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Complex

Analysis

ISBN

978-7-115-17840-4

ISBN

978-7-115-17840-4/O1

Complex
published

by

Analysis,

Cambridge

first

University

This reprint edition for
with

the Press

This

the

Syndicate of the

\302\251
Cambridge

Macao SAR

edition

edition
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9780521809375) by
Press 2007. All rights reserved.
(ISBN

University

Press and
in

the

of China

Republic

People's

of Cambridge,

Kunihiko

is published

Cambridge,

first

Kodaira,

arrangement

by

United

Kingdom.

POSTS & TELECOMPRESS2008.

mainland

and may not be bought

of China
for

only,

export

excluding

therefrom.

Hong

Kong

SAR,

Preface

This book

aims to give a clear explanation

classical

of

theory

of analytic

functions of one complex
is,
functions;
theory
of function
variable.In modern treatments
theory it is customary to call a
if
its
exists.
function
derivative
to the old
However, we return
holomorphic
if its derivative
exists and is
definition, calling a function
holomorphic
this
is
more
natural
since
we
believe
a
continuous,
approach.
to function
The first difficulty
one encounters
in writing
an introduction
the
Theorem
is
involved
in
and
theory
topology
Cauchy's
Cauchy's integral
of the
book we prove the
in a
formula. In the first chapter
latter
from
result
we
deduce
the
and
that
basic
case,
topologically
simple
propertiesof
In the second chapter we prove
functions.
the general
holomorphic
I have tried to replace
formula.
version of Cauchy's Theorem and integral
of holomorphic

the

that

the necessarytopological
considerations
This

considerations.

out to

turned

way

with

elementary

be longer than

I expected,

original Japanese three-volume edition I had
intention
Chapter 5 was completed.My original
analytic

many-valued

algebraic function,
as

surface

its generalization.

Now,

with

and

surfaces

Riemann

Similarly,for

the

function

theory

of

of curved surfaces is
The Concept
book:
content of Weyl's
on

Riemann

Surfaces,

but

original policy of replacing

the

of the

appearance
link

between

theory is restored.
Riemann surfaces, with

the topology
Functions

the
the

to present classical
Riemann surface of an
concept of a Riemann

was

in particular
the
functions,
to introduce
the general
and

Japanese edition in a single volume,

the

2 before

Volume

end

to

geometric
so that in

the

complete

the theory
assumption

of
that

the
was to introduce the
plan
Riemann
Surfaces. Part II:
of
been counter to the
would
have

known,

that

topological

approach

with

elementary

geometrical considerations. Thus, in Chapter 7, I have tried to illuminate
Riesurfaces
characteristics of compact Riemann
by using
topological
7 became
mann's mapping theorem. Consequently,
Chapter
longer than
to
the
Riemann-Roch
8
is
limited
was
so
covering
Chapter
planned,
theorem
analytic

and Abel's
functions

theorem, which are the most basictheoremsregarding
Riemann surfaces.

on compact

Contents

1
1.1

a. The complex
c.

1.2

1.3

2

1

plane

of a complexvariable
functions
Holomorphic
Functions

5

9
15

series

Power

a.

Series whose terms

b.

Power series

15

functions

are

16
24

Integrals

Curves

25

b. Integrals

30

a.

1.4

1

functions

Holomorphic
b.

1

functions

Holomorphic

c.

Cauchy's

d.

Power

integral
series

formula

Limits

c.

The Mean

d.

Isolated

e.

Entire

Cauchy's

43

expansions

Properties of holomorphic
a. wth-order derivatives

b.

of sequences
Value

47

functions

47

of holomorphic functions
and the maximum
Theorem

49

principle

51
52

singularities

58

functions

60

Theorem

2.1 Piecewisesmooth

35

for circles

60

curves

a.

Smooth Jordan curves

b.

Boundaries

of bounded

60
closed regions

65

Contents

2.2

Cellular

a.

74

decomposition

74

Calls

b. Cellulardecomposition
2.3

80

101

Theorem

Cauchy's

a.

Cauchy's

Theorem

101

b.

Cauchy's

integral formula

104

106

c. Residues

d.
2.4

of definite

Evaluation

and

Differentiability

109

integrals

113

homology

Conformal mappings

117

3.1

Conformal

117

3.2

The Riemann sphere

3

3.3

4
4.1

mappings

132

a.

The

b.

Holomorphic functions

Riemann

132

sphere
with

c.

Local

d.

Homogeneous coordinates

Linear

singularity at oo

Linear

b.

Cross ratio

c.

Elementary

139
139

transformations

fractional

142

148

conformal mappings

153

continuation

Analytic

Analytic

138

transformations

fractional

a.

153

continuation

a.

Analytic

continuation

b.

Analytic

continuation

153
by expansion

Analytic

continuation

along

4.3

Analytic

continuation

by integrals

4.4 Cauchy'sTheorem

Riemann's

135
137

coordinates

4.2

5

an isolated

curves

(continued)

Mapping Theorem

5.1

Riemann's

5.2

Correspondence of boundaries

5.3

The principle

Mapping

Theorem

of reflection

in power

series

157
160
180
190

200
200
214

224

Contents

a.

The

224

of reflection

principle

b. Modular functions

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

c.

Picard's

d.

The

7.1

247

a.

Differential forms

247

b.

Line

249

c.

Harmonic forms

d.

Harmonic

integrals

257
258

functions

Riemann surfaces

260

a.

Hausdorff

spaces

260

b.

Definition

of Riemann surfaces

263

on a

forms

Differential

a.

Differential

b.

Line integrals
finite

Locally

268
268

272
open

d.

Partition

Green's Theorem

Dirichlet's

Riemann surface

forms

e.

275

coverings

278

of unity

284
294

Principle

Inner product and norm

294

b.

Dirichlet's

299

c.

Analytic

Principle

Planar

314

functions

of Riemann surfaces

The structure

Planar Riemann surfaces

b.

Simply
Multiply

connected

Compact Riemann
a.

b.
c.

Riemann

connected

319
surfaces

regions

340

surfaces

Homology

of compact
groups

329
333

Cohomology groups
Structure

319
319

surfaces

Riemann

a.

c.
7.2

241

247

forms

Differential

a.

7

formula

Schwarz-ChristofTel

Riemann surfaces

c.

6.4

233

241

Theorem

Riemann

surfaces

340
344
360

Contents

4

8
8.1

8.2

8.3

of

differentials

Abelian

a.
b.

on a

functions

Analytic

closed Riemann
first

the

Harmonic 1-formsof the
Abelian

of the

differentials

Abelian

a.

Meromorphic

b.

Abelian

The Riemann-Roch

8.4

Abel's

of the

Theorem

a.

Existence Theorem

b.

Abel's

Problems

Index

third

379

kind

379
second and

Theorem

The Riemann-Roch

Theorem

379

kind

second and

a. ExistenceTheorem
b.

376

kind

functions

differentials

376

376

kind

first

of the first

differential

surface

third

kind

380

381
3 81

Theorem

382
389

389
391

394

1

Holomorphic functions

1.1

The complex

a.
An

i = y/\342\200\224
1, is
two

functions

Holomorphic

plane
x +

z =

expression

a complex

called

iy,

complex numbers z = x + iy
z + w = (x + u) + i{y+ v),
= (x z \342\200\224w
u) + i(y - v)9
zw

=

(xii

\342\200\224

yv)

where

x and

y are

real numbers

number. The sum, difference,

+1 (xi;

and

w = u + iv

and

product

and
of

are defined by

+ jra)

z + w, z \342\200\224
zw as
These expressionsare obtainedby first evaluating
w, and
\342\200\224
i2 by
i and
then replacing
1. Therefore,
polynomials in the \"variable\"
as
the
and
defined
above
addition,
subtraction,
satisfy
multiplication
associative, commutative, and distributivelaws.
As
the real number
line is represented by R. The plane R2 is the
usual,
x
R
If
R, that is, the collection of all pairs (x,y) of real numbers.
product
one identifies the point (x,y) of the plane R2 with
the
number
complex
z = x + iy, then
R2 is called the complex plane. The complex
is
plane
represented

The

C.

by

absolute

For two

value

\\z\\

of

the

complex numbers z =

\\z-w\\

=

J{x-u)2

number

complex

x+

iy

and

z=

w = u

x + iy

is

defined

by

+ iv

+ (y-v)2

is the distancebetweenthe pointsz and w in the plane C. In particular,|z | is
the point z and the origin 0.
the
distance
between
number z = x + iy by the vector Oz from 0
If one represents
the complex
of z and | z | = ^/(x2
to z, then (x, y) are the coordinates
+ y2) is the length of
Oz.Therefore,if zx and z2 are complex numbers, and w = zx + z2 is their
sum, then the vector Ow is equal to the sum of 0zt and 0z2 (Fig. 1.1):
0w =

0z1 +

0z2.

2 Holomorphic

functions

id=zx+z2

l.l

Fig.

complex number z = x + iy,
The conjugate of z is representedby z:
For any

z =

x

calls

one

x

the
\342\200\224iy

conjugate

of z.

\342\200\224

iy.

axis

imaginary

.
\342\200\242
z =

x+iy

0

real

axis

\342\200\242
z \342\200\224
x\342\200\224iy

Fig. 1.2

Furthermore, x is calledthe raz/ parr of z = x + iy,
Re z,
by
imaginary part. The real part ofz is represented
by Im z:

Re z = x =
R x

line

The

xR

z

2

'

Imz

'y

\342\200\224
=

by points in

axis.

is

called

the

part

iXf--)

2

{0} in the complex planeis calledthe real axis and the line {0}
imaginary axis. The conjugate z ofz and z are represented

the complexplane,that

are

symmetric

Obviously

I =

z+
z

>>

the imaginary

the

called

is

z-f

and

z,

w=z-l-vv,

\342\200\242
=

w

z

\342\200\242

w.

z \342\200\224
w=z

\342\200\224

w,

with

regard

to the real

1.1

3

Holomorphicfunctions

Moreover
\\z\\2 =

=

\\Z\\2

= Z'Z.

+ y2

X2

Hence
=

= zwzw

\\zw\\2

zzww =

=

zwzw

|z|2|w|2,

and therefore
=

\\zw\\

(1.1)

\\z\\\\w\\.

If z

z/|z|2
^ 0, then \\z\\ > 0 and z \342\200\242
=
t
he
collection
Therefore,
1/z
z/|z|2.

the

called

of complex

field

For z^Owe

have

=

if z

1. So
of all

^ 0, then

complex

z has

an inverse

numbers C is a field,

numbers.
=

(w/z)z

=

(w/z)z

vv,

therefore

= w/z.

(w/z)

as
and
Since similar rules holdfor addition,subtraction,
multiplication,
we saw above, it is now clear that if a complexnumber w is arrived
at by a
finite number of additions,subtractions,
and
divisions
multiplications,
number
of complex
numbers zl9 z2,.. ., zw, then
by
applied to a finite
z
in
the
same
the
same
orderto
one
arrives
operations
applying
t, z2,. zn
C into
C given by z -\342\231\246
z is an
at w. Therefore, the correspondence from

..,

isomorphism.

For two

arbitrary complexnumbers,
|z + w|^|z| + |w|.
z ^

Re

Using

Proof:

|z| we

we

have
wz

+ ww

|z|2+

H*l2
the

From

^

|z1-z3|

where zl9z2, z3
From
In

the

\\z\\

g

same

+ |w|2 = (|z|+

+ 2|z||w|
(1.2) the

inequality

triangle

2|zw|

+ |w|2

|w|)2.

inequality

|z1-z2H-|z2-z3|,
of the

complex plane, follows
< |z \342\200\224w|.
|z
w| + |w|, we conclude |z| \342\200\224|w|
\342\200\224
Hence
\\z\\ ^
|w \342\200\224z|.
|w|
way it is proved that
are

points

arbitrary

once.

(1.3)

Repeated application of (1.1)and

|*1+z2+

at

\342\200\224

IM-MI^|z-w|.

1*1*2*3

inequality

(1.2)

w|2 = (z + w)(z + w) = zz + zw +
= |z|2 + 2Re(zw)+ M2 ^

|z +

the following

have

1*1

1*2

\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242

+zj^|*il

yields

(1.2)

=
I
I 1*3
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**!

I

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

+ |z2|+

l*J,

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+|z\342\200\236|.

4

junctions

Holomorphic

Therefore
+ a2z2+

+ axz

\\ao

\342\200\242
\342\200\242\342\200\242

^ |fl0l

+ 0nzn|

+ l*il

complex plane C can be identified
to
subsets
definitions and theoremspertaining
Since the

subsets

For

C.

of

one says

example,

numbers convergesto w,

point w,

\342\200\224
=

lim |zn
n-* oo

if

1.1

and

number

a natural

exists

that

We have

-

|w|| ^

-

\\zn

n0(e) and

n >

if

\\\\z\342\200\236\\

w| by (1.3),

lim,,.^ |zn| =

can conclude

|w|.

the

series

*_
\302\243

zi+z2+

w\342\200\236

The

converges.

x zn

sequence

complex
=

the
too

converges

lim,,-^

zn

= w we

{zn}

complex
sequence
and we have

n-* oo

oo

infinite

if

from

= |lim zj.

lim |zj

n-*

> n0(e).

m

therefore

Hence

converges, then the sequence {\\zn\\}

if

sequence{zn}converges

The complex
criterion).
every real number e > 0, there

\342\200\224
zm\\<E
\\z\342\200\236

converge

points convergesto the

{zn} of

(Cauchy's

only

The

sequence

0.

vv|

if for

n0(e) such

the real plane R2,
also apply to
{zn} of complex

with

of U2

the

that

sequence

M2

is, if

that

Theorem

the

if

+ I^l

W

= zx

+ z2 +
of

{ww}

\342\226\240
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

zn +

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
is said

to

sums

partial

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**

complex

number

w

=

seriesand we write

lim,.^

is

wn

the sum

called

of the

00

w=

If

the

=

\302\243z-

does

sequence

\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\226\240
+z\342\200\236+

zi+z2+

{w\342\200\236}

not

converge,

then the

is called
series \302\243^\302\260=
t zn

divergent.

Putting

an

=

\\zi \\ + \\z2| +
=

K-wJ

Zr= i

\\z*

I

^

* = m+l
Cauchy's

Applying

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
we
+ |z\342\200\236|,

converges.

lZkl

=

<

n

*\342\200\236-*\302\273..

k-m+1

criterion
In this

\302\243

for m

have

we conclude

case,

\302\243^1x

that

zn is called

*=
\302\243

i zn

absolutely

converges

if

convergent.

1.1 Holomorphic functions 5

If

ls
i z\302\273 absolutely

Zr=

00

I

I

Since

I

lim

I*.

11=1

=

wm

lim

lim

|wj^

m-*oo

absolutely

convergent

co =

are
\302\243,

X!

Iznl

=

\302\243k.1-

either converges or diverges to + oo, Y*7=iz\302\273 *s
< + oo. If w = \302\243^\302\260=
if and only if \302\243^\302\260=
x |zj
x Z|| and

J]\"5Bl |zj

]T^L x

then

convergent,

I

both

then

convergent,

absolutely

-r-Z2C2-f23Ci-i-22C2-i-2iC3+ \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242(1.4)
Proof:

Putting
=

ICll +

|*J

*\342\200\236

have

we

=

In\302\260\302\260=1
aw

l*.-ll

I

t

zn

n= 1

+

IC3|+

K-2I

ICJ.
lzJ
In\302\260\302\260-i
Xn\302\260\302\260-i

hand sideof (1.4)is absolutely
n=l

IC2I

that

so

and

convergent

I feCi+^-iC2+

t-

' +l*ll ICJ
the series of the right' '

n= 1
n=l

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240+riC.;

m

|z.|

I

\302\243

fe. Functions

I ICJ-

n=l

n=l

of a

I

ff\342\200\236-o.

m-*

00.

-=\302\253
n=l

complexvariable

of C, i.e.,D isa point-setin the complex plane. A
in D assigns
function / defined
to each element of D exactly
one
complex
D is called the domain
For
<o
number.
number
the
\302\243eD
off
complex
of / at C- We write
assigned to C by / is called the value
Let

D be

a subset

a>=/(0.

If S is a
where

subset

of

\302\243eS,is written

D, then

the collection

of all complex numbers /(C),

as/(S)

/(S)-{/(0:CeS}.

The set f(D) of all
Writing

f(z)

instead

values

of

co = /(C) is called the range of /
calls z a variable
one
and
a function of a
/
/(z)

z denotes
an
complexvariable.Just as for functions of a real variable,
in
of
a
has
to
be
element
other
for
which
D, or,
words, symbol
C
C
arbitrary
substituted. Accordingto generalcustom,we will use the same letter z to
w = /(z),
we call w a function
of z.
denote pointsof D. Putting
An
U of the complex plane is said to be connected
if U is not
subset
open
the union of two nonempty,
subsets
that
have
no
in
open
points common.
An
U is connected if and only
if each
subset
open
pair of points z, w of U can
in U.
be connected by an arc lying

6

functions

Holomorphic
A

connected

In this book we

closed
propertiesof
y

tends to c, if

as z

and

of D,

point

the

y is

of

limit

0 satisfying

>

(1.5)

as

written

is

regionsor on

ifO< |z-c| <6(e).

<e

|/(z)-y|
This

a point setin C,can accumulation
We say that f(z) convergesto y or that
for every
real e > 0 there existsa real5(e)
D be

number.

a complex

f(z)

defined

Let

the closure

a domain);

(or

by discussing limits, continuity, and other
on arbitrary
sets DcC.

start

functions,

1.1.

Definition

mainly

we

is calleda region

(or a c/osed domain).
region
consider
functions defined on

closed

will

but

regions,

of C

subset

open

of a regionis calleda

=

lim/(z)

y

Z-+C

or

z

-\342\226\272as

/(z)

y

is not

Since/(z)

assumption

defined if z$D,

c is

that

-\342\226\272
c.

point of D is necessary

possibility that there are no points z satisfying
The proof of the following result is
result

corresponding

The function

for real

and

z eD

this

Combining

to

z tends

as

y

Theorem

variable

1.2

there existsa real6(e)

to c

if and

criterion

>

be a

for

if

only

c the

,

the

all

for

complex

sequences,

complex

to c

if and only

0 such

tends

of

function

accumulation

the

point
if for

every

complex
of D. Then

real

e>0

that

if 0 <

be a complexfunction

to D.

to

and let c bean
if z

|/(z)-/(w)|<\302\243
belongs

Let/(z)

criterion).

onflcC

f(z) convergesto somevalue

Let f(z)

5{e).

criterion for functions.

{Cauchy's

z defined

with Cauchy's

theorem

at Cauchy's

|z \342\200\224
c\\ <

similar to the proof of

complex sequences {zn},znsD and zn^ c, converging
sequence {f(zn)} convergesto y.

we arrive

the

exclude

to

0 <

(1.5).The

functions.

converges

f(z)

that zeD in

to assume

have

we

an accumulation

|z-c|<

defined

on

6(e)

and

D

c C,

0<|w-c|<

and assumethat

6(e).
c

If

(1.6)

lim/(z)=/(c),

then/(z) is said to be

continuous

at

c.

1.1

It follows

every real e >

0 there existsa
if

|/(z)-/(c)|<s

(If c is

isolated

an

at

x + iy

The real
real

x and y

variables

=

a+

which case

can

we

ifc,

/(z) is

only z

certainly

real and an

into a

split /(z)

lim

(x.y)

-

is continuous

imaginary

part v(x, y)

then/is

function.

The

x +

iy

of

y)

- vfe fe)|2

equivalent to
=

u(a,

lim

b\\

- (a, *>)

v(x,

y) =

v(a, b).

f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x9 y) of the complex variable
at c = a + ife if and only if its real part u(x,y) and its

are continuous at (a,b)

functions

as

of the

two real

y.

the complex

DcC,

as real functions

From

+ Mx,

fe)|2

(x, y)

z = x + iy

variablesx and

y)

Im/(z).

be considered

can

\"(a,

=

v(z)

where z = x + iy.

fc)

function

the

Therefore,

w(x,

(a.

Re/(z),

part

VI u(x, y)

(1.6) is

that

conclude

z =

c =

and

part and the imaginary

I/W-/WI

If

6 the

small

sufficiently

<5(e) is c, in

+ /i;(z), n(z) =

= u(z)

/(z)

we

then for

of D,

point

part

imaginary

two

such that

> 0

S(e)

c.)

z=

Putting

real

\\z-c\\<6(e).

c| <
satisfying zeD and |z \342\200\224
continuous

that/(z) is continuousat c if and

the definition

from

once

at

if for

only

1

functions

Holomorphic

is continuousat all points

function f(z)

called a continuous

function

/(z) =
if and

is continuous

its

domain

z or simply a continuous
of
the complex variable
y)
of

function
y) + fo(x,

m(x,

of

only if its realpart m(x,

part v(x, y) are continuous functions of the

two

real

y) and

variables

its imaginary

x and

y.

Just as for functionsof a real variable,
limits
of complex functions satisfy
z
the following rules:let /(z) and g(z) be functions of a complex variable
onDcC
of D. If both/(z) and
and let c be an accumulation
defined
point
->
z
c
linear
to
a
limit
as
the
combination
then
+ a2f(z\\
g(z)converge
atf(z)
\342\200\242
a limit
to
where at and a2 are constantsand the product/(z)
g(z)
converge
and these limits
satisfy
lim
z-+c

+ a2g(z))

(aj(z)

lim/(z)gr(z)
z-*c

If

moreover

limz-c

=

lim

ax

z-*c

f(z)

= lim/(z)
z-*c

g(z) # 0,

then

+ a2

lim
z-*c

g{z\\

-lim g(z).
z-*c

the

quotient

f(z)/g(z)

converges

8 Holomorphic
if

c and

z -*

functions

the

satisfies

limit

,im/(z)

f(r\\

z-c g(z)

lim g(z)

z-+c

are continuous functions of z, then
are
a1f(z) + a2g(z) and the product f(z)g(z)
then
the
forall
0
zeD,
If, moreover, g(z) ^
quotient
and g(z)

if f(z)

Hence

combination
functions.

continuous function

also a

Continuity

rule as real functions
D cz C,

if

gr(w)

then
/(D) c \302\243,
if c is an arbitrary

=

functions

C. According

point

= o k

12.

