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Jigs and Fixtures:

Some machining operation are so simple which are done quite easily, such as
turning, the job is held in position in the chuck and turning operation is done
easily. No other device is required to hold the job or to guide the tool on the
machine in such an operation. But some operations are such type in which the
tool is required to be guided by means of another device and also some jobs are
of such forms which are required to be held in position on the machine by
means of another device.
The device which guides the tool is called jig and the device which holds the
job in position is called fixture.
Jigs and fixtures are special purpose tool which are used to facilitate production
(machining, asslembling and inspection operations), when work piece is based
on the concept of interchangeability according to which every part will be
produced within an established tolerance. Jigs and fixtures provide on means of
manufacturing interchangeable parts since they establish a relation with
predetermined to tolerance between the work and cutting tool. They eliminate
the necessity of a special set up for each individual park. So A jig is may be defined as a device which hold and position the work; locate or guides the outing
tool relative to the work piece and usually not fixed to the m/c table. It is
usually lightly in construction.
A fixture is a work holding device and position the work; but doesnt guide
locate or position the cutting tool the setting of the tool is done by machine
adjustment and a setting blocker using slip gauges. A fixture is hold or clamp-ed
to the machine table. It is usually heavy in construction. Jigs are used on drilling
, reaming , tapping and couter boring operations , while fixtures are used in
connection with turning , milling , grinding , shaping , planning and boring
The use of jig and fixture makes possible more rapid and more accurate
manufacturing at a reduction of cost.

Uses of Jigs and Fixtures:

1. Jigs and fixtures are used to reduce the cost of production as there use

elimination being out work and setting up of tools.

2. To increase the production.

3. To assure the high accuracy of the parts.

4. To provide for interchangeability.
5. To enables heavy and complex shaped parts to be machined by holding

rigidly to a machine.
6. To control quality control expenses.
7. Less skilled labor.
8. Saving labor.
9. There use partially automates the machine tool.
10. Improve the safety at work, thereby lowering the rate of accidents.

The most-common jigs are drill and boring jigs. These tools are fundamentally
the same. The difference lies in the size, type, and placement of the drill
bushings. Boring jigs usually have larger bushings. These bushings may also
have internal oil grooves to keep the boring bar lubricated. Often, boring jigs
use more than one bushing to support the boring bar throughout the machining

In the shop, drill jigs are the most-widely used form of jig. Drill jigs are used for
drilling, tapping, reaming, chamfering, counter boring, countersinking, and
similar operations. Occasionally, drill jigs are used to perform assembly work

also. In these situations, the bushings guide pins, dowels, or other assembly

Jigs are further identified by their basic construction. The two common forms of
jigs are open and closed. Open jigs carry out operations on only one, or
sometimes two, sides of a work piece. Closed jigs, on the other hand, operate on
two or more sides. The most-common open jigs are template jigs, plate jigs,
table jigs, sandwich jigs, and angle plate jigs. Typical examples of closed jigs
include box jigs, channel jigs, and leaf jigs. Other forms of jigs rely more on the
application of the tool than on their construction for their identity. These include
indexing jigs, trunnion jigs, and multi-station jigs.

Specialized industry applications have led to the development of specialized

drill jigs. For example, the need to drill precisely located rivet holes in aircraft
fuselages and wings led to the design of large jigs, with bushings and liners
installed, contoured to the surface of the aircraft. A portable air-feed drill with a
bushing attached to its nose is inserted through the liner in the jig and drilling is
accomplished in each location.

Fixtures have a much-wider scope of application than jigs. These workholders
are designed for applications where the cutting tools cannot be guided as easily
as a drill. With fixtures, an edge finder, center finder, or gage blocks position the
cutter. Examples of the more-common fixtures include milling fixtures, lathe
fixtures, sawing fixtures, and grinding fixtures. Moreover, a fixture can be used
in almost any operation that requires a precise relationship in the position of a
tool to a workpiece.

Fixtures are most often identified by the machine tool where they are used.
Examples include mill fixtures or lathe fixtures. But the function of the fixture
can also identify a fixture type. So can the basic construction of the tool. Thus,
although a tool can be called simply a mill fixture, it could also be further
defined as a straddle-milling, plate-type mill fixture. Moreover, a lathe fixture
could also be defined as a radius-turning, angle-plate lathe fixture. The tool
designer usually decides the specific identification of these tools.

Elements of Jigs and Fixtures.

