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Calligraphy and Music

Author(s): Margot Leigh Milner
Source: Early Music, Vol. 15, No. 3, Lully Anniversary Issue (Aug., 1987), pp. 437-440
Published by: Oxford University Press
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She gave a fascinating account of the painful process by which scribes acquire the necessary skills. from the tablets of ancient Sumeria to today's software package. and had a full house of scribes and musicians. M. With the advent of the Oxford Music Processor we must look back at our tradition and garner from it such exemplars of style as will continue to make us aware of the best we have inherited . Lewis Jones and Richard Vendome. examples of illumination from the Bodleian Library.scene iii of Carnavalet la Folle (Paris. It was held at the Institute of Historical Research in Senate House. Tools ranged from goose feathers. ink stones. .' This was the message of J. books on the history of printing and writing. to the Conference on Calligraphy and Music which he. Chinese stick ink. University of London. parchment and pounce to Rotring pens and a William Mitchell set of music pens. is ni ( Jean Berain:annotated design for Act IV. She pointed out that it was early scribes rather than the musicians who developed musical notation. In the neumes of around the 11th and 12th centuries the true calligrapher's strokes appear and by the late 15th century in French secular music the assured notation had acquired a more animated EARLYMUSIC AUGUST 1987 437 .391) Calligraphy and Music 'The sense of ease and elegance immanent in good calligraphy is also there in the best of printed music. Thomson. Chairman Emeritus of the National Early Music Association. was instrumental in setting up earlier this year. a quill. presided. This may seem a remote annexe of musical life. and later the printers adopted their crisp and even notation.EVENTS Jen Bera: s f A s a . in collaboration with Madeau Stewart. books on calligraphy from Islam. Sir David Lumsden. . There were manuals of lettering. China and Japan as well as other exhibits including biographies of Erik Satie and Edward Johnston. Madeau Stewart had arranged a stimulating and comprehensive exhibition of books and tools to conjure up a vivid picture of the art and craft of the scribe through the ages. but it is a vital one. especially in the preparation of tools and materials and the inevitable disasters that overtake them. calamus or reed pens.Archives nationales) (see p. the new Chairman of NEMA. Talks were given by Madeau Stewart. Hugh Davies. Discussion ranged wide.

A composer may wish to find some medium that can convey his intention to an interpreter even more precisely than is possible through standard Western notation. Virginals. ave graphicc no he page extended ex ended hor horizontally zon a y across the various ous iss sstudded udded w with h symbo symbolss and var d the he echn ca ssigns ornaments.k Illustratedcatalogue ?1 or equivalent Copperfield 20 Pratt Street Soham. A MS107501. Cambs CB7 5BH % 438 / EARLYMUSIC AUGUST 1987 appearance. ro a hree seem too All three c1517.'Bewareof using antique fantasies. He demonstrated how graphic signals were developed in an endeavour to convey instruction in music performanceto those unfamiliar with notation by demonstrating Curwen's tonic sol-fa and the Kodaly method. CLASSICAL ORGANS 1 to 4 manual & pedal Also Baroque and Transitional Guitars I LAMEL TOWERS I 81 HULL RD. am ar The prec the he un precise se and com in n the he notation no a on elegant e egan system sys em plete p ee decorated ed Cap and beau Capirola ro a beautifully u y decora understandable andab etoo every everymanuscript manuscr p iss unders ha used by oses too that he cclosest one and iss the u e books hiss pr n h Petrucci Pe rucc in printed n ed lute onwards. Spinets. e n r ca e or sub anything h ng intricate express any Like L ke many con contemporary emporary composers he with h the he has a love-hate ove ha e re relationship a onsh pw andard Wes Western ern with