Wh

GAS

Fluid

= Wh lt G / Cond

OIL

Bh

> 40

Fluid

> Wh coal-N/A*

> Wh

N/A*

< Wh

heavy to
<< Wh residual
OIL

OIL

<<Wh heavy OIL

LIGHT GAS

Residual Oil

Bh

Fluid

GAS &
LIGHT OIL
COAL-BED
EFFECT
MEDIUM
GRAVITY OIL

< 0.5

GAS or COAL

COAL or N/A*

Ch
> 0.5

N/A*

OIL

10

17.5

40

100 0

0.5

RESIDUAL
OIL

(*) N/A => incompatible

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

VERY LIGHT
DRY GAS

(C 4 + C 5)
C3

0.5 - 17.5

PL
OT
TI
NG

Wh =

CO
NT
IN
UO
US

1 - WETNESS

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

LIGHT HYDROCARBONS ratios INTERPRETATION


100000

1000

4 /C
(15)

10000

C 2/C(1-5)

WHICH PLOT
to trust ?

(C2/C 1)x103

100

/C (1
C3

10

1
1

10

100

1000

Non-productive Gas

10000

5)

NONE or ALL !

(C3/C 1)x103
100000

Wh ratio
Bh ratio

WHY ?

10

Ch ratio
1000 1 2 3

VERY LIGHT
DRY GAS

Productive Gas

Productive Oil
Non-productive Oil

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

NO MIRACLE METHOD

LIGHT GAS
GAS &
LIGHT OIL

CALIBRATED IN SPECIFIC AREAS

... based on
RATIOS ACCURACY

COAL-BED
EFFECT
MEDIUM
GRAVITY OIL
RESIDUAL
OIL

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

RATIOS ACCURACY
DEPEND ON . . .
... DRILLING PARAMETERS

... GAS MEASUREMENT CHAIN


DEGASSER: location

Rate Of Penetration
Drilling modes (rotary, sliding)
Mud Flow Rate
Bit types
Mud weight
Mud type (WBM, OBM, ...)
Help for GAS NORMALISATION

efficiency?

GAS LINE: Flow pressure


Ambiant Temp
(Atmosph. Press.)

pre-elution?

DETECTORS: windows
... for each component
thus, better use C1+C2

calibration?
sensitivity?
overlap?

(instead of C2/C1 or C1/C2 ratios)

SELECTED GAS RATIOS REMAIN HIGHLY HELPFUL for:


- Fluids pre-identification & characteristics
- Geosteering (warning: recycling?)

- Detection & Monitoring HP wells


and ... GAS DATA RELIABILITY!

NEVER FORGET ROP vs Cycle time analysis vs Reservoir thickness

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS NORMALISATION: AIM


AIM:
TO ELIMINATE CHANGES IN DRILLING PARAMETERS AND IN MEASURING CONDITIONS
BASED ON TOTAL GAS Measurement(TG)
APPROACH remains empirical (surface cond.) and/or approximate (downhole cond.)
It normally ONLY represents the LIBERATED GAS content per volume of rockdrilled
warning IF: GAS RECYCLED (from surace)
IF: GAS CONTAMINATION ( from mud, bit, ...) => BACKGROUND GAS
IF: GAS PRODUCED ( from Open Hole)

CGI
Corrected GasIndex

VGN
Volumetric Gas Normalisation

SPI
attempts for
GAS
NORMALISATION

Surface Potential Index

CGS
Calculated Gas Saturation

SEVERE LIMITATIONS: sources ofgas, Temperature& Pressure effects


on mud gas composition while gas migration , ...
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GAS NORMALISATION: magic!


CGI (Corrected GasIndex)

SPI (Surface Potential Index)


SPI = 197
. *

Gas(%)* FR(bbl / min)


CGI(%) =
HV(bbl / ft) * ROP(ft / min)

BS: bit size

approximate normalisation for changes


of flow rate (FR), of hole volume (HV) and of ROP
(equivalent to SPI)

SPI estimates, at SURFACE CONDITIONS,


the m3 of gas per m3 of rock
(dimensionless value)
THE MOST REALISTIC INDEX
FOR FAST & EASY COMPARISONS

tremendously

VGN (Volumetric Gas Normalisation)


VGN (%) = Gas(%) *

(ROP in m/hr

ROPnormal HVnormal FRactual 1


*
*
*
ROPactual HVactual FRnormal E

HV in bbl/ft

Gas(%) * FR (l / min) * ROP(min/ m)


100 * (BS(inches))2

E=degasser efficiency in decimal %)

MAGIC!

CGS (Calculated Gas Saturation)

CGS = 100 * SPI *

Pa (kg / cm2) Tu( K)


*
*Z
Pu(kg / cm2) Ta( K)

Pa: ambiant surface pressure=1 Ta: ambiant surf. temp (AMST)


Pu: estimated fluid pressure
Tu:estimated bottom temp (BHT)
Z: deviation coefficient from Ideal Gas Law (gas compressibility)

normal conditions derived from


a specific field, basin or region (!)

CGS estimates, at BOTTOM CONDITIONS,


the m3 of gas per m3 of rock (dimensionless value)

Similar to CGI, more rigorous


but incomprehensible!

Gas saturation affected by


drilling conditions (flushing)

Recommended DEGASSERS: steam still (Cst volume) and/or suction probe (Cst flow)
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Generality & Formation PRESSURES


SUMMARY

(1/2)

GENERALITIES
Concepts
Pressure Regime status
HYDROSTATIC Pressure
OVERBURDEN: Definition
OVERBURDEN: Calculation
OVERBURDEN: Evaluation
PORE Pressure:Definition
Overburden and Pore Pressure
COMPACTION: Normal & Abnormal
LUCKY & UNLUCKY: examples
FORMATION PRESSURE
Acquisition
Indicators
Evaluation
Swab Gas Test & LCT
Drilling pressure evolution
ROPnormalized story
Advanced d exp
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

./.
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Formation & Well PRESSURES


SUMMARY

(2/2)

FORMATION PRESSURE (suite)


Normal Compaction Trend dCn
Rock bit types vs ROP curve vs dexp
Compaction vs Drilling parameters
Compaction vs Lithology
Compaction Trend Observed dCo
Shale Pore Pressurecomputed: Eaton method
Pore Pressure:Eaton formula (dC, tcl, R cl) and Overlays
EATON Overlays: isodensity (EMW)
dCoOVERLAYS example: Excel worksheet
Fracturation pressureevaluation
WELL PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
THEORETICAL TESTS: CSG, SBT, LOT, FIT
(Casing, Shoe Bond Test, Leak Off Test, Formation Integrity Test)

PRESSURE RECORDING PLOT


Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW)
CHARACTERISTIC PROFILES
ANALYSES & INTERPRETATIONS

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

PRESSURE CONCEPTS
HYDROSTATIC
pressure

H 2O

OVERBURDEN
pressure

Matrix
+
Fluid
into pores

PORE
pressure

Fluid
in pore

beurk!

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

PRESSURE REGIME STATUS


Pressure (psi)
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

2000

3000

en

.31

5000

g/c
c(

1p

7500

si/f
t)

ABNORMAL
pressure

SUBNORMAL
pressure
4000

s=
2

GE
OS
TA
TI
C

10000

12500

15000

5000
0

200

400

600

800

1000

Pressure (kg/cm2)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Depth (feet)

Depth (meters)

IC
AT
ST
) RO
i/f t D
ps Y f t)
H
68
si/
0.4
3p
c(
43
g/c c (0.
08
/c
1.
0g
s=
1.0
en
.D
s=
en
Eq

.D
Eq

Eq
.D

2500

LITHOSTATIC
pressure

1000

FLUID

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Pressure exerted by a static fluid at a given point in a column

practically
HP = (MW x TVD) x 1.422

theoretically
Ph = (d . h) / 10

0m
mud
weight:
water
density:

1000m

d
h

TMD

MW
(2) TVD
g/cm 3
meter

TVD

1.30g/cm3

1.00g/cm3

1300m

(1)

1000m

Ph = 130 kg/cm2

g/cm 3
meter

HP = 1850 psi

Note: 130 kg/cm2 = 1850 psi

Pressure depends on vertical height (1) and on fluid density (2)


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
OBG

Pressure exerted by the total weight of overlying sediments


(sea water + matrix + fluids into porous medium)

Cumulative Geostatic pressure


EMW
air gap

S OBG =

EMW

1
* (Z i Z i 1 )* i
Z i i =1

Z i Z i 1 = int erval (usually 50m TVD )


i = average density ( litho log y )

sea water

Zi - 1

cumulative

SOBG
Zi

along int erval

cumulative

SOBG expressedin EMW

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

SOBG
TVD

TVD

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OVERBURDEN CALCULATION
0m RTE
pb= 0

Air gap
25m AMSL

S1= (0 x 25) / 25 = 0.000 EMW

pb= 1.03

Sea water

125m Sea bed

S2= [(0 x 25) + (100 x 1.03)] / 125 = 0.824 EMW

pb= 1.65

Litho 1

S3= [(0 x 25) + (100 x 1.03) + (175 x 1.65) ] / 300 = 1.306 EMW

Litho 2
S4= [(0 x 25) + (100 x 1.03) + (175 x 1.65) + (150 x 1.75)] / 450 = 1.454 EMW

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OVERBURDEN EVALUATION
BULK DENSITY EVALUATION
directly from DENSITY log:
average value along constant interval
=> NOT ACCURATE in case of
heterogeneousformations

S OBG

SOBG = A*(ln ZTVDBRT) + B *ln ZTVDBRT + C


2

Z i 1 )* 3.28

=> parabolic equation

note : interval (Z i Z i 1 ) 50m

with

Sonic velocity (sec/ft), computed


whatever formations: AGIP formula
If SOFT form. =2.75 2.11 * (t 50 )
b
( > 70 sec/ft)
(t + 200 )

If HARD form.
( < 70 sec/ft)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

= 3 . 28

n
1
=
* (Z i Z i 1 )* i
Z i i =1

=> rough approximation:

TTI(msec )*1000

(Z i

known regionally, ie from logs ( t )

unknown (ie exploration: wildcat)

derived from SONIC log:

? t (sec/ft ) =

OVERBURDEN EVALUATION

t
89

in feet
soft
hard

A
0.01304
0.01447

B
-0.017314
-0.018350

C
1.4335
1.4846

A
in meters
soft
0.01304
hard
0.01447

B
-0.014215
-0.014912

C
1.2462
1.2870

=> or regional equation/parameters

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

PORE PRESSURE
Po

Po

Pressure exerted by fluids density into pore space


SUBNORMAL

NORMAL

ABNORMAL

Po < Ph

Po = Ph

Po > Ph

EQUILIBRIUM

GAINS

LOSSES

- for SHALE
- for RESERVOIR
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

=> Po corresponds to Pp (dexp, Sigmalog)


=> Po corresponds to Pf (formation testers)
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OVERBURDEN and Pore Pressure


PRESSURE

DEPTH

Pressure
supported
only
by matrix

PP

OVERBURDEN =

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

effective
Pore
Stress + Pressure

d
ui
Fl
re ure
Po ss
e
pr

Pressure
supported
by FLUIDS and MATRIX

S = + PP

(TERZAGHI law)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

COMPACTION

Oooh

He-he!