Definition

on

on

z defined

of

function

defined

w

c:
\302\243

C

if

and

of z on D. For,
is a continuousfunction
lim z^cf(z) =/(c) and limw^/(c)gr(vv)

0 there

|/(z)-/(w)|

< e

every

13.

A

if |z-w| <

Proof:

/(z)

> 0, such that
|z \342\200\224
w| <5,zeD,
for each natural

an e

whenever
wn

<

I*.-\"J

^

- - -

<nj<

z defined

on

on D

a C. If

that
zeD

and

weD

D.

on a

bounded, closedset

on D.
there
uniformly continuous on D. Then
>
8 it is not true that
each
|/(z)\342\200\224
/(w)|
weD. Hence there existcomplexnumbers

is not
for

and

e

number n, satisfying
*.eD,

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
of the
\342\226\240,

^ c

|/(0-/K)|
w\342\200\236\342\202\254D,

Since D is bounded,there existsa
<

and

defined

function/(z)

continuous
that

Assume

of

0 such

S(e)

continuous

continuous

is uniformly

zn and

continuous function
exists a real <5(e) >

is said to be uniformly

Theorem
C

of z.

be a

Let/(z)
e >

real

then/(z)

<n2

of

=o

are continuous functions

exists

continuous

the same

obeys

g(/(z)) = g(f(c)).
z are obviously continuous functions of z defined
on
z and
offinite products
of z and z,
to the above, linear combinations

*

D cz

is

f(z)/g(z)

polynomialsin z and z:

that is

for

g(f(z))
D, then

of

functions

complex

function

a continuous

composite

continuous

hence lim^c

g(f(c));

The

the

two

is a

If f(z)

do:

is

linear

z.

of

composite of

of the

the

subsequence

complex

sequence

zn ,

.

.,
z\342\200\2362,.

zn.,.

(1-7)
. -,

nx

{zn}, which converges.

1.1 Holomorphic

9

functions

lim

Putting

jf

_ n

zn. =

c we concludefrom

e D

znj

and the

fact that D is closed

ceD.

that

From
\342\200\224

as

->0

Un-w\342\200\236.|<

j-*

oo

rij

we

lim

that

conclude

we have
lim

= lim

/K.)

00
j-\302\273

and

this

c.

co

j-*

contradicts

= lim^^

j^^w^

Holomorphic

is

functions.
such

of

continuous.

of

the

corresponding
let p be a positive

of a
real

z

complex
for

definition

to D and

p-neighborhood of z:

variable

complex

coefficient

differential

the

form as the

Let z be a pointbelonging

that the

is uniformly

regionand/(z) a function

the same

exactly

is continuous,

/

Since

functions

defined on D. The definition
function

= 0.

=/(c)

/(zWy)

(1.7). Hence/(z)

Let DcCbea

2^

real

number

l/p(z)={C:|C-z|<p}

D

Fig.

f^p

1.3

D. Now, the expression(f(z + h)
complex variable h, 0 < \\h\\ < p. If
is contained in

exists, the function/(z) is said to bedifferentiable
at z and denoted
of/(z)
differential
coefficient

m-Hmf{t

+

hl'm

\342\200\224f(z))/h is

at

z. This

a function

of the

limit is called the

by/'(z):

(1.8)

10

Holomorphicfunctions

If f(z)

is differentiable

at all points z of D,then/(z)
is called
a differentiable
is
z
on
a
function
of
D.
defined
This
function
case,/'(z)

function of z. In this
f (z) is called the derivative

from/(z) is called

the process by
as in the case

and

of/(z)

which/'(z) is obtained

of a
of a function
or
dw/dz df(z)/dz.Similarly,
a function
oc(h) such that limfc^0 a(h) = <x(0) = 0 is called an infinitesimal
the
e(h)
product
e(h)a(h) of the two infinitesimals
Representing
as
<x(h) by 0(h), (1.8) can be rewritten
Just

differentiation.

variable the

derivative of w

Therefore,if/(z) is

+ 0(h).

differentiable,

+ h)

lim h^0f(z

then

and

(1.9)
In
other
=f(z).

are continuous.

functions

differentiable

real

f(z) is denoted by

+ h)-f{z)=f'(z)h

f(z

words,

=

Putting
w

=

fi

= Ax

= f(x

/(z)

+iy) =

iv(x, y)

y) +

u(x9

and
= p+

and/'(z)

+

= (p +1<?)(Ax

Splitting this into its real and

+ /Ay)

4- iAv

Ah

+ O(fi).

=

u(x +

Ax,y +

Ay)-u(x,y) = pAx-qAy

Av

=

v(x +

Ax9y +

Ay)-v(x,y) = qAx

we get

parts,

imaginary

Au

+ (Ay)2),

+ 0(y/(Ax)2

+ (Ay)2).

+ pAy+0(v/(Ax)2

From this we conclude,if /(z) = w(x, y)
function
of z, then w(x, y) and i;(x,y) as functions

y) is

+ iv(x,

of the

a

differentiable

real variables x and y

and

differentiable

are

=

+ /i) -/(z)

=/(z

iq, then (1.9)becomes

+ iAi;

Am

Aw

iAy9

M*> y)

=

vy(x,

y)

=

P,

-\"\342\200\236(*,>>)

\"

M*.

y) =

\302\253\342\226\240

Hence,

(110)

\302\253,(**)\302\253-i>,(x, j*

As a direct
(1.10)arecalledthe Cauchy-Riemann
equations.
we note
consequence of the Cauchy-Riemann
equations
y).
(1.11)
/'(*) = ux(x9 y) + ivx(x, y) = vy(x,
y)-iuy(x,
=
=
z
of
function
x
defined
be
a
+
ly
Conversely, let/(z)
w(x,
y) + ii;(x, y)
on the region DcC,
such that its real part w(x, y) and its imaginary
part
x
variables
and
are
of
the
real
differentiable
functions
y satisfying
v(x, y)
the Cauchy-Riemann equations (1.10).

The equations

Putting

p

=

M*>

y) = vy(x,

yl

q= -

Mx'

y)

=

M*\302\273y)

1.1

functions

Holomorphic

11

we have
Au

=

pAx -qAy

At;

=

9 Ax

+

+ O (J(Ax)2
+ O

pAy

+ (Ay)2),

(N/(Ax)2 + (Ay)2).

Evaluating f{z + h)\342\200\224f(z) for
/(z + fc)-/(z) = Att +

fi =

Ax +

iAt; =

(p +

we

iAy
ig)(Ax

get

+ 0(|fi|).

+ iAy)

Hence

= p + iq.
and/'(z)
i.e.,/(z) is differentiable
Summingup, the function/(z)= u(x, y) +
z =

x +

only if w(x,
and

y
Just

y)

and

v(x,

satisfying the Cauchy-Riemann equations (1.10).
as for functions
of a real variable,we have: If/(z)
is a function of the

complexvariable
at

iv(x, y) of the complexvariable
DcCisa
of z if and
differentiable
function
region
x
y) are differentiable functions of the real variables

on the

iy defined

each

constant.For,

=

putting/(z)

by

identically,

region DcC

D and such that/'(z) = 0

of

point

on a

z defined

(1.11).

m(x,

Therefore,

for

such that/(z)is differentiable

each

point

z of

y) + iv(x, y), we have ux(x, y)
m(x, y) is a constantfunction

D, then/(z)
=
uy(x, y)

=

of

x and

Similarly, i;(x, y) is seento be constant.

is
0
y.

on
be a function of the complexvariable
z, defined
Let/(z)
DcC. If /(z) is a differentiable
function
of z, such that the
is called
a holomorphic function of z
derivative/'(z) is continuous,then/(z)
13.

Definition

the domain

or, briefly,

holomorphic.

Remark:

but in this

a function is
Usually,
book we have adopted

called holomorphicif it
the

above

definition.

is

differentiable,

This is a traditional

manifolds,
definition, but since in modern theoriesof, for example,
that
a
differentiable
functions
role
functions
than
continuously
play greater
In Section
are only differentiable, this older definition seemsmorenatural.
2.4 we will show
that the derivative
of a complex
of a differentiable function
variable is always continuous, so that
our
definition
of a holomorphic
function is equivalent
with
the usual
one.

The following
1.4.

Theorem
z =

x +

iy,

defined

A

theorem follows
function/(z)

on a

domain

immediately

from

(1.11).

w(x, y) + iv(x, y) of the complexvariable
D cz C,is holomorphic
ifand only if its real

=

12 Holomorphic

part

real variables

functions

of the

equations

(1.10).

Example 1.1. SinceMm
of z.

function

holomorphic

putting

=

h

Ax 4-i

z +

If

+ h)

h.+ 0[{z

__

h

\342\200\224

z^/h

=

differentiable

the

satisfying

y,

z is not

are continuously

Cauchy-Riemann

= l,z

Mm h^0h/h

a holomorphicfunction

is a
of

z. For,

have

we

Ay,

h

x and

However,

\342\200\224
z
fi
__

h

part v(x, y)

its imaginary

and

y)

w(x,

functions

Ax

+1 Ay

Ax

\342\200\224
i

Ay

Ay = 0, then

z + h-z
fc
t.
= f.lim - =
hm
/i-0
and

\"

if Ax =
lim

lim

Ax

\342\200\224
=

1,

Ax-*()AX

fc-0\"

0, then
z + fc-z
h

/i-o
the

Therefore,

f.

limit

Since Definition

= lim h-+oh
fi

lim/,_0

= lim -/Ay
h-*o

l(z +

(1.8)of the

\342\200\224\342\200\224
= \342\200\224
1.
*Ay

h) \342\200\224
z]/h

differential

not

does

exist.

is formally

coefficient

the same as

real function, the rulesof
combination,
product, or quotient of differentiable
of a complex variable are exactly the sameas for functions
of a
functions
real variable. Explicitly, if/(z) and g(z)arebothdifferentiable
of
functions
then
the linear
the complex
variable z, defined on a certain
domain,
are
combination alf(z) + a2g(z),where
and
and the
constants,
a\302\261
a2
their
derivatives
are
are
and
differentiable
given by:
product f(z)g(z)
that

of

coefficient

differential

the

differentiation of

a

of a

linear

^(alf(z)

+

a2g{z))

=

a1ff(z)

+ a2gf(z);

^ (f(z)g(z))=f'(z)g(z)+f(z)g'(z).
^ 0 for all points of that
If, moreover,
g(z)
is
is
differentiable
and its derivative
f(z)/g(z)

The proofsarealso

similar

the

proofs

(1.13)
then

domain,

given

the

quotient

by

(LM)

g(zf

dz{g(z))give

(1.12)

for the

to

the

real case, but

for completeness's sake we

derivatives of productand

quotient.

Since/(z)

and

1.1

g(z)are

13

functions

by (1.9)

h)=f(z)+f'(z)h + 0(h),
h) = g(z) + g'(z)h+ 0(h).

f(z +
+

g(z

have

we

differentiable,

Holomorphic

Hence
f(z +

= (f'(z)g(z)+f{z)g'(z))h

+ h)-f(z)g(z)

h)g(z

+ 0(h).

and therefore

+
u_f(z
lim

1

1

g(z + h)

=/ (z)g(*)+f(z)g (4

r

and (1A3)

is difFerentiable

f(z)g(z)

Thus,

+ h)-f(z)g(z)

h)g(z

g(z)

+ g'(z)h

(g(z)

0,

then

+ 0{h)
+ 0(h)}g(zy

-g'{z)h

=

holds. If, moreover,g(z)^

Hence
+

*\342\204\242fi\\ff(z

fi)

1

(

\\

If/(z)
the

holds

and

have

t*

\342\200\242

rule.

holomorphic,

the

0, then

theorem.

functions/(z)

complex

areholomorphic,
then

As

is difFerentiableand

hence
then/' (z) and g\\z)arecontinuous,
a
re
and
continuous
too.
moreover,
If,
(1.12)
(1.13)
side of (1.14)is continuoustoo.Therefore,
we
right-hand

are

Theorem 7.5. If the

plane

the product

that/(z)/^(z)

sides of

the following

a2 constants,
g(z) t* 0 on

we conclude

l/^(z),

by using

g(z)

right-hand

g (z)

is given by

0W2'

Since/(z)/^(z) =/(z)
(1.14)

derivative

its

and

g*(z)

=

&Uw/

that

g'w
^(z)2'

3(2)/

l/g(z) is difFerentiable

and therefore

d

i \\=

i

limi/

linear

their

and product
that

domain,

defined on a domain,
axf(z) + a2g{z\\with at and

and g(z\\

combination

f(z)g(z) are also holomorphic.

then

the quotient

in Example
1.1, the function z, definedon the
it follows
C, is a holomorphicfunction of z.Therefore

shown

1.5 that the
p(z)

moreover,

If,

f(z)/g{z) is holomorphictoo.
whole

from

complex

Theorem

polynomialp(z) of z,
=

a0^aiz^a2z2^

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+a\342\200\236zn,

a09ax,.

. .,

aneC

14

functions

Holomorphic

is holomorphicon C. Moreover,
p(z)

when
\342\200\224\342\200\224-,

planeC
Let be

of

roots

the

a natural

n

is

=
^-zn
dz
the

Therefore,

obtained

by omitting

from the

d

= zn-1+z

\342\200\224
z\"\"1

complex

\302\253

az

that

nzn-\\

derivative

p(z) = fl0-rfl1Z
is given

polynomials.

\302\253

az

proved

easily

expression

the algebraic equation q(z) = 0.
number. Using induction on n and

\342\200\224(z-zn-1)

az

rational

q(z) are

domain,

d

d

\342\200\224
z\" =

it

and

p(z)

is holomorphicon the

the

of the
+ fl2Z2+

polynomial
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

-r-anz\"

by

p'(z) = at

+2a2z+

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+nanzn~K

then the function obtained
subset of the domainofa function/(z),
called
domain
to
Dis
the
restriction
the
from/(z) by restricting
of/(z)
of/(z)
to D and denoted by^>(z)or (f\\ D) (z). Hence,^(z)
is a function definedon D
=
and if/D (z) is continuous,then
byfD
(z)
/(z) for each z e D.If D is a domain,
is called
continuous
on D; if fD(z) is holomorphic
is called
f(z)
then/(z)
is
D.
sd
of
on
if
some
Generally,
holomorphic
property
functions/(z) and if
has
is
s/
on D.
said to have the property
s/,
then/(z)
fD(z)
If D is a closeddomain,then the differential
of fD(z) is not
coefficient
to
definedon the points of the boundary of D. Therefore,it is meaningless
if we say that /(z) is
we
mean
say that f(z) is holomorphic on D. What
o
n
the
D
is
closed
is
domain
that/(z)
holomorphic
holomorphicon some
If D

domain

is a

D.

containing

Theorem

1.6.

Let f(z)

domain D a C
on

the

9(f(z))

domain
is a

let

and

E

<=

C,

be a holomorphicfunction
be

g(w)
such

that

a holomorphic
f(D)

c E. Then the

holomorphic function of z defined

0(/(*)) is given
^(/W)

on

z defined

of

function of
composite

D and

w,

on the
defined

function

the derivative

of

by

= ^(/W)-//(4

(l 15)

1.2 Powerseries 15
(1.9) we

to

According

Proof:

have

+

f{z + h)-f{z)-f{z)h
+ k) - g(w) = g'(w)k
g(w
where

0(fc) = e(fc)fcwith

Substituting w

0(fc),

= e(0)

e(k)

fc

+

=f(z

= 0.

h)\342\200\224f(z),

we

= (9'(f(z)) + \302\243(/'(z)/,

+ /i))-0(/(z))

0(/(z

+

limfc^0

and

=/(z)

0{h\\

get

+ 0(/i)).

+ 0(/i)))(/'(z)/,

Hence

Therefore, g(f(z)) is differentiateand (1-15) holds. Since
of w, g'(f(z))
is a continuous function
of z.
continuousfunction
a continuousfunction
of z, the product
g'(f(z))f (z)is a continuous
of z, so that g{f(z)) is a holomorphic
of z.
function

Since/'

a

(z) is

function

series

Power

1.2

g'{w) is

a. Series whose

are

terms

functions

the
terms
f(z\\
{fn(z)} be a sequence of functions,
.
.
of
are
functions
of
which
the
variable
...,
z, all
f2(z)9.
,fn(z\\
complex
of that
If this
on the same domain, and let D be a subset
domain.
defined
for
then
we
each
of
that
say
sequence converges
point D,
{fn(z)} converges
= lim,..^ fn(z) is defined on D.
on D. In that case, a function/(z)

Let

If

1.4.

Definition

each

for

e>

0, there existsa

if

>

number

natural

n0(E)

such that
\\fn

(z)

-/(z)

I

< e

then the sequence
offunctions
Similarly,

if the

n

{fn

(z)}

for all

is said

If the function sequence{sm(z)}
on D,

convergent

the

of

series

partial

zeD9

to converge uniformly

series Y^=\\f*(z)> wh\302\260se

converges for each point zeD, then
onD.
uniformly

n0 (e)

terms

*=
\302\243

sums

are
(z)
x j\302\243

to/(z).

functions
is said

sm(z) =

then the series Y*\342\204\242=if*(z)

of z,

to converge

is
\302\243\342\204\242=
4 j\302\243(z)
*s

^^

to **

uniformly convergent on D.Further,if the series ]T *= x \\fn(z) | is convergent
on D, then the series\302\243*= 1Jt(z) is said to be absolutely convergenton D.In
on D. If the series
*s c\302\260nvergent
this
case,
obviously
X^= i U*^ I
Y*7=if\302\273 (z)
said
to be
on D, then the series XiT_i
uniformly
L\302\243(z)| is
converges
uniformly absolutely
|5W(Z)-5(Z)|

convergent.From

=
= m+l

n

= m-I-1

16

functions

Holomorphic

we conclude that

if

1 /\302\273(z)

XT=

then XT= 1-^ (z) *s uniformly
If there exists a convergent

*s unif\302\260rmly>

on D,

convergent

absolutely

on D.

convergent
series

^vith

^n

XT=i

terms

positive

An

that

such

^

|/n(z)|
then

1.7.

(1) If the sequence{f\342\200\236(z)}converges
=

f(z)

(2) If

on D.

functions
on D,

then its

on D,

then its sum

limit

on D.
uniformly

converges
\302\243^\302\260=
xf\342\200\236(z)

on D.

*s continuous

ZT=

uniformly

is continuous

limn_+00^(z)
series

the

on D.

absolutely

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
.. ,fn{z),\342\200\242
be continuous

(z),.

(z),^

Let/j

. . , for all zeD,

3, .

1, 2,

uniformly

converges

\302\243^\302\260=
1fn(z)

Theorem

n =

An,

i^\302\273(2)

of(1),it suffices to prove (1). Let c
Since (2) isa directconsequence
of
D
and
let
at c.
us
prove that /(z) is continuous
arbitrary
point
there exists a natural number n, such that
Choose a real, positive
e, then
Proof:

be an

Since

fn(z)

at

continuous

is

points zeD.
c, there exists a real, positive
for all

< e

f(z)\\
\\fn(z)\342\200\224

if |Z-C|

|/n(z)-/n(c)|<\302\243

5(e)

that

such

<<$(\302\243).

From

we

+ |/n(z)-/n(c)|

^ |/(z)-/n(z)|

|/(z)-/(c)|

+ |JG(c)-/(c)|

conclude

if

|/(z)-/(c)|<36

<<5(e).

|z-c|

Therefore,/(z) is continuousat c.

b.

series

Power

A series

of the

form

=

a0 +

GO

an(z-c)n
\302\243

is calleda power
complex

series

analysis.
00

X aH*,
0

n=
with

center

at

center

wirfi

c. Power

section we

In this

= a0 + alz + a2z2

the origin

+

+an(z-c)n

series play a fundamental

consider

+anzn

role

...
in

series,

power

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

+

0.

c, all
By replacing z by z \342\200\224

power serieswith center
the power series\302\243
\"^

+ a2(z-c)2 +

ax(z-c)

c as
anzn

results

well. We

obtained

will

want to find

to converge.

be

seen

a sufficient

Suppose that

to be

valid for

condition

anzn
\302\243^\302\260=

converges

for

a certain

for

existsa positive,

real

For

lim

case,

= 0,

\342\200\236_*
^ anzn

hence there

natural numbers n.

for all

we have

M

an

such

that

that

such

M

M

^

\\anzn\\

z. In

number

complex

17

series

Power

1.2

IzllflJ^M1'\",

while lim^^ M1/B=

1.

Therefore

(1.16)

|z|limsup|a\342\200\236|1/n^l.

If 0

|aj1/n < + oo,we

< limsup,,^^

put

1

r =

limsup|an|1/n
oo

n-*

we

and

from

obtain

(1.16) the inequality

1*1<r.

(1.17)

If limsupn^00|flJ1/B=-hoo, we
< + by (1.16), therefore
limsupn_00|aj1/n
then

= 0,

\\z\\

that is,

r = + oo.In this
The number r

case

and divergesif \\z\\

=

\\an\\1/n

+ oo,

then we put

satisfied.

following property.

k such

number

if |z|

absolutely

converges

anzn

]T\302\256=
0

< r, we choosea real

If |z|

Proof:

series

then

|z|>0,

\\an\\l,n = 0,

limsup^^^

way has the

this

in

power
> r.

If

is trivially

(1.17)

defined

The

1.8.

