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You are on page 1of 9

Room: C-206

Phone: 5271

E-mail: ufukcan@metu.edu.tr

Date: 13/10/2014

TUTORIAL 2

3D Stress State, Thick-Walled Cylinders, Thermal Stresses

Problem 1:

x, y, z coordinate

system.

b. For a stress element, there exists a particular orientation in space for which all shear

components are zero. When an element has this particular orientation, the normals to the

faces correspond to principal directions and the normal stresses associated with these

faces are the principal stresses.

Suppose that, this particular orientation of the element is as shown and can be expressed

30 MPa

25 MPa

35 MPa

20 MPa

z

40 MPa

x

y

50 MPa

Consider the cubic stress element taken from a shaft. For the element, with the stress

components as shown:

a. Write the stress matrix.

b. Determine the principal stresses for the given stress state.

c. Draw Mohrs circle diagram of the principal stresses.

d. Find the maximum shear stress.

Solution:

a. The stress matrix will be;

z

According to definition, since the shear stress components will be zero for this

orientation, the stress matrix will be diagonal. This corresponds to an eigenvalue problem

where the magnitudes of the principal stresses will be the eigenvalues and their directions

(directional cosines) will be the eigenvectors. That is:

n p n

x xy xz 40 25 20

yx y yz 25 30 35

zx zy z 20 35 50

Note that each stress component which is in the plane with i-surface normal and

which is in the j-direction is represented by ij . That is xy represents the stress in

I n 0

p

2

Here,

n is the eigenvector

To avoid the trivial solution

n 0 the determinant of p I

should be

zero.

p I 0

40 p

25

25

30 p

20

35

xx p

xy

xz

yx

yy p

yz

50 p

zx

zy

zz p

20

35

( x y z 2 xy yz zx x yz2 y zx2 z xy2 ) 0

This is a cubic equation in the unknown

system chosen. In other words; principle stresses occur only in one particular

orientation and no matter the coordinate system of the stress element chosen, the

solutions to p must be the same. Therefore, the coefficients of p in the cubic

equation are constant:

I1 x y z

I1

, where r and i can be found from:

3

1

2 2

r (I1 3I 2 ) 2

3

2 I 3 9 I1 I 2 27 I 3

cos 3 1

3

2

2( I 1 3 I 2 ) 2

Now calculate r and , by inserting the numerical values,

r 77.316

cos 3 0.33024

Here cosine equation has infinitely many solutions,

i r cos i

a cos 0.33024 2 k

, where k 0,1,2..

3

a cos 0.33024

0.4114 rad

3

a cos 0.33024 2

2

2.5058 rad

3

a cos 0.33024 2

3

1.6830 rad

3

I1

84.198 MPa

3

I

2 r cos2 1 48.876 MPa

3

I

3 r cos3 1 4.678 MPa

3

1 r cos1

I1, I2 and I3 are called as stress invariants.

Calculating the coefficients yields;

I1 40 , I2 3950 , I3 19250

Now the roots of the cubic equation can be found from the formula:

Of course this solution will be much shorter if software was used. For example, the

MATLAB command given below gives the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress

matrix.

>> %calculating the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the

>> %stress matrix using "eig" command :

>> stress=[-40 25 20; 25 30 35; 20 35 50]

stress =

40 25 20

25 30 35

20 35 50

84.198

eigenvals ( ) 48.876

4.678

eigenvecs ( ) 0.603 0.259 0.755

-40 25 20

25 30 35

20 35 50

I n 0

p

>> [eigvec,eigval]=eig(stress)

eigenvalue

eigvec =

1 84.198 ,

I n 0

p

-0.2589 0.7546 0.6030

-0.1026 -0.6422 0.7596

25

20

40 84.168

nx 0

n 0

25

30 84.168

35

20

35

50 84.168 nz 0

eigval =

-48.8757

0

0

0

4.6777

0

0

0

84.1979

124.168nx 25n y 20 nz 0

(1)

(2)

(3)

>>

Note that this matrix equation has infinitely many solutions, as det

The diagonal elements of eigval matrix are the eigenvalues which are the principal

stresses, and the columns of eigvec are the corresponding eigenvectors which are the

direction cosines of the principal stresses.