Various elements of jigs and fixtures and their details are follows.
1: Body

2: Locating devices

3: Clamping devices
4: Tool guide(jigs bushing)

1: Body:
The jig body is generally made of cost iron by casting process or fabricated by
welding together various slabs and bars of mild steel. It may be heat treated to
relief the stresses. Body is the most prominent feature of the jig. Its main
purpose is to support and house the job.
The various jig body are follows:

(A):Plane Type Jig:

Plane type jig is the simplest type, it is used when plane holes are to be drilled.
It has either drill bushes for guiding the tools or the holes without bushes.

(B): Channel Type Jig:

Channel type is made up from standard steel channel section.

(C): Box type Jig:

Box type jig is used where a component requires drilling in more than one plane
and the jig is to be provided with on equilant number of drill bush plates. One
side of the box is fitted with a lid which can be opened for inserting the
component and for unloading it. It should be made as light as possible.

(D): The Built Up Jig:

The built up jig used dowels and screws for fabricating member welded type.
Standard steel sections are used in it for the limited numbers of details, which
are secured by means of screws and dowels, the locating pins and the blocks are
positioned so that the greatest dimensional variation of the work piece may be

(E): Leaf Type Jig:

Leaf type jig is simple made from a block of steel fitted with two adjustable
locating screws and a spring loaded plunger. It is used in case of measured large
components where it may be both unnecessary and construct a jig to hold the
complete component , where madding is purely confined to a local section of
the work piece.

2:Locating Devices
The pins of various design and made of hardened steel are the most common
locating devices used to locate a work piece in a jig or fixture. The shank of the
pin is press fitted or driven into the body of jig or fixture. The locating diameter
of the pin is made larger than the shank to prevent it from being forced into the
jig or fixture body due to the weight of the work piece or cutting forces.
Depending upon the mutual relation between the work piece and the pin.
The pin may be classify as follows:

(A): Locating Pins:

When reamed or finally finished holes are available in work piece, these can be
used for locating purpose of the manner as shown , these are two types of
locating pins:

Conical locating pins

Cylindrical locating pins

(B): Support Locating Pins:

With these pins (also known as rest pins) buttons or pads the work piece with
flat surfaces supported at convenient. In the fixed support pins the locating face
is either ground flat or curved. Support pins with flat head are usually employed
and provided location and support to machine surface, because more contact
area is available during location. It would insure accurate and stable location.
The spherical head or round head rest buttons are used for supporting rough
surfaces (un machined and cast surfaces) because they provide a point support
which may be stable under these circumstances. Adjustable type support pins
are used for work piece whose dimension can vary. For example sand casting,
forging or unmachined faces.

(C): Jack Pins:

Jack pins or spring pins are also used to locate the work piece whose dimension
are subjected to variation. The pin is allow to come up under spring pressure or
conversely is pressed down by the work piece. When the location of the work
piece is secured the pin is locked in this position by means of locking screw.

Elements of jigs and fixtures:

3: Clamping devices:
If the work piece can not be restrained by the locating devices or elements, it
become necessary to clamp the work piece in jig or fixture body. The most
common example of clamping devices is bench vice. The purpose of the
clamping is to exert a pressure to press a work piece against the locating
surfaces and hold it there in a position to the cutting forces. In bench vice the

movable jaw of the vice exert force on the work piece , their by holding it in
correct position of location in the fixed jaw of the vice.
The commonly used clamping devices are follows:
(A): Clamping Screws:
Clamping screws are used for light clamping. Clamping screws are shown in

(B): Hook Bolt Clamp:

This is very simple clamping device and is only suitable for light work and
where usual tip of the clamp is inconvenient. The typical hook bolt clamp is

(C): Bridge Clamp:

It is very simple and reliable clamping device. The clamping force is applied by
spring loaded nut.

(D): Heel Clamp:

These consists of a rusted plate, center stud and heel. This trap should be
strengthen at the point where the hole for the stud is cut out, by increasing the
thickness around the hole. The design differ from simple bridge clamp in that a
heel is provided at the outer end of the clamp to guide its sliding motion for
loading and unloading the work piece.

(E): Swinging Strap(Latch Clamp):

This is a special type of clamp which provides a means of intry for loading and
unloading the work piece. For this the strap(latch or lid) can be swing out from
the work piece. The typical swing strap or latch clamp is shown in figure.

