You are on page 1of 55


A naturally aspirated engine has a limited supply of air for

combustion. The air having atmospheric pressure is aspirated
into the cylinders, due to gas-dynamic losses, the level of
cylinder pressure will be under atmospheric level.
By using a compression device added to the internal
combustion engine the air inducted and used for combustion
can be compressed resulting an increases of its mass, the
consequence being the rise of engine output for the same
displacement and engine speed.
As device for intake air compression, can be used:
mechanically driven compressors (superchargers);
pressure wave supercharger.

In the case of supercharger the necessary work for engine
intake air compression is supplied from engine crankshaft
using a mechanical driven system.
Superchargers categories:
Mechanically - driven positive displacement supercharger
(volumetric compressors);
Mechanically driven centrifugal superchargers (centrifugal

Displacement supercharger
Displacement superchargers categories:
Roots-type supercharger;
Sliding vane supercharger;
Spiral-type supercharger;
Axial-type supercharger.

After being filtered, the air is routed by the intake system

into the engine's intake manifold.
The manifold or air box is the component that directs the fresh
air to each of the engine's intake valves or ports.
If the engine is turbocharged or supercharged, the fresh air
will be compressed with a blower and possibly cooled before
entering the intake manifold.
Turbocharging an engine occurs when the engine's own
exhaust gasses are forced through a turbine (impeller), which
rotates and is connected to a second impeller located in the
fresh air intake system.
The impeller in the fresh air intake system
compresses the fresh air.
The compressed air serves two functions.
First, it increases the engine's available power by increasing
the maximum amount of air (oxygen) that is forced into each

This allows more fuel to be injected and more power to be

produced by the engine.
The second function is to increase intake pressure. This
improves the scavenging of the exhaust gasses out of the
Turbocharging is commonly found on high power fourstroke engines. It can also be used on two-stroke engines
where the increase in intake pressure
generated by the turbocharger is required to force the
fresh air charge into the cylinder and help force the
exhaust gasses out of the cylinder to enable the engine to

Supercharging Supercharging an engine performs the

same function as turbocharging an engine. The difference is
the source of power used to drive the device that
compresses the incoming fresh air.
In a supercharged engine, the air is commonly compressed
in a device called a blower. The blower is driven through
gears directly from the engines crankshaft.
The most common type of blower uses two rotating rotors
to compress the air. Supercharging is more commonly
found on two-stroke engines where the higher pressures
that a supercharger is capable of generating are needed.

Exhaust gases are directed into the turbocharger through the

square inlet in the exhaust housing of the turbo (shown in the
bottom left of the above picture). The exhaust flows through
the exhaust housing spinning the exhaust turbine. After going
through the exhaust housing, the gasses flow out through the
exhaust housing outlet (middle left in the picture). The turbine
is connected to the compressor wheel on the intake side of
the turbo through the center bearing housing. The center
housing will have ports for oil to flow in to and out of to
lubricate and cool the shaft, and it may or may not have ports
for water to go in to and out of. The above picture does not
show ports for water. Fresh air is brought into the
turbocharger through the air inlet (middle right in the picture).
The air is compressed by he compressor and the now
pressurized air flows out through the compressor housing.

Exhaust gases leave the engine via a turbo manifold,

this replaces the stock exhaust manifold or header.
One thing missing from the above diagram is an
external wastegate. The wastegate is used to control
boost levels by allowing exhaust gasses to bypass the
turbo, thereby decreasing the volume of exhaust
available to spin the turbo's turbine. In a turbo Honda,
the turbocharger is bolted directly to the manifold. After
moving through the turbo, exhaust gasses exit the
turbo through a down pipe which connects to the rest of
the exhaust system.

Fresh air ,after being compressed by the turbo, passes

through some intake piping and into an intercooler ('aircooler'
in the above diagram). An intercooler works exactly like a
radiator except pressurized air passes through it instead of
water. The intercooler is mounted on the front of the car so air
flows through it as the car moves down the road. This cools
the pressurized intake air charge. This is necessary because
when air is pressurized it heats up. Another component
missing in the above diagram is a blow off valve (BOV). The
blow off valve vents pressurized air when the throttle plate is
closed. This prevents a pressure surge from building up in the
system and possibly damaging the compressor wheel and the
turbo's bearings. Another component not shown is a pop off
valve (POV)

A wastegate is used to control boost levels by allowing

exhaust gasses to bypass the turbo, thereby decreasing the
volume of exhaust available to spin the turbo's turbine which
will limit the amount of boost created by the compressor.