Theorem

(1.17) is valid.

0. If

if limsup^^

oo

then

r =

put

that

\\z\\

< k

< r.

<r

Then

- >- = limsup|aj1/n.
K

Y

there

Therefore,
n

> n0,

such

Since

i.e.,

\\an\\Kn

n-* oo

exists a
<

natural number

1 for

n

>

n0

n0. Therefore,

such

<
\\a\342\200\236\\1/n

that

there exists

1/k

for

a constantM,

that

\\z\\ <

k, we

have

Mk
n

Therefore,

n-0

= 0

the series ]T

\\

*

\302\256=
0 anzn

part of the theoremfollows

from

K

/

converges
(1.17).

absolutely

if

\\z\\

< r.

The second

18

functions

Holomorphic

The number r is calledthe radius
of the power series
of convergence
=
=
0and 1/0 + oo,the radius of convergence is
+ oo
Puttin81/
Y^=
o a^nin
all
cases
given
by
(U9)

^limsup^KI1'\"-

Cauchy-Hadamard formula.For0 < r < + oo the circle
of the power
Cr with center 0 and radius r is called the circleof convergence
to
series
Theorem
the
series
1.8,
According
power
^^0cinzn.
X^=0a\342\200\236zn
if z belongs to the interior of the circle
of convergence
absolutely
converges
of convergence.
and diverges if z belongs to the exteriorof the circle
(1.19) is called the

iy

\\

ir

r

T

J-

v:
1.4

Fig.

If z

is a

point of Cr,then

interiorof

Cr

denoted

is

]T^\302\260=
0 anzn

can be

convergent or

divergent.The

by l/r(0)

(1.20)
l/r(0) = {z:|z|<r}.
=
If r + oo, the circle of convergenceis not defined,
but
we put l/+oo(0)
= C and considerCasthe interior
of the circle of convergence. By doing so,
the
series
is absolutely convergent in the interior of the
power
\302\243
JL 0 a^n
for all radii of convergence
of convergence
such
that
circle
0 < r ^ + oo.
Theorem

1.9.

Let

\302\243^L

r, such that 0<r<^+oo.
is

]T^\302\260= a\342\200\236znuniformly

circle

a^n

be a

power series

with

If p is a real number
convergent

absolutely

radius
such

on the

of convergence
that

0 <

interior Up(0)

p < r,
of

the

0 and radius p.

with center

Proof. Choose real k,
M such
existsa
a

constant

\\an\\p\302\273<M{plK)\\

such
that

that p

<k <r. Accordingto (1.18),there

absolutely

the sum/(z) = ]T^0

true for each p

of z on the interiorUr(0)

function

continuous

conclude

< r, we

that

of

the

=

f(z)

Y,7=oa\"z\"

by

on Up(0).

continuous

also

is

anzn

< p

0

with

functions of z on l/p(0),

continuous

anzn are

terms

all

+\302\260\302\260-

oo,thesum\302\243na)=()|aJp',<

|z| < p, we concludethat
on Up(0) = {z: |z| < p}.

z with

all

for

\\an\\pn

uniformly

Since

1.7(2),

^

\\anzn\\

converges

< +

= Mk/(k-p)

SinceXT=oM(P/*)\"
From

19

series

Power

1.2

Theorem

Since this is
a

is

X^\302\260=o0\342\200\236zn

of convergence.

circle

Theorem 1.10. Let \302\243*= awz\" be a power series with radius of convergence
=
r such that 0 < r ^ + oo.Then/(z)
function
is a holomorphic
\302\243*=0 anzn
of
of z on the interiorUr(0) of the circle of convergence and the derivative
is
of
differentiation
\"termwise
f(z)
given by
\302\243^=0awzn\":
00

=

f(z)

+ 2a2z

=aY

nanzn~l
\302\243

H=l

\342\226\240
\342\200\242
+ 3>asZ2+ \342\200\242
+ w^z\"\"1-}-

(1-21)

The radius

of the
of convergence

First we prove that

Proof:

the

radius

equals r.

sides

both

Differentiating
m

*m+

\\

series

power

of the

is also

\302\243\"=1 nanzn~l

of convergence

r.

of ^=1naflzn\"1

equality

1

yields
\302\243

n.1

_
\"

A1\"
Since

In order

z with

mfm =

lim^.^^

|z|

to prove that
< t.

0

0=7?
for 0 < <
t

Therefore,

\342\226\240

1, we find

*
\302\243\"=
t wa\342\200\236z\"converges

Next we choose a realk

(1.18)thereexistsa constant
Using (1.22)

mfm+1

l-tm+ljr-f

M,

such

such

absolutely
that

\\z\\ <

if | z\\
k <

that

we get

nanz\"
\302\243T\302\253i

1

converges

absolutely

for

\\z\\

< r.

<

r, we fix

r. According

a

to

20

Holomorphic

functions

From
n

\"kz\"-1!

+ |z| f
f= 0 |anz\"|^|<.0l
n=l

if
we conclude that Y,7=o a^n convergesabsolutely
J]\302\256=
y nanzn~l
the
of
of \302\243^\302\260=1
radius
Therefore,
absolutely.
convergence
nanznl

the sum Y^=\\nanznXls a continuousfunction
Next we prove that/(z) = ^\342\204\242=0anzn *s differentiable

Hence,
/'
k

= an

pn(w)

that

see that
^

|aj

(1.22)

w

= fln(w\"\"1+wB\"2z +

\342\200\224
z

pn(w) is a continuous function
A//*\", then

the series

W-Z

uniformly

converges

of

Therefore/(z) is a

Since,as we

l/r(0),

we

wB'3z2+

w. Let

M be

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

+zn~l)

a constantsuch

+|z|\"-i)<mV\"-i/k\".

on the right-hand side of
\342\200\236=!

proved

conclude

w

for

|w|

differentiable

above,
that/(z)

|w| <
p, i.e.,

for

absolutely

function of

continuous

numbers p and

have

we

Therefore,

that

Putting

iPw(w)|gki(|wr-i-hiwr-2|zi+...
By

and

w-z

~x

as a function of w.

Ur(0).

w\"-z\"

\302\243

w-z

we

z on

of

r.

equals

on Ur(0)

r and choose real
\\z \\ <
(z) = Zr= o nanzn~l- Fixz such that
such
that \\z\\ < p < k < r. Consider, for |w| < p,

/(w)-/(z)

converges

\302\243\"=
1

is a

<

function

of

nanzn\"*

is a

holomorphic

p and hence its

z on

is

sum

a

Ur(0) and

continuous function

of z on

function of z on Ur{0).

Since
the circle of convergence of J]\"= nan^w~*
equals
Theorem 1.10to concludethat/'(z) isa holomorphic
function

r, we
of

can apply
z on

l/r(0)

Power series 21

1.2
and

=

/\"(*)

f>(n-lKz\"-2.
n

the radius

Since

= 2

of convergenceof this

also holomorphicon

t/r(z),

the

we find

/(m)(z) =

z

\342\200\224
in

c

power series
Let Zr=o
that 0 < r ^ + oo.

X^=o0,,(2-\"~c)n>

^

fln(z\"\"c)n

Then
\\z

c\\>

For 0 < r ^

+ oo,

Ur(c)

=

of convergence.

CTls

radius

r, such

of convergence

for

convergent

absolutely

r. The

and radius r is calledthe
{z:

of convergence

circle

\342\200\224
c\\ <
\\z

to the

following results.

series with
~~

results

above

the

radius of convergence is given
If
0 < r < + oo,then the circle
(1.19).

\342\200\224

formula,

Cauchy-Hadamard

,/(m)(z),.

by

(n-m+l)a\342\200\236zn-m.

*c

8et

a Power
]T^\302\260=
0 fln(z

for

and divergent

center c

f\"\"{z\\

an\302\243*
applying

\302\243\"=0fl,,2\"

we

...

is represented

that/(m)(z)

Z n(n-l)(n-2)---

z by

Replacing

and

Ur(0)

on
.. are all

often difFerentiable

is infinitely

that/(z)

derivatives

higher-order

holomorphicon

< r

is

equals r, /\"(z)

and

Ur(0)

in this way,

that

again

n(n-l)(*-2)*nz\"-3.
\302\243
= 3
\302\253

/w(z)=

Continuing

series

power

r} is

called the

\342\200\224
c\\

\\z

the

by

with

of Zr=oa^z\"\"c^*

interior of the circle

Consequently,

sum of

The

1.11.

Theorem

the power series

00

/(*)=

an(z-cr

I

= 0
\302\253

is a

= a0 + a^z-c)

function of z on

holomorphic

the

+ a2(z--c)2
+
interior

is infinitely
often
convergence.Thefunction/(z)
the derivatives/'(z),/\"(z),.
are
all
.. ,/(m)(z),...
derivative

mth

is obtained

of/(z)

Ur(c)

of

\342\200\242-.

the circle

differentiable
holomorphic

by differentiating

of

on Ur(c)and
The

on Ur(c).

\"\"
c)\"
a\342\200\236(z
X^\302\260=0

termwise

m times:

/(m)(z) =
n

and

the radius

fm\\c)

m

of convergenceof this powerseriesisalsor.
z =

Substituting

f= n(\302\253-l)(n-2)-.(\302\253-m-hlK(z-cr-m

=

c in

m\\am.

the above

expression,we

find
(1.23)

22

functions

Holomorphic

original powerseriescan

Therefore, the

oo

oo f(n)

an(z-cr=

I

m=

j;

as

written

be

ic\\

\342\200\224r

(z-cr-

series on the right-handsideiscalledthe

The power

series

Taylor

off(z)

with

center c.

Now let/(x) bea

real

be represented

its

by

co

f(n)(c\\

power seriesobtainedfrom
variablez convergesabsolutely
and

radius r in the

real analytic

variable

z by the real variable

analytic

function

expansion

e*

=

The

1 +

Taylor

series

the

interior

in

\342\202\254
and

sinz =

then the

function

we have

by/,

i.e., by

x,

the

replacing

complex

to the real axis.A

restricting/(z)

function e*9or

exponential

the

of

radius

w**k

whole

of

the

exp x, has

a Taylor

equal to
variable z,

convergence
complex

complex

C.

plane

sinefunction,

z---

z3
3!

+

z5

z1

5!

7!

\342\200\224
- \342\200\224
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
+(-!)'
v

'

z2n+l

I*

(2n +

l)!'

and the complexcosine
function,
z2

COSZ=1-2!

are also

holomorphic

Since

log(l

+
on

z4

z2n

z6

4!-6!+-\"+(-1)nW+---'
C.

+ x) has the Taylor

real

be extendedto a holomorphicfunction.

z
z2
z3
zn
+
TT+2!
3!+---+^+'--'

on
is holomorphic
The complex

+oo,

a holomorphic

function is obtainedby

Therefore, the exponentialfunction
+

^

by replacing x by the complex
c
Ur{c) of a circlewith center

f(n)(c\\

J]r=ix\"/n'

e=1

satisfies0 < r

represents

also

function

can always

1.2.

Example

this

this
co

original

of convergence r

complex plane

of z on Ur(c).Denoting

The

series

\302\243'\342\200\224I2(jc-c)r.

its radius

that

Assuming

interior

the

from

Taylor

+

=/<*)

/<*)

of
defined on someinterval
of that interval and let/(x)
with center c:

of x,

function

analytic

R. Let c be a point

real line

the

expansion

log(l

+x)

=

(-iy,~lxn/n
\302\243\302\256=1

+oo.

a

circle

+ (-!)' ,i-l

y-

complex variable z on

of the

function

as an obvious consequence
of the
eiz = cosz + isinz.

=

\\eie\\

z =

z^

and angle6.

0 can be represented

real

the

and

Using (1.4) and
w\"

_
=

\302\2430ri \302\2430ri

amplitude)

(or

the vector

\342\204\242 \342\204\242

zn

center 0

between the segmentOz

argument

z by

vector Oz

C with

as

\\z\\eie,

the angle

calls 6 the
number

plane

complex

number

complex

6 is

by

given

1.5

Fig.

where

formula

= eiez

rotation of the

Every

the transformation

1. Hence,

z-+z'

is a

following

cos0 + isin0

eie =
that

the

above,

6

real

for

particular

so

the interiorof the

Ux (0).

We note

In

23

complex extension,

z3

+

Z-y

holomorphic

unit

z2

=

10g(l+z)

is

1, the

of convergence

radius

with

series

Power

1.2

^,

Oz, then

of z.

the argumentof z

the binomial theorem,we
zn~lw

(zn
+

+

(h-1)!1!

-|i[z\"+(\">\"\"'\"+(2)z\"\"v+

=

the

real axis.

positive
is the

angle

(z + H>)\"

have

zn~2w2
(*-2)!2!

One

represents the complex

axis.

\302\2430\\ri

\"

and

If one

+ '

\"

'

ww\\

+

ri)

-H

between

the

24

functions

Holomorphic

So we

have proved
= e*+w.

ezew

(1.24)

the product of two
is given by
|z2|exp(i02)

Therefore
=

z2

=

zxz2

is equal to the
this

At

sum

+

b9

z =

of those numbers.
some remarks concerningcoordinate
plane. The complex number x = x + iy is called the
the arguments

of

z of

point

aw + b

the so-called

z -> w
The origin
real

axis of

the complex

=

two

z and

coordinates

b

a

a

equals

w, related

with

each

point z.
other

.

system

of coordinates

and
the new systemof coordinates

of coordinates

of the

coordinate

coordinate transformation

z

of the new

plane C. Givena linearexpression
variable
w, the value of w
complex

a ^ 0, of the
can be thought ofasa new

The point z has now
through

product of two complexnumbers

of the

argument

b constants,

a and

satisfying

the

complex

coordinateof the
aw

and

we insert

point,
the

transformationsof

numbers

complex

l^ltalrapMOi+Gi)]-

we seethat

From this

zt = |z1|exp(i01)

the

argument

the anglea between
the
real axis of the old system

is b and
the

of a.

Fig. 1.6

1.3

Integrals

In

an(z

\342\200\224is

c)n

convergence.
defined

on a

seen that the sum/(z) = Xr=o
z
of
a holomorphic
function
in the interior of the circle of
function,
Conversely, it is possible to representa holomorphic
c of
certain region, in some neighborhoodof an arbitrary
point

the

previous

section

we have

1.3
that

the sum

as

region

of a

25

Integrals

power series,i.e.,

00

=

f(z)

if |z \342\200\224
c | < r for some r > 0.

an(z ~CT

Z

\302\253=o

Curves

a.

a complex-valued

Consider

of the real line R.
The

If for each t in the interiorof the
|y(r +

lim

y

(r),

interval

on some

defined

are obvious.

definitions

following

function

Ar)-y(f)|

interval

= 0

At-0

then

each

If for

t

in

Af-0
y(t) is

then

At

called a differentiablefunction

of

increment of r.)

If

called

The function
(f)

and

continuouslydifferentiable,

the closedinterval
point

=

y(r)

moves

y

(t)

its imaginary
and so on.

c

Fig. 1.7

part Im y
Let y (t) be

/ = [a, 6]. If t
in the complex

\302\273\302\273

t

a function

of class

is continuous,

{y(0:a^t^fe}.

a

its derivative

differentiable or

continuously

part Re y

and

differentiate

is

y(t)

limit

vjLtMzm

iim

/(.)=

exists,

a continuous function
of t.
the interior
of the interval the

is called

y(t)

moves

At represents

t. (Here,

y'(f) is continuous,then
of

class

are

both

a continuous
from

a to

is

y(f)

C1.

C1 and soon if
(r)

an

and

only

if its

real

continuous,

function defined on

b over the

plane C, describinga

\"curve\"

real axis,the
C

=

y(J)

26

Holomorphic functions

/ =

[a, fe]

continuous

A

1.5.

Definition

the

into

complex

interval

closed

the
map y: t \342\200\224>y(t)from
numbers is called an arc or curve

the

in

complex

point y(a) is calledthe initial point and the point y(b) the final
of
curve. If y(0 is continuously differentiateon /, y is called a
the
point
C1. If, moreover, y'(f) ^ 0
of class
continuously differentiable curve or a curve
for all tely then y is called a smooth arc. Points belongingto the subset
C = y(I) = {y(f): a ^ t ^ fe} are
said to be points on y.
plane. The

(Formally speaking,there is no

a

between

difference

\"map\"

a

and

seems
\"function,\"
convey the idea of a curve.)
\"map\"
of C, then a curvey: t -* y (t), a ^ t ^ fe, such that
If a and ft are two points
=
=
said
a
and
is
to connect a and /}.
y(a)
y(b) ft
If D is a regionin C, [D] its closure, cleD and /}\302\243[D], then all curves
\342\200\224
D of D, that is, for somes
the boundary
[D]
connecting a and ft intersect
\342\200\224
D. To see this, let S be the subsetof /
a < s < b we have y (s) e [D]
with
of
and let s be the supremumof S.
all
t
such
that
y (t) $ [D]
points
consisting
Supposey(s)\302\243[D], then by the continuity of y there exists an e > 0 such
if t > 5 \342\200\224
that
e. This
is a contradiction and therefore y(s)e [D].
y(t)\302\243[D]
> 0 such that y(f)\302\243D for
t < s + e.
Supposey(s)\302\243D9 then there exists an \302\243

to better

but

This is a contradictionand
if it

Hence,

y(s)\302\243D.

to connectthe pointsa and
boundary of D, then either a and

is possible

the

intersecting

therefore

C with

ft of
/? both

belong

a curve y not
to D or to

the complement of [D].

In
c+

-hoc, and

Definition

In

subset y(/) ofC,because

also characteristic

to b is

direction on the curve
yt

0e/

two curves
and

(I)

and

yt

y2(/)

case

this

y, rather

a map

we write

than as

a

a
the
way the point y(t) moves when t movesfrom
of a certain curve.Forexample,
if we represent
the

corresponding with
Fig. 1.8) are

y2 (see

are the

= [0,27i].
In
as

=

curves y:0-+y(0)

encounters

than r, since 0 representsan angle.
1.5 we have defined a curve

6 rather

the

frequently

ceC,0<r<

where

rew,

one

analysis

complex

t by

increasing

arrows

although

different,

the

-\302\273\342\200\242
then

point

sets

same.

given, we also have in mind the point set C = y (/)
made concrete by sayingthat points
to C = y (/) are on
belonging
of a certain region D is
the
y. For example, if we say that
boundary
formed by the curve y, we mean that the boundary of D is the point set

Of course,if
this is

and

C =

y(J).

If y: t
we

y is

a curve

have

called

If y

-\342\226\272

y (t),

such

t

^

y(t), that

y(s)^

a Jordan
is

a ^

b, is

a curve

is, if y

is a

such that

one-to-one

a^s <t ^b
map from / into C, then y is

for

all s, t

with

arc.

that

y(a) = y(b)

then

y

is called

a closed

curve and if y

is such

1.3

r2(b)

1.8

Fig.

<t
all s, t with a^s
called a Jordan curve.

that for
y is

72(a)

7i(b)

W

27

Integrals

<

fe

have

we

y (s)

^ y(0> while y(a) =

y(b),

then

7(b)=7{a)

curve

Jordan

1.9

Fig.

There are
the

y,

curve,

together

with

carriedby
but

there

not \"curvelike'5
at all, such as a
=
is a triangle,
y(/), of which
corresponding
point set, C
In
his
all of its interior
the
idea
of
a
curve is only
case,
points.
and not by the point set.This curveis not a Jordanarc
map

examples of curves,which

the

are

also

unintuitive

are

Jordan arcs.

\342\200\242
7(0

C
7(o)

Fig. 1.10

7(b)

28 Holomorphicfunctions

Jordan arcsof
curves. Let

class

a

y:
y(t\\
be such that

t0e[.a,b]

y(t)

\302\243
t

^ fc, be a

y'(f0) #

that are worthy

of
let

as

y(f)

+ 0(t-t0)
side

right-hand

l:t-+l(t) =

properties

Jordan arc of class C1 and

0. Writing

= y(t0)+y'(to)(t-t0)

the linearpart of the

have

however,

C1,

t ->

a line

defines

through y(r0):

+ y'(t0)(t-t0)

y(t0)

to the curve
is calledthe tangent
The vector 0y'(to) is
y at y(t0).
If we agree to call the
vector
to the curve y at y(t0).
called the tangent
t
the
with increasing
direction of the tangent
positive
corresponding
of the
6
direction
between
the
it
is
clear
the
that
direction,
positive
angle
of the real axis is just the argument of
direction
tangent and the positive

This line /

/Co):
=

y'(to)

\\Y(to)\\eie.

iy

/&
7(a)__

-^HO

0

17^

Fig.

X

1.11

= 0> then the tangent
can exhibit a number of different

at y(t0)

If /(*o)

y:
Example 13. Consider

of

y(/)

class

=

C1.

7{b)

In

this

t ->

is not defined.If y'(t0)
in

behaviors

y (t)

= f3,

case y'(0) = 0, but

\342\200\224

1

the vicinity

= 0,

curves

of y(t0).

1. This is a Jordanarc
is not a singularpoint on

^ t g

y(0)

= 0

y(r) = t2

+ it3,

[-l,l].

Example I A.

Jordan arcof

Consider
class

C1

y:

t ->

y'(0) =

and

singular point (a so-called

cusp)

of

0. In this
y(/).

\342\200\224

1

^ t ^

1. This

case the point y(0)

= 0

is a
is a

1.3

1.12

Fig.

Consider

1.5.

Example

and y(0)

= 0. Now, y'(0)

=

on

defined

y

= 0 and

+0y(0/'

lim,^

Since limf-+oy'(0= 0, y(t)
function of t on / = [0,1]. For s,t
= s3 < t3 =
|y(r )|, hencey: t -* y(t), 0 ^
to

0, y(t)

\"spirals

is a singularpoint

often\"

infinitely

of

by y(t)

[0,1]

0<r<l.

tends

29

Integrals

a

is

^ s

0

r

1 is

around

if

t3e2ni,t

y'(t) =

r(3f

-

continuously

with

^

=

<

r

^

a Jordan
0 and

is

it

0 <

f

g

1

2ni)e2ni,t for
differentiable

have

1 we

\\y(s)\\

arc of classC1.Iff
clear that y(0) = 0

y(I).