(F): C-Clamp:
To unload the work piece, the locking nut is unscrewed by giving it about one
turn and this releases the c- clamp. When the clamp is removed or swing away
the work piece can freely pass over the nut. To reverse procedure is adopted for
loading the work piece.

>: Element of jigs and fixtures:

4: Tool Guide or Jig Bushing:

Sometimes the stiffness of the cutting tool may be in sufficient to perform
certain machining operations. Then to locate the tool relative to the work, use is
made of guiding parts such as jigs bushing and templates. These must be
precise, were resistance and changeable.
Jig bushes are used in drilling and boring, a bush fits into the hole of the jig,
through which the drill passes. The diameter of the bush depends on the
diameter of the drill. Different type of bushes are spot welded or screwed with
the jig. Headless type bushes are press fit into the hole of the job. Bushes are
general made of a good grade of tool steel to insure hardening at a fairly no
temperature and to lesson the danger of fire cracking. Sometime the bushes for
guiding tools may be of cast iron. Hardened steel bushes are always preferable
for guiding drills, reamers and taps etc.
American standard bushes are classified in three categories.
1: press- fit wearing bushes
2: renewable wearing bushes
3: linear wearing bushes

Types of bushes (tool guide/jig bushes):

1: Press fit wearing bushes:
These bushes are used when little importance in put on accuracy or finish and
tool used is a twist drill. These bushing are installed directly in the jig body and
are used mainly for short protection. There are two design of press fit bushing:

A> Plain or headless bush

B> Headed or flanged bush

2: Renewable bushes:
When the guide bushes requires periodic replacement (due to wear of the inside
diameter of the bush). Its replacement is simply by using a renewable bush.
These are of the flanged types and sliding fit into the linear bush, which is
installed press fitted into the jig plate. The linear bush provides hardened wear
resistance, mating surface to the renewable bush. The renewable bushes must be
prevented from rotating or lifting with the drill. One common method is to use a
retaining screw.

3: Linear bushes:
These bushes are also known as master bushing, are permanently fixed to the jig
body. These acts as guides for renewable type bushing. These bushes are be
with or without head.

Types Of Drilling Jigs:

Drilling jigs may be classified as follows:
1. Template jig
2. plate type jig
3. Open type jig
4. Channel jig
5. Leaf Jig
6. Box type jig

1: Template Jig:
This is the simplest type of jig; It is simply a plate made to the shape and size of
the work piece; with the require number of holes made it. It is placed on the
work piece and the hole will be made by the drill; which will be guided through
the holes in the template plate should be hardened to avoid its frequent
replacement This type of jig is suitable if only a few part are to be made.

2: Plate Type Jig:

This is an improvement of the template type of jig. In place of simple holes,
drill bushes are provided in the plate to guide the drill. The work piece can be
clamped to the plate and holes can be drilled. The plate jig are employed to drill
holes in large parts, maintaining accurate spacing with each other.

3:Open Type Jig:

In this jig the top of the jig is open; the work piece is placed on the top.

4 Channel jig;
The channel jig is a simple type of jig having channel like cross section. The
component is fitted within the channel is located and clamped by locating the
knob. The tool is guided through the drill bush.

5: Leaf Jig:
It is also a sort of open type jig , in which the top plate is arrange to swing about
a fulcrum point , so that it is completely clears the jig for easy loading and
unloading of the work piece. The drill bushes are fitted into the plates , which is
also known as leaf , latch or lid.

6: Box Type Jig:

When the holes are to drill more than one plane of the work piece , the jig has to
be provided with equalant number of bush plates. For positioning jig on the
machine table feet have to be provided opposite each drilling bush plate. One
side of the jig will be provided with a swinging leaf for loading and unloading
the work piece, such a jig would take the form of a box. Such a jig should be as
light as possible. Since it will have lifted again and again. Typical figure of box
type jig is shown:

Types Of Fixtures:
Milling Fixtures:
A Milling fixture is a work holding device which is firmly clamped to the table
of the milling machine. It holds the work piece in correct position as the table
movement carries it past the cutter or cutters.

Essentials of Milling Fixtures:

1: Base:
A heavy base is the most important element of a milling fixture. It is a plate
with a flat and smooth under face. The complete fixture is built up from this
plate. Keys are provided on the under face of the plate which are used for easy
and accurate aligning of the fixture on the milling machine table. By inserting
them into one the T slot in the table. These keys are usually set in keyways on
the under face of the plate and are held in place by a socket head cap screw for
end key. The fixture is fastened to the machine table with the help of two T bolts
engaging in T slots of the work table.