ABNORMAL

NORMAL

pore
pore

... ONLY
BY
GRAIN TO GRAIN CONTACT
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

WEIGHT
TRANSMITTED
...

pore
pore

... BY GRAIN CONTACT


AND
... BY PORE FLUIDS

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

LUCKY and UNLUCKY ?


(NORMAL and ABNORMAL PRESSURES)
sponge
+
H 20

plastic bag
sponge
+ H 2O

weight

weight
H2
0

weight
H2
0

NORMAL COMPACTION

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

H 20

H 2O

KICK
2O

H 20

H 20

H
2O

weight

UNDERCOMPACTION <=> OVERPRESSURE

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Formation PressureACQUISITION
1 - CONTRACTORS INVOLVED vs DATA MODES

DATA

On SURFACE

RECORDING
REAL TIME DRILLING

MUD LOGGING
CREW

POST DRILLING

controlled
(DST)
uncontrolled (FFT)

ACQUISITION

DOWNHOLE
(transmitted to surface)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

LOGGING WHILE DRILLING


CREW

and
WIRELINE LOGGING
CREW

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Formation PressureINDICATORS
2 - DATA INVOLVED and RESULTS

PARAMETERS
BKG, LCT, SwG, PCG, Ratio,

GAS

ROP, WOB, Bit type, TRQ, Drag

DRILLING

Shape, Size, Density (shale)

CUTTINGS

Thermal gradient: (TIN , TOUT)

Well Temp

none
ROP, CAL, Rotary/Sliding modes
none
BHT, Mud T, Tool T

none

NUCLEAR

GR, Density (RhobCL), Neutron (PhiNCL)

none

ELECTRIC

Resistivity (R CL)

none

ACOUSTIC

SONIC Transit Time (deltaTCL)

Empirical formula or laws

RESULTS
THROUGH

Direct physical measurements

COMPACTION TREND
SOBG
PORE PRESSURE(PP) Psh, Pf

dexp, Sigmalog, Form. testers


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Formation PressureEVALUATION
3 - DATA RESPONSES versus SHALE POROSITY INCREASE EFFECTS
ABNORMAL

NORMAL

GAS

BKG

PCG

LCT

DRILLING

ROP

WOB

TRQ

CUTTINGS

Cavings

Size

Shape

Well Temp
NUCLEAR
ELECTRIC
ACOUSTIC

(diversity)

Thermal gradient
RHObCL
ResCL

PHINCL

DeltaTCL
WHOLE CRITERIA MAY or MAY NOT REACT
and IF ONLY 1 => ALERT

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Swab Gas Test & Long Connection Test


AIM

ANTICIPATE the ARRIVAL OF the TRANSITION ZONE with the lowest MW

SwGT

Hook height

Hook height

SPM

Stop drilling
FormG
Stop circulating
BKG
Off Bottom3-5m
swabbing time < 1min
Resume circulation
Back to drilling
Total DURATION: 5-10min
PSWB << PFORM < PECD

LCT

SPM

Stop drilling
Off Bottom2-3m
Circulating ~10min
Stop circulating
LCT time ~10min
Resume circul~5min
Back to drilling
Total DURATION <30min

PC

PC
TG lagged

TG lagged

1 std (Top Drive)


1 single (Kelly)

FormG
BKG

SwG

SwG

LCT

PC

PC
time

time

PLCT < PFORM < PECD

Better PFORM follow-up with LCT than SwGT (PSWAB < PLCT)
PROCEDURE
Mudlogging crew records gas on surface
(and checks associated lithology),
then informs WSG and Co-Man for actions:

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Keep on drilling to next gas test


Increase MW step by step (5 points= 0.05sg)
Logging & Set casing (depending on LOT, FIT)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DRILLING PRESSURE EVOLUTION


What to do?

MW

PP

FR
AC
ECD

EN
RD
BU
ER
OV

1
c
tati
ros
Hyd

DEPTH

PRESSURE (EMW)

ss.
Pre

3
5

too early (?) for


- setting Casing
- rising MW
(possible LOSSES)

too late (?) for


rising MW => KICK
(if porous reservoir)

PP = MW, but still < ECD


Unsafe drilling
=> well in equilibrium
(in static conditions)

ECD > PFRAC ( or PLOT)


=> LOSSES
(slow pump rate: reduce ECD
and pump LCM)

drilling conditions
=> LOSSES (ECD > P FRAC)
static conditions (PP > MW)
=> GAIN to KICK
depending on permeability
THE WORST SITUATION!

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ROPNORMALIZED STORY!
dexponent

empirical formula

BINGHAM (1964, Gulf coast): relationships between LITHOLOGY and DRILLING PARAMETERS

ROP
RPM

( ft / hr )

WOB (lbs)

= K.

BS
(inches)

with d = compaction exponent(=> d exp)


and K =lithological constant

JORDEN & SHIRLEY (1966) solved this equation for a constant lithology (K=1 for shale)

CLST

Why only for


SHALE?

log ROP
60 RPM
' d' =
log 126WOB
10 BS
( ft / hr)

10

SST

CLAY @ Z depth =surface *exp( Cst*Z )

(lbs)

10

RUBEY & HUBBERT law (1959)

Any decrease in d exp


(expressed in EMW)
when drilling a shaly sequence
is a function of the degree
of undercompaction

(inches)

REHM & McCLENDON (1971): d exp correctedfor mud weight (P function of Shale pore presure)
' dc ' =' d '.

Phydro
ECD

( EMW )

easy,
Man?
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Parameters not takeninto account:

( EMW )

Yeah!
Fair enough?
NO !

- P, not known accurately


- bit type and bit wear
- mud hydraulics when drilling
with jetting (unconsolidated Clay)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

UPGRADED or ADVANCED d exp


How to restitute an almost true normalized ROP ?
p

a
log
0 .3048 * ROP
* RPMc
Ph
*
d=
0.026469 *WOB
ECD
log
BS

corrected for ROCK BITS


as new ones
for each depth drilled

(min/ m )

( EMW )

(T )

( EMW )

( inches )

where
a = 0.93 * Z 2 + 6 * Z + 1

and p = 0.3 0.5 (teeth bit) 0.1 0.2 (insert bit)

with
Z=

BW 2 3 * BW
+
+1
8
8
0.31 * x 2 + 3 * x + 1

0.31 *

0.0 ? ( PDC bit)

YES!
and RPM corrected = RPM ( 8*10

*RPM + 1.09 )

dCo

dCn

HELP!

and
x=

BW Bit depthOUT Bit depthIN


*
8
(Interval drilled)

and dCnstill not drawn !


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

WELLSITE GEOLOGIST
& MUDLOGGING Crew

MUDLOGGING Unit
COMPUTER

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

NORMAL COMPACTION TREND dCn


RUBEY & HUBBERT

log() = -c.Z + log(o)


=> linear relationship between Depth (Z) and Porosity ()

INTERCEPT
3

ZAMORA: the d exp (proportional to porosity),

1.00

log (d Cn 2 / d Cn 1 )
Depth 2 Depth 1

1000

Intercept B

log( B ) = log( dCn ) A * Depth


B =10 [log( dCn ) A* Depth ]

*
2000

Depth

A=

dCn

(TVDBRT)

Slope A

3000

dCn= 1

@ 4500m

dCn= 2

Geologist job

slope A= 1.003*10-4

Computer job

intercept B= 0.707

(MUDLOGGING CREW)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

dCo
PE
SLO

Example:
@ 1500m

follows the same law for claystone/shale:


log(dCn) = A.(DEPTHTVDBRT) + B

dc(EMW)

4000

*
5000

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ROCK BIT types vs ROP curve vs dexp


Cone bits

Fixed head bits

NOZZLES
3 x ??/32

NOZZLES or
TOTAL FLOW AREA

TEETH bit

INSERT bit

Polycrystalline Diamond Compact


NOZZLES
3 x /32

TFA inch2
converted
to equiv.
nozzles

Rock is SHATTERED by pressure

Formation is CUT with cutters

ROP curve CONTRASTED:


drilling parameters relativelysteady
Cuttings shape & size generally
well representative of rock compaction

ROP curve SMOOTHED:


parameters adjustedvs lithology
Cuttings shape & size fairly to non
representativeof rock compaction

+
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

COMPACTION TREND and Drilling param s


Fast

ROP (min/m)

Slow

TEETH

assumed to reflect a normalized ROP

tricone bit
OBM effect

DCn
PDC bit

WBM effect

INSERT
tricone bit

IT WORKS!

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

with constant (!)


DRILLING
&
MUD
parameters

Depth

COMPACTION TREND

Core bit

Worn bit

WOB
RPM
Bit type
Bit size

OBM
WBM
MW
ECD

ADJUST END to ENDSHIFTS


WITHOUT CHANGING SLOPE(S)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

COMPACTION TREND and LITHOLOGY


Fast

ROP (min/m)

Slow

DCn
SILT effect

COMPACTION TREND
assumed to reflect a normalized ROP

CO3 effect

based on pure (!)