Fig. 1.13

If y:t
for all
y: t -> y

all

t

there

and

a

re/, so
(f),

a ^

y'(a)

t

^ t ^

f\302\243
fe,

= y'(fc)

r \342\200\224>
y(f) and

= y
(r0)

a

that

be two

would

If y:
z0

-> y(t),

=

A(s0),

ft,

is a

Jordan

smooth

is defined

tangent

y is

satisfying

is called a

arc, then by definition y'(f)
at each point. A Jordan

continuously differentiable, y'(f) #
curve.
Jordan
(If y'(a) # y'(fc),

smooth

different tangents at the point y{a)

A: s
then

-*
the

A(s)

are

angle

two

smooth

0 between

Jordan

=

# 0
curve

0 for
then

y(b).)

curves intersecting in

the tangent to y

at

y(f0)

and the

30

Holomorphicfunctions

tangent to

X

at

If 6

Fig.

1.14

fe.

Integrals

of r, the definite

=

if

Generally,

m7r

integral J

w(f) +
*

fc(t), a

the angle
y are said

r

^

fe,

is a

function

continuous

by
(1.25)

v(t)dt.

continuous functions,

are constants, the following
(c1M)

^

defined

<\302\243(*)dris

u(t)dt + i

are both

lftf>(f)and^(0

is called
argument of A'(s0)/y'(f0)
m
the
X and
then
curves
integer

some

for

=

<t>(t)

4>(t)dt=

and c2

is, the

that

A(s0),

between A and y.
to touch at z0.

4>(0dr+ c2

+ ca.>(r))<fc-c1
Ja

and

if Cj

holds.

formula

Jfl

definedon [a,fe]

*(\302\273)*\342\200\242

(1.26)

Ja

By (1.25) we have

Proof:

Ja
Putting

(Clif>(t)

+ C2ilf(t))dt=
J a

Ci<l>(t)dt+\\

cx =

p and
p + ia, where
cx4>(t) = pu(t)-(jv(t) + i(ou(t)

<r

are

real

Ja

C2lj,(t)dt.

numbers,

we have

+ pv(t)).

Hence

rrt

cx4>{t)dt

J a

u(t)dt-a\\

= (p + i<T)l

v(t)dt

+ i(j\\

Ja

Ja

U(t)dt

rb

rt

rb

= p

+ i\\

V(t)dt\\

u(t)dt +

ip\\

Ja

v(t)dt

1.3
that

31

Integrals

is,

=

P%cx+W
Ja

to derive

We want
r

r mt)\\dt.

I

defines 0

Ja

e'ie(f>(t)dt=

J
Ja

and since Re(e~ie<l>(t))

^

P 4>Wt\\

The

= P
is also

rule

chain

differentiable

continuously

1.12.

and let y(t)

be

e-w<l)(t)dt.

J

^

true

trivially

if this

have

+ i\\

\\e~ie4>(t)\\ =

Ja

\\4>(t)\\

conclude

we

^ P
Re(e-ie<t>(t))dt

lm(e'ie<t>(t))dt

\\<f>(t)\\dt.

true for the composition of a complex-valued
t and
function
a holomory(t) of a real variable
z:

holomorphic function

defined

on

a region

differentiable function defined on an interval
then
the
re/,
compositefunctionf(y(t))isa continuously
function
of t and the chain rule is valid:

a continuously

D
/.

for all

If y(t)eD
differentiable

(1.28)

jtf(y(t))=f(y(t))-y'(t).

Proof:

(1.27) is

0; however

Re(e-\302\2734>{t))dt

be a

Let/(z)

then

\\ba4>(i)dt,

Ja

of a complexvariable

phic function/(z)
Theorem

4>(i)dt=

Ja

I

only if \\ba4>(t)dt
integral is zero.) By (1.25)we
(This

(i.27)

of the complexnumber

= e-ie

4>(t)dt\\

J

Ja

formula

Ja

J

the argument

6 be

Let

(1.26).

proves

another useful

^

wo*!

Ja

4>{t)du

\\b

Ja

other term.This

for the

Similarly

cx

Let
y

(r +

At

be

an

At) -y{t)

increment

=

y'(t)At

of *, then
+ O(Af).

By (1.9)

/(z + fc)-f(z)=f'(z)HO(fi).

32 Holomorphicfunctions
z =

Substituting

y(t) and

h

=

y(r + At)

\342\200\224

y(t)

the last

in

f(y(t + At))-f(y(t))=f'(y(t))yf(t)At

expression, we get

+ 0(At).

of r,
a continuous
function
(1.28).Since/'(y(t))y'(t)is obviously
differentiable
function.
is
a
f(y{t))
continuously
Let y: t-*y{t\\ a g t ^ fc, be a curve in C and let D be a region
in C. If
c
D
D.
t
e
we
is
and
we
for
all
that
in
write
y
y
y(t)eD
Let/(z) be a
[a, b],
say
D. A holomorphic function F (z),defined
on
continuousfunction
on a region
=
D.
of
D and satisfying
a
on
is
called
If,
primitive
F(z)
function
/(z),
/(z)
for example,/(z) is given
by
This proves

n=

0

where the power serieson the right converges
< r ^ + oo, then, by Theorem 1.11,

on

Ur(c) for

some r

with

0

n

= 0\"+l

primitive function of /(z)
(z) is a primitive function
curve of class C1 in D, we have
is a

on

If F

Ur(c).

on

of/(z)

D and

if y: t

-\342\226\272

y (r),

a ^

r

^

fe,

is a

(1.28)

by

jtF(y(t))=f(y(t))y'(t).

Writing

F(y(t)) =

~ U(t)
both

Integrating

U(t) + iV(t)y

formula

get

ijtV(t) =f(y(t) )/(r).

+

from

sides

a to

F(y (b))-F(y(a)) =
This

we

suggests

b, we get

(1.29)

['f{y(t))y'(t)dt.

the following

definition.

Definition 1.6. Let y: r -> y (f), a ^ r ^ 6, be a curve of classC1onD and let
of z on D. The integral
f(z) be a continuous function
\\J(y (t))y' (t)dt is called
the integral off(z) along y and denoted
by J f(z)dz. Thus

f/(z)dz=

The

curve

y is

called

[f(yit))y'(t)dt.
the path

of integration

of

this

integral.

13

33

Integrals

a=Y(a)

1.15

Fig.

F(z) off(z) existsonD,

primitive function

If a

of/(z) along y

the

equals

by (1.29),

then,

the integral

values of F(z) at a = y(a)

of the

difference

and

= y(b):
P

1

y(a) and /?

a and

on

ft

If

is

f(z)

the value

case,

y(b) and is

=

an

obvious

constants,

of (1.27).

consequence

Similarly, if f(z)
the

and g(z)areboth

following

is a direct consequenceof (1.28).
An

of

integral

follows.

points.

\302\243\"=
1f(Ck)

tj

[tk-i9

i5[A]

For each

k

y

\342\200\224

zk_

+ c2

f(z)dz

we

=

pick

D and

if cx and

c2 are

m

intervals

partition

by

(1.32)

9(z)dz.

C1 can

class

details

-

.,

tm}.

The

interval

m, by these m +1
1,2,...,
the maximal length of the

=

tk], fc
we denote

[ffc_ t,

and

f

be obtained as a limit
of this procedure are as
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> **. *n fo
f2\302\273
&] such that a = t0

of

x). The

m +1 points f0, f lt,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
< rm = fcand we put A = {tQy tl9t29.

is divided into
We call A a

intervals

(zk

a curve

choose

We

<t1<t2<

[a, fe]

along

$yf(z)dz

sums

finite

on

continuous

formula:

(clf(z) + c2g(z))dz= c1(

[

(1.31)

1/(7(0)11/(01*

ll/Hsf

is

(1.30)

of Jy/(z)dz dependsonly on the points
independent of the choiceofcurve connecting
if y is a closed curve, then $yf(z)dz = 0.
D. In particular,
continuous
on D, the following inequality:
this

in

Therefore,

a =

/(z)dz = F(/?)-F(a).

\302\243[A]:

max(rk-rfc_1).
tk 6

[tk_l9tk] and putting

C*

=

y(Tk)andzk

= ^(r^) we find

34

functions

Holomorphic

a finite sequence

which

of points on y

ordered

are

a
determines

finite

to increasing values

according

of r. This sequence

sum:

m

*A=

/(Ck)(z*-*k-l)\302\243

*= 1

Now, the integral $Yf(z)dz
take all possible partitions

J. y
For,

f(z)dz-Um

continuous

function

A

[a,

fc] and

let

these sumsaA,

\302\243[A] tend

to

where

r, that

(133)

on the closedinterval
[a, fc], it is a uniformly
>
a 5(e) > 0 such
e
thereexists
0,
is, for each

that

andf,5G|>,fc].

if|f-s|<*M

\\f(y(t))~f(y(s))\\<e

Since
f f(z)dz= \\*mt)y/(t)dt=
*Ja

\302\243

J

y

\\'k
l Jt*_,

f(y(t))y'(t)dt,

and since from

we have
h

'*
/(Ck)(zk-zk_1)=

f

=

/<\302\253/\302\253*

f

f(y(Tk))y'(t)dt,

we deduce

f f(z)dz-

\302\243/(CJ(zk-zk_1)=

we

0:

* = 1

is defined
of

of

of all

limit

Z/\302\253;*)0*-z*-i>-

*5[A]-0

sinoe/(y(r))

the

equals

J

f

h

(f{y(t))-f(y(rk)))y'(t)dt.

1.3 Integrals

If

35

is a partition
such that 5[A] < 5(e),then
for
all re[rk.l9
tk] we
have |t-T*| < 5(e).Hence\\f(y(t))-f(y(xk))\\
< e. Using (1.31) we have
A

U

/\302\253&- I/(\302\253fe-*k-i)

If

I

If*

m

r

(/(y(r))-/(y(tk)))/(t)A

tk

l/(y(0)-/(y(tJk))l|yf\302\253|&

III

_i

This

The parameter t of the

Z

\302\253

|/<r)|*.

to be absent from the sums
y (*) seems
on the right-hand sideof(1.33).
This
is not

y: t

curve

i ) occurring

~~\"z* -

(z*

->

order of the pointsz0,\302\243l9
\342\200\242
\342\226\240>
z%, \302\2432>
z2> \342\200\242
zk-i>
C*> z*, - - \342\200\242>
which is determined by the parametrization,is essential.

true,

since the

zm_1?

Cw, z,*,

c.

/*fj

=

al/WIA

(1.33).

proves

Z IT-1/(W

/\342\200\242
f
*

formula

integral

Cauchyfs

for

circles

C and let r be such
plane
=
0 < r < -hoo, then the interior Ur(c)
{z:\\z-c\\< of the circle with
center c and radiusr is called disk with center c and radius r. Theclosure

Let c

be a

of

point

that

complex

r}

[l/r(c)]=

the

c\\

{z:\\z-

r} is

^

Letf(z) bea holomorphic

Ur(c)

a disk

called the
function

with center

closeddisk
on

the region

c and radius r, 0 < r <

the
Under these circumstances

following

with

+

theorem

oo,

center

c and

radius r.

D, c a point of D,and
c D.
satisfying
[l/r(c)]
holds.

Theorem 1.13. Let y: 6 -\302\273y(6) = c + rew, 0 ^ 0 ^ 2n, be the circle
center c and radius r. If w is a point of Ur(c), then the value/(w) is given
f(w)

=

\302\261,

Z)

Fig.

1.17

-^-dz.

f

2m J

y

z-w

with
by

(1.34)
v

36

Holomorphicfunctions

Formula (1.34)is a special
case
of Cauchy's
will prove in Section2.3.
w = c in (1.34) and using y(0)-c
Putting

=

and

reie

which we

formula,

integral

y'(6)

= rfe*

we get

Hence

/(c) = ^rV(c

(1.35) shows that

Formula

c is

a point

of a

circle

It is

+

(1.35)

r^)d\302\273.

the value/(c)

equal to the averageof the
c. Therefore,

center

with

of a holomorphicfunction/(z)
+ re*e)

values/(c

taken on

(1.35) is calledthe Mean Value

to prove the Mean Value Theoremdirectly.

also easy
1

at

the points
Theorem.

Putting

C2n

271 Jo

we have
-/(c)

Mr)

If r

0, \\f(c +

-\342\226\272
+

=

other

(^

(f(c +

| tends
reie) \342\200\224/(c)

|/i(r)-/(c)|
In

^

rj\302\253)-f(c))de.

to 0

uniformly

with

and so

r- +0.

+ r^)-f(c)\\de^09

^(2*\\f{c

to 6

respect

words,

lim

r- +0

/i(r)=/(c).

Therefore, in order to prove

(1.35)

it is

constant, independent of r, for sufficiently
Applying the chain rule, (1.28),
gives
2-f(c

to prove

sufficient

values

small

that

/i(r)

is a

of r.

+ rJ*)<P9

+ nP)=f{c

-^fic + r^-f'ic

+ re^rie\".

Hence

A/(c

+ re\")

=

I l/(c + r\302\243?\302\273), r

Since, by assumption,

> 0.

/(z) is holomorphic,/'

(z)

(1.36)
is

continuous,

hence

1.3

df(c + reie)/dr=/'
6 and

be

r. Therefore,

found

by

=

2nTr*r)

/i(r)is a differentiable

ir J

o

SO-

that

proves

The

vital

of

part

derivatives

partial

Now

=

yt: 0->yc(O)

27uJye

the

to
+ eew,

w

radius e satisfying
z-w

I [/(c + re2\"')

=

+ reu>)de

f{c

+ rt*)d6

Trf(C

\\0

-

n(r) is independent of r.
this proof is (1.36), which gives a
to r and
of/(c + re**) with respect

return

we

+ re)d6 =

Tr\\0f(C

integral

/(c +

r)] = 0.

relation

the

between

6.
formula

6 ^ 2n, representa circle

0 ^

2ihJ0

of the

proof

0 < e <r

variables

two

derivative can

the integral sign\":

\"under

differentiating

~
This

)eie is a continuousfunction of the
of r and its
function

+ re*

(c

37

Integrals

with

Let

(1.34).

center

w and

\342\200\224
\342\200\224
From

\\w

c\\.

2tt

y\302\243(0)-w'\302\243l'

J0

we get

lim

---

\302\243-027ri

z-w

^-

+ eel8)d0

V(w

I

\302\243-.027t

l/2w Jo2*/(w +

course,

(Of

= lim

-^-dz

I

J7e

eje)dO =/(w) by

the

\342\200\242

f

2m J y
We

7o:

* -*

for

all

To (0
t e

y

2m

J

Theorem,

prove

2*U.
y

but

(1J7)

w
z \342\200\224

lemma.
be a

Let/(z)

and

f

w
z \342\200\224

need a

first

1.1.

Lemma

\302\273

i\302\273*

Value

Mean

not need that result in the present proof.)
to
Therefore, in order to prove (1.34)it suffices

we do

=/(w).

J0

i:

t ->

y x

holomorphic

(r),

a ^

[a, b], the segmentsLt

t ^

fc,

connecting

be

function on a regionD and let
closed
curves of class C1 in D.If,
y0 (t)

and

y x

(f),

represented

by

Lt^{(l-s)y0{t)^syl(tYO^s^l}

are in D, then

=
f /M<fc

[

(1.38)

/(z)dz

holds.

Proof:

Putting

ys(t) =

(1 -s)y0(tHsyl{t%

a^t^b

38 Holomorphic

functions

each

for

the ys(t)

se[0,1],

Since y0

c D.

ys(t)eLt

are continuously

such

differentiable,

curves, y0(a) =

closed

yx are

and

y0(b)

and

that
yt (a)

for all s. (Thecurves
ys: t -\342\226\272
ys (t)9 a S t ^ b, are
a family of closed curves in D. If s movesfrom 0 to 1the curve y0 is gradually
\"transformed\" via the curves ys into the curve y%.) It suffices to prove that
is independent
of s, and to prove this it is sufficient
to prove
that
SyM(z)dz
=

y

hence

i (ft),

y5

(a)

=

ys (b)

Fig. 1.18

Putting

Ht, 5) = y.(r) =
we see that

T(t9 5) is a function

rectangle K =
derivativeson

(1-s)y0(t)+

{(r,s):a^

t

the

of

^

fc,0 ^

s^

variables

1}with

X:

rr(t,s)

= (l-5)y0(t)

rs(r, 5)

=

rrs(t, 5) =

+ 5y'1(r),

y1(0-yo(r),

r* ft s) = yi

(t)

-

y'0(t).

si 1
1
K

a

0

Fig.

1.19

I>

(1.39)

(t)

syt

two

f

t

continuous

and

5 defined
partial

on the

13

For fixed s, T(r, s)
and the derivative
Tt
(a, s) and (b, s).Similarly,

is a

function of t

points

ya(t) =

t, the

fixing

(t,0) and (t, 1). The

on

defined

derivative

sameis

for

true

interval [a,

the closed

function is also defined

(r, 5) of this

at

the

and

at

the

s). From

rrt(r,

have

),a(\302\253)we

= r(a,s).

r(M)

b]

end points

T, (t, s) is alsodefined
rfs(r,s)

39

Integrals

(1.40)

Since
f f(z)dz= fV(y.W)y;w*=
in

to

order

To do this,
Mean Value
Since

= 0.

establish

a relation

will

s, which will

to

prove

between the partial derivatives
with
similar role as (1.36) in the proof of the

a

play

suffices

Theorem.

T(r, s)

is continuously

alsocontinuously

differentiablewith
with

differentiable
is

derivative

/(z)<fe is independentof s, it

/(r(r,5))rf(r,s)dr
we

to t and

regard

that J

prove

[V(r(t,s))rf(t,s)dt,

given

regard

to s, /(T(r,
s)) is
Theorem 1.12,and the

regard

to s, by

by

\302\243/(r(r,5))=/'(r(r,s))rs(r,s).

Therefore

= r (nr.r,

ys (/(or,)
we

where

have

T for

written

(i.4i)

+/(nr,s,

T(r, s). Writing
+ iV{t9s)

f(r(t9s))rt(t9s)=U(t,s)

side of (1.41) is a continuousfunction
and observing that the right-hand
of t and s defined on K, we concludethat
Us (r, s) and Fa (f, s) are
continuous

on

K.

\"Differentiating
\302\261

J*/(r

On the

under
(ff

S))rf

the integral sign\" yields
(r, 5)dr

=

[b

other hand

~(/(r)rj

=/'(nrfrs+/(r)rs,.

A(/(r(r,

5))Tf

(r,

5))dL

40 Holomorphic

functions

Hence

ft s))

s))rt

(/(Tft

\302\243-

=

jt (f{T(Us))Ts

ft

(1.42)

5))

and therefore

r

vw*

5))r'(r's))dt=r

Ys

i(/(n''5))rjt's))^

s))r.(6,

=/(r(b,
and

s))r.(o,

-/<r(a,

s),

finally

T(fc,

5)

s) by (1.40),hence Ts(fe,

= T(a,

sideof (1.43)
Proof of Theorem
2711

By Theorem
\342\200\224

{w}.

The

which

zero,

equals

\342\200\224
W

2711 J

1.5,/(z)/(z

\342\200\224

Z

circles

w) is

Thus, the right-hand

(1.38).

the equality (1.37):

W
Z \342\200\224

y

function of z on the region

a holomorphic

in D \342\200\224
{w} and

\342\200\224
y (6) is in D {w} for

connectingye (6) and
betweena point (1\342\200\224
s)yc(0)

(1.43)

5).

T5(a, s).

to prove

y are both

yE and

=

s)

proves

It suffices

1.13:

J y

s))r.(o,

=/(T(fc, s))Ts(fc,s) -/(!>,

f /(*)&

^

D

S)

+ sy(0),

all 0.

the line segment Le
This is becausethedistanced

s ^ 1, on Lfl

0 ^

vv satisfies

and

Fig. 1.20

d =

|(1 -s)y\302\243(0)

Equality (1.37)is now

+ sy(0)-w|

a

direct

= |(sr-se
^

sr

=

s(r

+ \302\243)e*-s(w-c)|

\342\200\224

consequence

se-f-e

\342\200\224\342\200\224

s|w

c|

\342\200\224
\342\200\224
\342\200\224

|vv

c|

e) +

of Lemma

e ^

e.

1.1.

13 Integrals 41

If
a

the

^ t ^

y0 of

curve
then

by

1.1 is definedby
0, hence f f(z)dz

where c is a constant,

Lemma

y0 (t)

= c,

=

= 0.

This gives

y0(r)

corollary to Lemma1.1.

the following

region D,y:t-+y(f), a ^ f
a closed curve of classC1in D, and c a point in D. If all segments
connecting
in
D
then
a
t
are
c and
^ ^ b,
y{t),
f /(z)dz =

In

the

1.1 we

did not usethe

r(t,s). We used the existenceand
rf(r,s), Ts(r,s), and rts(t,s) = rst(t9s)
= r>,S).
r(M

Therefore,let

(r,

r(t,

s)

values

taking

rrs (*>5)

=

Tsf

of

and

equality

D.

the

a

the

that

asserting

map T:
b, 0 g s ^ 1},

a continuous

exists

the partial derivatives
are continuous and let
and

derivatives

partial
(1.40)

rectangle K = {(t,s):

to this map T(f,s)

as above

reasoning

defined on

and

exist

(\302\243,
s)

b,

(1.39) for

formula

explicit

continuity

there

that

assume

us

s) defined on the
in D such that

-\342\226\272

^

0.

of Lemma

proof

on the

be holomorphic

Let/(z)

Corollary.

t ^

^

(f,

Tt

us

same

the

apply

holomorphic

s) and

Ts (t,

s),

function/(z)

Putting
=

ys(t)

ys: t->ys(t)9 a ^ r ^
did not assumethat
necessarily closed.

