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Harmonics THD Distortion Calculation by Filtering for PQM

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**Total Harmonic Distortion Calculation by
**

Filtering for Power Quality Monitoring

Gérson Eduardo Mog, Researcher, Lactec, and Eduardo Parente Ribeiro, Dr., UFPR

**Abstract--Measuring and monitoring quality parameters of
**

AC power systems requires several calculations, such the Total

Harmonic Distortion (THD) of voltage and current. This

calculation is performed with samples of the monitored

waveforms, at sample frequency equal to a power of two multiple

of the frequency of waves. The samples are converted to digital

values by Analog-to-Digital Converters, with a finite number of

bits. Numeric algorithms applied to these digital values insert

some errors in the final results, due to the number of bits used in

calculations. The most used algorithm to obtain the THD is FFT.

Conventional 16-bit DSP FFT algorithms use only 16-bit

calculations, despite the DSP 40-bit hardware accumulator. The

results are errors in amplitude of each harmonic order. Using

these amplitudes to calculate the THD, these errors are summed,

and the final error is very greater. The purpose of this article is

to present an algorithm to calculate the THD using the DSP 40bit hardware accumulator and resulting more accurate results.

Index Terms -- Algorithms, Discrete time systems, Discrete

Fourier transforms, Distortion, Harmonic analysis, Harmonic

distortion, Measurement errors, Power quality, Sampled data

systems, Signal analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

**N AC power energy systems, measurements of quality
**

parameters must be performed at several network points.

Some measurements are expressed by waveform parameters

of voltage and current, such the Total Harmonic Distortion

(THD), expressing a waveform deviation from the ideal

sinusoidal pattern [1].

The THD is obtained by calculations with samples of the

monitored voltage or current waveforms, at sample frequency

equal to an integer multiple, generally a power of two, of the

nominal frequency of waves. Samples are converted to

numeric values by Analog-to Digital Converters, which

digitalize the values to a finite bit number. Numeric

algorithms are applied to the digitalized samples, introducing

more errors, due to the limited bit number used in

calculations. In this case, we used 64 samples per cycle and

14-bit signed analog to digital conversion.

The most used numeric algorithm is FFT, because the

computational time is reduced. However, each final value is a

result of another value with added error, due to the nature of

**G. E. Mog is with Lactec (Institute of Technology for Development) and
**

UFPR (Federal University of Paraná), Curitiba, PR, Brazil (e-mail:

gerson@lactec.org.br)

E. P. Ribeiro is with the Electric Engineer Department of UFPR (Federal

University of Paraná), Curitiba, PR, Brazil (e-mail: edu@eletrica.ufpr.br)

**FFT, which applies several calculations in steps, each step
**

depending on the results from the preceding one, with error

propagation. In our implementation, using a commercial FFT

library, we obtained a 0,5% error in each individual result of

the FFT, resulting a 0,7% error each harmonic order. This

error is reasonable for the individual results, but the THD

error is very great, if calculated by these values. For the THD,

the error is multiplied by a square root of the harmonic order

number, approximately 5,6 for up to the harmonic order 32,

resulting a 4% error. This method is not suited to calculate the

THD.

The second tried method is the real DFT, with a 64 by 64

integer Q15 matrix. The samples are putted in a column 64

elements vector, and multiplied by the real DFT matrix, that

is, each real DFT matrix line, using a scalar product support

DSP instruction "repeat MAC". This feature uses a 40-bit

accumulator, instead a 16-bit variables used in FFT library,

and the errors are very reduced. This method uses a very great

amount of memory to accommodate the vectors and matrices

to perform the calculations, and is not suitable for small

systems.

The third method is filtering the input waves. The first

filter is to obtain the fundamental component, and the second,

to obtain the wave without the fundamental component. These

two resulting waves have their RMS value calculated, thus

resulting the FFT.

II. THD CALCULATION

The THD may be calculated by one the following

expressions.

N /2

THD1 =

∑v

h=2

2

h

(1)

v1

N /2

THD2 =

∑v

h=2

2

h

N /2

∑v

h =1

(2)

2

h

**Here, h is the harmonic order, N is the amount of samples
**

per period, and vh is the harmonic order h amplitude. N/2 is

the maximum harmonic order.