2: Setting Blocks:
After the fixture has been securely clamped to the machine table , the work
piece which is correctly located in the fixture , has to be set in correct
relationship to the cutters. This is achieved by the use of setting blocks and
feeler gauges. The setting blocks is fixed to the fixture. Feeler gauges are placed
between the cutter and refrence planes on the setting block so that the correct
depth of the cut and correct lateral setting is obtained. The block is made of
hardened steel and with the refrence planes(feeler surfaces) grooved. In it
correct setting , the cutter should clear the feeler surfaces by at least 0.08cm to
avoid any damage to the block when the machine table is moved back to unload
the fixture. The thickness of the feeler gauge to be used should be stamped on
the fixture base near the setting block.

3: Locating and Clamping Elements:

The same design principles of location and clamping apply for milling fixtures
have been discussed above.

Some Design Principles for Milling Fixtures:

1: Pressure of cut should always be against the solid part of the fixture(fig a).
2: Clamps should always operates from the front of the fixture (fig B)
3: The work piece should be supported as near the tool thrust as possible(fig c)

2: Lathe Fixtures(Turning fixtures)

The standard work holding devices or fixtures for lathe are:

Three and four jaw chucks


Face plate


Milling vice
If the job can be held easily and quickly in the above mentioned standard
devices, then there is no need for special work holding devices. However many
jobs particuly casting and forging, because of their shapes, cannot be
conveniently held by any of the standard devices. It then becomes necessary to
build a special work holding device for the job. Such a device is called lathe

A lathe fixture consists of a base , location and clamping devices. A lathe fixture
can be fixed to the lathe either by holding in the chuck jaws or fixing to a face

Basic Design Principles for Turning or Lathe Fixtures:

1. To avoid vibration while revolving , the fixture should be accurately balanced.
2. There should be no projections of the fixture which may causes injury to the
3. The fixture should be rigid and overhang should be kept minimum possible so
that there is no bending action.
4. Clamps used to fix the fixture to the lathe should be designed properly so that
they dont get loosed by centrifugal force.
5. The fixture should be as light weight as possible since it is rotating.

6. The fixture must be small enough so that it can be mounted and revolved
without hitting the bed of the lathe.


Typically, the jigs and fixtures found in a machine shop are for machining
operations. Other operations, however, such as assembly, inspection, testing,
and layout, are also areas where work holding devices are well suited. Figure 17 shows a list of the more-common classifications and applications of jigs and
fixtures used for manufacturing. There are many distinct variations within each
general classification, and many work holders are actually combinations of two
or more of the classifications shown. EXTERNAL-MACHINING
Flat-Surface Machining
Milling fixtures
Surface-grinding fixtures
Planing fixtures
Shaping fixtures

Cylindrical-Surface Machining
Lathe fixtures
Cylindrical-grinding fixtures

Irregular-Surface Machining
Band-sawing fixtures
External-broaching fixtures
Cylindrical- and Irregular-Hole Machining

Drill jigs
Boring jigs
Electrical-discharge-machining fixtures
Punching fixtures
Internal-broaching fixtures
Welding fixtures
Mechanical-assembly fixtures
(Riveting, stapling, stitching, pinning, etc.)
Soldering fixtures

Mechanical-inspection fixtures
Optical-inspection fixtures
Electronic-inspection fixtures

Painting fixtures
Plating fixtures
Polishing fixtures
Lapping fixtures
Honing fixtures

Layout templates
Testing fixtures
Heat-treating fixtures

Modular Fixtures
Modular fixtures achieve many of the advantages of a permanent tool using
only a temporary setup. Depicted in Figure 1-4, these workholders combine
ideas and elements of permanent and general-purpose workholding.

Figure 1-4. Modular workholders combine ideas and elements of both

permanent and temporary workholding to make inexpensive-yet-durable

The primary advantage of modular fixtures is that a tool with the benefits of
permanent tooling (setup reduction, durability, productivity improvements, and
reduced operator decision-making) can be built from a set of standard
components. The fixture can be disassembled when the run is complete, to
allow the reuse of the components in a different fixture. At a later time the
original can be readily reconstructed from drawings, instructions, and
photographic records. This reuse enables the construction of a complex, highprecision tool without requiring the corresponding dedication of the fixture