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Applied Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy

in V-down rib with gap in a rectangular duct of solar air heater

Sukhmeet Singh a,, Subhash Chander a, J.S. Saini b

a

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India1

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 18 July 2011

Received in revised form 28 November 2011

Accepted 29 November 2011

Available online 4 January 2012

Keywords:

V-down rib having gap

Thermo-hydraulic performance

Heat transfer

Friction factor

Articial roughness

a b s t r a c t

In this investigation, thermo-hydraulic performance of rectangular ducts roughened with a new conguration of V-down rib having gap on one wide wall is determined. Small symmetrical gap equal to rib

height is created at the centre of both legs of V of continuous V-down rib. The duct has aspect ratio

(AR) of 12 and the Reynolds number (Re) ranged from 3000 to 15,000. To simulate the indoor testing

of solar air heater, the roughened side of rectangular duct is heated with constant heat ux electric heater

while the other sides are insulated. The roughness has relative roughness height of 0.043 and relative

roughness pitch of 8. Five rib roughened plates having ow-attack-angle (a) from 30 to 75 have been

tested. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameter based on equal pumping power (g), friction factor

(f) and Nusselt number (Nu), were found to be highest for a = 60. The results obtained at a = 60 were

compared with those of continuous V-down rib for same rib-roughness parameters.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

An accepted method to enhance heat transfer from a surface is

to create articial rib roughness on it. The rib destroys viscous sublayer and cause wall turbulence locally because of ow separation

and reattachment. This increases heat transfer. The conventional

at plate solar air heater (SAH) has inherently low efciency due

to presence of viscous sublayer. Numerous studies are reported

on heat transfer enhancement in conventional solar air heater

[17]. Employment of articial rib on the underside of the absorber

of conventional SAH was rst proposed by Prasad and Mullick [8].

The rib roughness is also frequently employed in compact heat

exchangers [9] and gas turbine blades cooling [10] to promote

the heat transfer process. However, simultaneously the pumping

power requirement is increased due to increased friction losses.

This problem has been studied by many researchers in an attempt

to develop rib geometry that can substantially promote the heat

transfer with least pressure drop.

Early investigations on articial roughness relates to orthogonal

rib [11]. Inclined rib was found to cause greater heat transfer than

rib positioned at 90 to the ow i.e. orthogonal rib. Han and Park

[12] and Park et al. [13] studied thermal performance of angled

Corresponding author. Permanent address: School of Energy Studies for Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India. Tel.: +91 9465195252;

fax: +91 1812690328.

E-mail address: sukhmeet70@rediffmail.com (S. Singh).

1

Formerly.

0306-2619/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.090

by angled rib is signicantly greater than that caused by orthogonal rib. With the thrust of rib roughness moved to high heat

transfer, Han et al. [14] investigated V-up, V-down and angled

rib. They showed the V-rib resulted in higher performance than

the angled rib. For the range of Reynolds number and duct aspect

ratio normally used in SAH, the V-shape rib pointing downstream

results in higher heat transfer than those pointing upstream

[1518]. The V-down rib also produce lower friction factor than

V-up rib [15,16,18] but Karwa [17] reported otherwise.

The overall thermal and hydraulic performance of continuous

rib can be further increased by discretization. The ow through

the broken rib may disturb boundary layer development down

the nearby reattachment zone [19]. In addition, accelerated ow

through the region between the ribs cause heat transfer enhancement locally because of higher air velocity. Number of investigators have reported that the discretization of inclined ribs

improved heat transfer [1721]. Enhancement in heat transfer

due to discretization of V-shape ribs has also been reported

[16,17,2022]. The heat transfer increase was observed to be inuenced by discretization scheme. Two studies have been reported

for inclined rib having small gap [19,23]. The friction factor and

heat transfer were found to increase due to gap in inclined rib.

The heat transfer was highest for gap width equal to rib height

in continuous inclined rib.