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be obtained using the MATHCAD

commands eigenvals and eigenvecs respectively:

From Eq(1) & Eq(2)

From Eq(2) & Eq(3)

I 0 ,

p

4

As there are infinitely many solutions say,

nz 3.7171 a

Now lets normalize

We know that

Then

nx

nx

nx

a

2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

2.4745 a

2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

3.7171 a

2

a 2.4745 a 3.7171 a

The directional cosines of the first principal stresses are shown in figure below.

1/ 2

1 2

39.76 MPa

2

3

2/3 2

26.77 MPa

2

1/3 1 3 66.54 MPa

2

x

MPa

5

Problem 2

A composite bar made of aluminum and steel is held between the supports as shown

in the figure. The bars are stress free at a temperature of 37o C. What will be the stress

in the two bars when the temperature is 20 oC. If;

a) The supports are unyielding

b) The supports yield and come nearer each other by 0.10 mm?

It can be assumed that the change of temperature is uniform all along the length of the

bar. Take

Es= 210 GPa; Ea=74 GPa; s=11.7x10-6 /oC and c=23.4x10-6 /oC

Solution:

Given T1= 37o C; T2= 20o C

Es= 210x109 N/mm2 ; Ea= 74x109 N/mm2

Let us assume that the right support at B is removed and the bar is allowed to contract

freely due to fall in temperature. We know that the fall in temperature.

T=T1-T2= 37-20=17o C

Contraction in steel bar= s.ls.T=11.7x10-6x600x17=0.12 mm

Contraction in aluminium bar= c.lc.T=23.4x10-6x300x17=0.12 mm

Total contraction= 0.12+0.12=0.24 mm= 0.24x10-3 m

It may be noted that even after this contraction (i.e. 0.24 mm) in length, the bar still

stress free as the right hand end was assumed free.

Let an axial force P be applied to the right end till this is brought in contact

with the right hand support at B, as shown in the figure below.

A = (d ) = (0.05) = 1.964x10 m

4

4

And cross sectional area of the aluminum bar,

A = (d ) = (0.025) = 0.491x10 m

4

4

We know that elongation of the steel bar;

Pxl

Px0.6

l =

=

= 1.455x10 xP m

A xE

1.964x10 x210x10

And elongation of the aluminum bar;

Pxl

Px0.3

l =

=

= 8.257x10 xP m

0.491x10 x74x10

A xE

Total elongation: 1.455+8.257= 9.712x10 xP m

Let s= stress in the steel bar

a= stress in the aluminum bar

a) When the supports are unyielding

Then the total contraction is equated to the total elongation.

i.e. 0.24x10-3 =9.712x10-9 P or P= 24712 N

Stress in the steel bar;

P

24712

N

=

= 12582x10

= 12.582 MPa

=

A

1.964x10

m

And stress in the aluminum bar;

P

24712

N

=

=

= 50328x10

= 50.328 MPa

A

0.491x10

m

b) When the supports yield by 0.1 mm

Supports come nearer to each other by 0.10 mm the net contraction in length=

6

0.24-0.10=0.14 mm= 0.14x10-3 m

Equating this net contraction to the total elongation we have

0.14x10-3=9.712x10-9 P or P= 14415 N

Stress in the steel bar;

N

P

14415

=

=

= 7340x10

= 7.34 MPa

m

A

1.964x10

And stress in the aluminum bar;

P

14415

N

=

=

= 29360x10

= 29.36 MPa

A

0.491x10

m

Problem 3:

Three cube blocks with identical dimensions are placed into a rigid cavity and there is

no clearance and friction between their surfaces and surface-wall contact regions. A

uniformly distributed stress p is applied on the upper surface of cube 1. The cubes

have equal side lengths. The material properties are the same for cubes 2 and 3.

Determine the stress applied by the side wall to cube 2 (2x) in terms of the material

properties and p.

Solution:

The walls are rigid; therefore the strain in x-direction for the cubes is zero.

For the first cube, the strain in x direction is zero. Then;

1

1

1x

1 1y 1z

E 1x 1 1y p 0

E1 1x

, 1

which gives

1x 1 1 y p

(1)

Note that the stresses on the cubes along y-direction are equal to each other since the

cross-sectional areas of the cubes are equal and the forces along y-direction are the same

for all the cubes

Similarly, the strain in x direction is also equal to zero for the second cube.