h the he sstandard piano p ano as w n re renotation. Fromthe 13th to the 18th centuries there were varying phases of complex and simplified music and this was reflected in the development of a simplified and standardized notation.and 16th-centurytablatures for lute. Speaking on 'Graphic elements in musical notation'. He pointed out that visual solutions to problems of notation in earlymusic are similarto some of those in contemporarymusic.Nicholas Keen. Catalogue 4 x 1st class stamps. rom 1507 onwards issued ssued from he earlier er manuscr wo ear The two manuscripts p s on the he he tail a end oof the oother her hand came aat the rad on and appear too have medieval med eva tradition musicians: c ans or the he use oof exper been for expert mus and abbreviated abbrev a ed notation a on iss h the he no highly gh y de memo reand rather her as an aaide-memoire used ra he p np players ayers pieces eces the nger ng in guide gu de too fingering Thibault bau manuscr well. ornamen s technical gns too aaid exhs w with h ex us ra ed this player. Onthe subject of authenticity-and this came up again in the discussion-she stressed that notation is not an object in itself but only a tool. the he Cap c1505. ARCM CLASSICAL HARPSICHORDS Clavichords. Fortepiano. He traced the history of the development of notation and the problems of visual communication of the composer's meaning from a Greek tablet of 100BCto John Cage and Peter Maxwell Davies. A speaker from the floor confirmed the view that a performer. on a 15th-century 10-line stave in keyboard music. BPhil. a on espec system sys em oof no especially a y in 19th h cen he 19 century. and the MS275.) Prestel Mailbox 904411873 i I C x A Mr/ Stv Nst Mark Stevenson . on tablaturesand neumes of the early 9th century up to the 11th. Pedalboard instruments Individuallv produced kits.' wrote Edward Johnston. Hugh Davies likened the standard system of notation to the piano: both have a wide range of resources which are useful. Nevertheless an original autographscore may give more insight into what the composer intended. working from an autograph score. often finds a guide to fresh ideas of what the composer meant. He was not so concerned with the calligraphicaspect. oof c1517 MS107501 he work oof p be the player/scribes ayer scr bes who or rom ex existing s ng sources for pieces eces from copied cop ed p us ra e des too illustrate use. yet they bland and and both have elements tha that are b which ch make it d difficult cu too neutral neu ra wh subtle. 'But is copying the past in all detail necessary?'asked Madeau Stewart. p ayer He illustrated ue hree ear rom three earlyy lute amples amp es drawn from Northern hern IItaly: rom Nor ay manuscripts manuscr p s from Thibaud baud he Th Pesaro 1144 oof c1495 c1495. YORK YO 1 3JS Tel: 0904-411873 (24 hrs. BA Cantab. though he believes that a good handwritten score gives more insight into the composer's mind and perhaps conveys some of his feelings to the interpreter so that the interpreter's feelings are engaged. a on The sstave. touching (with illustrations) on-old Chinese symbols. Forthe purposes of this talk her main concern was not with the music itself but with the formation of the notes. on 14th-centurytablaturesfor keyboard and 15th. Us their he r own use Using ng sslides with h the he dealt w Lewiss Jones dea hiss po h points n s Lew n reverse chrono chronological og ca manuscripts manuscr p s in am ar too he familiar rom the order proceed proceeding ng from comunfamiliar. oof c1505 MS275 Capirola. The Th knew we manuscript p . Hugh Davies was chiefly concerned with the problemsof notation for the composer and musician over the centuries. Since the 16th century scribes and musicians have drifted apart and today it is the graphic artist who seems to have taken over the renaissance of notation. ury spect oof the spec hiss theme heme Lewiss Jones approached h Lew rom Lutee Tab Tablature' a ure from oof 'Calligraphy Ca graphyoof Lu na ha lute u e tablature ab a ureiss in the he sstandpoint andpo n that sense a graph notation.