Up to equality

above
Now

s ->

curve

equality

C1 in Z) for each te[0,1].
=
s) T(a, 5)holds,the curves

of class
T (b,

Since we
ys are

not

f(z)dz =f{r{b,s))rs(b,s)-f(r(a,s))rs{a,s)
proof

can

be repeated

without any changes.

defining

ty (s)
ty:

is a

b

the

se[0,l]

(1.43)

^|
the

for

r(t,s)

ty (s),

= T(r, 5)

0

s
\302\243

^

1, is

for all t e [0, b]
a curve of classC1in

D

all re

for

[a, b]

and

I /(z)dz= JofV(r(r,5))rs(r,s)d5.

J,y

Integrating

both sides

of the equality with

regard

to

s from

0 to

1 and

42 Holomorphic

functions

last

the

using

f f(z)dz = f

f f(z)dz-

Jy0

Jyi
So,

we

have

f(z)dz- f

-\342\226\272

Let/(z) be a holomorphic

T(r,

s) be

the

on

function

map definedon the
values in D, such that

a continuous

0 ^ s <\302\243
fl^t^fe,
1} taking
rt(t9s\\ rs(r,s), and rfs(r,s) = r^t.s)
Putting ys: t -+ ys{t) = T(t, s),a^t^b,

^ 1,

f(z)dz

J\302\253y

J\302\273y

proved:

Theorem 1.14.

T: (r,5)

we get

equality,

exist

and

are

fy:

s -+

and

K =

rectangle
the

D and let

a region

{(r, s):

derivatives

partial

on K.

continuous
ty(s) = T(s, f),

0^ s

equality

f

f /(z)dz

/(z)dz-

=

[ /(z)&-

f

(1.44)

f(z)dz

is valid.

Fig. 1.21

in

Theorem 1.14 is a special
case
Section 2.3. The vital part of
^
Actually,

equations,

x + iy.

of

the proof

s))rt (r, 5)) =

(/(T(r,
this

equality
(1.10). To see

Since Tx = 1 and

Uy+ivy

=

=

I^x

of Theorem

jt (f(T(t,

s))ra(t,

which

will

1.14is equality

be

proved
(1.42):

s)).

generalization of the Cauchy-Riemann
this, replace t and s by x and y and put T(x, y)
is a

Ty

=

1, (1.42)

|/(X+I>)=l|_/(X+I>).

Writing/(x + iy)

Theorem,

Cauchy's

u + iv,

+ ^xX

we get

becomes

=

Integrals 43

13
the

which

from

equations,

Cauchy-Riemann

directly.

sidesof the

By integrating both
over the rectangle K,

\\\\k ^v(r(rf

vy and

uy

=

\342\200\224
follow

vx9

equations

Cauchy-Riemann

generalized

s))Fr

s))rs(r's))drds'

^(/(r(r>

(r's))dtds=If

Cauchy's Theorem(1.44).

we arrive at

d.

series

Power

Let f(z\\

expansions

f(z\\ f2(z\\

.. . 9fn(z)9...
be

a region D and let y:

defined on

=

ux

sequenceof

a ^ r

t -\342\226\272
y (t),

^

fc,

of

functions

continuous

a curve

be

in D.

z

If the

functions

\\f\342\200\236(y(t))-f(Y(t))\\

tends

{fn(z)}

Z1

on [a, fe]

to 0

uniformly

functions

n

if

uniformly

converges

-\302\273

oo,

to f(z)

we say that the sequence of
on y. Similarly,if the sequence

fn(y(t))-f(7(t))

n=

on [a, fe] as m -\342\226\272
oo, we say that the series \302\243^\302\260=
t fn(z)
If
to
on
for
series
all
of
the
converges
uniformly
y.
f(z)
points y(t)
y
to /(y(t)) and if Zn\302\260\302\260=1
|/n(y(r))|
converges
Er\302\253ii&W) converges
on
on y. This
uniformly
[a, 6], then Z\"=1J(i(z) converges uniformly
to/(z)
follows from

tends

to 0

uniformly

Z

n=

If Zr= i

Z

J[(y(0)-/(y\302\253)

1

ft

conver8es

uniformly

absolutely

on y.

^W)I
!\342\200\242\302\243

converge

uniformly

Theorem

1.15.

Let

be

y

a curve

(1) If the sequence
/(*) on y.
f

Jy

(2) If

f(z) on

J y

lim

/(z)dz=
the

of

f
n-oojy
series

of

n= 1 J

y

Z

n

on [a,

of class

functions

= m +1

lJC(rW)l-

6], then \302\243~=^

(z) is said to

C1.
{fn(z)}

converges

uniformly

to

converges

uniformly

to

Jt(z)rfz

functions

y,

^

J\302\243(y\302\253)

= iri+ 1

Z\"\342\200\236lt/i(z)

44

functions

Holomorphic

The second part follows

Proof:

assumption, there existsa sequence
(0)1 <e\342\200\236{ora^t^band lim,,^ en =
Using (1.31) we have
(1). By

prove
-/(?

f

I

f

f\342\200\236(z)dz-

1

f(z)dz

=

1

f*

part, so it

the first

from

directly

satisfying:

{en}

to

suffices

\\f\342\200\236(y(t))

0.

ifn(y(t))-f(y(t)W(t)dt

\\Uy(t))-f(y(t))\\\\y'(t)\\dt

*j>

n-KX>.

(t)\\dt->0,
^e\342\200\236\302\243l/

Hence

lim f
H-\302\27300
J

c and

center

f(z)dz.
y

C and let ceD. We

radius r. First let us
r for

of

value

maximum

f
J

a region in

D be

Let

=

fn(z)dz

y

to consider

want

which t/r(c)

c=

D,

disks

C. Then

D #

that

assume

is, there

that

with

(c)

Ur

there existsa
exists an r(c)

satisfying

[l/r(c)(c)]<jtD.

yc)cfl,

0

1.22

Fig.

Let r(c)

(Proof:

r<

r(c)9

that

then

denote the supremumofallvalues

Ur(c)

[Ur(C){c)]c/iD.

wls w2,.
convergent

limit of

.

c D, hence
If r>r(c),

., wn,. ..
subsequence

such

t/Hc)(c)

{wn^},
w.

r for

which

c D.

Ur<r{c)Ur(c)

nx <
Since

m2

and
<

D is

< r(c)+

|wn-c|
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

open,

exist

=

lim^^

D.If

prove

points

1/n. Select a

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
and
\342\200\242,

<nj<

w

Ur (c) c

Next we

then Ur(c)cfcD,hence there

wn\302\243 D

that

this subsequenceby

=

denote

wn.

the

D and
\302\243

13

since |w-c| = lim^^u^-cl
r(c) = + oo.In this case, t/r(c)(c)
holds

on D

is holomorphic

Uf(z)
with

replace

to

regard

w by

^ r,

we

and if r

<

the circle

z and z by

( in (1.34),we

l
f /(C)^
f(z) =
2ri
I

be a point of D.Then

/(z)=

/(z)

can

may

|(| = r

^ 6^

(1.34)

27r.

If

we

(L45)

on a

function

in a

0

...

+ a2(z-c)2-f

region D,

and let c

power series

on Ur(c)(c).
The coefficients

assume

an

2ni}yrZ-z

are

without

loss

Hence

/(C) _

\302\243
/(O^

(1.46)

by

,147)

of generality
By

(1.45)

c =

that

0.

Let

we have

C

?=re*

C

given

0<r<r(*

( is a point of the circle yr,
> |z|, and therefore|z/(| <

Fig. 1.23

..-,

+fln(z-c)\"+

choose r suchthat: |z| < r < r(0).

zet/r(O)(0) and

Since

Cauchy's

+ re1*, 0

get

be expanded

*\"Sil\302\253^*

m

formula

then

= c

\302\243an(z-<T

n=

which converges

We

(0)

C, we put

zet/'(c)-

C^tdC'

= a0-ffl1(z-c)

Proo/:

r(c\\

Let/(z) be a holomorphic

Theorem 1.16.

C = D.)

= l/ + 00(c) =

yr: 0 -> yr

D =

If

[Ur{c)(c)].

45

Integrals

we

1.

So

can
we

write
can

( = yr(0) =
write

re1*,

hence

46

Holomorphicfunctions

The continuous

Denoting

function

of 6

\\f(y(9))\\

maximum

this

by

f(0zn
n

Therefore the series\302\243\"=0
y,

and

= (1/2th)

aH

Putting

/W

=

/^dC=
an =

coefficients

The

uniformly on the circle

)z\" converges

(/\"({)/C\"+x

we arrive

J\" IT (/(0/C\"+1)#

^f

r-|z|

^r\"*1

1.15(2), we have

by Theorem

thus,

[0, 2n].

\342\200\224
<+\302\253>\342\200\242

Z3TTr=

^M-^TT>
r\"+1'

+ l

a maximum on

assumes

M, we have

at

(1.48)

\302\243a\342\200\236z\302\273.

(l/2ni)

f

are

(/(0/Cn+1)^C

independent

of the

choice of r, becausewe can select r and 5 such that 0 < r < r(0) and
0 < s < r(0). Since/(C)/Cn+1is holomorphicon the
region
{0}
t/r(0)(0)and the segments connecting yr(0)
and
are
in
this
ys(0)
clearly
region, we
have

by

1.1

Lemma

i

Since

z

0 anzn
\302\243^\302\260_

/(C)

r

is an

for

convergenceof
converges
Corollary,
if for
only

< r(0).

\\z\\

Y*\342\204\242=oa*zn

on

absolutely

A function

r

no

Ar

the power series
r(0),
Hence, by Theorem 1. 8, the radiusof
'ess ^an
r(^)- Therefore, Y^=oa^n

point satisfying

arbitrary

converges

i

Ar

not

*s

\\z\\

<

t/r(0)(0).

if and
f(z) defined on a regionD is holomorphic

cDon
there existsa neighborhood
Ue(c)
which/(z)
=
can be expanded in an absolutely
series,/(z)
convergent
power
Y,\342\204\242=o
an
\342\200\224
on
is arbitrarily
often
on c). If/(z) is holomorphic
D9f{z)
c)n (e depends
(z
difFerentiable on D and the derivatives
/' (z),/\" (z),. . . ,/lm,(z),... are all

each ceD

on

holomorphic

Proof:
A

D.

The result

complex

function,/(z),

power series/(z) =
is called

functions

from

defined

on a

\342\200\224
\302\243\"=0an(z

c)n on a

Theorems

region D, that
neighborhood

1.16 and

1.11.

in a
be expanded
of each point c ofD

can

function (or a complexanalytic
function
from
a real analytic
function). By the
and vice versa.
are holomorphic

an analytic

to distinguish it
analytic

follows directly

if it

is necessary

above corollary,

1.4 Properties ofholomorphic
functions
1.4

a.
.

fundamental

expansion of f(z). In this
from
directly
Cauchy's integralformula

section
(1.34)

and

Let y(t) and \\fr{t) be complex-valued
defined on the integral / = [a,6].
1.2.

is given by

Differentiating

z yields

to

regard

with
right-hand sideof (1.49)
(1.50), so we actually prove that the order of

\\z\\ >

on the

be interchanged.
have

obviously

d

1\\=

fl

is a positiverealnumber,
p and |w| > p. Actually,
z \342\200\224w\\ww
z~w\\w\"

(l\\=

dz\\zn)

*\"/

!\342\204\242z-*vVw\"

If p

the

convergence

JJ

wz\"
wz\"

z\"+1\"

limit is uniform

of this

1

_1
z\"
z\"

n

w2
w2zn

l

w\"z'

Hence

111
Iw\"

Since

\"

=
zn

I

derivative

(1.50)

the integrand

can

1

r

its

(y{t)-*r^dt.

integration

If z ^ 0, we

and

*0

g'(z)= n(b

and
differentiation

functions

continuous

of z defined on C \342\200\224
y(I)

function

holomorphic

Proof:

integral

fact

formulas

(y(t)-z)\"

\302\253\302\253-j;

is a

find

n

number

natural

each

For

to deduce this

want

we

well.

as

derivatives

mth

Lemma

of

properties

derivatives

mth-order

power series

for the

the

study

to Theorem 1.16, a holomorphic
function
corollary
differentiate
and the derivatives
often
/'(z),
arbitrarily
. ,/(m)(z),...
the
are all homomorphic. This was
proved
using

is

f\"(z),.

will

the

By
f(z)

functions

of holomorphic

Properties

In this section we
holomorphic functions.

Al

|z-w|

I

1

Y -T-r^r k

I k=x

v^zn

I
I

^\"\" lz-w|
pn+l'

for

48

Holomorphicfunctions

we get

1

1/1

\342\200\224

n

\\

I

,

,

n2

(1.51)

(^-^J-^^I-H^T.

and put 2p =

FixzeC-y(Z),
\342\200\224
\342\200\224

z

h\\>p

\342\200\224z
\342\200\224fi
in

y(0

all

for

Replacing z by y(i?)-z and

< p.

|fi|

p >Oand

then

minfl\302\243f^|y(t)-z|,

\\y(t)
w

by

we get

(1.51)

1/

with

h

\302\273(Q

\\

\302\273(0

(y(0-*r/

*V(y(0-*-*r

n\302\273(t)

Ljfcln2,.,.,

r

(y\302\253-^r+l

p\"+2

(1.27)

hence, using

t-h:-*m*w>*
Therefore

lim

+ h)-g(z)

g(z

replaces
hence

is

g(z)

on C \342\200\224
y (/).

defined on the

Let

y

(0

interval

and
[a,

dt*

is given by (1.50). If one
one
(1.49),
gets (1.50),so that g'(z) is
is
Therefore,
g'(z)
certainly continuousand

n

and

#'(z)

1 in

+

on C

holomorphic

1.17.

Theorem

n by

^TT

T~77x

on C \342\200\224
y(J)

and

n^(f)

by

^(t)

differentiable

also

n

~J.

is differentiable

i.e., g(z)

n)

C\"

=

1

\342\200\224y(/).

ip (t)

be complex-valued

continuous functions

6].

The function

=
/(z)=fJ\302\243U
f

is a
often
fim)

function

holomorphic

of

z on

the region

C \342\200\224
y(I).f(z)

is arbitrarily

on C \342\200\224
all its derivatives f'(z),f\"(z),...,
and
y(I)
\342\200\224
on C y(I). The mth derivative is given by
holomorphic

differentiable
are

(z),...

/<\">(z)

=

(1.52)

(y(t)-zy
m\\j*7-7J^L\342\200\224dL

and
1.1, f(z) is holomorphicon C\342\200\224
y(I)
f'(z)
=
the
same
z?~\\dt. Therefore, by
lemma,/'(z)is
f t> W/(y(0
= 2!
is
by the same lemma,/'(z)
holomorphic
and/\"(z)
Again
J* O (r)/(y(r) z)3]dr.
=
3!
and
so
on.
holomorphic and/\"\302\260'(z)
J* [>(t)/(y(t)-z)4]<fe,

Proof:

By Lemma

Let/(z)bea
Ur(c),0< < +

holomorphic

r

oo, be

function

a disk such that

a region PcC
c D and
[l/r(c)]

on

and let ceD. Let
let yrbe defined
by

1.4

y/-0->
for

have

=

yr(d)

^

27i.

all its

Ur(c) and

is an

Ur{c)

f\"(z\\ . .

1.17, f(z) is

derivatives

So we

..

f'(z),f\"(z),.

arbitrary

is arbitrarily
derivatives
/'(z),

that/(z)

proved

its

all

we have

have

proved.

1.18.

Theorem

... are holomorphic.

,f(m)(z\\

that

on

differentiable

often

arbitrarily

disk in D, we have

on D and
. ,f{m)(z),... are holomorphic.

(1.52)

By

(1.45) we

formula

yM-2

2.iiJo

differentiable

often

integral

Cauchy's

By

**

2nijyrC-z
by Theorem

Therefore,

on

rew, 0 <; 0

49

zeUr(c)

JU

Since

c +

functions

of holomorphic

Properties

The mth

derivative of f(z) is given

by

Ur(c).

1.17 the integral Jyr[/(0/(C-z)m+1M on the right-hand
of (1.53) is also a holomorphic function
of
z on
D \342\200\224
side
[l/r(c)].
This function
is identically equal to 0 by the corollary
to Lemma 1.1, since
function of \302\243
on D \342\200\224
all segments
is a holomorphic
z)m+i
/(C)/(C\342\200\224
{z} and
\342\200\224
of
D
c
the
in
and
are
connecting
points yr
{z}.
By Theorem

Limits

fe.

on

a region

f(z) =

subsets

the

limn^00/l(z)

sequences
of

{^.

D, converging

/<*>(z) =
and

of holomorphicfunctions
a
be
functions
sequenceof holomorphic
(z)}

of sequences

Let

1.19.

Theorem

is

uniformly

holomorphic

Km.-

(*),
co/\302\243\">

{/J,m) (z)}

on

on D
m =

all

subsets

compact

and its
1, 2,

mth

derivative

defined

of D. Then
is given

by

3, . . . ,

converge uniformly to/(m) (z) on all compact

D.

Let Ur (c), 0<r<+oobean
arbitrary disk such that [Ur (c)]
Proof:
on [t/r(c)],
cD.
Since, by assumption,
uniformly
{/\342\200\236(z)}converges
of z on [t/r (c)]. Let yr be the
function
/(z) = lim,,-^/,. (z) is continuous

a

50

Holomorphicfunctions

circle

radius r, then, by

c and

center

with

the integralformula

we have

(1.45),

zeUAc)'\342\200\242W-.MJS*

Since {/\342\200\236(0} converges
uniformly
to/(Q/(C\342\200\224z)
converges uniformly
Theorem
1.15, (1)

n-ooJyrC

Z

on [l/r(c)],

to f(Q

fixed z e Ur

yr for a

on

-

(0/(C
{/\342\200\236

*)}
by

Therefore,

(c).

Z

JyrC

Hence
1

=

1=

/(Z)=lim/B(Z)

/(0

f

-^|

f^-dC,,r

\342\200\224r

2mJyt-z

on f/r

is holomorphic

Therefore/(z)

disk in D, we

an arbitrary

Next, by

see

that/(z)

zet/r(0).

\"\302\243'

7

(c) by Theorem 1.17and since
on D.
is holomorphic

is

Ur (c)

(1.53)

f(m) (2)

/\342\226\240
(0-/(0

_ f(m) (z)smmL[

dc

on yn there exists a sequence
Since {fn{Q} converges uniformly
to/(C)
= 0 and
< \302\253\302\273
for
all \302\243eyr
such
that
linw
e\342\200\236
I/,(0-/(01
{En}
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
z
that
we
have
such
\\z
c\\ ^
r/z,
|yr (0)
Choosing
z\\ ^
r/2. Using

y;(0) =

r\302\253ew,weget,by(1.31),

|/<\302\253>(z)-/<\302\253>(z)|<^
(z) j (z>l =
|/.

compact

of

set

shown above,{/(nm)

Since

by a finite

be covered

can

.K

to /(m) (z) on

uniformly

Corollary.

Let

a region

J]

*_

x

K.

fn

D, converging

f(z) = ZT-ifn(z)ls

on

the

and
subset

of

Let us

series

X^=1/nm)(z)

disk

(c)]. Let
(c)]

[l/r

X be a
c Z).As

to/(m) (z) on all disks [l/r/2(c)].

all

compact

(z)}

converges

defined

subsets

its mth derivative

D and

m=

/(\"\342\200\242>(z)= \302\243/\302\253(*),
\302\273=i

[[/r/2

of holomorphicfunctions

on

uniformly

holomorphic

on

a closed

number of thesedisks,{/(nm)

a series

(z) be

ym

(z)

uniformly

converges

(z)}

<m!2m
=

27rJoMe)_zr\302\253

converges
uniformly to f{m)
D and choose for each ceK

{/J,m) (z)}

i.e.,

+1

e\"rd0

P\"

on

of D. Then

is given

by

1,2,3,...

converges

uniformly

on each compact

D.

apply this corollaryto the

power series

with

radius

of

case

convergence

of power

r, 0

series. Let

x an
\302\243
^\302\260=

< r ^ + oo.All

terms

zn be

a

anzn

1.4

are

functions 51

of holomorphic

Properties

zn converges
Ur (0) and \302\243^\302\260=
uniformly on all
x an
<
r
Theorem
1.9.
F
or
each
subset
K of D
p
by
compact
c
is possible
to find a p < r such that
K
it
Up(0), hence ]T^=1 flnz\"
on
K.
our
z\"
Therefore,
by
converges
uniformly
corollary,the sum Y^=\\an
=
is holomorphic
on D Ur (0) and its mth derivative/(m) (z)is given by
=/(z)

disksUp

D =

on

holomorphic

0 <

(0) for

00
/(\342\200\242\302\273)(Z)=
\302\243n(\302\253-l)(w-2)...(\302\253-m+l)a(,z\"-m.