CLAYSTONE / SHALE

Dcn => NORMAL

Sand
baseline

Dco

=> OBSERVED

Shale
baseline

DCo
Depth

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

check LITHOLOGY
check CALCIMETRY

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

COMPACTION TREND OBSERVED dCo


dCo

d(EMW)
3

reflects a Normalized ROP


corresponding to:

normal
compaction
dCo= dCn

1000

dCn
pore

Depth
3000

4000

pore

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

dCo

pore
pore

The increasein pressure is


proportional to the difference
dCn and dCo

2000

abnormal
compaction
dCo < dCn

1.00

PRESSURE
5000

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SHALEPore Pressure COMPUTED


d(EMW)

Shale Pore Pressure (PP)


3

EATON method

1.00

1000

1.2

Example
at 4000m: dCo
Ph

= 1.50 g/cc (EMW)


= 1.00 g/cc (function of water salinity)

dCn
2000

Depth

dCo(observedtrend)
PP (EMW) =SOBG (SOBG Phydrostatic )

d
Cn
(normal
trend)

3000

dCo

dCn = 10(1.003*10- *4000 + log(0.7)) = 1.76 g/cc (EMW) at 4000m


SOBG = 0.01447*(ln4000)2 + (-0.014912*ln4000) + 1.287 = 2.16 g/cc

4000

PP = 2.16 - (2.16-1.00)(1.50/1.76)1.2 = 1.20 g/cc (EMW)


5000

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Pore Pressure & Overlays


Overlays

EATON formulas

isodensity EMW

(Pp sucessively taken to1.00, 120, 1.40, )

While drilling

dexp

dCo = dCn n * 1.2

S Pp
S Ph

t clay

t o = t n * 3

S Ph
S Pp

1.2

dCo(observed trend)
PP =S (S Phydro)

dCn (normal trend)


During logging

tn (normal trend)
P P =S (S P hydro )

to (observedl trend)

1 .5

R clayn (normal )
P P =S (S P hydro )

R clayo (observedl )

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Resclay

Rclo = Rcln *1.5

S Pp
S Ph

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

EATON Overlays: isodensity (EMW)


Isodensity lines for dexp

d (EMW) 1.00

1.00

1 - Determine the dCntrend:


( slope & intercept)

1.20

1000

dCo = dCn n * 1 .2

S Pp
S Ph

1.40

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

1.60

dCo

3000

1.80

4000

2.00

Quick look method for Shale Pp


Note: Eaton exponents may vary(1.1 - 1.5)

dCn

2000

depth

2 - Compute at each depth, knowing


- the SOBG (regional or recomputed)
- the Ph hydrostatic gradient (1.00 to 1.08)
the theoritical values of the dCofor different
pressure gradients (1.20, 1.40, 1.60, )
using Eaton s formula:

5000

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

dCoOVERLAYS example (Excel worksheet)


NORMAL TREND dcn:
log(dcn)=A*depth+B
dcn1 =
0.75
dcn2 =
0.9
depth1 =
250
depth2 =
1000
Pr.hydr. =
EATON exp'=

1.01
1.2

SHALE PORE PRESSURE at depth:


dco =
DEPTH
(mTVDBRT)
100
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
4250
4500
4750

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

dcn= 1,00
1.00
0.723
0.750
0.797
0.847
0.900
0.956
1.016
1.080
1.148
1.220
1.296
1.377
1.463
1.555
1.653
1.756
1.866
1.983
2.107
2.239

A=(log(dcn2/dcn1))/(depth2-depth1)
0.00010557 => slope
B=10^(log(dcn1)-A*depth1)
0.70577702 => intercept

sgEMW
sgEMW
m
m

dcn=10^(A*(depth)+log(B))

=> OVERLAY at depth:

or enter newcoefficients

=> dcn at depth:

sgEMW

OVERBURDEN:
S=a*(ln(depth))^2+(b*(ln(depth))+c
depth in meter
a =>
0.01447
b =>
-0.01491
c =>
1.28700

dco= dcn*[(S-Pp)/(S-Ph)]^(1/Eaton exp') or enter local OBG formula

1.35

S =
dcn =

2.129
1.65

SOBG OVERLAYS (sgEMW)


(EMW)
1.20
1.40
1.525
0.493
0.222
1.646
0.558
0.340
1.753
0.623
0.429
1.822
0.678
0.491
1.874
0.732
0.546
1.916
0.786
0.598
1.952
0.842
0.651
1.983
0.901
0.705
2.010
0.963
0.760
2.034
1.028
0.818
2.056
1.097
0.879
2.076
1.169
0.942
2.095
1.247
1.010
2.113
1.328
1.081
2.129
1.415
1.156
2.144
1.507
1.236
2.159
1.605
1.321
2.172
1.709
1.411
2.185
1.819
1.506
2.198
1.937
1.607

OPEN
FILE

SHPP= S-(S-Ph)*[dco/dcn]^1.2
=>
1.249
sgEMW

1.60
#NOMBRE!
0.084
0.214
0.288
0.346
0.398
0.447
0.496
0.546
0.596
0.649
0.704
0.761
0.821
0.885
0.952
1.024
1.099
1.179
1.264

1.80
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
0.043
0.117
0.173
0.222
0.268
0.312
0.356
0.401
0.447
0.495
0.544
0.596
0.650
0.708
0.768
0.832
0.900

2.00
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
0.024
0.071
0.113
0.153
0.193
0.232
0.273
0.315
0.359
0.404
0.452
0.503

2.20
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!
#NOMBRE!

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

FRACTURATION evaluation
WHY ?
TO DETERMINE the MAXIMUM:
- Mud Weight (ECD) permitted during drilling

FRACTURE gradients depend on:


- stress conditions in the wellbore (x, y, z)
- Hole geometry & orientation
(FRACHORIZ. WELL << FRAC VERT. WELL)

- Annular surface pressureallowed during kick

- FRACOFFSHORE < FRAC ONSHORE

- Casing shoe settings

- Mud Weight, wellbore Temp, Lithology, ...


0

NUMEROUS ATTEMPTS
ALL METHODS ARE APPROXIMATIONS

1000

SOBG
2000

depth

The less worse


: EATON


FRAC =
FRAC
* (S PP )+ PP
1

FRAC

3000

4000

PLOT
LOT

5000
0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

sg (EMW)

POISSON s RATIO =>K

with 0.33 < < 0.45

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

ln(K) = a * ln(depth) + b
equation equivalent to SOBG

DEFAULT COEFFICIENTS
with depth in feet

soft fm
hard fm

a
0.226
0.354

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

b
-2.667
-3.607

WELL PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS


Theoretical Pressure tests types
Casing and/or
Liner Test

SBT
Shoe Bond Test

LOT
Leak Off Test

DRILLER interest

FIT
Form. Integrity T.

DRILLER & GEOLOGIST interest

TO CHECK
possible leaks
along casing or liner
equipments

TO CHECK
possible leaks
at casing shoe
(cement: presence
and hardness)

before
drilling out
cement

after drilling out


casing shoe

TO DETERMINE
the maximun pressure
up to leak off= PLOT
which can be applied
at the first
permeable level

Equivalent to LOT,
TO CONFIRM
the validity of former
LOT at shoe
with cracking the
formation PFIT P LOT

below the shoe


(or no more than 50m)

while drilling
the new section

Practically
PERFORM IN A ROW (RAT HOLEDRILLED)
UP TO FRACTURATION/INJECTIVITY THROUGH THE FORMATION
OR at a LOWER PRESSURE (assumed to be valid as PLOT ),
DEPENDING ON EXPECTED FORM. PRESS. ALONG THE SECTION

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

PRESSURE RECORDING PLOT


Measurementsfor the determination of the maximun mud weight
permitted for drilling (ECD) without loss of circulation
2

3a

PLOT

Pressure (psi)

METHOD: Increasing the mud pressure,


generally using Cement Unit pump(s),
by shut-in-well (well closed)

3b
PINJECTIVITY

LINEAR INCREASE IN ANNULAR PRESSURE,


PROPORTIONAL TO THE VOLUME PUMPED,
AT CONSTANT MUD FLOW RATE

DEPARTURE FROM LINEAR SLOPE:


START OF LEAK OFF=>PLOT
=> AS PUMPING CONTINUES, MUD
PENETRATING/INJECTING THE FORMATION

PUMPING

BLEED OFF

THEORITICAL

Volume (bbl)
Pressure outputs

paper print
screen plot
computer

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

3a

CRACKING and INJECTIVITY THROUGH


THE FORMATION => STOP PUMPING

3b

END OF INJECTIVITY f(racture propagation)


WELL STILL CLOSED (TIME > 15min)

Time (min)

CEMENT UNIT

MUDLOGGING UNIT

+
-

+
+
+

END OF TEST: PRESSURE PURGE


=> COMPARE VolPUMPED vs VolRETURNED

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

EQUIVALENT MUD WEIGHT: EMW


(psi)

EMW =

PINJECTIVITY

(g/cc)

Pressure (psi)

PLOT

PLOT
* 0.7032 + MW
TVDBRT (conversion
(g/cc)
factor)
(m)

FRACTURE
PROPAGATION

BLEED OFF
PUMPING

Volume (bbl)

Time (min)

In OBM well, the pumping phase


might be smoothly curved,
due to fair oil compressibility

example
PLOT
= 1250 psi
Shoe
= 1820 mTVDBRT
MW
= 1.22 g/cc
VolPUMPED = 5.50 bbl
VolRECOV = 4.25 bbl

EMW = 1.70 g/cc


Injected through formation:
=> 1.25 bbl = 200 liters
CONVERSION:

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

10
= 0.7032)
14.22
1bbl 42 gal 160 liters

1psi = 14.22 kg / cm2

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CHARACTERISTIC PROFILES
P (psi)

1 Csg Test

2 SBT

P (psi)
CASING
SHOE

(15 min)

VOLRECOV = VOLPUMPED

VOLRECOV

SOB !

V (bbl)

P (psi)

V (bbl)

T (min)

3 LOT

P (psi)

VOLPUMPED
T (min)

4 FIT

FRACTURE
PROPAGATION

FRACTURE
PROPAGATION

Permeable bed

VOLRECOV

Volume (bbl)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

<

VOLRECOV<< VOLPUMPED

VOLPUMPED

Time (min)

Permeable bed

Permeable bed

Volume (bbl)

Time (min)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

PRESSURE ANALYSES
P (psi)

CEMENT

1 PLOT > Ppropag.

P (psi)
CASING
SHOE

RAT HOLE

FRACTURE
PROPAGATION

2 PLOT = Ppropag.
FRACTURE
PROPAGATION

B
A

SOB !
Volume (bbl)

Volume (bbl)

Time (min)

VOLRECOV << VOLPUMPED


POOR or WEAK CEMENT JOB
POSSIBLE REMEDIAL JOB?