The intercooler is a heat exchanger for the pressurized air

intake charge. It works exactly like the radiator does but
instead of water flowing through it, air flows through it.
The intercooler is required to reduce the air charge
temperatures because as the air is pressurized by the turbo it
heats up quite a bit. The ambient air flowing through the
intercooler fins is at a lower temperature than the air inside the
intercooler. The heat from the air in the intercooler is
transferred to the metal of the intercooler which is then
removed by the air flowing through the intercooler fins. A cool
intake charge will provide more horsepower and reduce the
likelihood of detonation.
Intercooling provides benefits no matter what PSI you are
running at, but intercooling for levels under 6 PSI is not critical.

The turbocharger is water-cooled. It utilizes a wastegate

valve to adjust its supercharging pressure to an optimum
The turbine is housed in a lightweight, thin-wall, heatresistant casting.
The compressor housing is made of thin-wall, aluminum
alloy casting.
The shaft for turbine and compressor
is supported by a full-floating metal bearing system.

The turbocharger is lubricated by engine oil branched out
from the oil pump. To cope with very high speed of the
turbocharger turbine and the compressor shaft which may
reach a maximum of several hundred thousands of rpm,
full-floating type bearings are used which can form
adequate oil films on their inside and outside during
Further the oil supplied to the turbocharger also plays a
role of cooling the turbine so that heat from exhaust gas
does not transmitted to the bearings.

Turbochargers need oil to lubricate and cool the bearings.

Failure to provide adequate oiling for the turbo can result in a
condition called coking (pronounced with a long O as in Coke).
Coking occurs from high heat breaking down the oil (even
synthetic) molecules which will create a build up of sludge that
sticks on turbo shafts and bearings. Coking will begin to occur
when oil reaches about 230* F for conventional oil, 270* for
synthetic oil. This can be of real concern if the turbo is run hard
for a long period of time and then the engine is turned off,
allowing oil to sit on the extremely hot turbo shaft. A turbo timer
can be used to avoid this situation.

The turbocharger unit is cooled by engine coolant, which
enhances the reliability and durability of the unit.
The engine coolant from the coolant drain hose located
under the cylinder head is led by a pipe to the coolant
passage provided in the turbocharger bearing housing.
After cooling the bearing housing, the engine coolant is led
into the coolant filler tank through a pipe.


The wastegate control solenoid valve switches the intake air
pressure passages to the wastegate controller in response to
signals from the ECM. When the solenoid valve is closed, the
intake air pressure upstream of the turbocharger unit is applied
to the wastegate controller. When the solenoid valve is
opened, the intake air pressure downstream of the
turbocharger unit (supercharged air pressure) is applied to the
wastegate controller.


When the engine speed increases as the throttle valve
opens, the amount of exhaust gas increases.
This increases the speed of the turbine (approx. 20,000 to
150,000 rpm), the supercharging pressure and the engine
If the resultant supercharging pressure is extremely high,
however, it may cause knocking and an excessively high
thermal load on such engine components as pistons. In the
worst case, the engine may be damaged or broken. To
prevent this, the wastegate valve and its controller are
By sensing the supercharging pressure, the wastegate valve
controller controls the operation of the wastegate valve to
maintain the supercharging pressure below a predetermined

While the supercharging pressure is lower than the

predetermined level, the wastegate valve is closed so that entire
exhaust gas is directed to the turbine.

When the supercharging pressure reaches the

predetermined level, the wastegate controller lets the
supercharging pressure press the diaphragm. This causes
the wastegate valve to open through a linkage. With the
wastegate valve open, part of the exhaust gas is allowed to
flow into the exhaust gas pipe that bypasses the passage to
the turbine.
This decreases the exhaust gas pressure that rotates the
turbine and keeps the supercharging pressure constant.
It means P2 P1 = constant.
P1: Atmospheric pressure
P2: Supercharging pressure


At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure (P1) is low, so
that the supercharging pressure (P2) is also low in a
conventional system. The wastegate solenoid valve
operates in such a way that a constant supercharging
pressure (P2) is maintained by acting in response to change
in the atmospheric pressure.

For the wastegate, you will want to use slightly larger

diameter hose. For the wastegate you will need a vacuum
source that is close to the turbocharger, some turbos even
have a fitting on the compressor outlet for a barbed fitting for
the vacuum source. It is important to keep vacuum lines for
the wastegate as short as possible. If the lines are to long
they can delay the speed at which the wastegate will operate,
not a good thing when regulating boost. If you are using a
boost controller to regulate the wastegate then these vacuum
lines should also be kept short. Below is a picture of the
vacuum routing for the wastegate with a boost controller.