1.11,using
given another proof of Theorem
1.19.
If Z.T=i fn (z) *s a series of holomorphic functions defined
subsets of D, then
on all compact
and converging uniformly
Thus,

we have

the

corollary

to Theorem

on

a region

D

/^(z)

is

\302\243\"=x

also uniformly convergent on all compactsubsets of D by the above
corollary. However, uniform convergenceof XT=i/n(z) on D doesnot
D. For example,
uniform
convergence of \302\243^\302\260_
necessarily
imply
t /JIm) (z) on
=
zn+ V(w + 1) n converges
on U1 (0)
uniformly
{z:|z| < 1}(because
t
\302\243^\302\260=
=
=
but
l)n
l/(n+
Xr.i [1/n- l/(n+ 1)] 1) Xn\"= i *\". obtained by
iKt
is not uniformly
twice,
differentiating the above seriesterm by term
on
convergent
V\\
(0).
The Mean

We

have

direct consequenceof Cauchy's

is a

Theorem 1.20
on

Value Theorem and the
already seen in Section 1.3cthat

c.

a region

(Mean Value Theorem).
ceD and r are such

By taking absolutevalues
l/(c)| ^

obtain

we

+

2~ Jj/(c

Theorem

D, the

Proof
We

have

let /(z)

1.21

function

\\f(z)\\

Let us assumethat/(z)
to show

principle).

assumes

that/(z)

holomorphic
c D, then

function

(L54>

reWHde-

be a

(maximum

Theorem

the inequality

holomorphic function
considerthe real-valuedfunction \\f(z)\\ of
Next,

[l/r(c)]

Value

(1.34).

is a

If f(z)
that

principle

Mean

the

formula

integral

D and

maximum

no

a region

on

defined

z, also

Unless /(z) is a
maximum
on D.

assumes

a maximum

is a constant function

on

to

D. We want

on D.

constant function

value M,
D. Choose

on

at, say,z =

c.

r, such that

52 Holomorphicfunctions

[Vr (c)] c: D.Then,
^

(1.54),

by

-M ~ i/(c)i=a

IT(M~i/(c+rei6)])de

is a continuous function
0 satisfying
of
M\342\200\224
=
Af -|/(c
0. Choosee > 0 such
+ r\302\243*)|^ 0, we conclude that
+ r^)|
|/(c
=
c
c
reie
for
all
then
M
with
that
0 < r < e, i.e.,
+
+
D,
r^)|
\\f(c
(c)]
[t/\302\243
=
=
=
|/(z)| M on t/\302\243(c).Put P {zeD:|/(z)|
Af}. If c e V, then there exists an
e>

\342\200\224

Af

Since

0 such that
V9

If M = 0,

=

u (x,

are

we

=

+ Wy

these

Combining
ny

i;x>

w2 +

+ v2)

= 0,

+

= 0.

(u2
i\342\200\224

dx

= i

~~ (W2

with

the

assume M
v2 = |/(z)|2

l^2)

region,

> 0. Writing/(z)
= M2 on D,

|\"

=

0,

0 and

point of the

is

D

be

u

+

a

iv has

bounded

boundary

of

However,since/(z)isa nonconstant
hence c e [D]\342\200\224
D.
Isolated

wx

=

vy and
= 0.
uy

vy

and

uy
Hence

a constant.

and let

region

on D.Then

f(z) be
assumes

\\f(z)\\

and

defined

a maximum

is notconstant.Since[D]iscompact
assumes

a maximum

holomorphic

function,

at a

and

point ce[D].
we have

c^D,

singularities

Let D bea region,ceD and

r (c)

the number

defined in Section 1.3d

a D if D ^ C and
as the maximumrealnumber
satisfying
Ur{c) (c)
D = C.Let yr: 6 -+ yr (6) = c + re10,0^ 0 < 2n,as usual represent
c and radius r. In this section we consider
functions
with
center

holomorphic

ry)

hence

D.

We may assume that/(z)
continuous
on [D], \\f(z)\\

d.

to be

and holomorphic

on [D]

continuous

Proof:

/(z) =

+

=/(x

equations,

Cauchy-Riemann

is

conclude

we

\"unknowns\"
get a system of equations with
=
= u2 + i;2 = M2 >
we
conclude
J\"\"!
vy

Corollary. Let

\\f{z)\\

closed.

zeD.

other hand, since\\f(z)\\

Since D is a

\342\200\224we

Since
ux = vx

at a

is also

for all

have

we

On the

is open.

V

so we

finished,

y) + w (x, y\\

MK3.

V

= M

\\f(z)\\

i.e.,

nux + wx

=

of z,

function

D =

V, hence

a

UE(c)

a continuous
that

+ rel6)|

|/(c

on D \342\200\224
{c}.

as

+ oo if

the circle
that

are

1A

I

/(-)=
which

are given by

The

series

power

*=\"_
\302\243

\342\200\224

^ aw (z

absolutely on

to converge

said

(U6)

0<r<r<*

\"\342\226\240\"Httt^*

is

{c}

on Ur{c)(c)\342\200\224
{c}.

absolutely

coefficients

Remark:

\342\200\224

(1.55)

\302\253.(*-<*\342\226\240,
\342\200\224
oo

n=

converges

Its

holomorphic on the regionD

power series

in a

be expanded

can

that is

A function/(z)

1.22.

Theorem

53

functions

of holomorphic

Properties

c)n,

i.e.,

\342\200\224

{c}

[/r(c)(c)

the

if

series

X^-i

c|
an(z-c)n and X.T=i a-J(z c)n both converge absolutely for 0 < |z \342\200\224
\342\200\224
< r(c). A power series of the form
a Laurent
c)n is called
aw (z
\342\200\236
Y,!\342\204\242\342\200\224

series.

Proof:
point

w

We

loss of generality
<
r(0) and real numbers
|w|
without

assume

may

0 <

that

such

Let

<r<r(0).

0<\302\243<|w|

0 < 6 < 2n

represent

ye:

c =
\302\243
and

and

0. Choose
r such

a

that

= reie,

yr: 6->yr(0)

0 and

center

with

circles

the

= eeie

0->y\302\243(0)

that

radii e and, r

respectively.

Putting

9 (z)
g (z)

is a

=

z \342\200\224
w

holomorphic

D

on

function

expandedin an absolutely
of w:

,
Theorem 1.16,/(z) can be
series in some neighborhood

\342\200\224

w}. By

{0,

power

converging

+
f{z)=f{w) + bl{z-w) + b2{z-w)2

\342\200\242
.-

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

+bn(z-w)n+

Therefore

9 (z)
Therefore,

gf

=f{Z) ^/(W)
z \342\200\224
w

(z)

we

J

g(z)dz

bx

be defined

can

holomorphicfunction
whole of D-{0}.

Therefore,

=

some

on

can

apply
=

b2 (z

+

at z

w

w)

in

neighborhood

Lemma

g{z)dz,

=

-

1.1:

-f

such

...

+ &w(z-w)\"-1
a way that g

of

w

and

+

...

(z) becomes a

therefore

on the

54

Holomorphic

that

is,

functions

f/W-^f/W-ZW^

z~w

Jr.

the

Applying

while

corollary to

by the

1

/(z) =
first

the

For

Since
|C/z| =

the

get

get

z yields
(L58)

2^JVrC^dC-2^Jn^i\"C-

the right-hand sidewe

term of

in

second

the

have

term is a

by

(1.48)

point of

have

we

yc,

1, hence

1

1

~

_

z (1-C/z)

C-z

C

Bf0

therefore

/(0

with

w by

C and

1

and

we

2n.JVf z-w

\302\243
occurring

<

e/\\z\\

we

(1.57)

2m)yz-w

Replacingz by

1,

Lemma 1.1:

these results with

Combining

the function/(z) =

= 0.

dz

1ytz-w

(1.34) to

formula

integral

(L57)

z~w

h,

the

absolutely

Hence,

=_

\302\243
\302\2437X0

on the

series

power
on yt.

The seriesX

T= 1

a -

S a--,

.,
n

-1 /z\"+

*

on the

\342\200\236

a-m-

Ia\342\200\236z-+
w=0

I-^=

n=0

Z

If.

/(OC

for
right-hand sideconverges

Hence, by (1.58)
/(*)\302\253

uniformly

1.15(2)

by Theorem

1 f /(0

right-hand side converging

00

I

aBz'

|z

| >

e.

1.4

Since

a

is

Cn/(0

connecting

segments

y\302\243(0)and

are

yr(0)

in

on D-{0}and

\302\243>-{0},

from

conclude

we

all

since

1.1

Lemma

=
[ cnodt:
f
\342\200\224
1
n \342\200\224

by

Replacing

for all

write

of (

function

holomorphic

functions 55

of holomorphic

Properties

c/\302\253.

n in

the expression for a_w_x, we see that

we

can

indices

of the choice of the radius
It is clearfromLemma1.1that an is independent
r, 0 < r < r(0), of the path of integration yr. This proves that for all z with
0 <

\\z\\

<

the series

r(0)

/(z) =
The

^*=0
which

anzn,

\302\243 anz\\
\342\200\224
oo

which

for 0

\\z\\

<

for

\\z\\

>

of two

composed

for

absolutely

converges

<

is

\302\243^= _aDanzn

absolutely

converges

absolutely

and that

anzn converges

n=

series

power

_ m
]T \302\256_

\\z\\

<

0. Therefore,

r(0)

and

\302\243*= _

power series,

\302\243*=x

^ awzw

a_n(l/z)n,

converges

r(0).

iscalled the Laurent
series on the right-hand sideof (1.55)
expansion
of/(z) about c. The point c is calledan isolated
singular
point of
of
the
with
and
the
Laurent
/(z)
expansion
negative exponents:
part
The

Laurent

is called the
We

principalpart of/(z) at c.
the

distinguish

following

Case (1): Thereis no principal
<

part.

In

this

case we

have for 0 <

|z

\342\200\224c|

r(c),

f(z)
By

three cases:

defining

= a0
f(c)

+ al{z-c) + a2{z-c)2+
= a0,

In

we make

/(z) into a

function

which

is

also

removable singularity of f(z).
case,
holomorphic
from the start making/(z)
removes
removable
one
singularities
Usually,
which is holomorphic on the whole of D.
into
a function
a
on D. A point ceD such that/(c) = 0iscalled
be holomorphic
Let/(z)
around
the zero c:
zero of f(z). Consider the Taylor expansion off(z)
... +0\342\200\236(z-c)n+ ....
+ fl2(z~c)2+
f(z) = fl0 + fll(z-c)
at c.

this

c is

called a

56

Holomorphicfunctions

=/(c) = 0, and it is possible
. . are also equal to 0. If all

Then a0
a2,.

au

0, the

to

equal

that some

of the other coefficients

coefficients

.. are

an,..

a2,...,

ax,

is identically equal to 0 in

function/(z)

of c

a neighborhood

(and, in fact, in D. SeeTheorem
3.1).Let us assume that not all coefficients
are equalto 0 and that am is the first coefficient which isnot equalto 0.Then
=

f(z)

In this

case,

f(z) =
function

the

on

g(z)

f{z) =
have

=

the

of

multiplicity

zero

c. Writing

(1.59)

flffi

+

(z-

that

proved

Therefore,

are no

there

g(z) ^ 0 on

a

holomorphic
small

sufficiently

< \\z-c\\ < e.

for 0

0

*

c)mg(z)

-is

+ flm+2(z~c)2+

flffl+1(z-c)

= am ^ 0.
g(c)
c, hence
U\302\243(c)of

neighborhood

We

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242),am*0.

(z-crg{z)

and

Ur{c)(c)

or the

the order

is called

m

+ am+2(z-c)2 +

+ am+A*-c)

{z-cy*(am

other zeros in

a

(1.60)
small

sufficiently

zero c is \"isolated.\"
function.
The
of a zero of a holomorphic
a
of zeros of a function/(z) in a certain region,
If one countsthe number

neighborhood
of

zero

Case
for

(2):
0 <

m is

order

\\z

counted

The principal part
c\\
r(c) we have

has only

a

number

finite

of terms,

that

is,

\342\200\224
<

In this caseciscalled
defined

times.

m

a pole

m of the function/(z).Thefunction

of order

g(z),

by

g(z) =

(z-c)m/(z) =

is holomorphicon
sufficiently

Ur{c)(c)

and

small neighborhood

...

+ fl_m+1(z--c)-hfl-rn+2(z--c)2+

a_m

g(c)

= a_m

of c.
U\342\202\254(c)

^ 0.

Therefore, g(z)^

0

on

(L61)

/(z)=^hr9{z)

we conclude

lim|/(z)l =
In

this

h(z) =

Putting

TTTF=+0\302\260-

we write/(c)

case,

JL

f(z)

a

From

l/\302\253g(z)we

= (z-crh(z)

= oo.We
have

will

return

to the

meaning of

oo

later.

1.4 Propertiesof

57

functions

holomorphic

is holomorphic on Ue(c)and h(z) ^ 0 for ze Ve(c). Therefore,
the
a
of
of
is
zero
of
c
the
mth
of
order
the
mth-order
f(z)
l//(z).
pole
of l/f(z) is a pole
Conversely, it is easy to prove that a zero of the mth order
of the mth order of f(z).

and h(z)

The principal part is an

Case (3):

of f(z).

singularity

that

series,

is, a_w

numbers n. In this case, c is calledan
As the following theorem shows,the behavior
is very
of an essential singularity
complicated.

natural

many

infinitely

infinite

the neighborhood

# 0

for

essential
of/(z)

in

of
1.23 (Weierstrass's Theorem). Let c bean essential
singularity
of
f(z) and let w be a complex number. It is possibleto find a sequence
{z\342\200\236}
=
c
w.
It
is
t
o
to
such
that
also
find
_ ^/(zj
limn
possible
converging
points

Theorem

a sequence

We first prove

Proof:
that

to

converging
{z\342\200\236}

f(z)

By assumption
<5.

singularity.
0<|z-c|

that

on

bounded

is

c such that

lim,,-^

=

\\f(zn)\\

+ oo.

if c is an isolated
singularity of/(z), such
some neighborhood of c, c is a removable
there exist d > 0 and M such that |/(z)| g M for

to (1.56)

According

\302\253-.-jbJV*-'/KW

hence,

r <

<

0

for

5

=

\\a^^^[2\\yM-crlMWM\\d6
r can

Since
removable

the

|/(zj|

above,

= 0, that is, c isa
arbitrarily small,we conclude
a_n
If there does not exist a sequence{zn}convergingto
of c. By
+ oo,/(z) is bounded on someneighborhood

be made

singularity.

c such that

Mr\\

->

c would be a removable

the

contradicting

singularity

assumption.

If there
there

exist

does not exista sequence{z\342\200\236}
converging
e and S such that
positive

|/(z)

\342\200\224w|^e

for

g(z)
Putting g(z) = l/(/(z) \342\200\224w),

|0(z)| ^

1/fi,

hence

c is

0 <\\z-c\\
is

a removable

holomorphic

to c

such that/(zw) ~>w,

<5.
for 0

< |z \342\200\224
c| <

singularity of g(z),so that
\342\200\224
=
c\\ < S. Ug(c) ^ 0,/(z)

we

S and
may

w + l/^(z)
is holomorphicfor \\z
<
the
is also holomorphic for |z \342\200\224
5, contradicting
c\\
assumption. If c is an
zero of g(z\\ c is an mth-order poleof/(z), alsocontradicting
the
mth-order

assume

that g(z)

assumption.

58

functions

Holomorphic

Example 1.6. If we

by

define/(z)

/w_^_i+i+^+^I+....
0 is an essential singularity
then/(z) is holomorphicon C \342\200\224
off(z).
{0} and
=
w t* 0 be a complex number.Putting
Let
q
|w|e10, where 0 is a real
number, we have w = exp(log|w| + /0 + 2wri) for all natural numbers n.
= 0 and
+ f0 + 2ran), we see that
Putting zn = l/(log|w|
limn_00
zn
= w for all
= w. (In this case, we actually
lim
have/(zw)
zn. We will
w_00/(zfl)
return
to this phenomenon
later.)

e. Entirefunctions
A function
entire

is an

If/(z)

function.

can be

holomorphic
in

expanded

on the whole complexplane Cis calledan
entire function, then, by Theorem 1.16,/(z)
series

a power

f(z) = a0 + alz + a2z2
which

the

+anzn+

on the

absolutely

converges

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

whole complexplanceC.We

distinguish

three cases:

following

(l)/(z) = a0,
(2)

=

/(z)

a0 +

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240

aiz+

am*0,m^l,

+amzm,

CO

(3)

f(z)

=

The first case
In

the

second

0 for

^
a\342\200\236

anzn
\302\243

n=

0

is a

case/(z)

J,

,

polynomial of degreem.

From

K-2I

\\<h\\\\

K-il

exists

there

that

-^-J,

jpj

l/WI^W^Kl-\342\200\224

an r0

> 0

such that
(1.62)

if|z|>r0,

|/(2)|>!M^

that is, \\f(z)\\ -\342\226\272
+ 00 if
In the third case,/(z)

\\z\\

such
sequence
also possibleto

that

{zw}

find

+00.

a

00.

-\342\226\272
+

is calleda transcendental

entire

function.

If/(z)

is a

a complex number, there existsa
= +00
and limn_>00/(zw)= w. It is
lim\342\200\236_i>00|zri|
= +00 and
sequence
{zn} such that lim,..^ |zj

transcendental entire function

Km^l/lzJI-

n.

is trivial.

,.MI^.

we conclude

many

infinitely

To

and

w is

prove this,

0 is an
on C \342\200\224
holomorphic
{0} and
can apply
1.23 to g(Q.
Theorem

put g(Q=/(l/C). Then

g(Q

essential singularity of g(Q,so that

is
we

1.4 Propertiesofholomorphic

59

functions

1.24

Theorem

(Liouville's

Theorem).

entire

bounded

A

is a

function

constant function.

Proof: If/(z) isa

occur,

that

entire

bounded

(2) and

cases

function,

is, f{z)

The fundamental theorem of algebra,saying
\342\200\242
\342\200\242 =
form amzm + am_ xzm~ l + \342\200\242
+ a0
0, am # 0,

root, can be
+ am-lzm~l
/(z) =
deduced

amzm

function.

By

we

(1.62)

the assumption

It is alsopossible
to deduce
Mean

+ a0

# 0 for

Value

Theorem

f(0)
Using

(1.62)

(1.35)

f(z)

is not

of the

equation

is an

l//(z)

by

Liouville's

a constant

f(z) =

Suppose

1, has at

m

entire

+

amzm

Theorem,

function.

zm_1
am\342\200\236l

4-

function and by the

we have

2ni}0 /(re*)
letting

'

r tend

to +00

we

arrive

at

from

of Algebra

Theorem

Fundamental

the

all z e C. Then

and

that

Theorem.

Value

the

an

that

least one
^
theorem
from
Liouville's
as follows. Suppose
\342\200\242 has
no
then
+ \342\200\242
zeros,
+a0
l//(z) is an entire
have | l//(z)| < 2/|aJrJJ for \\z\\ > r0, hence l//(z) is a

boundedfunction. Therefore,l//(z) is a constant
contradicting

(3) above cannot

= a0.

a contradiction

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

Mean

2

Theorem

Cauchy's

2.1

curves

smooth

Piecewise

Smooth Jordan

a.

curves

1.3,
According to Definition 1.5 of Section
-\342\226\272 from
t
closed
interval
into
the
the complex
y:
[a, b]
y (t)
curve. In this section
we will first investigate to what

determined

by its image

one-to-one

continuously

Lemma 2.1.

J = [a,

If r <

Proof:
<
<\302\243(s)

the

by

<j>(r)

<

s<

<f>(r) < </>(r),

and

t

a

exists

there

then

cj>(t)9

t

map

map

<f>(t)

</>(r)

<

is

y

is a

# 0.

such

that

y'(t)

from

/ =

[a, b]

same

the

way,

then

s <

that

such

w,

</>(s) <
u

<

contradicting the fact

value theorem,

intermediate

In the

one.

continuous

and

the

extent

arc, that is, if y(t)

Jordan

smooth

differentiable function of

one-to-one

A

is a

map
C is called a

plane

onto

monotone.

is

/}]

y(I) if y

continuous

a

4>(r) < (j>(t) <

assumption

Because

if

(j>{u) =

<\302\243(r)

<f>(t).

t and
that

(f>

is one-to-

a

to

leads

<f>{s)

contradiction.

case 4>(a)

First consider the
<

$(b), hence
The case

Let

A: t
that

such

<
<\302\243(s)
<f>{a)

>

^
<\302\243(0
</>(b)

-* A(t), ief
A( J) = y{I)

<

If a

<f>(b).

i.e.,
<\302\243(b),

is

<j>

= [a,/?],and

y: t

<

t

b, then

^

</>(a)^

</>(s)

monotone.

to the

reduced

= C. Sincek and
by assigning to each t e

is

^ s

previous case by

putting

Jordanarcs,

-* y(t), r e / = [a, b], be
y are both one-to-one, a

function

</>

g J with y(t) = A(t). This
This is because according to Lemma2.1it suffices
function <j> is monotone.
continuous
to show
at some point
that 4> is continuous. Assume that
<p is not
s. Thenthereexistsan e > 0 such that for each 5 > 0thereexistsat leastone
be defined

can

t'

point

*i.*2.*3.
Tn

=

such

that

|rf

\342\200\224

s|<<5

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
such
that

there
<\302\243(*\302\253)>

exists

and
\342\200\224
<

I the

value t

\342\200\224

| <\302\243(\302\243')
<MS)I

|rn
s|
1/n
a subsequence

and

^

\302\243Hence

|<\302\243(f,.)-Xs)|

nx
{t\342\200\236.},

<n2<

there
^ e.

\342\200\224
-

<nj<

exist

Putting
\342\200\224

-,

convergingto a
linVo,

tn.

=

and y{tn.)

= s

X(a) =

=

y(s)

a =

Putting

= lim

that

j-+ cc

The Jordan arcs

k((f>(t)\\ where </> is a continuous
from X by a change
y is obtained

If

A(t)
a

is

</>

continuous

both smooth Jordan
function of t with <\302\243'(r)# 0.

this, let

To see

connected by the formula
and monotone function. One cansay
of variable t = <f>(t).

y are

and

A

differentiable
We

Since

therefore

are

k

and

y

=

that

a\\

of t.

function

y(t)

^ e.