VOLRECOV < VOLPUMPED

SBT

?
HIGH PROPAGATION INTO
re-OPENED FRACTURES,
LIMITED ECDWHILE DRILLING

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Time (min)

GOOD CEMENT JOB,


SAFE in case of KICK CONTROL
(CIRCULATION through CHOKES)

LOT

FORMATION NOT DAMMAGED


BELOW THE SHOE

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE PROCESSING
SUMMARY
SAMPLING PROCESS:
- SAMPLES: Why? and Types?
- SAMPLES: Preservation ... what for?
SAMPLING: BASIC RULES
CUTTING PREPARATION
WASH OUT SAMPLE EVALUATION
CUTTING PERCENTAGE ACCURACY and VISUAL ESTIMATION
DESCRIPTION and Order Standardization:
General RECOMMENDATIONS
1 - ROCK NAME
2 - COLOUR
3 - HARDNESS / INDURATION
4 - TEXTURE:
General
Summary
SEDIMENTARY PARTICLES
CARBONATE DESCRIPTION
5 - MATRIX and CEMENT
6 - FOSSILS and ACCESSORIES
7 - Apparent POROSITY
8 - OIL SHOWS: Generalities
Observation
Comments
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLING PROCESS (1)


AIM

OBSERVATION and EVALUATION OF FORMATION DRILLED,


SUMMARIZED IN MUDLOG DOCUMENT, ON RIGSITE
SOLIDS samples

WHY?

=> to rebuilt
lithological
column

=> to visualise
reservoir
characterisation

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

=> to identify
true
formation fluids

=> to precise
rheology
(drilling fluid)

Gas

SAMPLES

TYPES?

FLUIDSsamples

CUTTINGS
Unwashed (UNW)
Washed & Wet (W&W)
Washed & Dried (W&D)
( + spot samples)

CORES
+
wax preserved
samples

FORMATION SAMPLES
Liquids
Cond
Oil
Water

MUD SAMPLES
Prior logging job,
New mud type
(per Drlg phase)
...

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLING PROCESS (2)


SOLIDS samples

PRESERVATION
MODE

CUTTINGS

CORES

BAGS

BOXES
wooden

cotton, paper,
plastic,aluminium,
glass pills

(preferably)
or plastic

FLUIDSsamples
FORMATION
SAMPLES
Liquids
jerricans
bottles

MUD
SAMPLES

Gas
PVT cells
chamber

CANS
Jerricans

SAMPLES
UNW

W&D
W&W

LABORATORY
STUDIES

&

=>Accurate DESCRIPTION
Lithology
CALCIM., FLUO.,
Shale density
Thin sections, ...

analysis
(in town)

HCb extraction, TOC (W&W)


Heavy Mals identification
Microfauna, ...

measurement
(on rigsite)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

=> Rough description


CHIPS observation
CALCIM., FLUO.
(thin sections)
PETROPHYS. on Plugs
SCAL (Phi-K, matrix, Sw)
SEDIMENTOLOGY
on slabbed core

Quick look
Density (API),
Pour Point,
Resistivity
& Salinity, ...

Component
C1 ... C 5
CO2, H 2S

same analysis more accurate


+ Volume Factor (Bo, Bg)
+ Gravity, Finger prints, ...

Mud weight
OBM: Elect. stability
O/W ratio, ...
WBM: Rm, Rmf, Rmc
Visc, Gels, ...

rarely to none

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLING: BASIC RULES


UNFORESEEN EVENTS OCCUR ONLY ONCE DURING WELL DURATION
THUS

NEVER MISS OPPORTUNITY TO COLLECT SAMPLES


SOLID SAMPLES
=> WHILE TRIPPING/FISHING ...
rock samples remaining
stuck on BHA:

OTHERWISE

LIQUID SAMPLES

...

=> WHILE DRILLING ...

- bit (tricone)
- stabilizers
- junk basket
- ...
Bigger cuttings for
nicer thin sections

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

... Oil on Shale-Shakers


(fractures indicator ?)
=> WHILE TESTING ...

YOU CAN BE TRAPPED !


AND LOOSE SOME IMPORTANT WELL DATA

no flow on surface or
nothing while reverse circulation
(but test technically successful !)
CHECK below DST string

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CUTTINGS PREPARATION
WRITTEN WITH PENCIL

FROM SHALE SHAKERS SIEVES

DEPTH

UNWASHED sample

RAW & MIXED CUTTINGS


EMBEDDED
WITH MUD including
ADDITIVE PRODUCTS

(Polymers, LCM, ...)

WASHED sample

FOR CHECKING POSSIBLE CAVINGS


BIGGER CUTTINGS MAY BE USED for:
- SELECTIVE CALCIMETRY
- THIN SECTIONS

COARSE
sieve
MEDIUM
sieve
FINE
sieve

SUCK EXTRA WATER


with towel,
sponge,
paper filter, ...
STEEL / INOX

SAMPLE TRAYS

FOR PERCENTAGE EVALUATION


& FOR DESCRIPTION
(Medium and Fine granulometric sizes
may be mixed)

GLASS-WATCH

ALUMINIUM DISH

curved

undulated
area

flat area
RECOMMENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NOTHING ELSE

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

THROUGH SIEVES COLUMN

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GEOLOGICAL WASH OUT


Possible ORIGIN:
. formations poorly cemented, indurated, ...
. and/or inappropriate drilling fluid (mud)

H
coarse
Height BEFORE ...

PHENOMENA:
Drilling with almost no WOB (jetting) => vf-f SD/SST
Washable CL/CLST, SLST, ...
Surface DETECTION in Mudlogging unit:
Samples do not reflect the expected lithology
Volume cuttings recovered<< Volume drilled
Final Consequences => Miss DATA, borehole instability
How to solve the situation?
Wash samples yourself & check residue inside sink
Look for lostsamples: flow-line, sand-trap, ...
Washed out evaluation:

medium
fine

WASHING
sieves set
h
Height AFTER ...

Raw percentage
after washing:
SAND: 80%
CLAY: 20%

WASH OUT EVALUATION

Other: unexpected SALT, drilled ... with WBM not saturated

Mudlogging crew => DECIDE & ACT


then ... INFORM => Drlg Supervisor

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

SAND =0.8 x = 0.4 => 40 %


H

h H h

CLAY = 0.2 x +
= 0 .6 => 60 %
H H

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CUTTING PERCENTAGE ACCURACY


ACCURACY
EXPECTED ?

1000

remember:
5%

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TRACES

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CUTTING PERCENTAGE ESTIMATION

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (1):

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
WELLSITE GEOLOGIST
BE CONSISTANT

BE SELECTIVE

BE HOMOGENEOUS

BE ACCURATE

BE CONCISE

limestone

LMST
LST

LS

Lime-stone

OBSERVE under
same conditions

RECOGNIZE and
DISREGARD

USE
usual codification

NOTE
DOMINANT

REPORT
MAIN

TIME => hardness


LIGHT => colour
FOCUS => texture
...

CAVINGS and
other
contaminants

STANDARD

SIGNIFICANT

ROCK

ABBREVIATIONS

DETAILS

FEATURES

=> EXAMINE SEVERAL SAMPLES IN A ROW ... for updating the


interpretated lithological column ... and KEEP LAST SIGNIFICANT ONES
BUT AVOID TO fill up volume for the base Geologist!
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (2):


BASIC RULES or STANDARDISATION
DESCRIPTION ORDER
1 - ROCK NAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 - COLOUR

and abundance (estim.%)

....................................

under Cst lighting

3 - HARDNESS / INDURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . subjective appreciation


4 - TEXTURE: rocks components . . . . . . . . . . . . characteristic elements
5 - MATRIX and/or CEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . mechanical/chemical process
6 - FOSSILS & ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . secondary rock particles
7 - POROSITY (apparent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qualitative
8 - OIL SHOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

evaluation

ephemeral approach fct(rock Phi,K)


TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (3):

1 - ROCK NAME
SILICEOUS
SLST
SD
SST
CHT

Silstone
Sand
Sandstone
Chert

ARGILLACEOUS
SH
CLST
MRL

Shale
Claystone
Marl

CARBONATES
LS/LMST Limestone
DOL
Dolomite
CHK
Chalk

Six (6) BASIC


CATEGORIES OF ROCKS
ANH
Anhydrite
GYP
Gypsum
SA or HAL Salt

EVAPORITES

BM
BAS
GRT
SSDD -

Basement
Basalt
Granite
SXST

Miscellaneous

NOTE: DIATOMITE and RADIOLARITEmay be encountered,


but FORAMINIFERITE generally corresponds to
an intensive washing of Argillaceous deposits !
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

COAL
LIG
BIT

Coal
Lignite
Bitumen

ORGANICS
PERCENTAGE QUALIFIERS
Less than 5 = TRACES
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (4):

2 - COLOUR
ROCK COLOUR DEPENDS ON:

REDDISH to LIGHT BROWN

a- CONSTITUENT GRAINS
b- MATRIX and/or CEMENT
c- STAINING (mud products, iron, ... , OIL)
STRESS ON PREDOMINANT COLOUR

(rdsh-lt brn)

SAMPLE TRAY:
a- MUSHROOMS, TOMATO, ...
b- CHEESE, NODDLES, ...
c- MEAT, PAPRIKA, ... , Oil

TRAFFIC LIGHTS
for
COLOUR BLIND WSG

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

for more details, see the


ROCK COLOR CHART
(The Geological Society of America)
representing the:
U.S. Geological Survey, AAPG, ...