Equation (1) calculates the THD related to the fundamental

2 shows the same for the second real power line AC signal. it was applied to several real and simulated signals. and applied (4) and (5) to obtain the THD. that is. Fig. given by (6). Fig. ALGORITHM Upon the last N discrete numeric results from the two filters. and zero value at the another harmonic frequencies. Fundamental Filter The fundamental. The Nyquist term. vd = N /2 ∑v h=2 (3) 2 h THD2 = ∑ cos h =2 vd v1 (4) vd v1 + vd 2 (5) 2 III. because it represents a summation of both actual and aliasing terms.34% if calculated by (4). Thus. . Fig. The corresponding filter F2(k) is given by (8). Note the very good discrimination of the different frequencies from the three last signals. and the filtered summation of harmonics 2 to 32. to compare results. filter F1(k) is the one period cosine line. 1 shows the original signal. except the DC value and numeric errors. N −1 2hkπ 1 + cos(kπ ) 0 ≤ k < N N N N 2 −1 N −1 The final goal is the most precisely distortion amplitude calculation. FILTER DEVELOPMENT A. the RMS value are calculated. resulting an amount of calculation the same as the DFT application. First. one pair to each harmonic order. by (3). with well-known characteristics to compare the results with theory. which have a greater DC offset. first order. is the Nyquist term. The distortion wave is given by the same way as the fundamental wave. with theoretical THD of 10%. a real filter and an imaginary filter. Note the elimination of DC value. the filtered fundamental result. This pair of filters is a perfect reconstruction filter pair. F1 (k ) = 2 N x 2 (n ) = ∑ (F2 (k )x(n − k )) Due to (3). it is possible to define the distortion amplitude. 3 shows the same for the third real power line AC signal. the THD calculated from (4) will be theoretically 33%. if exist. 2 2kπ cos N N 0≤k < N (6) The value 2/N is used to normalize the result to the input signal amplitude. (1) and (2) becomes (4) and (5). it was used to measure the THD from three real power line AC signals. (9) k =0 Each line of the real DFT matrix defines a filter. The denominator of (5) is the total AC RMS amplitude. by (9). because the filter calculations (7) and (9) are performed at each sample. with theoretical THD of 48. Fig. Table 1 shows the THD values calculated for the six signals. in solid line. These calculations uses the DSP instruction "repeat MAC" to improve calculation performance. and must be divided by two. where fs is the signal frequency. THD1 = F2 (k ) = (7) k =0 B. the summation of the output signals from the two filters is almost exactly the input original signal. Fig. It is very difficult to obtain a real signal with significant distortion to show here. in dashed line. Distortion Filter All the cosine lines of the real DFT matrix are orthogonal in one signal period. order N/2 must have special treatment. the fundamental wave is given by (7). 6 shows the same for a square wave.2 (first order) power. 5 shows the same for a 10% amplitude fifth harmonic. It allows the summation of remainder cosine lines to obtain the band filter from harmonic order 2 to N/2. Using a N element x(k) vector. x1 (n ) = ∑ (F1 (k )x(n − k )) (8) The last term. for the first real power line AC signal. and may result from the AC RMS calculation from the original input signal or by the quadratic summation of the RMS values form the two filtered waves. RESULTS To verify the accuracy of this method. divided by two. the next three cases are for simulated signals. and the ideal characteristics. The real filter is defined by a cosine sequence. Thus. and the set of real filters corresponds to a cosine transform of the signal. For integer f/fs and h values. IV. the basic difference between the original and fundamental waves. 4 shows the same set of curves for a 33% amplitude third harmonic. and the amplitude response shape is a sinc(f/fs-h) function. Fig. The performance result is not very well. this function corresponds to a unitary discrete impulse at f/fs = h. In both cases. each real DFT matrix line that corresponds to a real filter is the desired filter at each harmonic order. Each filter matches the value one in the center frequency. V. h = N/2. while (2) calculates it related to the total signal power.

3. 1. Filter results from the first real power line AC signal Fig. 2.3 Fig. Filter results from the square wave simulated signal . 4. 6. Filter results from the second real power line AC signal Fig. Filter results from the third real power line AC signal Fig. Filter results from the simulated signal with 10% fifth harmonic Fig. 5. Filter results from the simulated signal with 33% third harmonic Fig.

it might be possible to develop algorithms to calculate the THD without a continuous filtering. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS As shown in results.95 5 10% fifth harmonic 10 9.18 2 Real power line AC - 0.98 6 square wave 48.27 3 Real power line AC - 1.4 Table 1: Calculated THD for several signals and their ideal characteristics THD (%) Signal Description Ideal Calculated 1 Real power line AC - 1.15 VI. In this case. June 14. by choosing the cosine lines of DFT matrix. each sample. . VII. the amount of calculations performed in this method is no better than the DFT method. The filters here described are easy to develop and are suitable for sampled signals without frequency deviation from the nominal one. By using the imaginary (sine) lines of the real DFT matrix. it is possible to develop a set of filters with perfect signal reconstruction.34 48.18 4 33% third harmonic 33 32. 1159. 1995. IEEE recommended practice for monitoring electric power quality .IEEE Std. with the same accuracy. this method is powerful to calculate the THD for several signals. The orthogonal DFT matrix lines allow the band-pass filter development by summation of the desired harmonic orders corresponding cosine lines. Due to the continuous filtering. and by less calculations as the DFT method. REFERENCES [1] IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 22 on Power Quality. The final accuracy of the results for the shown examples may be considered as a good accuracy indicator of the method.

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