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Prepared by: Ufuk Can KADIOLU


Room: C-206
Phone: 5271
E-mail: ufukcan@metu.edu.tr

the plane whose normal is parallel to x-axis, with y-direction in the


Date: 13/10/2014

ME 307 MACHINE ELEMENTS I


TUTORIAL 2
3D Stress State, Thick-Walled Cylinders, Thermal Stresses

Problem 1:

x, y, z coordinate

system.
b. For a stress element, there exists a particular orientation in space for which all shear
components are zero. When an element has this particular orientation, the normals to the
faces correspond to principal directions and the normal stresses associated with these
faces are the principal stresses.
Suppose that, this particular orientation of the element is as shown and can be expressed

in another coordinate system; x ', y ', z ' .

30 MPa
25 MPa

35 MPa
20 MPa
z

40 MPa
x

y
50 MPa

Consider the cubic stress element taken from a shaft. For the element, with the stress
components as shown:
a. Write the stress matrix.
b. Determine the principal stresses for the given stress state.
c. Draw Mohrs circle diagram of the principal stresses.
d. Find the maximum shear stress.
Solution:
a. The stress matrix will be;

z
According to definition, since the shear stress components will be zero for this
orientation, the stress matrix will be diagonal. This corresponds to an eigenvalue problem
where the magnitudes of the principal stresses will be the eigenvalues and their directions
(directional cosines) will be the eigenvectors. That is:

n p n

x xy xz 40 25 20

yx y yz 25 30 35
zx zy z 20 35 50

which can also be written as:

Note that each stress component which is in the plane with i-surface normal and
which is in the j-direction is represented by ij . That is xy represents the stress in

I n 0
p

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

2
Here,

is the identity matrix, p is the eigenvalue and

n is the eigenvector

corresponding to each eigenvalue.


To avoid the trivial solution

n 0 the determinant of p I

should be

zero.

p I 0
40 p
25

25
30 p

20

35

xx p
xy
xz
yx
yy p
yz
50 p
zx
zy
zz p
20
35

p3 ( x y z ) p2 ( x y x z y z xy2 yz2 zx2 ) p


( x y z 2 xy yz zx x yz2 y zx2 z xy2 ) 0
This is a cubic equation in the unknown

p are independent of the coordinate

system chosen. In other words; principle stresses occur only in one particular
orientation and no matter the coordinate system of the stress element chosen, the
solutions to p must be the same. Therefore, the coefficients of p in the cubic
equation are constant:

I1 x y z

I2 x y x z y z xy2 yz2 zx2

I1
, where r and i can be found from:
3
1

2 2
r (I1 3I 2 ) 2
3
2 I 3 9 I1 I 2 27 I 3
cos 3 1
3
2
2( I 1 3 I 2 ) 2
Now calculate r and , by inserting the numerical values,
r 77.316
cos 3 0.33024
Here cosine equation has infinitely many solutions,

p where the three solutions are the principal

stresses 1 , 2 , 3 .Note that, the solutions to

i r cos i

a cos 0.33024 2 k
, where k 0,1,2..
3

Take 3 of the possible solutions as we have 3 principal stresses.

a cos 0.33024
0.4114 rad
3
a cos 0.33024 2
2
2.5058 rad
3
a cos 0.33024 2
3
1.6830 rad
3

Then the principal stresses will be

I1
84.198 MPa
3
I
2 r cos2 1 48.876 MPa
3
I
3 r cos3 1 4.678 MPa
3

1 r cos1

I3 x y z 2 xy yz zx x yz2 y zx2 z xy2


I1, I2 and I3 are called as stress invariants.
Calculating the coefficients yields;

I1 40 , I2 3950 , I3 19250

Arrange 1, 2, 3 such that 1>2>3.