BROWNISH to ORANGE

(brnsh-or)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (5):

3 - HARDNESS / INDURATION
MOHs scale (standard Mineral and Qualifying terms)

(brittle)

NAIL: 2.5

GLASS: 5.5
STEEL: 6.5

(soft)

(very hard)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

1 - TALC
2 - GYPSUM
3 - CALCITE
4 - FLUORINE
5 - APATITE
6 - ORTHOCLASE
7 - QUARTZ
8 - TOPAZ
9 - CORUNDUM
10- DIAMOND

loose, uncons.
friable
soft
plastic
firm
brittle (as coal)
moderately hard
hard
very hard
very hard

lse, uncons
fri
sft
plas
frm
brit
mod hd
hd
v hd
v hd

ROP

WBM

OBM

ANHYDRITE

v slow

pasty, soft

mod hd

SALT

v fast

lost

firm

French scale
Ta
your
Grosse
huge
Concierge caretaker
Follement madly
Amoureuse in love
Ose
dares
Qumander asking
Tes
your
Caresses
divine
Divines
caresses

(friable)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (6):


4 - TEXTURE: GENERAL
ORGANISATION of the COMPONENT ELEMENTS ofthe ROCK
SHAPE

SIZE
(simplified WENTWORTH scale)

CLASTICS

CARBONATES

Grains

size of
element

Mud - Clay

< 20

crpXln - mXln

Crystals

Silt

20 - 63

extrXln

vf - f

63 - 250

vfXln - fXln

med - v crs

250 - 2mm medXln - vcrsXln

Granule-Boulder 2 - 256mm

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

extrcrsXln

ARRANGEMENT

ROUNDNESS:
edges sharpness
v ang
ang
sbang
sbrnd
rnd
wl rnd

v elong
elong
sli elong
sli spher
spher
v spher

SPHERICITY:
shape of the grain
(ratio width/length)

SORTING:
grains range size

extr wl srt
v wl srt

monomodal

wl srt
pr

fr

gd

mod srt
pr srt
v pr srt

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

polymodal

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (7):

4 bis - TEXTURE summary


ROCK GRAINS / CRYSTALS ORGANISATION
SIZE

ROUNDNESS

SORTING

SHAPE

SPHERICITY

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

TEXTURE: SEDIMENTARY PARTICULES


very coarse

coarse

medium

fine

very fine

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CARBONATE DESCRIPTION
CLASSIFICATION according to
DEPOSITIONAL TEXTURE

Structures of ELEMENTS

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (8):

5 - MATRIX and/or CEMENT


MATRIX

CEMENT

MECHANICAL
DEPOSIT

CHEMICAL
PRECIPITATE
Silica, Calcite, Dolomite,
Pyrite, Salt, ...

Silt, Clay

OF SMALL INDIVIDUAL GRAINS,


AROUND GRAINS or CRYSTALS,
BETWEEN LARGER GRAINS,
OFTEN BOUNDED TO THE SEDIMENT ,
FILLING INTERSTICES BOTH REDUCING FILLING INTERSTICES and/or VOIDS
POROSITY

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (9):

6 - FOSSILS & ACCESSORIES


EASY TO RECOGNISE, DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY

MINOR ROCK PARTICLES ARE USEFUL


FOR CORRELATIONS and FOR ENVIRONMENT INDICATORS
even if it is A SPECIALIST S job

FOSSILS
FORAMINIFERA
GASTROPODS

DONT FORGET
PERCENTAGE
QUALIFIERS

ACCESSORIES
(crystal, framboid)

GLAUCONITE

> 10 % Abundant
5-10 % Minor
1-5 % Rare
< 1 % Trace

PELECYPODS
CORALS

=> MARINE: EXTERNAL SHELF

CALCITE
=> FAULT, RECRYSTALL
(BIOT, MUSC => detrit acid rocks) MICA
(CHLORITE =>fluvio -marine)
SCATTERED GRAINS (Org.Mat, Coal, Gyps., ...l

ALGAE

HEAVY MINERALS

and COLOUR
OSTRACODS
BRYOZOA
...
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

ORGANISMS

PYRITE

=> DIAGENETIC, CONFINED DEPOSITS

(APATITE: detritic, PO4 deposits)

MINERALS

lithics rock fragments


magnet => Fe-Mg minerals
...

=> INFORMATION on ORIGIN and HISTORY of the SEDIMENT


TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (10):

7 - APPARENT POROSITY
PERCENTAGE QUALIFIERS
0 - 5%

negligable visual porosity(n vis por: nvp)

5 - 10%

poor porosity (p vis por)

10 - 15%

fair/medium visual porosity (fr/med vis por)

15 - 20%

good visual porosity (g vis por)

20 - 25%

very good visual porosity(vg vis por)

INTERCRYSTALLINE
MOLDIC

soft
sediments
solid or
liquid ?

INT
ER
GR
AN
ULA
cuttings?
R

VUGGY

CORE => OK

INTRAGRANULAR

FRACTURE

CONNECTED or ISOLATED network ?


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (11):

8 - OIL SHOWS: Generalities


ONE OF THE MAIN INTEREST OF A WELL
knowing that:
SHOWS ARE
EPHEMERAL
(highly volatile)

SHOWS ARE FUNCTION OF:


- mud weight
flushed while drilling
- mud types (WBM, OBM) samples washing
- bits used
cuttings size

DESCRIPTION ORDER

STRONGEST SHOWS
DO NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT
THE BEST RESERVOIR

FLUORESCENCE (direct)
ODOUR & COLOUR: intensity
DISTRIBUTION:staining & bleeding
FLUORESCENCE
(cut, residual)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (12):

8bis - OIL SHOWS: Observation


FLUORESCENCE

DIRECT

SOLVENT

YES

NO

NO

YES

YES

YES

Minerals ( calcite, ...)


Bitumen Dead Oil
Crude Oil

OIL ODOUR & OIL COLOUR


the stronger, the darker (dk brnsh), the lower API
the fainter, the lighter (lt yelsh), the higher API

SOLVENT FLUORESCENCE (crushed sample)


OIL STAINING & BLEEDING
DISTRIBUTION
EVEN
MOTTLED
PATCHY
SPOTTY
SPECKLED
PINPOINT
NIL

very good
good
fair
poor
very poor

4a

>40%
20-40%
10-20%
1-10%
1-2 grains

solvent
reference
solvent
reference

INTENSITY

BRIGHT => DULL => PALE => FAINT


(strong to weak)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

1 SPEED

PAPER FILTER

TEST TUBES

DEPTH

RIGSITE COMPARISONS
(test tubes or white porcelaine)

flash: instant.
fast: < 5sec
slow: 5-10sec
crush:needle

2 STRENGTH
strong
weak
faint

RING

3 FORM

sample

(RATING roughly= 1/permeability)

4b

CUT

EASY STORAGE for


later comparisons

blooming
streaming
( sl, mod, ...)

4 COLOR
RING FLUORESCENCE or RESIDUAL

brown, gold, ...

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION (13):

8ter - OIL SHOWS: Comments


CUT FLUORESCENCE

DIRECT FLUO
main COLOUR

PERFORM ON

Brownish
Orange

DRY POWDERED SAMPLE


(before calcimetry analysis)

DIR
CUT
3 2 1 1 2 3

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

OIL Gravity
deg API
<15
15-25

g/cc
>0.97
0.97-0.90

Gold yel-grnsh

25-35

0.90-0.85

White-Milky

35-40

0.85-0.80

Whitish-Blueish

>45

<0.80

SOLVENTS
+++ CHLOROTHEN (fairly toxic ... only!)

++

ACETONE (satisfactory for heavy Hcb)

ETHER (volatile, for light soluble Hcb)

TETRACHLORID (poison very toxic!)

MUD
PRODUCTS
&
ADDITIVES

VENTILATED

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

AREA

LABORATORY: ANALYSIS & MEASUREMENTS


LABORATORY

SUMMARY

MEASUREMENTS:
- CALCIMETRY
- SHALE DENSITY
ANALYSIS:
- CHEMICAL TEST(Sulfates, Cement, Chlorides, Coal & Lignite)
- OIL POUR POINT Temperature
- THIN SECTIONS
STAINING:
- CALCITE COLORATION
- OTHERS: Carbonates and Feldspars

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CALCIMETRY Measurement
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100%

e
d

20

CALCIMETER

CARBONATE CONTENT

(mechanical or electronic)
CORROSIVE ATTACK USING HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl 50%)
ON WASHED & DRY CRUSHED / POWDERED ROCK (1 g),

either RAW and/or SELECTED samples


TIME (min)

BLEED OFF

THE APPARATUS RECORDS


THE CO 2 PRESSURE PRODUCED (BOURDON tube)

LEAK

10

COMPLETE REACTIONachieved after 1


30 +min ,
depending on LST-DOL content ( ...dolomimetry)
Report values after 1 min AND after stabilization
(NEVER CHANGE CALCIMETRY SCALE ON MASTERLOG)

a
1mn
0
PERCENTAGE

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

CHECK:
- On Chart: depth and curve readings
- Under microscope / binoccular: residue
(Qz, clay, other Minerals, Org. matter, ...)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SHALE DENSITY Measurement


MICROSOL METHOD
(Geoservices)

VARIABLE-DENSITY
COLUMN METHOD

WASHED & HUMID samples and at least 3 MEASUREMENTS perlevel

d1
displacement in AIR

d2
displacement in WATER

soapy
WATER

Apparent
SHALE DENSITY

d SH =

FAIR RESULTS IN OBM


(Oil Base Mud)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

Calibration Chart

d1
g / cc
d1 d 2

ACCURACY & RELIABILITY


NOT EFFICIENT

VAPORS HIGHLY TOXIC


(Bromoform 2.85sg,
Trichloroethane, 1.47sg ...)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL TESTS


SULPHATES

(GYPSUM, ANHYDRITE)

CEMENT

BaCl2

SST, tan-gy, vf-f,


w cmtd, p calc,
rare Glauco, ...