Crawford Young demonstrated the existence of a thriving 15th-century tradition of solo lute playing and suggested ways of reconstructingthe style. HATFIELD. He conceived and developed OMP as a means of making his post-graduate thesis on 17th-centurymusic available for publication in a modernedition. ornamented barlines. England.hit upon a happy idea in organizing this five-day international event during the final days of the 1986 UtrechtEarlyMusic Festival. instruments and engravings from Dutch collections. (A-430).r I CHARLES WELLS IEARLY WOODWIND MAKER SPECIALISING IN FLUTES AND OBOES OF THE BAROQUE AND CLASSICAL PERIODS cOo 6 oiAw iv:' lble Flutes by Hotteterre. It is in a more formal hand than the Capirola manuscript with less cursive figures and lettering. YORKSHIRE. The fourth (1560-1570) is that of Tempesta Blondi. this emphasis was especially vivid in the first two days.Owingto a generous allocation of lute-orientated concerts in this part of the Festival programme. As well as the concerts and formal papers.togetherwith the Utrechtbased performance practice research group STIMU. S. 32. This conference was a huge success. in fact in some places downright messy. Gemeentemuseum) as 'the most importantsingle collection of Italian Renaissance lute music' showed how central the technique of . He described the method of coding the music for input. stressed by almost every speaker. Utrecht's fascinating museum of mechanical instruments housed an excellent exhibition'De Luit'(based on one seen in France in the early 1980s) with a display of manuscripts. publishers.7 of the NEMAJournal. composers. Christchurch Road. link lines. arrangersand scholars.the schedule for the participants was crammedwith stimulating fare. of editing in. DN7 6SD m William Mitchell Franco-Flemish Harpsichords Single and Double manual instruments after RuckersHemsch Fircroft House. He gave a deceptively simple exposition of the process by which a musician with no previous computer experience can enter the music on a keyboard in the form of a simple code which enables 200-400 pages of music to be stored on one floppy disk. who filled up any spaces with his own poetry. and providingthe various means of output. (A-440 or 415). 3-7 September. the instrument itself. and could have the greatest significance for the future. Metzler. printed books. The Pesaro manuscript originatingat the end of the 15th century is the earliest major lute manuscriptand the best witness to the 15th-centurytradition of lute playing. Oboe by Cahusac. irregularnote groups in contemporarymusic. RichardVendome'smasterlydemonstration of the OxfordMusic Processor was a fitting climax to the day.MANOR ROAD. DETAILS FROM FORGE COTTAGE. MARGOT LEIGH MILNER Utrecht Lute Symposium The recently-founded and enthusiastic Nederlandse Luit Verenigung (Dutch Lute Society). it provides a speedy and cheap means of obtaining high quality camera-ready artwork. Unexpectedly. and the need for a composer's tool kit. makers and scholars alike. this. Slides showed examples of ornaments. ArthurNess's evaluation of the 'Siena' Lute Book (Hague. the lute in ensemble.immediatelyfollowing the more formalJosquin Symposium. those with the highest 'academic' content.a poet. like the thriving 'Oude Muziek Markt. presumably according to the source. A verbatim report of the talks and discussion will appear in no. There are 23 pieces in four different hands which differ greatly in character and in details of notation. Bournemouth. whether in reconstructing instrumentsor repertories. Telephone: Bournemouth (0202) 428835 m 440 EARLYMUSICAUGUST1987 has almost no rhythmsigns and almost no barlines. ( A 392). DONCASTER. This partcontains the only known example of music for the lira da braccio.Lewis Jones explained the notation which seems to vary from piece to piece.performance practice or teaching methods. A few problems remain to be sorted out such as underlay of text. proved irresistible to players. It is a book in the shape of a heartbut is not particularlyelegant on the page. French Flageolet. the high standard of informed and lively discussion augured well for future dialogue. Dorset BH7 6DB. This software package is a remarkablebreakthrough for professional copyists. the problems of lute teaching and the lute in 1986-an unstated leitmotifwas the idea of creativity. and the various rhythmic signs used. some of them mysterious. Throughoutthe five days-concentrating respectively on intabulations (arrangements for lute).