Now the roots of the cubic equation can be found from the formula:

1 84.198 MPa , 2 4.678 MPa , 3 48.876 MPa

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

Of course this solution will be much shorter if software was used. For example, the
MATLAB command given below gives the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress
matrix.
>> %calculating the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the
>> %stress matrix using "eig" command :
>> stress=[-40 25 20; 25 30 35; 20 35 50]
stress =

40 25 20
25 30 35

20 35 50
84.198
eigenvals ( ) 48.876

4.678

0.244 0.96 0.135


eigenvecs ( ) 0.603 0.259 0.755

0.76 0.103 0.642

Eigenvectors can also be found from the following equation:

-40 25 20
25 30 35
20 35 50

I n 0
p

For each value of

>> [eigvec,eigval]=eig(stress)

eigenvalue

eigvec =

p , there exists a corresponding eigenvector. For example for the first

1 84.198 ,

I n 0
p

0.9604 0.1348 0.2437


-0.2589 0.7546 0.6030
-0.1026 -0.6422 0.7596

25
20
40 84.168
nx 0

n 0
25
30 84.168
35

20
35
50 84.168 nz 0

eigval =
-48.8757
0
0

0
4.6777
0

0
0
84.1979

124.168nx 25n y 20 nz 0

(1)

25nx 54.168n y 35nz 0

(2)

20nx 35n y 24.168nz 0

(3)

>>
Note that this matrix equation has infinitely many solutions, as det
The diagonal elements of eigval matrix are the eigenvalues which are the principal
stresses, and the columns of eigvec are the corresponding eigenvectors which are the
direction cosines of the principal stresses.
The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be obtained using the MATHCAD
commands eigenvals and eigenvecs respectively:

these 3 equations are not linearly independent.


From Eq(1) & Eq(2)

4845.88nx 1958.36n y 0 ny 2.4745nx


From Eq(2) & Eq(3)

1958.36n y 1304.2nz 0 nz 1.5016 ny

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

I 0 ,
p

4
As there are infinitely many solutions say,

nx a then ny 2.4745 a and

c. Mohrs circle for the calculated principal stresses will be

nz 3.7171 a
Now lets normalize
We know that

n and find the directional cosines,

nx 2 n y 2 nz 2 should be equal to 1, to be the directional cosines.

Then

nx

nx

nx

a
2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

2.4745 a
2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

3.7171 a
2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

0.2815 a cos 0.2815 73.65o

0.5408 a cos 0.5408 57.26o

0.8123 a cos 0.8123 35.68o

The directional cosines of the first principal stresses are shown in figure below.

d. Maximum in-plane principal shear stresses will be,

1/ 2

1 2

39.76 MPa
2
3
2/3 2
26.77 MPa
2

1/3 1 3 66.54 MPa
2

The maximum shear stress is the radius of the bigger circle,


x

max 1/3 66.54

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

MPa

5
Problem 2
A composite bar made of aluminum and steel is held between the supports as shown
in the figure. The bars are stress free at a temperature of 37o C. What will be the stress
in the two bars when the temperature is 20 oC. If;
a) The supports are unyielding
b) The supports yield and come nearer each other by 0.10 mm?
It can be assumed that the change of temperature is uniform all along the length of the
bar. Take
Es= 210 GPa; Ea=74 GPa; s=11.7x10-6 /oC and c=23.4x10-6 /oC

Solution:
Given T1= 37o C; T2= 20o C
Es= 210x109 N/mm2 ; Ea= 74x109 N/mm2
Let us assume that the right support at B is removed and the bar is allowed to contract
freely due to fall in temperature. We know that the fall in temperature.
T=T1-T2= 37-20=17o C
Contraction in steel bar= s.ls.T=11.7x10-6x600x17=0.12 mm
Contraction in aluminium bar= c.lc.T=23.4x10-6x300x17=0.12 mm
Total contraction= 0.12+0.12=0.24 mm= 0.24x10-3 m
It may be noted that even after this contraction (i.e. 0.24 mm) in length, the bar still
stress free as the right hand end was assumed free.
Let an axial force P be applied to the right end till this is brought in contact
with the right hand support at B, as shown in the figure below.