HCl (10%)
DECANT
(filter paper)

TURNING to REDDISH-PURPLE with


HEAT
(destroy CO3)

WHITE
PRECIPITATE

BaSO4

PHENOLPHTALEIN (pH 8.3)


CEMENT components are a BASE
(Sandstones are not)

COAL & LIGNITE

CHLORIDES
distilled
water

AgNO3
[N/10]

+
filter
white
precipitate

CHECK with
Mud Engineer
for
quantitative test

HNO 3 (10%)

brownish
LIGNITE
SHAKE
and
DECANT

CHECK your
fingers if not
convinced !

transparent
COAL

remember: Always add acid to water, not the opposite way round
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

THIN SECTIONS

AR
KA
NS
ON

sti
ck

HELP TO IDENTIFY ROCK TYPES (mainly eruptives, ...) on SELECTED SAMPLES

3
HOT PLATE

4
frosted
glass

300

(A)
ARKANSON MOLTEN
(MUST NOT BOILED)

600
RUD DOWN UNIFORMY
with ABRASIVE POWDERS
(300 => 600)

PLACE the SAMPLES


glass slide

Qz

MAINTAIN SAMPLES
with needles
to eliminate air bubbles
PLACE some QUARTZ grains
at slide corners

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

RUB DOWN SAMPLES


with thinner
Abrasive Powders
TO

(B)

HEAT NEW GLASS SLIDE (B)


WITH ARKANSON

REVERSE (B) OVER (A)


REMOVE (B)

RE-HEAT GLASS SLIDE (A)


WITH SAMPLES

APPROPRIATE
THICKNESS

8
Put a COVER SLIDE
or not (=> see stain tests)

rolling grey

rolling yellow

OK

too thick

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OIL POUR POINT TEMPERATURE


AIM

RAW OIL CHARACTERISTICS during SAMPLING


(API, viscosity, ...)

TEMPERATURE
2

40 C

METHODOLOGY

POUR
POINT
(C / F)

1 COOL DOWN the OIL sample

to the COMPLETE SOLIDstate

1
ambiant
Temp

2 REPORT the POUR POINT Temp

at the FIRST OCCURRENCE of


LIQUID phase
note: NEVER DO IT
from LIQUID to SOLID state

5 C

into
FRIDGE
SOLID
state

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

FIRST DROP
LIQUID

LIQUID
state

OIL
phase
behaviour

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

STAINING TEST: CALCITE COLORATION


HELP TO IDENTIFY CARBONATE ROCKS COMPONENTS on Cores & Cuttings

SAMPLES (Core chips, Drill cuttings)


REAGENT

1 gram ALIZARIN RED S


1 liter distilled water (998cc)
5 drops HCl [N] (2cc)

MUST BE CLEAN & DRY

CALCITE

PROCEDURE
APPLY 1-2 DROPS of SOLUTION
LEAVE TO DRY
OBSERVE under Microscope

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

DOLOMITE

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

OTHER (advanced) STAINING TESTS


CARBONATES
A

1 ml HCl
1 ml Alizarin red
1 ml saturated Potassium Ferricyanide
8 ml distilled water
Dip 1 min on polished sample,
Let stand until dry
RED

pure CALCITE

PURPLE

ferrugineous (Fe++) CALCITE

LIGHT BLUE ferrug. DOLOMITE Ca,Mg/Fe(CO3)2


DARK BLUE ANKERITE Ca,Fe(CO3)2

FELDSPARS
* Etch polished surface in close vessel of
HF ( hydrofluoric acid) vapor for 5 min

* Dip sample (quickly 2 times in & outinto


5% BaCl2 solution; then, rinse

Place sample for 1 min into saturated Sodium


Cobaltrinitrate solution (40g in 100 ml water)
YELLOW Potassium FELDSPAR (Alkali)

Cover etch with rhodizonate reagent; then, rinse

(reagent: 0.2g rhodizonic acid potassium salt in 30ml water)


RED

Dip in solution AgNO 3 at 60C for 3 sec


( rinse with water to eliminate excess)
Dip in solution K 2CrO4 at 10% for 30 sec
( rinse & leave to dry)

PRECIPITATE of SILVER CHROMATE ON CALCITE


(no stain on Dolomite)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Plagioclase FELDSPAR (Na, Ca)


Damned! HF ?

HYDROFLUORIC ACID
or HIGH FREQUENCY

ALWAYS WORK
UNDER HOOD
+ RUBBER GLOVES
+ GOGGLES
(dangerous acid fumes)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORES & CORING


SUMMARY
- GENERALITIES
. POLICY AGREEMENT
. WHY CORING?
. WHEN CORING?
. WHAT FOR?
- EQUIPMENT and TECHNICS
. CORE BARREL and CORE BIT
. AXIAL and LATERAL CORING
- CORING OPERATION
. MUDLOGGING ASSISTANCE
. CORE RECOVERY: general
- METHODOLOGY
. UNSLEEVED CORE
. SLEEVED CORE
. CORE ORIENTATION and LABELLING
. PRESERVED SAMPLE: S.C.A.L.
- LABORATORY
. PLUGS and SLABBED SECTIONS
. ORIENTATION: Dip & Deviated wells
- Finally: CORING: its good ...
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING: POLICY AGREEMENT


CONTRACTs
OWNER ...

CARE with CORE

CORE with CARE

... CONTRASTED
RESULTS

CORING IS EXPENSIVE and IT CAN BE A CONTINGENCY OPERATION

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WHY CORING ?

BRING TO SURFACE

A COLUMN
OF THE DRILLED FORMATION

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

WHEN to cut a CORE?


-

EXPLORATION
WELLS
CORING

DELINEATION &
DEVELOPMENT WELLS
CORING

WHEN THE FORMATION EXHIBITS SHOWS


CHARACTERISTICS of POTENTIAL RESERVOIR

FOR RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PURPOSES


OF KNOWN RESERVOIR and THEIR BOUNDARIES

WHEN UNKNOWN or UNEXPECTED


GEOLOGICAL CONTEXT

FOR PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS

FOR BASEMENT IDENTIFICATION (TD CORING) . . .

FOR GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ,. . .

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING: WHAT FOR? (AIMS)


RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
STATIC
parameters
DYNAMIC

GEOLOGICAL
ENVIRONMENT
Facies deposition
Sedimentary sequences
Fracturation network
Dip (apparent, structural)
Thin sections: microfossils,
mineralogy, petrography
...
SEDIMENTOLOGIST,
PALEONTOLOGIST,
...

Matrix: Rhoma, Phie


m, n& acoeff.
Water Saturation Sw
Shaliness distribution
=> barriers
Correlations
...

PLUGS (surface cond.):


- Phi, K (horiz. and vert.)
SCAL (downhole cond.):
- Irreducible Swirr
- Relative permeabilities
- Kro, Krw, => wettability
...

LOG ANALYST

RESERVOIR Eng.

YES,
ARE THESE ENOUGH PURPOSES
and/or REASONS TO TAKE GREAT CARE
DURING & AFTER CORING? in view of
... the GEOLOGICAL MODEL

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

. . . almost!

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING EQUIPMENT
CORE BARREL

CORE BITS

(DBS)

(DBS)

IMPREGNATED
(DIAMOND type)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

CUTTERS
(PDC type)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING TECHNIQUES
AXIAL CORING

LATERAL CORING

CORE BARREL

SIDEWALL

ADVANTAGES

CONTINUOUSRECORD
Possible ORIENTATED (Dip, Azimuth)
PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES
minimally disturbed
Various INNER TUBES:
. Aluminium, Fiberglass
. Rubber sleeve, Sponge, ...

LIMITATIONS

SLOW and EXPENSIVE


Possible POOR RECOVERY along:
. FRACTURED zones
. UNCONSOLIDATED formations

WIRELINE ACQUISITION
FAST & CHEAP
RUN at ANYTIME (preferably at TD)
SELECTED SAMPLES (after logging)
PERCUSSION or MECHANICAL bullets
Mineralogy studies, ...
DISCONTINUOUS RECORD
MODERATE RECOVERY
(flushed zone)
NO Phi-K ANALYSES

DRILLING Departments prefer not to core; but, they want: high ROP, long footage,
not too many trips, no twist-off, not to be stuck, ...(BHI Coring Seminar)

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING OPERATION & MUDLOGGING ASSISTANCE


... UNDER WELLSITE GEOLOGISTRESPONSIBILITY
1 - BEFORE Coring
. CHECK (or prepare) CORE TRAYS on rig floor and/or CORE BOXES:

nb

=> Quantity (length cored + 10%), Order (numbering & labelling)


. DATABASE: INCREASE SAMPLING RATE => every 0.5m, instead of 1m
. CHECK SPP & FR:
- before dropping the ball: mud circulates through the innertube
- after dropping the ball: mud circulates in annulus, between outer barrel-inner tube

2 - WHILE Coring
. ADJUST coring param(reduced compared to drillingphase) according to Core-man,
. RECORD & MONITOR, as usual, all parameters (including lithological control),
?
. DETECT eventual troubleshootings: core jammed/broken, connections, worn bit, ...
... in order to stop coring, if necessary.

3 - STOP Coring
. BREAK the core by pulling up (the core catcherretains the core in the inner tube)
when the core barrel isfull or if no more penetration is observed,
. PULLING OUT the core assembly WITHOUT CIRCULATING at TD

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING OPERATION: RECOVERY


UNSLEEVED CORE
CONVENTIONAL PRACTICE
CORE-BARREL

LAY DOWN
on
DRILL-FLOOR

Hammer,
Plastic bags

=> inner tubes:


RUBBER SLEEVE:
FIBER GLASS:
ALUMINIUM:
ORIENTED CORING
Sponge:

Bottom

T1

B1

Top

Electric saw + caps & clips


to seal each section

Bottom

Bn

BETTER OBSERVATIONS ON RIGSITE

B1

Tn

... ALWAYS UNDER WELLSITE GEOLOGISTRESPONSIBILITY


. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

=> main use:


soft / unconsol. Fm
more and more used
high Temp Fm
dip, fractur., direct.K, ...
Fluid recovery (?)

