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Passive Voice

1. Present Simple Passive:
People chop down a lot of trees every year.

A lot of trees are chopped every year.
2. Past Simple Passive
The ancient Greeks built the Acropolis.

The Acropolis was built by the ancient Greeks.
3. Present Continuous Passive
An expert is restoring the antique car.

The antique car is being restored by an expert.
4. Past Continuous Passive
Hijackers were holding the plane passengers hostage.

The plane passengers were being held hostage by hijackers.
5. Present Perfect Simple Passive
The government has increased the tax on cigarettes.

The tax on cigarettes has been increased by the government.
6. Past Perfect Simple Passive
People had seen the little boy playing in the park.

The little boy had been seen playing in the park.
7. Future Simple Passive
A number of reporters will meet the professor at the airport.

The professor will be met at the airport by a number of reporters.
8. Passive of modal verbs (can/could/may/might/should/must/ought to)
Bad weather may delay your flight.

Your flight may be delayed by bad weather.

A number of reporters will meet the professor at the airport. Bad weather may delay your flight. 6. Present Perfect Simple Passive have/has + been + …-ed/3 col. Past Continuous Passive was/were + being + …-ed/3 col. Present Continuous Passive am/is/are + being + …-ed/3 col. The tax on cigarettes has been increased by the government. Hijackers were holding the plane passengers hostage. Passive of modal verbs (can/could/may/might/should/must/ought to) can/could/may/might/should/must/ought to …-ed/3 col. People chop down a lot of trees every year. The Acropolis was built by the ancient Greeks. 5. People had seen the little boy playing in the park. 8. Present Simple Passive: am/is/are + …-ed/3 col. An expert is restoring the antique car. The professor will be met at the airport by a number of reporters. The government has increased the tax on cigarettes. Past Perfect Simple Passive had + been + …-ed/3 col. Past Simple Passive was/were + …-ed/3 col. The antique car is being restored by an expert. Your flight may be delayed by bad weather. A lot of trees are chopped every year.Passive Voice 1. The ancient Greeks built the Acropolis. Future Simple Passive will + be + …-ed/3 col. The plane passengers were being held hostage by hijackers. 4. The little boy had been seen playing in the park. . 3. 2. 7.

This festival has been reported to be the largest in the world.It is believed that the climate is changing.It was thought that he inherited a fortune.They were thought to be lying. Present Perfect / Past Perfect – perfect infinitive eg. .The climate is believed to be changing.It was claimed that he had been there at the time of murder. .She is said to have millions in the bank.It was thought that they were lying.He is known to have been in prison.It has been reported that the festival is the largest in the world. Journalists have reported that this festival is the largest in the world. People say that she has millions in the bank.He was claimed to have been there at the time of murder. . Everyone knows that he has been in prison. . .Impersonal and personal passive constructions Present Simple – to infinitive eg. Past Simple – perfect infinitive eg. .It is said that she has millions in the bank. . . . . Many people believe that the climate is changing. .It is known that he has been in prison. . . Present Continuous / Past Continuous – progressive infinitive eg. . . Everyone thought that they were lying. People thought he inherited a fortune.He was thought to have inherited a fortune. They claimed that he had been there at the time of murder.

Supposing it rains. we won’t be late for the meeting. was / were main clause I would buy a luxurious flat. present simple Type I – is used to express real or very probable situations in the present or future If-clause main clause If he gets paid today. would + verb Type III – is used to express imaginary situations which were not realized in the past If-clause If Lewis had gone to the party. present simple future simple Type II – is used to express unreal. would + verb main clause he would make lots of changes. will you still go for a picnic with him? . present simple main clause you get orange. hypothetical.) . eg. (If it doesn’t stop snowing. the plane won’t take off. .so long as / as long as eg. I’ll pick your clothes up from the dry cleaner’s provided that I finish work before three o’clock.on condition that .supposing / suppose eg. past perfect simple main clause he would have seen Jane.providing / provided that eg. would have + past participle . As long as he is on time. he will treat me to a meal tonight. imaginary situations which are unlikely to happen in the present or future If-clause If I won the lottery. the plane won’t take off. past simple If-clause If Mike were the manager.Conditionals Type O (Zero Conditional) – is used to express a general truth or a scientific fact If-clause If you mix red and yellow. Unless it stops snowing.

Should you need my advice.If you should need my advice. he wouldn’t have missed the bus. you can call me. she would get a promotion.to say that you would like something to be different in the present wish / regret about a present situation we want to be different I wish + past simple If only I wish I were a millionaire. (but I’m not) If only you worked more efficiently.to express regret about something which happened or didn’t happen in the past regret that something happened or didn’t happen in the past (regret about the past) I wish + past perfect simple If only I wish I had taken their advice. If she were more efficient. (but I didn’t take their advice) (but I didn’t go to her party) . you can call me. Had he arrived on time. If only I had gone to Ann’s party last night. WISHES . (but you don’t work more efficiently) . he wouldn’t have missed the bus. Were she more efficient. she would get a promotion. If he had arrived on time.