\342\200\224

|t

we have

Hence

one-to-one.

is

X

=

A(tbj)

have

we

<f>(s),

= X{o),
y(s)

and
A(t\342\200\236.)

lim y(tttj)
oo
j -\302\273

fact

the

contradicting

t.

say,

limit,

61

smooth curves

Piecewise

2.1

of

increment

an

be

At

arcs,
and

t

a

is

<f>(t)

At =

put

continuously

<\302\243
(t +

At)

\342\200\224
<f> (t).

have

Ar)-y(f) =

y(r +

k(x+ At)
Sincek(t) = y
we arrive

A(t) =

-

(A'(t) +
At) =

A(t +

and

(r)

lim

+ e(Ar))Af,

(y'(r)

ex

y

At-0
lim

(At))At,
(r +

e(Ar) =

= 0.

et (At)

Ar-0
At -+ 0 if Af

Ar),

0,

0,

/T(t) *

and

-> 0

at

At

-\342\200\224
=

lim

is

<f>(t)

W +

Af-o^

Af^0At

Hence

y'(t) +

\302\243(AQ
y'(0
\342\200\224-\342\200\224
\342\200\224-\342\200\224
=
-77--\342\200\242

lim

function

a differentiable

A(t)

\302\243i(At)

of

t

</>'(r) is

and

given by

y'(t)
,21)
\342\204\242-m

Since

t =

</>(r)

t,

while

is

a

obviously

<t>\\t) #

We can say that the
smooth Jordan arcA: t

if

and

t

(2.1) is

respectively,

of r, while k'{x)and y'(f) are
<f>'(t) is a continuous function of

0.

smooth

arc y: t -> y (r) is obtained from the
a change of variable
t = </> (f), where
<f>(t) is
and monotone function
of tt with
^ 0.
<f>'{t)
Jordan

-> A(t) by

differentiable

a continuously

Formula

function

continuous

of t

functions

continuous

nothing but

the

chain

rule

t = </>(*).
y'(0 = AW(t),
If 4>(t) is a monotone increasing
we
function,
=
is
monotone
we
have
0
decreasing,
<f>{a)
be a continuous function
defined
Let/(z)

smooth

Jordan

curve such that

y

(/) is contained

for this change

of variable
(2.2)

have

<f>{a)

/? and
on

= a

</> (b)

a region

and

</> (b)

=

/?,

= a.

and let

be

a

in that region. We want

to

y

62 Cauchy's Theorem
of a

influence

the

investigate

change of variableson the

of

value

f

We

f(z)dz.

two cases:

distinguish

Case 1. If 0 (t)

monotone

is

= |
=
'f(X(<l>{tm'(<l>(t))dt
/(A\302\253>(0))A'(tf>(0)<fr

/(A(T))A'(T)dt=

Ja

we have

increasing,

J a

a

J

f(y(t))y'(t)dt

therefore

and

/(z)dz = f f(z)dz.

j

is monotone

If $(0

2.

Case

=

J[V(A(T))A'(T)dr

decreasing,we

have

-

fV(yW)y'(0A=

fV(y(0)y'(0*

J a

J b

a

and

(2.3)

therefore

(2.4)

J f(z)dz=-[f(z)dz.

Therefore,f{z)dz

=

J

the

and

increasing

direction of increasing
the Jordan arcs y
and

increasing

^f(z)dz,

sign

t the
and

if

X have

opposite

determined

We can

assign an

the

orientation

could assign an orientationto
unambiguously

<f>

is

orientation

by

the

+ sign

the

where

\302\261

\342\200\224

holds if

<f>

is monotone

If we call the
decreasing.
Jordan arc y, we can say that
same orientation if 0(f) is monotone
monotone

of the

if

<f>(t)

set

point

C together

orientation to C in

the

If we

monotone

decreasing.

C = y(J), J

f{z)dz would be

is

with

its

orientation.

way. On

following

the interval /

order is transferredto C by a one-to-one
that
is, if t < s, and z = y (t) and w = y(s), then
by <,
map
z < w. The order < determines a linear order on C.If we call this linear
is determined
order on C the orientation of C, J f(z)dz
by C
unambiguously

there is defined

together

an

order

<. This

denoted

y and

with

its

We summarize

orientation.

the above in the followingnew

definition

of a

Jordan

arc.

Definition 2.1. Let y: t -+ y(t) be a one-to-one and continuousmap from
set y(I) a linear
/ = [a, fe]into the complexplaneC.Onthe point
the interval
set C
if t < s then y{t) <y(s). This linearly
ordered
order < is defined
by:
= y (I) is called a Jordan arc, the map y is called a parameter representation of

C and
y'(t)

t*

r

is

0

for

called

re/,

a parameter.
If y(r) is
then C is calleda smooth

differentiable

continuously
Jordan

arc.

and

63

smooth curves

Piecewise

2.1

A(t), a ^ t ^ /},is a parameter
then an arbitrary parameterrepresentation
-> y(f), a ^ t ^ fc, of C has the form y(r) = A(<\302\243),
a ^ t ^ fc, where
y: t
0 is a
continuous and monotone increasing
If C is a smooth Jordan arc,
function.
differentiable
and 4>'{t)> 0.In particular,taking
then
4>(t) is continuously
\342\200\224
= a +
at
a
we
arrive
<t>(t)
parameter representationy: t -> y(r) with
(/? a)t
domain [0,1].
defined
on a region which contains the
If/(z) is a continuousfunction,
above

the

By

if

results,

k\\

smooth Jordan arc C,then

y: t

seen

y (r),

(2.5)

value of this integralisindependent

that the

already

by:

ofC.We
some parameterrepresentation

^b,is

a ^t

-\342\226\272

is defined

jcf{z)dz

= f /(z)& = I bf(y(t))y'(t)dt

f /(z)&
where

x ->

arc C,

Jordan

the

of
representation

of

the choice

have

of the

to
-< given
parameter representation. Using
possible
which
does
not use any parameter
give a definition of \\cf{z)dz
initial
and the terminal
representation. Let
us call a = y(a) and /? = y(b)
the
all
zsC
For
we have a -<z </?. Let A
points of C, respectively.
=
of
a
set
.
.
be
finite
, zm}
points on C suchthat
{z0, zl5 z2,.
c*

=

and let <5 [A]
Zfc-1 -< C* -<

<z2<

= maxk

|zk \342\200\224
zk_ x

The
**\342\200\242
integral

Let y:

t

-+

|f-5|<6
(For,
and

t

^

a <5(e) >

there exists
suppose
=
for
n
1, 2, 3,.
sn

that

y is
tk

maxk |zk

and

rk

- - -

\342\200\224

lim

This proves

as

fe,

be

a parameter

representation

of C. For

0 satisfying:
(2.7)

such

true, then there are tn
\342\200\224
l/n and |rn
\\y(tn)
y{sn)\\
sn\\ ^ e.
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
\342\200\242,
}, nt < n2 <
{s\342\200\236
rtj <
is not

this

\342\200\224

that

s | ^ e and
11\342\200\224

y

<

(t)

= y

(s), contradicting

the

one-to-one.)

a = t0<tx <
=

that

C such

(2.5) can be obtained

(2.6)

an e > 0for which

..

Define

as defined in

if|y(f)-y(5)|<<5(\302\243).

Choose subsequences {tn } and
to t and s, respectively. Then
converging
fact

= p

I/(C*)(z*-zk-i).

a ^

y{t),

exists

is

k= 1

c5[A]-0

eache > 0 there

it

for each k a point \302\243k
on

|. Choose

$cf{z)dz

lim

f{z)dz=

Proo/:

- \342\200\242
<zm-x<zm

z0<zi

1)C

on C

order

the

zk_

x

by

<tm_t

| -> 0, by

y(tk) =

zk

and

= Tk,

respectively.

and maxfc|fk--ffc_1|-*()
2.7. Hence we have,
1.33,
by

<tm

_
X/(Ck)(zk~zk.1)=
[
= 1
Jy

(2.6).

y(Ck)

= b

f(z)dz.

if

Then
<5[A]

64

Theorem

Cauchy's

Therefore (2.6)couldbe taken
curve obtainedby reversing
the
\342\200\224

the same

C have

on

then

z <w,

representation

underlying point

is denoted by

of C

orientation

sets,

if z

but

The Jordan

of $cf(z)dz.

definition

the

as

and w are

\342\200\224C.C
and

points of C with

have
If y: t-\342\226\272
a ^ t ^ fe, is a parameter
y(f),
\342\200\224
=
of C, then k s -\342\226\272
fe
+
A(s)
y (a
s), a ^ s ^ fc, is a parameter
C (if s increases
of \342\200\224
from atobj = a + b \342\200\224
s decreases
from
\342\200\224

w <;z.

we

C

representation
b to a). If C is smooth,we

have,

(2.4),

by

(i8)

I/(z)=~L/(z)dz\"
a
We have given
this definition too

about \"a

C we

talk about

if we

2.1,

strictly. We

arc

Jordan

continuousmap

y

(/).

called

is also

\\C\\

The

the

point

a Jordan
on

an orientation

defining

arc. Let C =

set {y (f): t

/ = [a,

y(/),

a2>-->am-i->a<ai<ai<
= [a,
intervals
/x
al],...,

.,

y(/fc),..

=

let

&\302\273

/m

This is

y(/J.

(0*.

te I}
re/.

y(t\\

m

Jordan

=

\342\200\224
1

the

m

the

interval

[am-i,

/ into

6]. Then

Ci = y(Ix),...,

arcs

al9

points

m

the
Ck

denoted by

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\226\240
C = CX+C2+\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
(2.9)
+Cm.
+Ck+
Jordan arcs Cfc are all smooth, the Jordan arc C is calledpiecewise
C is piecewise smooth if y(t) is continuously
differentiate
Thus

If the
smooth.

with

Cm

y: t ->

representation

< am-1< divide
=
/k K_i, aj,. . . ,
into

point set {y

will be

Jordan arc and

6], be a
' ' '

Jordan arc C is also divided
=

is

If C

just the

is not

denoted by | C |. Sometimes
case
C is the Jordan arc obtained by
smooth, \\C\\ is called a smooth Jordan

e I}

arc. In that
\\C\\.

talk

have in mind the one-to-one
actual Jordan arc. Furthermore, if

te

C =

Hence

convention: If we
arc according to Definition

y\" we

arc

/, is a Jordan arc then y (/)
y:
but rather the Jordan arc C with
parameter
t -\342\226\272
y (f),

to

adhere

not

following

a Jordan

mind

define

to

used

the

adopt

have in

Jordan

\"a

arc, but we will

of Jordan

definition

new

y'{t) ^Oon

each Ik.

Ha)
2.1

Fig.

If/(z)

C4

is a continuous

is defined

function

defined

on a

region containing

C, jcf(z)dz

by

f

Jc

f(z)dz

= f
Jc,

/(z)&+

. +
. \342\200\242
f f(z)dz+
I

Jc2

Jcm

/(z)dz.

(2.10)

65

curves

smooth

Piecewise

2.1

a
Since the + in (2.9) indicates
commutative
the sum
operation,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242 is
of
the
of
order
+
Cm
Ct+C2+
independent
Cx,C2,..., Cm. The
curve C obtained by piecing togetherCx,C2,.. . , Cm in that order is
Jordan
represented as

C = C,C2
we use
= <VC2

this

If

=

Q-

(111)

Cm,

we write C\"1 instead of

notation,
Cm, then

C1 =C~l

\342\200\224

C.

C2l -Cf1,

C

If

and

|C|

|C1|u|C2|u---u|Cm|.

of the arcs Ch occurring in the
The parameter representations
of the
representations (2.9)
or (2.11) of C can be chosenindependent
parameter
C.
For
we
can
of
choose
example,
representation
representations
of course satisfy
1, for
Ck. These representations
7k: t-*y*(0i 0 ^ r \302\261i
7k(1)

=

representations

yk: t

we have

2,

fc=l,

y*+i(0)i
-\302\273

the parameter

parameter

of arcs Ckare given,we

^bk,

ak^*t

y* (r),

if

Conversely

...,m\342\200\2241.

put

lk

=

bk

\342\200\224
and

ak

representation
m

=

y(t)

with C

==

for

t- Y ij)

+

yja

Cm.

Ck

-C2

Cx

h

ij*t*i.

*X

is a Jordan curve,we have y(a) = y{b) and
t-\302\273y(r),
therefore it is not possible to transfer the order < on / to the point set y (/).
two intervals
at
least
However, if we split / into
It \342\200\224
[a, ax ],...,
Ik
=
=
Im
[flfc-t,
ak],...,
[am-i, fc], it is possible to define a linear order
< on eachpoint set y(/fc) using the order -< on eachIk.The Jordan arc
If y:

te/

C =

C1-C2--..-Q

in

obtained

this

Ci = y(/i),. ..,
Jordan
=

Ck

way
=

y(/k),.

(2.12)

Cm

by
.

piecing

., Cm =

curve and is denoted

{y(t):tel}9

is called

= [a,6],

together

y(/J

in

that

the
order

Jordan arcs
is

called

a

by
Using the notation \\C\\
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
have |C| = \\CX \\ u |C2|u
Also, y
u|Cm|.
=
the
all Ck
of
Jordan
curveC
If
y (/).
representation

C = y(J).

we obviously

a parameter

occurring in (2.12)are smooth,C is calleda piecewise

smooth

Jordan

curve.

Boundaries of boundedclosedregions
a region and let D be the interiorof [D],that is, the region
\342\200\224
consisting of all interior points of [D].If [D] D = \\C\\ for some Jordan
curve C, we say that C is the boundary of [D].
b.

Let

D be

66

Theorem

's

Cauchy

Fig. 2.2

Let the

D of
boundary [D] \342\200\224

[D]

be a

piecewise smooth Jordan curve

representation
y: t -\302\273y(f),
Of
course, we have
y(Ik)
[ak-i9ak'].
/fc
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
=
=
< a^.j
< ak <
< am
fr.
a
We
want
to study the
a0 < ax <
relation betweenD and the orientationof
order
to do this, choose a
C =

fe/

Ct*C2
= [a,

Ck

\342\200\242
\342\200\242 with
\342\226\240
\342\200\242

mCm

fc], and Ck =

parameter
=

with

= O,...,

C.In

we have ak-x <c<ak
m. Since
c^ak9
pointy(c)eC,c^0kfor/c
our
of
and y'(c) ^ 0. In orderto facilitate
for some k9 hence y(c)eCk
study
=
w
u + iv with
the neighborhood of y(c) we introducea new coordinate
origin

at y(c) in

C by

z = y(c)+ y'(c)w.

Fig.

(2.13)

2.3

Putting

y(t) =

y(c)-hy'(c)(p(t)+ /a(0),

-\342\226\272
iv =

p{t) +

io(t) is

coordinate

w.

t

We have

(2.14)

the parameterrepresentationof

p(c) = o(c)= 0 and

differentiating

both

sides

C

in

the

of (2.14)

new

with

2.1

regard to

t

and

t =

substituting

c we

Piecewise

smooth

curves

67

get

y'(c) = y'(c)(p'(c)+/a'(c)),
c'(c) =

0. Sincep'(t) and a'(r) are continuous in a
is a monotone
p'(f) > 0. Therefore
p(t)
=
t
increasing function and the inverse function
x(u) of u = p(t) is a
on a
function
continuously differentiate monotoneincreasing
=
=
neighborhood
of u
0. Since c
the change
of variable t = x(u) to
t(0),by applying
w = p(f) + ia(t) we arrive
at the parameter
the parameter representationt -\342\226\272
hence

=

p'(c)

1 and

neighborhood of

t

= c,

we have

representation
u

-\342\226\272
w =

u +

^ (a) =

i^(w),

ff(*(w))

neighborhood of the origin w = 0. Here, \\j/(u) is a
function of u, ^(0) = <t(c) = 0 and ^'(0)
differentiable
continuously
= c7'(c)t'(0)= 0.Therefore,
< e if | u \\ < \302\243.
if \342\202\254
we have | $(u)\\
is small
enough,
<
Let
U = {w:w = u + ii;, |u| < \302\243,
be
the
with
center
0,
|i;|
rectangle
2e}
=
width 2e, and height 4z. Choosee so small
CnU
that
CnUk and
of

Q,

on a

valid

= {w:w= u

|C|nl/
C

divides

1/ into
l/(+)

=

+ iV(w),

two regions
{w:w

l/(+) and l/(_):

= ii4-it?,

U{~} = {w:w=

iv

u

+ it?,

|u| < e, ^(w)
M

f

lie

UM

\302\243/<->

-lie

Fig.

2.4

|w|<\302\243}.

<\302\243, -2e

< v

< 2e},

< v <

ij/{u)}.

68

Theorem

Cauchy's

If we remove
D and

sets

open

is also divided

U

+

is

the

from

\\C\\

C-

[D],
two

into

no

have

sets Ui+)

disjoint

of these

one

connected,

t/(+) c: D or Ui+)
l/McC[D] will

n D and U +

sets has to be the
similarly for
one of the

and

cC-[D]
hold.

plane, the remainder consistsof two
points in common.* Therefore, U(+)

complex

that

Therefore,

n (C

- [D]). Since

set,

empty

i.e., either

or

U^cD

\302\243/<->either

following possibilities

will

occur:

l/(~)c:C-[D],

l/(+)cD,

(i)

l/( + )c_C-[D].

(ii) l/(->c:D,

c D and l/(_) c

(If l/(+)

If

Hence, all points of Cn U will
D is the interior of [D].
the
that
fact
contradicting
points
C - [D] and U(\"> c C - [D], then U c C- D, contradicting
the

c

[/(+>

D,

then

c [D].

U

of [D],

interior

be

that all points of CnU are boundary
points
If one looks at U moving
the curve C in the
along

fact

of

to increasingvalues oft, one sees U(+) on one's left and
In case (i) the regionU(+) to the right of C will be in D,
region l/(_) to the left of C will be in D.
Now we return to the originalcoordinatesystem
w =

u

defined

iv was

+

D.)

direction corresponding
on one's

U(_)

right.

while in case (ii)
z.

Remember

the
that

by

z = y(c)+ y'(c)(u+ iv).

a continuouslydifferentiateand monotone
increasing
=
=
and
of u and t(0) = c, we see, putting t( \342\200\224
function
r(e)
e)
c2, that
q
->
u
from
the open
interval
t(h) is a one-to-one map
cx <c
<c2 and that t:
\342\200\224 onto
we
have
definition
of
interval
the
By
\\j/(u)
open
(cl9c2)( \302\243,\302\243)
t =

Since

t(w) is

y(0 =

Y{c){u+ hHu)\\

y{c) +

\\l/(u)

= <7(t).

Hence

z = y(c)+ /(c)(ii + fo)

= y(0

+ iy(c)(^^(u)).

Putting
1/

we

=

v

\342\200\224

\\l/(u)

=

v

\342\200\224

G(t)

get

z =

y(f)

+

ry'(c)i/

and

V =

{z:z =

y(0

+ iY(cfo,

cx <

r

< c2,

|ij +

|C|nl/ = {y(t):c1<t<c2},
*

This

assumes

the

validity

of the

Jordan Curve

Theorem.

a(t)| < 2e},

2.1 Piecewise smoothcurves
=

t/(+>

{y(t)+ iy'(c)ri:cx < t

-2e-c(t)<ri<0}.

< c2,

<t < c2 implies

That cl

-2e-o(t)<

2e-o(t)>e9
the fact that

from

follows

0<r] <2e-a(t)},

{y(r)-fiV(c>/:c1<f<c2,

l/(-> =

-\302\243

e if \\u\\

|^(u)| <

< e.

into
of the neighborhoodU ofy(c)
of C can be shown
by introducing

The division

a part

which intersects CnU. Let y(t0\\

CnU

let

and

-* k{s), \342\200\224
1 ^ s
angle between X and
k: s

ct

to the

left of C and

a smooth

to the right

part

69

<t0<
c2, be an arbitrary
a smooth Jordan curve

5\302\243
1, be

a

Jordan arc,

point of

with

A(0)

is
If the
C, that is the argument 6 ofX(0)/y'(t0),
y(*o )\342\200\242
that
0 and
between
n, then there exists a S > 0 such
A(s)e l/(+) if 0 < s < S
<
if
0
<
5
<
s
<
s
the
<5
U(\">
if
that
and
0, is,
point
A(s) is to the left
X(s)e
S < s < 0,the point X(s) is to the right of C. A proof follows.
of C and if
=

Fig. 2.5

For A(s)eU we put
=

A(5)

Since
t =

h

=

u(s)

t(s) = t(m(s))

differentiate

functions

(2.15)

and

and i; =

of 5

substituting

m

-/(c){u + iv) =
and i; = v(s) are

y(c) +

1/(5)

=

y(t) +

continuously differentiate functions,

v(s)

with t(0) = t0 and
5 = 0 yields

= f(h)'(0) +

(215)

i/(c)if.

\342\200\224

\\l/(u(s))

rj(0)

= 0.

are

t/(cW(0).

Hence

y'Co)

/(to)

= /l-ei(

with

A

=

X'(0)

V(t0)

continuously

Differentiating both

>0.

sidesof

70 Cauchy's Theorem
the

Taking

(2.14) we get

that

Similarly,

-> A(s),

if A: s

general,

A(0) = y(t), a<t
and
C at A(0) =

C transversely at
at

= y(t)

A(0)

we

get

+ io'{t0))

<

n

by

5>0

from

1

y(r)

A(0)

right

p'(r0)>0.

we

assumption,
that

such

y(t)

0 if

t]{s) >

+ iy'(c)i/(s)et/(+).

^ 1, is a smoothJordanarcintersecting
such that the angle 0,0 < 0 < 2rc, between
0 #

0^0,

satisfies

= y(r).

with

^ s

\342\200\224

<b,t^ak,

C in
A

y'(c)(p'(t0)

= 0, i.e.,
Remember that
A(s) =
i/(0)
<
<
0.
-<5
s
A(s)Gt/(~) for

0<s<<5.