LAY DOWN
on
PIPE-RACK / WALKWAY
CATCHING
CORE BOXES

Top Tn

SLEEVED CORE

BETTER PRESERVATION
for TRANSPORTATION

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

UNSLEEVED CORE
CORE RECOVERY

METHODOLOGY
CORE TRANSPORTATION

CONVENTIONAL PRACTICE
CORE-BARREL

1 - CATCHING CORE BOXES to ML Unit


2 - Rough SHOWS Observation:
=> Oil staining & bleeding + UV light: Dir.Fluo.
CORE MARKING

LAY DOWN
on
DRILL-FLOOR

Hammer,
Plastic bags

Bottom

T1

B1

CATCHING
CORE BOXES

Top Tn

Bn

3 - Soft washing with RAGS, BRUSH, Humid Sponge


4 - Pieces MATCHING & ORIENTING from Top to Btm
into DEFINITIVE CORE BOXES
5 - DRAW Orientation linesfrom TOP to BOTTOM
6 - Measuring core& mark depths
7 - % recovery= (Recov.Length / Interv.cored) x 100
CORE EXAMINATION

8 - Detailled SHOWS
9 - Litho. description, including sedimentary features, ...
10-Labo analyses: calcim., Cut fluo, thin sections, ...
CORE PACKAGING

BETTER OBSERVATIONS ON RIGSITE

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

11-Subsidiary, Well Name, Core Nb, Box nb, T B


=> note: Never write depths outside boxes

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

SLEEVED CORE
CORE RECOVERY
=> inner tubes:
RUBBER SLEEVE:
FIBER GLASS:
ALUMINIUM:
ORIENTED
Sponge:

=> main use:


soft / unconsol. Fm
more and more used
high Temp Fm
dip, fractu., direct.K, ...
Fluid recovery (?)

CORE TRANSPORTATION

1 - CLEAR a.s.a.p. pipe-rack area, and move ...


2 - DEFINITIVE CORE BOXES to ML Unit
3 - COLLECT core chips every meter and
place chips inside plastic bags for examination
CORE MARKING

CORE-BARREL

LAY DOWN
on
PIPE-RACK / WALKWAY
Top
T1

Electric saw + caps & clips


to seal each section

Bottom

Bn

BETTER PRESERVATION for TRANSPORTATION

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

METHODOLOGY

4 - DRAW / underlined Orientation lines T => B


5 - NOTCH up with saw each segment / inner tube
=> for orientation inside inner tubes
6 - Clean with rags & mark depths on tubes
7 - % recovery= (Recov.Length / Interv.cored) x 100
CORE PACKAGING

8 - SEAL with caps and clip each segments ends


9 - Subsidiary, Core Nb, Well Name, Box nb
note: Never write depths outside boxes
CHIPS EXAMINATION

10 - A/A ... and fill in Core Description Sheet

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING: ORIENTING & LABELLING


Pieces
matching

4
3-4

Good fit

Orientation
lines
LEFT: BLUE
or BLACK

RIGHT:
RED

3
2-3

Poor fit
(one line
each side
of break)

2
1-2

No fit
(two lines
each side
of break)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

ououH
ououH

o
we x 5
ll G /7
HO
ST
#1

PRESERVED SAMPLE for SCAL => PHANTOM


OU CH !

25 cm

td
-

ALUMINIUM FOIL

1
AL#
SC

199 SCA
L
8.5
TO CO
0-1 #1
TA RE
998
L O #1
.25
WL
m
Lm -

SCAL#1

MiaouH

WAX or PARAFFIN
HOT Bath

Woou!
Btm

1
SCAL# .25m
-1998

1998.50 OST#1
H
well: G

Btm

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Btm

UU
OO

HO

along
GOOD
and
POOR
facies

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

...!

CORING & LABORATORY


PLUGS

V
PLUG

CORE

PLUG

SLABBED SECTIONS

H ORIZONTAL

PREFERABLY
CUT AT THE
SAME DEPTH

3 SCRATCHES FOR
ORIENTED CORING

E
R
T
I
C
A
L

CHIPS USED
FOR
THIN SECTIONS

SMALL CORES CUT


INSIDE MAIN CORE

STRUCTURAL DIP and/or HOLE DEVIATION


NOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

LONGITUDINAL
CROSS SECTIONS
(for partners, ref., ...)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING ORIENTATION: DIP & DEVIATED WELL


DEVIATION AZIMUTH

= 90 ( + )

STRUCTURAL DIP

DEVIATION
ANGLE

TMD

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

HORIZONTAL
SECTION

TVD

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING
ITS GOOD
IN ANYCASE,
MY DEAR
COLLEAGUE !

. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Reporting DGR& Coding DDR


REPORTING

SUMMARY

- GEOLOGY:
. REPORTING ... through AGES!
. CURRENT REPORTING: when? & what to report?
. DGR : Daily Geological Report => CEF/SUB form
- GWR: Geological Well Report
- DRILLING:
. OPERATIONS CODING
. OPERATIONS TIMING: planned & unscheduled
. DDR:Daily Drilling Report => FPL/OPS form (DAISY)

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

GEOLOGICAL REPORTING through AGES


AIM
DAILY INFORM the SUBSURFACE OPERATIONS GEOLOGIST in BASE

HOW ?
Quantity of
data
transmitted

INFO-RIG

DOCUMENTS

e-mail
RADIO
YESTERDAY
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

TELEX

PHONE

FAX
TODAY

Data
transfer
equipment

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CURRENT GEOLOGICAL REPORTING


INFO-RIG

WHEN ?

WHAT ?

. . . N atters
Around
Field . . .

ON A BASIS ROUTINE
=> TWICE A DAY
... on pre-scheduled time
ON UNUSUAL OPERATION
=> AT ANY TIME
TD, Logging, Coring point, ...
CURRENT SITUATION
DEPTH (TMD/TVD)
OPERATION IN PROGRESS
with details ... if requested
(ROP, litho, intervals shows, ...)
Possible Contractors failures, ...
Oper. planned ... w/ expect. timing
Miscellaneous:
- job: equipm. transp. <=> base
- perso: booking ...if any return ticket

DOCUMENTS
afternoon reporting
RUSH PRINTS
=> provisional data
MASTERLOG ... if requested
Deviation data ( detailled outprint )
Main LOG
Raw Pressure &Sampling data
Rush Core description
...
morning reporting
UPDATED FILES & PRINTS
=> previous day: 00:00 => 24:00
DAILY GEOLOGICAL REPORT
MASTERLOG
LOGGING files (ie):
- Logg. Supervision Report
- Press./ Samples / Temp, ...
Core sheets
...
TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DAILY GEOLOGICAL REPORT


TOTAL

"Subsidiary"

=> strictly one A4 sized page


=> Expansible item boxes according to

LICENCE:
Partners:

Rig Name

"XXXxx"

Contractors

FIELD:

Platform:

Drilling:
Coring:

Mud:
MWD:

Well Name
(abbrev.)
Slot:
Well Type:

Mud Logging:
LWD:

Off./Onshore
Well status:
Logging:
Testing:

Other

OPERATION SUMMARY
SURVEY DATA
TMDBRT(m/ft)

Angle

operations in progress (ie LOGGING)


1

DAILY GEOLOGICAL REPORT


Report: Nb Date: dd/mm/yyyy

COUNTRY:
Operator:

Azimuth

Survey Type

m/ft

UNIT
TVDBRT(m/ft)

delta X(m/ft)

delta Y(m/ft)

V section(m/ft)

TMDBRT
907.4
900
800

RTE MSL
GL/WD
PREVIOUS DEPTH

HEADER:
- well data: Name, location, status, type, contractors
- daily data: Report nb & Date ... as per DDR
Focus on main data ... and dog-leg

1200

MIDNIGHT DEPTH

400
310
890

DAILY PROGRESS

Last Casing Shoe : 13 3/8"


OPEN HOLE : 12 1/4"

MUD type:

WBM

TVDMSL
907.4
900
107.4

sg (g/cc, ppg)

-292.6
400
597
890
1.04

Operation SUMMARY

4
LAST FORMATION TOPS / LAST MARKERS

LAST FORMATION TOPS/LAST MARKERS


TMD BRT(m/ft)

PROGNOSED
Delta X (m/ft)

TVD MSL(m/ft)

ACTUAL
Delta X (m/ft)

Delta TVD MSL

Delta Y(m/ft)

(m/ft)

TMD BRT(m/ft)

TVD MSL(m/ft)

Delta Y(m/ft)

Driller/Logger
Driller/Logger

depth & Mud data ... as DDR


3 Midnight
(casing diam & size, ... precise units used)

Driller/Logger

LITHOLOGY
From (TMD)

GAS SHOWS

LITHOLOGY and DESCRIPTION

Fluorescence
Direct

ROCK name, colour, hardness,


texture, matrix & cement, fossils &
accessories, porosity, Oil shows

Gas Analyser Type:

From (TMD)

To (TMD)

(m/ft)

(m/ft)

6 Fluorescencesummary, Remarks (ROP, calcim.)


7 Interval depths for each gas types (Nature)

Main Litho

(m/ft)

4 DONT re-COPY the Drilling report (DDR)


5 Intervals depth - See lithological description order

To (TMD)

(m/ft)

NATURE

TG
(ppm / %)

Formation
Cut

BKG:background gas, FG:formation gas, TpG:trip gas, SWG: swabbed gas, PCG: pipe connexion gas, ..

C1
(ppm / %)

C2
(ppm / %)

C3
(ppm / %)

iC4
(ppm / %)

nC4
(ppm / %)

iC5
(ppm / %)

nC5
(ppm / %)

7
OTHER (LOGGING, CORING, SWC, RFT, DST, Remarks)

Unusual operations results(summerized)

8 and mail box(equipm. failure, Subsidiary requirem.,

Geologists Contractors crewchange, ...)

9 Morning situation & planned operations for the day


10 Wellsite Geologist(s) name
. . . Natters
Around
Field . . .

Status @ 06.00hr:
Operations planned:

GEOLOGIST :

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

10

Remarks

Geological Well Report


MUDLOG

TEXT.doc

PORE PRESSURE
PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

ASCII fi

SAMPLING SEQUENCE

les

UOY

DATA TRANSFER (ASCII)

TOOLBOX - module 7.0


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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOG

Basic wellsite document

MANUAL bi-hecto

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AUTOMATIC GWR

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CORING: Description sheet

GWR
CORE SHEET

computer aided design


deliberately
not developed

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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Operations CODING and TIMING (1)


AIM

FOR REFERENCING and FILING EACH INTERVENTION & OPERATION


DURING WELL DURATION INTO THE DAILY DRILLING REPORT

DRILLING OPERATION
MOVING & RIG UP

A
CASING & CEMENT

SIDE-TRACK

PLUG & ABANDON

B
P

C
S

PRODUCTION:
WORK-OVER & COMPLETION

RESERVOIR EVALUATION

GEOLOGY EVALUATION
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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Operations CODING and TIMING

(2)

00h00 - 24h00

TIMING

DDR => DECIMAL TIME 2.50


(GWR => SEXAGESIMAL

PLANNED
OPERATIONS
PRODUCTIVE TIME
(PT)

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P
G

02:30)

UNSCHEDULED
EVENTS
(DOWNTIME)
NON-PRODUCTIVE TIME
(NPT)

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

DAILY DRILLING REPORT


Well NAME

RIG NAME

TOTAL subsidiary
drilling PARAMETERS average

DEVIATION SURVEYS

OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION

MUD data

REMARKS

Geological remarks:
- TOP FORMATIONS
- Main GAS peaks
- ...