Since the intake air having passed through the turbocharger
unit is heated to a very high temperature, the air itself is
expanded, resulting in a lower supercharging charging
efficiency. The intercooler is provided just before the throttle
body to cool down the intake air and improve the boosting
The intercooler is an air cooled type. The air delivered from the
air intake duct provided at the engine hood flows through the
core and cools the intake air passing through the intercooler.

The key to efficient intercooling is the size and shape of the

intercooler. Obviously a larger intercooler will do a better job
than a small intercooler but the shape of one intercooler can
have an advantage over another intercooler of the same size
(volume) but of a different shape. Intercoolers can be had in
different width, lengths, and heights. It is best to chose an
intercooler that will take up the entire space available for the
intercooler and offer the maximum frontal area. An intercooler
with more rows, instead of longer rows, should be considered
when looking at similar size models. This is because most of
the cooling performed by the intercooler is done in the first
50% of the length of the core. Also longer cores can
contribute to pressure loss.

Getting an intercooler that is thicker compared to another

model should be avoided because the ambient air flowing
through the intercooler heats up the further it flows through the
core, decreasing its ability to cool the air charge the further it
flows through the core. By the time the air has gone through
half of the core it's capacity to absorb more heat is greatly
reduced. Adding more thickness to the core will provide a lot
less cooling ability than adding more frontal surface area.
Another intercooling option is to use a side mount intercooler
(SMIC) from a 90-99 DSM. These intercoolers are small and
can be mounted in the engine bay. This option is far from ideal
because of the limited flow the intercooler will receive and
from also being in the already hot engine bay.

The last, and perhaps least popular, option is to use an air to

water intercooler. Think of an air to water intercooler as an
enclosed box with a normal air to air intercooler in it but
instead of air flowing through the intercooler fins, water does.
Water is a much better conductor of heat than air is. The air
to water intercooler is much more efficient than an air to air
intercooler, especially at low speeds. The disadvantage is
that it requires a lot of extra equipment. The equipment
required for an air to water intercooler include: air to water
intercooler, water reservoir, water lines, water pump, and
water cooler (radiator).


When a throttle valve is suddenly closed, low air suction
noise may occur due to a sudden rise of the air pressure in
the passage between the turbocharger and throttle body. To
prevent this, an air bypass valve and air passage are
provided. The air bypass valve, actuated by the vacuum
created by a sudden closure of the throttle valve, allows the
suction air to bypass the turbocharger and flow directly
upstream, thus lowering the pressure in the air passage.

A blow off valve is nothing more than a pressure relief valve.

The valve opens when vacuum from the intake manifold acts
on the diaphragm. If the pressure surge is not vented off it
can cause damage to the compressor blades and turbo shaft
Some blow off valves have an adjusting screw than can be
used to increase or decrease the amount of vacuum
required to open the valve.
The blow off valve, wastegate, fuel pressure regulator (s),
and boost gauge all require connections to vacuum lines to

2-Stage Turbocharger Matching for

a Light Duty Diesel Engine
Three main control elements were chosen for boosting
system are:
Height pressure turbine by-pass (HPT by-pass)
Low pressure turbine waste-gate (LPT waste-gate)
Height pressure compressor by-pass (HPC by-pass)
HPT by-pass is in principle the most important actuator.
Ideally it could control engine alone without any other control
elements help. It decreases the boosting pressure within high
pressure stage and so controls whole system. LPT wastegate is the second in importance sequence. It decreases the
LP turbocharger speed and avoids its over-speeding. HPC
by-pass enables complete by-passing of HP stage together
with HPT by-pass. In other words said it is able to switch off
the hight pressure stage.
This usually happens at high engine speed when the HPC is
too small for extensive mass flow.

Stage turbocharger engine scheme of diesel engine with three highlighted main
boost control elements.

1st configuration: One HPT by-pass actuator + inter-stage cooler.

2nd configuration: HPT and HPC by-pass, no inter-stage cooler.

Design of BorgWarner's regulated 2-stage turbocharging system

Boost pressure comparison

v map with regulated two-stage turbocharging

SN map with single-stage turbocharging

SN map with regulated two-stage turbocharging

be map with single-stage series turbocharging

be map with regulated two-stage turbocharging