We know that cross-sectional area of the steel bar,

A = (d ) = (0.05) = 1.964x10 m
4
4
And cross sectional area of the aluminum bar,

A = (d ) = (0.025) = 0.491x10 m
4
4
We know that elongation of the steel bar;
Pxl
Px0.6
l =
=
= 1.455x10 xP m
A xE
1.964x10 x210x10
And elongation of the aluminum bar;
Pxl
Px0.3
l =
=
= 8.257x10 xP m
0.491x10 x74x10
A xE
Total elongation: 1.455+8.257= 9.712x10 xP m
Let s= stress in the steel bar
a= stress in the aluminum bar
a) When the supports are unyielding
Then the total contraction is equated to the total elongation.
i.e. 0.24x10-3 =9.712x10-9 P or P= 24712 N
Stress in the steel bar;
P
24712
N
=
= 12582x10
= 12.582 MPa
=
A
1.964x10
m
And stress in the aluminum bar;
P
24712
N
=
=
= 50328x10
= 50.328 MPa
A
0.491x10
m
b) When the supports yield by 0.1 mm
Supports come nearer to each other by 0.10 mm the net contraction in length=

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

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0.24-0.10=0.14 mm= 0.14x10-3 m
Equating this net contraction to the total elongation we have
0.14x10-3=9.712x10-9 P or P= 14415 N
Stress in the steel bar;
N
P
14415
=
=
= 7340x10
= 7.34 MPa
m
A
1.964x10
And stress in the aluminum bar;
P
14415
N
=
=
= 29360x10
= 29.36 MPa
A
0.491x10
m

Problem 3:
Three cube blocks with identical dimensions are placed into a rigid cavity and there is
no clearance and friction between their surfaces and surface-wall contact regions. A
uniformly distributed stress p is applied on the upper surface of cube 1. The cubes
have equal side lengths. The material properties are the same for cubes 2 and 3.
Determine the stress applied by the side wall to cube 2 (2x) in terms of the material
properties and p.

Solution:
The walls are rigid; therefore the strain in x-direction for the cubes is zero.
For the first cube, the strain in x direction is zero. Then;
1
1
1x
1 1y 1z
E 1x 1 1y p 0
E1 1x
, 1
which gives

1x 1 1 y p

(1)

Note that the stresses on the cubes along y-direction are equal to each other since the
cross-sectional areas of the cubes are equal and the forces along y-direction are the same
for all the cubes
Similarly, the strain in x direction is also equal to zero for the second cube.

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

7
1

2 2y 2z
E2 2x
which gives:
2x

1 y

E2

2x
2

2x 2 1y

members are steel and have as their properties a yield strength Sy=540MPa, E=207GPa
and =0.292. The nominal radii of the barrels are 5, 10 and 15 mm.
a. Plot the stress distribution for both parts of the barrels.
b. What value of interference should be used in assembly?
c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Plot the
resulting stress distributions. What are the maximum radial and tangential
stresses?
d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer radii of 5
and 15 mm, respectively, when the gun is fired, what would be the maximum
radial and tangential stresses?

(2)

Substituting eqn. (2) into eqn. (1) gives:

1x p

2x

2 1

(3)

Summation of elongations of cubes in y direction is also equal to zero due to rigid


wall. The total elongation in y direction expression can be written in terms of strains
since the side length of cubes are equal to each other.
1y 2y 3y

The material properties are;


E 207GPa and S y 540 MPa
The maximum principal stress on the gun barrel equals 70 percent of the yield strength of
the steel. Hence;

Since the material properties and the stresses applied by cube 1 are the same for cubes
2 and 3, it can be written as:

1 y 2 2 y 0,

Solution:

1
1
1 y 1 p 1x 2
1y 2 2 x 0 (4)

E1
E2

max 0.7 S y
a.