Mud PRODUCTS

SUMMARY of OPERATIONS

WELL STATUS at:

OPERATIONS PLANNED
COMPANYS REPRESENTATIVE

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ANNEXES
SUMMARY
Easy RESEARCH
Mudlogging KEYWORDS index
Usual CONVERSIONS and EQUIVALENTS
UNIT CONVERTER (general)
Basic Wellsite GLOSSARY(English-Franais-Espaol)
Standard LITHOLOGICAL ABBREVIATIONS: A => K
Standard LITHOLOGICAL ABBREVIATIONS: L => Z
CUTTING DESCRIPTION worksheet (TOTAL & Geoservices forms)
Simplified GEOLOGICAL SRTATIGRAPHIC SCALE
International SPELLING CODE

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EASY RESEARCH Press to

OPEN

CUTTING
DESCRIPTION
SHEET

BASIC
GLOSSARY
(GB - F - E)

UNIT
CONVERTER

OIL FIELD
ABBREVIATIONS
More ?

MUDLOGGING
AUDIT

KEYWORD
GENERAL INDEX

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GEOLOGICAL
WELL REPORT

TECHNICAL
DATA SHEETS

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Mudlogging KEYWORDS index research

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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CONVERSIONS & EQUIVALENTS


LENGTH
1 m = 3.28 ft
1 ft = 30.48 cm
1 in = 2.54 cm
TEMPERATURE
C = (F-32)*5/9
F = (C*9/5)-32
PRESSURE
1 kg/cm2 = 14.22 psi
1 bar
= 14.50 psi
1 atm
= 14.70 psi
1 bar
= 1.02 kg/cm 2
1 g/cc = 2.31 psi
1 psi
= 0.433 g/cc
1 psia = 1 psig - 14.7

GRADIENT
Pressure:
1 psi/100 ft = 2.262 bar/10m
1 bar/10m = 44.21 psi /100 ft
Temperature:
1C/100m = 0.549F/100 ft
1F/100 ft = 1.82 C/100 m
VOLUME
1 bbl = 159 lit
= 42 gal
= 5.61 cuft
1 gal = 3.786 lit
1 m3 = 35.31 cuft
= 6.29 bbl
1 cuft = 7.48 gal
= 28.32 lit

Gallon expressed in US gal (Imperial gal = 1.2 US gal)

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MASS
1 lb = 0.454 kg
1 kg= 2.2 lb
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
1 g/cc = 0.12 ppg
1 ppg
= 8.345 g/cc
AREA
1 acre
= 4047 m 2
320 acres = 1.295 km 2
1 ha = 10000 m2= 0.1 km 2
1 ha = 2.47 acres
API vs DENSITY(g/cc)
API@60F =

ppg => pound (lb) per gallon

1415
.
1315
.
sg(g / cc) @60F

psi => pound per square inch

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

UNIT CONVERTER
38 CATEGORIES INCLUDING MORE THAN 170 UNITS
PERMEABILITY

ANGLE
AREA
CONCENTRATION (mass/mass)

POWER
PRESSURE

CONCENTRATION (vol/vol)

PRESSURE GRADIENT

DIAMETER

RATE (mass/time)

ELECTRIC POWER

RATE (vol/time)

ENGINE SPEED

SPECIFIC HEAT

FLUID LOSS Coefficient


FORCE

SPURT LOSS Coefficient


TEMPERATURE

FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

THERMAL GRADIENT

INVERSE PRESSURE

TIME

INVERSE TEMPERATURE
INVERSE TIME
K PRIME
LENGTH

CLICK HERE
to open
UNIT Converter

TIME RELATIVE
VELOCITY
VOLUME
VOLUME GRADIENT

MASS

VOLUME per COUPLING

MASS GRADIENT

VOLUME RATIO

PERCENT

YIELD (vol/mass)

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BASIC WELLSITE GLOSSARY

CLICK HERE
to open
GLOSSARY

3 SHEETS => 3sorting keys

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STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS (non exhautive )


A
about
above
abundant
altered
alternating
amorphous
and
angular
approximate
arenaceous
argillaceous
as above
associated
at
average

C
abt
abv
abd
alt
altg
amor
&
ang
apprx
aren
arg
a.a., a/a
assoc
@
av

B
become/ing
bed
bioclastic
black
blocky
blue
bottom
break
bright
brittle
brown

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bcm
bd
biocl
bk
blky
bl
btm
brk
brt
brit
brn

calcareous
carbonaceous
caving
cement
chocolate
circulate/ion
clastic
clean
clear
coarse
common
compact
conchoidal
conglomerate
consolidated
cream
cross-bebbed
cross-lamin .
cuttings

dark
debris
detrital
decrease/ing
disseminated
dominant/ ly
dirty

calc
carb
cvg
cmt
choc
circ
clas
cln
clr
crs
com
cpct
conch
cgl
consol
crm
X-bd
X-lam
ctgs

earthy
elongate
equivalent
excellent
extremely

ea
elong
equiv
ex
extr

fair
ferruginous
fibrous
fine
fissile
flake:y
fluorescence
foraminifer
fossil
fracture:d
fragment
friable

fr
ferr
fibr
f
fis
flk
fluor
foram
foss
frac
frag
fri

dk
deb
detr
decr
dissem
dom
dty

generally
glass/y
glauconite/ic
good
grading
grey
green

gen
glas
glauc
gd
grad
gy
gn

1/2

hard
hd
heavy
hvy
high/ly
hi
homogenenous hom
horizontal
hor
hour/s
hr
hydrocarbon hc

I
inclusion
increase/ing
indurated
in part
interbedded
intercalated
intergranylar
interval
intrisive
iron
irregular/ly

incl
incr
ind
i/p
intbd
intercal
intgran
intvl
intr
Fe
irr

J
joint

kaolin / itic

after SAMPLE EXAMINATION MANUAL - AAPG, 1981

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

jn
kao

STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS (non exhautive )


L
lamina/ tion/ted
large
layer
light
limy
lithic
lithology
little
loose

O
lam
lge
lyr
lt
lmy
lit
litho
ltl
lse

M
marl/ly
massive
material
matrix
milky
mineral
moderate
most/ly
mud

mrl
mass
mat
mtrx
mky
min
mod
mst
md

N
no sample
NS
nodule/ar
nod
no show
n/s
no visible poro nvp
numerous
num

occasional/ly
olive
off-white
opaque
orange
organic

particle
patch/y
pebble
pellet
permeability
petroleum
pink
plastic
pour point
porosity
predominant/ly
primary
probable/bly
pseudopurple
pyroclastic

R
rare
recovery/red
red
remains
rock
round/ed

r
rec
rd
rem
rk
rnd

par
pch
pbl
pel
k, perm
pet
pk
plas
pp
por
pred
prim
prob
ps
purp
pyrcl

saccharoid/al
same as above
sample
scarse
scattered
secondary
sediment/ary
show
silica/iceous
silt/y
size
slight/ly
small
soft
sorted
stain
sticky
structure
subsucrosic

sacc
aa
spl
scs
scat
sec
sed
shw
sil
slt/y
sz
sli/ly
sml
sft
srt
stn
stky
str
sb
suc

Q
quartz
quartzite/ic

occ
olv
offwh
op
orng
org

qtz
qtzt

tan
texture
thick
thin
top
trace
translucent
transparent

tn
tex
thk
thn
tp
tr
trnsl
trnsp

unconsolidated uncons

very
visible
vitreous
vug/gy

v
vis
vit
vug

waxy
weathered
weak
well
white
with
without
wood

wxy
wthd
wk
wl
wh
w/
w/o
wd

yellow

yel

after SAMPLE EXAMINATION MANUAL - AAPG, 1981


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2/2

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

CUTTING DESCRIPTION Worksheet

A4 size

Booklet
from ML
Contractor

R
GW

Booklet out of print

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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

STRATIGRAPHIC SCALE

CENOZOIC
NEOGENE

PLIOCENE
MIOCENE
PALEOGENE

25

LIAS

PLEISTOCENE

CRETACEOUS

HOLOCENE

JURASSIC

my

PALEOCENE 65

. . . Natters
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TRIAS

OLIGOCENE
EOCENE

DOGGER MALM EOCRET. NEOCRET.

MESOZOIC

ANTHROPOZOIC

DANIAN
SENONIAN
TURONIAN
CENOMANIAN
ALBIAN
APTIAN
BARREMIAN
HAUTERIVIAN
VALANGINIAN
PORTLANDIAN
KIMMERIDGIAN
OXFORDIAN
CALLOVIAN
BATHONIAN
BAJOCIAN
AALENIAN
TOARCIAN
PLIENSBACHIAN
SINEMURIAN
HETTANGIAN
RHETIAN
KEUPER
MUSCHELKALK
BUNTSANDSTEIN

PALEOZOIC

my
70

my
PERMIAN

250

CARBONIFEROUS

290

DEVONIAN

360

SILURIAN

400

130

ORDOVICIAN

440

150

CAMBRIAN

600

95

180
PROTEROZOIC
200

ALGONKIAN

600

ARCHEAN
250

...

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

4500

International SPELLING CODE


A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

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ALPHA
BRAVO
CHARLIE
DELTA
ECHO
FOX-TROTT
GOLF
HOTEL
INDIA
JULIETT
KILO
LIMA
MIKE

N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

NOVEMBER
OSCAR
PAPA
QUEBEC
ROMEO
SIERRA
TANGO
UNIFORM
VICTOR
WISKY
X-RAY
YANKEE
ZOULOU

TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

MUDLOGGING CONCLUSION

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TEP/DEG/CEF/SUB

Related Interests