The previous investigations have shown that V-down rib

perform better than V-up rib, which in-turn performs better than

angled as well as orthogonal ribs. It has also been shown that rib

908

Nomenclature

Ao

Ap

Cd

Cp

Dh

e/Dh

e

f

fs

Gair

H

h

Kair

Lf

_

m

Nu

Nus

absorber plate area (m2)

discharge coefcient

constant pressure specic heat (J/kg K)

hydraulic diameter (m)

relative roughness height

rib height (m)

roughened duct friction factor

smooth duct friction factor

mass velocity (kg/s m2)

duct depth (m)

convective heat transfer coefcient (W/m2 K)

thermal conductivity (W/m K)

duct length for pressure drop (m)

mass ow rate (kg/s)

roughened duct Nusselt number

smooth duct Nusselt number

having gap equal to rib height perform better than continuous rib.

It appears worthwhile to investigate V-down rib having gap equal

to rib height placed at the centre of both legs of V. In the present

investigation, it has been planned to experimentally study the

effect of variation in a of V-down rib having gap. For application

of rib roughness in SAH, one side of the duct is roughened and

given constant heat ux and other three sides are insulated and

kept smooth. In the following sections, the roughness geometry,

experimental details, data reduction and results are presented.

P

P/e

Pr

Qu

Re

Tfm

Ti

To

Tpm

W

a

DPo

dP

qair

qair,o

b

relative roughness pitch

Prandtl number

heat transfer rate to air (W)

Reynolds number

mean temperature of air (C)

inlet temperature of air (C)

average exit temperature of air (C)

average temperature of plate (C)

duct width (m)

angle of attack ()

pressure drop across orice plate (N/m2)

pressure drop across length Lf (N/m2)

air density at mean temperature (kg/m3)

air density at outlet temperature (kg/m3)

orice diameter to pipe diameter ratio

75 mm

The general geometry of V-down rib having gap is shown in

Fig. 1. The V-down rib has gap equal to rib height at the centre

of both legs of V. The relative roughness height (e/Dh) and relative

roughness pitch (P/e) were 0.043 and 8 respectively. The rib height

(e) was chosen such that it breaks the viscous sublayer and at the

same time, n and ow passage blockage effects are negligible

[24]. The relative roughness pitch (P/e) was selected as 8 for the

present investigation on V-down rib with gap because it was reported as optimum for continuous V-down rib by Hans et al. [25]

and for inclined rib with gap by Aharwal et al. [23]. The investigation was carried out to determine the friction factor and Nusselt

number due to change in a. Five roughened plates were prepared

for angle of attack (a) of 30, 45, 52, 60 and 75. Articial rib

roughness was created by xing aluminium wires of circular

cross-section on the lowerside of absorber plate. The Re was varied

from 3000 to 15,000.

3. Experimental details

3.1. Experimental setup

For studying the ow characteristics and heat transfer for Vdown rib having gap, an experimental setup has been designed

and fabricated (Fig. 2). The duct has three sections viz., test section,

entry section and exit section. On the exit side a centrifugal blower

and an orice meter are provided. The rectangular duct has

300 mm 25 mm ow cross-section. The respective length of test

section,

section and pexit

pentry

(9:2 WH) and 800 mm

(9:2

WH). The recommended least length

p

p

of entry section is 5 WH, while that of exit section is 2:5 WH

[26]. In test section, the ow can therefore be assumed fully developed. Exit section (800 mm length) was kept longer to minimise

e

e

Fig. 1. General geometry of V-down rib having gap.

the end effects. The top side of the test section is a sheet of galvanised iron (GI) having 1 mm thickness. The length of GI sheet is

2400 mm. It extends 500 mm on both sides in the entry and exit

section. The remaining entry (300 mm) and exit length (300 mm)

are smooth wooden. The inner surface of remaining three sides

of duct are also smooth wooden. The electric heater supplies constant heat ux (1000 W/m2) to absorber. Above the electric heater

is 75 mm-thick glass wool insulation; and on the top is 12 mmthick plywood to hold insulation. The mass ow rate was controlled by gate valve and measured using an orice meter. It was

calibrated with a standard Pitot tube.

For temperature measurement, calibrated 0.3-mm-diameter

copperconstantan thermocouples were employed. Sixteen thermocouples were used to measure temperature of absorber

(Fig. 3). Five thermocouples positioned span-wise after the mixing

section measured outlet air temperature and one thermocouple

positioned at inlet to test section measured inlet air temperature.

