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CONTROL ACTIONS

An automatic controller compares the actual value of the system output with the

reference input (desired value), determines the deviation, and produces a control signal

that will reduce the deviation to zero or a small value. The manner in which the automatic

controller produces the control signal is called the control action. The controllers may be

classified according to their control actions as

1) Two position or on-off controllers

2) Proportional controllers

3) Integral controllers

4) Proportional-plus- integral controllers

5) Proportional-plus-derivative controllers

6) Proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers

A two position controller has two fixed positions usually on or off.

A proportional control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing

function is directly proportional to error.

A integral control system is a feedback control system in which the output forcing

function is directly proportional to the first time integral of error.

A proportional-plus-integral control system is a feedback control system in which the

output forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time integral.

A proportional-plus-derivative control system is a feedback control system in which the

output forcing function is a linear combination of the error and its first time derivative.

A proportional-plus-derivative-plus-integral control system is a feedback control system

in which the output forcing function is a linear combination of the error, its first time

derivative and its first time integral.

Many industrial controllers are electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, electronic or their

combinations. The choice of the controller is based on the nature of plant and operating

conditions. Controllers may also be classified according to the power employed in the

operation as

1) Electric controllers

2) Hydraulic controllers

3) Pneumatic controllers

4) Electronic controllers.

The block diagram of a typical controller is shown in Fig.1. It consists of an

automatic controller, an actuator, a plant and a sensor. The controller detects the actuating

error signal and amplifies it. The output of a controller is fed to the actuator that produces

the input to the plant according to the control signal. The sensor is a device that converts

Prof. S. C.Pilli, Principal,

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

the output variable into another suitable variable to compare the output to reference input

signal. Sensor is a feedback element of the closed loop control system.

automatic controller

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

actuating

error signal e(t)

Controller

output u(t)

Output c(t)

Amplifier

Plant

Actuator

feed back

signal b(t)

Sensor

Figure 1 Block diagram of control system

In a two position control action system, the actuating element has only two positions

which are generally on and off. Generally these are electric devices. These are widely

used are they are simple and inexpensive. The output of the controller is given by Eqn.1.

u t U 1

U2

et 0

..(1)

et 0

The block diagram of on-off controller is shown in Fig. 2

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

actuating

error signal e(t)

Controller

output u(t)

feed back

signal b(t)

Figure 2 Block diagram of on off controller

Proportional Control Action

The proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain. For a

controller with proportional control action the relationship between output of the

controller u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is

Prof. S. C.Pilli, Principal,

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

u t K p e t

.....(2)

Or in Laplace transformed quantities

Us

Kp

Es

..(3)

an amplifier with an adjustable gain. The block diagram of proportional controller is

shown in Fig.3.

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

actuating

error signal e(t)

Controller

output u(t)

Kp

feed back

signal b(t)

Figure 3 Block diagram of a proportional controller

The value of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating

error signal e(t) given by Eqn.4

t

du t

K i et or u t K i et dt

dt

0

Where, Ki is an adjustable constant.

The transfer function of integral controller is

Us K i

Es

s

..(4)

.(5)

If the value of e(t) is doubled, then u(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating

error, the value of u(t) remains stationary. The integral control action is also called reset

control. Fig.4 shows the block diagram of the integral controller.

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

actuating

error signal e(t)

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

Controller

output u(t)

Ki

s

feed back

signal b(t)

Figure 4 Block diagram of an integral controller

Proportional-plus-Integral Control Action

The control action of a proportional-plus-integral controller is defined by

u t K p e t

Kp

Ti

et dt

t

..(6)

Us

1

K p 1

Ts

Es

i

.....(7)

Where, Kp is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time which are adjustable.

The integral time adjusts the integral control action, while change in proportional

gain affects both the proportional and integral action. The inverse of the integral time is

called reset rate. The reset rate is the number of times per minute that a proportional part

of the control action is duplicated. Fig.5 shows the block diagram of the proportionalplus-integral controller. For an actuating error of unit step input, the controller output is

shown in Fig.6.

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

actuating

error signal e(t)

Controller

output u(t)

K p 1 Ti s

Ti s

feed back

signal b(t)

Figure 5 Block diagram of a proportional-plus-integral control system

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

u(t)

2Kp

Kp

proportional only

Ti

Proportional-plus-Derivative Control Action

The control action of proportional-plus-derivative controller is defined by

u t K p et K p Td

det

dt

..(8)

Us

K p 1 Td s

Es

..(9)

Both, Kp and Td are adjustable. The derivative control action is also called rate

control. In rate controller the output is proportional to the rate of change of actuating

error signal. The derivative time Td is the time interval by which the rate action advances

the effect of the proportional control action. The derivative controller is anticipatory in

nature and amplifies the noise effect. Fig.7 shows the block diagram of the proportionalplus-derivative. For an actuating error of unit ramp input, the controller output is shown

in Fig.8

actuating

Controller

error

error signal e(t) output u(t)

detector

reference

K P 1 TD S

input r(t)

feed back

signal b(t)

Prof. S. C.Pilli, Principal,

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

u(t)

proportional only

Td

t

Figure 8 Response of PD controller to unit actuating error signal

It is a combination of proportional control action, integral control action and derivative

control action. The equation of the controller is

u t K p e t

Kp

Ti

et dt K p Td

t

det

dt

..(10)

Us

1

K p 1

Td s

Ts

Es

i

..(11)

Where, Kp is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time, and Td is the derivative time.

The block diagram of PID controller is shown in Fig.9. For an actuating error of unit

ramp input, the controller output is shown in Fig.10.

error

detector

reference

input r(t)

actuating

error signal e(t)

K p 1 Ti s Ti Td s 2

Controller

output u(t)

Td s

feed back

signal b(t)

Figure 9 Block diagram of a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controller

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

u(t)

PD control action

proportional only

K.L.E.S. College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum-590008.

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