7

1

2 2y 2z

E2 2x

which gives:

2x

1 y

E2

2x

2

2x 2 1y

members are steel and have as their properties a yield strength Sy=540MPa, E=207GPa

and =0.292. The nominal radii of the barrels are 5, 10 and 15 mm.

a. Plot the stress distribution for both parts of the barrels.

b. What value of interference should be used in assembly?

c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Plot the

resulting stress distributions. What are the maximum radial and tangential

stresses?

d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer radii of 5

and 15 mm, respectively, when the gun is fired, what would be the maximum

radial and tangential stresses?

(2)

1x p

2x

2 1

(3)

wall. The total elongation in y direction expression can be written in terms of strains

since the side length of cubes are equal to each other.

1y 2y 3y

E 207GPa and S y 540 MPa

The maximum principal stress on the gun barrel equals 70 percent of the yield strength of

the steel. Hence;

Since the material properties and the stresses applied by cube 1 are the same for cubes

2 and 3, it can be written as:

1 y 2 2 y 0,

Solution:

1

1

1 y 1 p 1x 2

1y 2 2 x 0 (4)

E1

E2

max 0.7 S y

a.

The tangential and radial stress formulas for thick-walled cylinders are given

below:

Solving eqn. (2), (3) and (4) simultaneously for unknowns 1x , 1y and 2x gives:

1x

1y

2x

1 p

E2 2 E1 2 E1 2 E2 1

2

E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2

1 1

E2 1 p

2

2

E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2

E2 1 p

ri ro Po Pi

r2

2

2

ro ri

for t

and for r

(1)

For the inner barrel ri=5mm and ro=10mm. Also it is obvious that there is only

outside pressure on the inner barrel. Then;

ri 5mm, ro 10mm

1 1

2

ri Pi ro Po

Pi 0, Po P * unknown

Substituting these values into equation (1) and solve the equation for r=5mm and

r=10mm, it can be found as;

E2 E2 1 2 E1 2 E1 2

t 5mm 2.67 P *

t 10 mm 1.67 P *

Problem 4

r 5mm 0

r 10mm P *

A gun barrel is assembled by shrinking an outer barrel over an inner barrel so that the

maximum principal stress equals 70 percent of the yield strength of the material. Both

The same procedure can be followed for the outer barrel. This time there is no outside

pressure on the outer barrel. There will be only inside pressure and this pressure will

be equal to the outside pressure on the inner barrel.

ri 10mm, ro 15mm

Po 0, Pi P

2 P r ro ri

E ro r 2 r 2 ri

Again substituting the values into the equation (1), one can get;

t 10 mm 2.6 P *

t 15mm 1.6 P *

r 10mm P *

r 15mm 0

It is clearly seen that the maximum principal stress occurs on the tangential stress

of inner surface on the inner barrel. Pressure can be found as:

2.67 P * 0.7 S y

0.029 mm

c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Since the outside

pressure is 0.1MPa, it can be neglected. Additionally, since the members are the

same. The barrels can be considered as a single body. Hence, again using equation

(1);

P * 141.6MPa

Since pressure is found, stress distributions can be drawn as:

MPa

ri ro Po Pi

r2

2

2

ro ri

ri Pi ro Po

for t

400

where

200

of r from r=5mm to r=15mm as:

and

t ( r)

r ( r)

and for r

400

200

8.333

11.667

r

mm

15

MPa

400

200

t.f ( r)

r.f ( r)

200

P 141.6MPa

Then the interference can be found as;

400

10

r

E ro r 2 r 2 ri

P

(2)

2

2

b

2r 2 ro ri

where ri 5mm, r 10mm and ro 15mm

mm

12

14

9

Note that these stress distributions are due to firing. These stresses should be

superimposed on the stress distributions due to interference fit. Hence, the resulting

stress distribution can be drawn as:

Resulting Stress Distributions across the Barrel

600

MPa

400

t ( r) t.f ( r ) 200

r( r) r.f ( r )

0

200

400

8.333

11.667

15

mm

As it is seen clearly from the graph, the maximum tangential stress occurs on the

interference fit and has a value of 482MPa. Additionally, the maximum radial stress

occurs on the inner surface on the barrel inside and has a value of -280MPa. Hence;

t , max 482MPa

d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer diameters of

5 and 15 mm, there will be only stresses due to firing. Again from the graph, one can

see that maximum tangential and radial stresses occur on the inner surface of the

barrel and have values 350MPa and -280MPa, respectively.

Note that, when the pressure values which are found above are compared with the

atmospheric pressure, one can see the outside pressure is negligible. Hence, the

assumption is correct.

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