A data logger recorded output of the thermocouples. A digital micro-manometer of least count 0.1 Pa was used to measure test section pressure drop.

4. Experimental procedure

Experimental data for ow friction and heat transfer was collected as per the recommendation of ASHRAE Standard 93-77

909

Power Input - single phase, 220 V

CVT

V

14

MM

X

Air in

10

phase, 440 V

11

8

X

13

Air out

1 - Entry section (800 mm x 300 mm)

2 - Test section (1400 mm x 300 mm)

3 - Exit section (800 mm x 300 mm)

4 - Mixing section

5 - Transition section

6 - GI pipe (1000 mm x 81 mm diameter)

7 - Inclined U-tube manometer

8 - Orifice plate

9 - GI pipe (1000 mm x 81 mm diameter)

10 - Flexible pipe (1500 mm long)

11 - Gate valve

12 - Electric air blower

13 - Temperature recorder

14 - Variac

A - Ammeter

CVT - Constant volatge transformer

MM - Micro-manometer

V - Voltmeter

All dimensions in mm

Not to the scale

Section at XX

Fig. 2. Schematic of experimental setup.

100

300

Thermocouple

4

1

2

25

175

200

200

Duct section

15

11

8

7

10

9

200

12

14

22

21

20

19

18

16

13

200

200

175

25

Absorber plate

Outlet air

temperature

[26] for open loop ow solar collectors. The roughened plates having different values of angle of attack were tested. For comparing

the result of the roughened and smooth duct, a smooth duct was

tested under identical conditions.

At the start of each set of experiment, it was ensured that all

instruments were working properly and there was no leakage at

the joints. Data was collected in steady state. For each set, at the

start it takes 23 h to reach a steady state. The system attained

steady state when no considerable variation in plate temperature

and outlet air temperatures was observed over a period of

10 min. The parameters recorded for each set of experiment were

air temperature at inlet and outlet, absorber temperature, test section pressure drop and orice plate pressure drop.

4.1. Data reduction

_ heat transfer rate to air (Qu), heat transAir mass ow rate (m),

fer coefcient (h), Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) have

been calculated using the following equations:

_ C d Ao

m

2qair;o DP o

1 b4

_ p T o T i

Q u mC

h

Qu

Ap T pm T fm

Nu

hDh

K air

2dPqair Dh

4Lf G2air

0:5

1

2

3

temperature.

On the basis of error analysis [27], the uncertainties at

Re = 3000 (lowest Re investigated) have been estimated to be

2.41% in Nusselt number, 9.16% in friction factor and 1.67% in

910

0.016

f s = 0.085 Re 0.25

0.012

Friction factor

Nusselt number

0.014

Experimental values

60

40

20

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

Experimental values

0.002

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

0.000

2000

4000

6000

8000

Reynolds number

Reynolds number

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. Comparison of predicted and experimental values of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) for conventional SAH duct.

Nusselt number

120

100

80

0.035

=30

=45

=52

=60

=75

60

40

0.025

0.020

0.015

20

0

2000

=30

=45

=52

=60

=75

0.030

Friction factor

140

4000

6000

0.010

2000

4000

6000

Reynolds number

Reynolds number

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5. Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) of rib roughened duct as a function of Reynolds number (Re).

Reynolds number; and the respective values at Re = 15,000 (highest Re investigated) are 6.76%, 1.67% and 1.62%.

5. Validity test

For validation of experimental setup, the friction factor and

Nusselt number were determined from experimentation on

smooth duct. The respective values were also theoretically

calculated from the smooth duct correlations. For friction factor

the modied Blasius equation [28] and for Nusselt number the

DittusBoelter equation [29] was used.

fs 0:085Re0:25

The comparative values are shown in Fig. 4. The average absolute deviation of experimental values of friction factor and Nusselt

number are 7.5% and 2.9% respectively, from the predicted values.

This ensured accuracy of data collected with the present setup.