The tangential and radial stress formulas for thick-walled cylinders are given
below:

Solving eqn. (2), (3) and (4) simultaneously for unknowns 1x , 1y and 2x gives:

1x

1y

2x

1 p

E2 2 E1 2 E1 2 E2 1
2

E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2
1 1
E2 1 p
2
2
E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2
E2 1 p

ri ro Po Pi
r2
2
2
ro ri

for t

and for r

(1)

For the inner barrel ri=5mm and ro=10mm. Also it is obvious that there is only
outside pressure on the inner barrel. Then;

ri 5mm, ro 10mm

1 1
2

ri Pi ro Po

Pi 0, Po P * unknown

Substituting these values into equation (1) and solve the equation for r=5mm and
r=10mm, it can be found as;

E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2

t 5mm 2.67 P *

t 10 mm 1.67 P *

Problem 4

r 5mm 0

r 10mm P *

A gun barrel is assembled by shrinking an outer barrel over an inner barrel so that the
maximum principal stress equals 70 percent of the yield strength of the material. Both

The same procedure can be followed for the outer barrel. This time there is no outside
pressure on the outer barrel. There will be only inside pressure and this pressure will
be equal to the outside pressure on the inner barrel.

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

ri 10mm, ro 15mm
Po 0, Pi P

2 P r ro ri

E ro r 2 r 2 ri

Again substituting the values into the equation (1), one can get;

t 10 mm 2.6 P *

t 15mm 1.6 P *

r 10mm P *

r 15mm 0

It is clearly seen that the maximum principal stress occurs on the tangential stress
of inner surface on the inner barrel. Pressure can be found as:

t 5mm 2.67 P * max


2.67 P * 0.7 S y

After substituting given values, interference can be found as:

0.029 mm
c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Since the outside
pressure is 0.1MPa, it can be neglected. Additionally, since the members are the
same. The barrels can be considered as a single body. Hence, again using equation
(1);

P * 141.6MPa

Minus sign indicates that there is compression on the inner barrel.


Since pressure is found, stress distributions can be drawn as:

MPa

Stress Distributions across the Barrel

ri ro Po Pi
r2
2
2
ro ri

ri Pi ro Po

for t

ri 5mm, ro 15mm, Po 0 and Pi 280MPa

400

where

200

After substituting the values into the equation,


of r from r=5mm to r=15mm as:

and

can be drawn as a function

Stress Distributions due to Firing

t ( r)
r ( r)

and for r

400

200

8.333

11.667
r

mm

15

MPa

400

200
t.f ( r)
r.f ( r)

b. Interference pressure is found as;

200

P 141.6MPa
Then the interference can be found as;

400

10
r

E ro r 2 r 2 ri
P
(2)
2
2
b
2r 2 ro ri
where ri 5mm, r 10mm and ro 15mm

mm

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014

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14

9
Note that these stress distributions are due to firing. These stresses should be
superimposed on the stress distributions due to interference fit. Hence, the resulting
stress distribution can be drawn as:
Resulting Stress Distributions across the Barrel
600

MPa

400

t ( r) t.f ( r ) 200
r( r) r.f ( r )
0

200

400

8.333

11.667

15

mm

As it is seen clearly from the graph, the maximum tangential stress occurs on the
interference fit and has a value of 482MPa. Additionally, the maximum radial stress
occurs on the inner surface on the barrel inside and has a value of -280MPa. Hence;

t , max 482MPa

r ,max 280 MPa

d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer diameters of
5 and 15 mm, there will be only stresses due to firing. Again from the graph, one can
see that maximum tangential and radial stresses occur on the inner surface of the
barrel and have values 350MPa and -280MPa, respectively.

t , max 350 MPa

r ,max 280 MPa

Note that, when the pressure values which are found above are compared with the
atmospheric pressure, one can see the outside pressure is negligible. Hence, the
assumption is correct.

METU ME 307 Machine Elements I Fall 2014