6. Results and discussion

Fig. 5 shows the effect of Re on Nusselt number and friction

factor for various values of a. As a increases from 30 to 60, the

Nusselt number and friction factor increase and the both reduce

with further increase in a. This variation may be caused by interac-

tion of, secondary ow and boundary layer, at front side of rib. The

boundary layer is due to main ow with the roughened surface and

originates from ow reattachment point between the ribs up to the

succeeding downstream rib. The strength of secondary ow along

the rib changes with change in angle of attack. These two factors

determine the value of Nusselt number and friction factor at different a. The results agree with earlier study on V-down rib by Han

et al. [14].

The SAH duct roughened with V-down rib having gap result in

higher Nusselt number as well as friction factor as compared to

smooth conventional SAH duct. So a performance parameter needs

to be determined that takes into account both Nusselt number and

friction factor to evaluate its usefulness. A thermo-hydraulic performance parameter based on equal pumping power (g) dened

by Webb and Eckert [30] considers both the Nusselt number and

friction factor enhancement.

Nu=Nus

f =fs 1=3

overall advantageous to use roughened duct in comparison with

smooth duct. The effect of Re on this parameter (g) for various values of a is shown in Fig. 6. For all a, the value of g is more than

unity. Hence the performance of SAH duct roughened with V-down

rib having gap is better as compared to smooth duct. It is highest

for a = 60, thereby indicating that it is advantageous to use

911

2.4

2.2

2.0

2.1

=30

=45

=52

=60

=75

Thermo-hydraulic

performance parameter

Thermohydraulic performance

parameter

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

2000

4000

6000

8000

Reynolds number

Fig. 6. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter (g) of rib roughened duct as a

function of Reynolds number (Re) for different ow-attack-angle (a).

140

Nusselt number

120

100

80

60

40

20

2000

Continuous V-down rib

4000

6000

Reynolds number

Fig. 7. Comparison of variation in Nusselt number (Nu) of SAH duct roughened with

V-down rib having gap and continuous V-down rib.

0.04

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.6

2000

Continuous V-down rib

4000

6000

8000

Reynolds number

Fig. 9. Comparison of variation in thermo-hydraulic performance parameter (g) of

SAH duct roughened with V-down rib having gap and continuous V-down rib.

for continuous V-down rib were same. These parameters were P/

e = 8, a = 60 and e/Dh = 0.043. The duct aspect ratio was also same

for the two studies. The Nusselt number is more for V-down rib

having gap in comparison with continuous V-down rib (Fig. 7).

The friction factor is more for V-down rib having gap up to Reynolds number of 9000 (Fig. 8). For a V-down rib, the local Nusselt

number in transverse direction between adjacent ribs reduces

from leading edges to the V-apex due to increase in boundary layer

thickness [15]; and with the creation of gap in the rib, a region of

high local Nusselt number develops downside of the gap [19]. In

present study, symmetrical gap at the centre of both legs of Vdown rib helps in increasing the local Nusselt number downstream

of the gap. Hence the average Nusselt number is more for V-down

rib having gap than continuous V-down rib. The result agrees with

the earlier studies on inclined ribs with gap [19,23]. The thermohydraulic performance parameter (g) of duct roughened with Vdown rib having gap is more than that roughened with continuous

V-down rib (Fig. 9). Therefore the roughness, V-down rib having

gap, is thermo-hydraulically better.

Friction factor

8. Conclusions

0.03

A solar air heater duct roughened with V-down rib having gap

equal to rib height placed at the centre of both legs of V was experimentally investigated for variation in ow-attack-angle. The following conclusions are drawn:

0.02

0.01

Continuous V-down rib

0.00

2000

4000

6000

Reynolds number

Fig. 8. Comparison of variation in friction factor (f) of SAH duct roughened with Vdown rib having gap and continuous V-down rib.

a. The highest value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter

obtained is 2.06 at Re = 12,000.

are strong function of ow-attack-angle.

2. The highest friction factor and Nusselt number occur at owattack-angle of 60 and they decrease on both sides of this

angle.

3. The symmetrical gap equal to rib height in both legs of V results

in substantial improvement in the thermo-hydraulic performance parameter based on equal pumping power.

4. The highest thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is 2.06

corresponding to ow-attack-attack of 60.

References

7. Comparison of results

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