In

=

y'(t0)

> 0. Since 0 < 9
Re(y'(c)/y'(r0))
i/'(0) > 0. Therefore there exists a

Therefore,
conclude

sides of the above equality

= Re(/(c)//(ro))-^(O).

^sin0

From

of both

parts

imaginary

to left

if

then

7t,

book, we

In this
0

< 9

will

< n and

A is

said

to intersect

say

that

A crosses

from

left

to

right

C
if

<2n.

n<9

Let

be

A

exists 6
a

arc crossing C from
0 such that A(s)e Dfor 0 <

a Jordan

>

right

s<

<5,

at A(0) = y(t). If there
we say that D is on the left
\342\200\224
S < s < 0,
X(s) e D for

to left
then

of C at the point y(t);
if there
exists a 5 > 0 such that
then we say that D is on the right of C at the point y(t). The value of
5 is dependent on A, but D being on the left or right
of C at y(f) is
=
independentof
of A. (To see this, put c
the choice
r, let U be the neighborhood
of y(c) defined
above. There are two
and
(1) l/(+)cD
possibilities:
[/<-> c C-[D] or (2) l/(-> <= D and t/(+) c C-[D]. In the first case,
c D for 0 < s < S and in the second case A(s)el/(_) c D for
A(s)el/(+)
\342\200\224
S < s < 0 by the above.)IfDison the
of C at one point y(r0), t0^ ak9
left
of C, then D is on the left
t
of all points
^
y (r),
akt of C. Similarly,if D is on the
of all points
right of C at one point y(t0),
right
t0 ^ ak, of C, then Dis on the

y(f),

ofC

t\302\261aj9

this, choose c with ak _ j < c < ak and let [/ be the neighborhood
c as defined above. Let us assumethat
D is on the left of C at y(c),
1/(+) c D. If A is a Jordan
curve crossing C from
to left at A(0) =
right
To see

Cn

(7,

Cj

<

t <

c2, then,

as

shown

above,

there

exists

a

<5

>

0 such

of
i.e.,

y{t)e
that

D is on the left of Cat all pointsy (r)
X(s)e 1/(+>c Dfor0 < s < 5.Therefore,
< t < c2.Let Lbethesetofallf
withct
elR,^^ < t < ak, such that D is on
the left of C at y(r). If ceL,
then the open interval (cx,c2\\ cx < c < c2, is
contained in L, that is, it is an open subset of R. Similarly,let R be the set of
all t e R, ak_ j < t < ak such that D is on the right of C at y{t), R is also an
\342\200\224and
is
RnL
0
(ak_t,ak)
open subset of R. Since (ak_ 1,afc) = Lu/?,
or R = {ak-l9ak). If L
L = (ak-l9ak)
either
connected, we have
=
(ak_!, ak), i.e., if D is on the left of Ck at all points y(r), ak_ x < t < ak, then

2.1 Piecewisesmoothcurves
is on the left
on the right of Ck.
that D

we say

Next we

will

prove

on the

D is

that

if/? =

Similarly,

ofQ.

e sufficiently small and
Choose
center
y(ak) and radius e, such that

Ck if it

of

left

is on

A: s -> A(s)

a circle

draw

{ak-i,ak)9 we say

A intersects

Ck + x

at

the

left

71

that

of

D is

Ck+1.

y(ak) + eeis with
one point A(a),
exactly
=

exactly
point A(/?), cc< ft <cc + 2n9 and does not intersect
Cfc
C at exactly two points
., Cm, that is A intersects
Cl9..., Cfc_l5 Cfc+2,..
and
A
at
The
crosses
from
circle
to left
A(a)
A(a)
(we will
A(/?).
Ck+1
right
D is at the left of Ck+l9
we
have
prove this below). Since by assumption
<
e
D
for
<
a
a.
A
5
close
to
intersects
values
Since
the
of
s,
k(s)
/J, sufficiently
C of D at A (a) and A (/J), we conclude that
for all 5 with
boundary
k(s)eD
< p and that A crosses
from
D is on
left
at
a<s
to
Therefore,
Ck
right
A(/J).
hence Z> is on the left of Ck.
the left of Ck at X(p)eCk9

one

at

Fig.

We

2.6

to prove that A intersects
from right to left at A(a).
= 0,
ak = 0. Let y:t-+y(t)9

A crosses

assume

Ck+1
y(flk)

representation of

arc

Jordan

the

continuously differentiate
=

To

Cfc+1
of

function

1/(0)1

ak+

x

] if we

t on

we

is a

[0, ak+1]

|y(t)l

f-*

Ulil=
t
+0

lim
f-*

+0

define

^(01

that

\\y(t)\\ is

a

and
(2.16)

=
yt

(0)

y'(0)
=

we conclude

y'(0).

Hence
Hm

continuously

show

>o.

+o
(^ly(')l)
=
Put yx(t) y(t)/t. From lim^+0 y(t)A

continuouson [0,

(i.e., y(t)

y(0) = 0). First

t and

of

function

differentiate

exactly one point and that
we may
our notation,
simplify
be
a
te[0,
parameter
ak+1],

Ck+1 at

now want

= ^(0)1 =

1/(0)1,

that y^f)

is

72

Theorem

Cauchy's

|y(f)| is differentiable
by (2.16). On (0, ak+1 ],
that is,

>

\\y(t)\\2

=

0, \\y(t)\\
d

t =

at

\\y(t)\\2

hence

hence

small

sufficiently

monotone

= 1/(0)1

if|y(r)|

fc,

we

increasing

have

d\\y(t)\\/dt

function

for

0 ^

> 0
f

^

if
k.

that

0 such

>

yields

right

[0, ak+1 ].

on

is a

|y(OI

on the

expression

217! (r)|

r-* +0

By (2.7) there exists a 5(k)

O^t^k

the

in

yi(0/(0+yi(0/(0

Mm

continuous

is

</|y(r)|/<ft

=

Therefore, taking a
fc,

while

2|y(()|

lim
-r- |y(t)l
t-* + 0 \302\253*

^

is given

coefficient

,../Al_y(0y,(f)+y(f)y;(0

Substitution of ry^t) for y(r)

t

the differential

is continuously differentiable. Since

y/(\\y(t)\\2) is also continuously differentiable,

A,?WI\"

0^

0 and

= y(t)y(t)

<<5(fc).

e < |y(k)\\.If |y (01 = e, then 0 < f g fc.
If r increases
from 0 till k, then | y (r) | increases from |y(0)| until
| y (k) |, so there
=
t
<
is exactly
t ^ ak+ x) such that |y(t)|
one
e. We have proved that the
(0
circle
k s -* A(s) = eels intersects
at
one point:
exactly
Cfc+1
> 0

an e

Take

y(0

eeIflf

S(k) and

e <

f

0.

>

the angle between Cfc+1

6 be

Let

=

such that

A at

and

this

point,

then

w

/(0

/(o

From:

=

A'(a)

= iy(r)

ieeia

.7i (0

ityt

(t)

we

get

Vi(t)

|/(0

/(0

If e -* 0, then

=

for sufficiently
small
e,
k
crosses
the
circle
for
and
Therefore,
3n/4.
between,
example,n/4
Ck at exactly
Ck+l from right to left at A(a) = y(r). The fact that A intersects
one point A(/?) and crosses Ck from left to right at that point is proved in the
same way.
of the fact that D is on the left of Ck if D is on the
the
This finishes
proof
D
is on the left of Cm, then D is on the left of Cm_ x,
if
of Ck +!. Therefore,
left
= C1-C2>. . ., Cmat
all points
Cm_2,. . . , C2Xi> i.e.,D ison the left of C
t
of
Catall
D
is
on
the
^
fact
that
ak, if D is
y (0,
points
right
y ((), r ^ flfc- The
on the right of Cm is proved similarly.
r -> 0,

hence:

yt

(0/y'(0

-> 1- Therefore,

0 will be

If D is on the

on

the

left

(right)

left

(right)

of C.

of C

at all points y

(0,

t ^

a*, then

D is said to be

smooth curves 73

2.1 Piecewise
above

The

Remark:

is based

proof

on local considerations.However

piecewise Jordan curveC may be, in a sufficiently
asshown
y (t) e C, the form of Cis simple,
the diagrams
above. The proof is nothing but
confirmation
the
by
by
fact. It is often said that
calculation of an intuitively
clear
Jordan's
Theorem,
the
that a Jordan curve C divides
stating
complex
plane in two parts, the
interiorand the exteriorofC,isintuitively
but this is only based on the
clear,
circles
and
as
convex
cases
with
analogy
simple
polygons. In fact this
of a

form

the

complicated

of eachpoint

small neighborhood

theorem

is far

Till

now we

Jordan

curve

from

clear.

intuitively

have assumed
C,

that

i.e.,

the

that

=

\\C\\

\342\200\224
In

this

D.

[D]

is a piecewisesmooth
sense, the Jordan curve

of [D]

boundary

\342\200\224
C and
C are different
a boundary of [D].However,
C and if
of \342\200\224
Jordan curves, and if Dis on the left of C, then D is on the right
\342\200\224
D is on the right of C, then
D is on the left of
C. We now
define the
smooth
of
as
an
the
closed
bounded,
oriented,
region
boundary
piecewise
Jordan curve as follows.
\342\200\224
=

is also

C~1

C

=

that

\\C\\

[D],

and denoted

we have

piecewisesmoothJordancurve
of C, then C is calledthe boundary

If C is an oriented,
- D and D is on the left

2.2.

Definition

[D]

3[D] =

by d [D].

If |C | = [D]-

and

D

D is

on the

right

of

C, then

the

of [Z)]
same

C.

we have

now,

of

\342\200\224

the
boundary
only considered the case
smooth
but
Jordan
one
exactly
piecewise
can be applied to a domain[D],
considerations
boundary

Till

such

that

consists of

curve,

whose

of mutually
Let Cl5 C2,. . ., Cv,.

a finite number

piecewise

disjoint

Cn be

. .,

smooth

of

consists

curves.

Jordan

piecewise smooth Jordan curves

such that
[D]-D

= IQMC^Iu

and such that

Definition

2.3.

u|Cv|u

If

D is

right

or

left

of

on the
is

called

the

on the

all

= C

= CX+C2+

left of

Cv,

boundary

0[D]:

d{U]

|C,|n|Cv|

u|CJ,

D is eitheron the

C = Cx+C2+ \" \342\200\242
+Cn
by

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\200\242

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+C\342\200\236.

v =

=

0,

A

*

v,

each Cv.
1,

2,...,

n, then

of [D] and denoted

74

Theorem

Cauchy's

=

If LD1-D

\\CV\\,

\\Jv=l

I

3[/>]=

=

|Q|n|Cv|

0,

A

*

v, then

\302\261CV.

v=l

The

sign of

Example

yr:

Cv is +

= reie,

boundary d[D] of D

0e/ =
is

left

the smooth

Consider

2.1.

0-+yr(0)

if D ison the

given

2tt].

[O,

of Cv

and

\342\200\224

if D

Jordan curve Cr =
If

Z>

=

{z:

the right of Cv.

is on

yr(I)

e<\\z\\<R}

defined

by

then the

by

dlDl=CR-Ce.

Fig. 2.7

2.2

Cellular decomposition

a.

Cdfe

the
s) be a continuousmap from
rectangle
^ fc, 0 ^ s ^ 1} into the complexplaneC, such that the
are
Tf (t, 5), Ts (t9 s), and Trs (t, s) = T^ (t, 5) existand
Under certain conditions to be specifiedlater,the image
continuous.
r(K)
want
to give a few examplesof cells.
of K under T is calleda cell.
We
first
Let

T:

(r, s)->r(f,

K = {(r, s): a ^ t
derivatives
partial

Fig.

2.8

Cellular

2.2

Example 2.2. K = {(r,s):0 < e
The cell T(X) is the closeddomain

t g

^

/?, 0

g 5 ^ n} and

5)

T(r,

= te*.

2.9.

in Fig.

sketched

75

decomposition

Fig. 2.9

Example 2.3. K =

r(r,
where

<f>(t)

s)

and

on [a, b] and
<J>(b)_^

^(b).

possibility

=

f

{(f,s):a ^

+ (1

^(r)

satisfying

This gives
is sketched

t

^

- s) i<\302\243
(0 +

are

fe,

0

^ s

^ 1} and

si> (0,

continuously

differentiable

functions, defined

< r < fc. We have <j>(a) ^ ^(a)
0(f)
with
four possibilities: the cell corresponding
in Figure 2.10 (a-d).
< ^(f)

if a

and
each

iy . 1 (b)

TO

1

0

iy i *

a

b

X

iy i > (d)

(C)

TO

y

>

y=<pto
1

a

0

Fig.

Example

(l+e~ins).

b

X

0

.3

'jC
\302\243

2.10

2.4.

K = {(t, s): Ogtgl,

0 g s g 1}

and

T(t,

s)

= {t-\\)

76 Cauchy's Theorem

Thecell
is the
segment[-2, 0]
T(K)

and

0

^ t

<i 1} of K on the
and

semicircle,

in Fig.

sketched

is

enclosed by a semicircleand the line
2.11. T maps the side {(f, 0):
the side {(0, s):0 ^ s ^ 1}on the

domain

closed

[-2,0],

segment

the remaining

two sides

onto the origin0.

iyl

r(K)

2.11

Fig.

introduce the following notations:E = {(t,s):a < t < b,
=
of K and Lx = {(f, 0: a^t^b},
0 < s < 1}is the interior
L2
{(&, 5):
0 ^ s ^ 1},L3= {(*, l:a ^ t ^ fc},and L4 = {(a,s):0^ s ^ 1}are its sides.
in C and K = [\302\243]is its closure.
is a region
Of course, \302\243
Now

let us

S ..
U
1

E

u

ci

0

Fig.

u

I\342\226\240> t

U

2.12

to examine the propertiesof the map T
2.3
under
the assumptionthat <j>(b) = ^(fc). From
Example
T(t, s) = t + (1 - s) icf> (t) + si\\j/ (0
We now want

we get

T, fc s) = 1+ (1r.(r,s)

s)#'

= i(*(r)-*(*)).

(t)

+

\302\253y(0,

as defined

in

(2.17)

2.2 Cellular decomposition 11

r(Lt) isa
t+

arc,

Jordan arc with parameter
and r(L4) isjust onepoint

bethe setwe getby

one on

K\"

is

Let

a + i<\302\243
(a).

closed

a bounded,

region,

t -* T(fc

representation

X\"

r(L3)

1+ (t), a^t
<t< 0 ^
i^

b9

+a

where

=

C\\

Jordan

the

\342\200\224

t,

interior

its

T(\302\243) is

1), a

^

r

^

and its

define a

now

boundary a
= r(L3),

rfLjJandC^

arc T(L3) by the
= T(L3).
b9 we
get C3

cell as follows.

is called
If r satisfies the followingconditions
T{K)
(l)-(4),
ceM:
a
or
more
cell,
briefly,
T(K) is a closed domain,F(E) is its interior,i.e.,the set of all
is a piecewise
of T(K)
interior points of T(K) and the boundary
smooth Jordan curve.
Each
is either a point or a smoothJordanarc.
T(LK)
If K\" is the set obtained from K by
those
sides LK such
omitting
and we
is
one-to-one
that r(LK) is a point,the map T: K\" -\342\226\272
r(K\")
have for all points (t9 s)eK\":
24.

Definition

a smooth
(1)

(2)
{3)

(2.18)

Imrs(r,5)rf(t,5)>0.

(4) For
is a

fixed s the function
constant.

rs(f,

=^ 0

5)

The boundary
curve

^b9
s ^ 1}
is one-to-

2.13

Fig.

We

(b)9

T(r, 1) =
= {(r, s):a

L4 from

L2 and

taking

piecewisesmoothJordancurve Cx -C3,
i.e., 3r(X) = C = Cx -C3. Redefining
parameter

b + icf>

t ->

representation

t -+ T(t9 0) =
is a smooth

representation

parameter

X, then T: X\" -+ r(jK\")
and
for each point (r, s)eK\" we have
by (2.17)
= *l*(t)-<Ht)> 0.
Ts(r, s)r,(t,5)

Im
T(K)

with

just one point

a^t^b,r(L2)is

(t),

i(f>

Jordan

smooth

by

C

condition
\\c\\

=

r(/c)-

T(t9

s) oft

satisfies Tt (t9

Similarly, for fixed t9
or is a constant.
=

(1)

the

function

s)

a ^ t ^ fc, or
s) of 5 satisfies

# 0,
T(t,

cell T(X) is a piecewise
smoothJordan
and we have
of a

dT(K)

r(\302\243)

=

irjLji

u |r(L2)|

u |r<L3)| u

|r(L4)|.

78

Theorem

Cauchy's

T (Lk\\k = 1,2,3,4,isby condition
Jordanarc. If Ck is a smooth Jordan arc,
are given by:
representations
Each

Ck =

Q.r-rfo

the

Since

or a smooth
parameter

(4)

\" ~
0<s<l,

s),

of each

orientation

the orientations for

(219)

O^s^ 1.

C4:s-r(a, 1-5),
define

a point

condition

flg^fc,

0),

C2:s-r(fc,

(2) either
by

T(Lk) is not

each Ck

=

implied by

T(Lfc)

using

condition

(2), we

the above

parameter

representations,i.e.,

C = dr(K)=

C2

Cx

C3

C4.

(2.20)

If Cl9C2,C3, and C4 are all Jordan arcs, then C1C2-C3-C4 is the Jordan
curve
obtained
together Cl9 C2, C3, and C4 in that order. If
by piecing
and
there
are one or more points, then Ci*C2*C3*C4.
C4
among Ct,C29C3,

is the Jordancurve

obtained

Cl9C2,C39

among

are Jordan

points,

then

by piecing

and C4.

=
arcs, then C1*C2*C3*C4
= Cx

Ci'C2'C3*C4

only the Jordan arcsfrom

together

If, for example,C2 is a point
CY

'C^-C^

and

and

Ci9C3,

if C2

and C4

and C3

are

-C4.

|C21u |C31u |C41, it is sufficient to establish the
if Ck is a Jordan arc its orientation
of C,
that
fact
agreeswith the orientation
ce
on
left
of
Choose
and
is
the
curve
that
consider
the
i.e.,
(a, b)
Ck.
T(\302\243)
(3) and (4), cy is a smooth
cy: s -* cy (s) = T(c, s), 0 ^ s ^ 1.By conditions
then
the angle
between cy and Cx at
Jordan arc. If Cx is a Jordanarc,
=
6 of cy'(0)/rr(c,
0), is equal to the
T(c, 0), i.e.,the argument
cy(0)
Proof:

argument

Since\\C\\

| Ct

|u

ITfeO)

=

=

of

rs

(c, o)

cyf

(0)/rf

(c, o)

\342\200\242

|r,

(c, o)i2.

= T(c, s)er(\302\243)
cy (s)
By (2A8) we have sin 6 > 0, hence 0 < 0 < n. Since
Jordan
the
0 < s < 1, T(\302\243)is on the right of Cx. Similarly,considering
for
\342\200\224
=
s
from
the
obtained
0
arc k s -* A(s)
^
1,
^
cy by reversing
s),
cy(l
A
and
C3 at T(c, 1) is
orientation, and observingthat the angle ^ between

equal to the argumentof Ts (c, 1) Tt (c, 1), we concludesin ^ > 0 by (2.18),
hence 0 < \\J/ < n. Therefore T(\302\243) is to the left of C3.
Next considery1/3:t-*ylt3(t) = T(t, 1/3), a ^ t ^ fc. y1/3 is a smooth
at the
Jordan arc and the anglea> between
y t /3 and C4 (if C4 is not a point)
\342\200\224
sin
Therefore,
Tt (a, \302\243)
Ts (a, \302\243).
point T(a9 i) is equal to the argumentof
co > 0 by (2.18), i.e., 0 < co < n. Hence T(\302\243) is on the left of C4 since

2.2 Cellulardecomposition
79

1/3)

T(fl,

r(c.O)
Fig. 2.14

C2

e

(0

Vi/3

if

C2

is not

b. Similarly,oneproves

r <

a <

T(\302\243)for

T(E)

is on

the left of

a point.

To illustrate what

if some

happens

sketched in Fig. 2.15what

we have

that

of Example2.4.In this

C2

case,

the

= C3

of the

Cl,C2,C3, and C4

are

curves

cy and

for the cell

= 0

t

y

/3 look like

and C = dr{K)= Ct

points,

-C4.

iy i k

Q

CO

-2

Fig.

For

2.15

convenience we

a^r^fe,0^5^1},
transformed

{(t, s):
into

coordinates
started

with

0

Q

notational

rectangle

\\7l/3

the

t =
K'.

it is

but

a^t

<>b,

have

obvious

c^s^d}.

as the

defined

K

that we

could

An

arbitrary

have

rectangle {(t,
used

s):

an arbitrary

rectangle is

of
K' = {(r, 5):0 ^ t ^ 1,0^ s ^ 1}by the change
\342\200\224
=
have
well
as
we
so
s
c
could
a + (b \342\200\224
+ (d c)c9
just
a)x,

square

80

Theorem

Cauchy's

b. Cellulardecomposition
Let

is called

(1)

an

(2)

[Z>]

(3) If

closed region in

C and let D beits interior.

of
{Tx(Kx). . . Tx (Kx),...,
r\342\200\236
(*\342\200\236)}
of
if
decomposition [D]
of cells has no interior points in common.
pair

Jf =

A collection

2.5.

Definition

cells

be a

[D]

a cellular

arbitrary

=

and

TA(KA)

- - \342\226\240
ur,(K,)u

(K2)u

T, (Kt)uT2

v, have

A #

TV(KV),

Example 2.5. Figure 2.16 shows

{x:0gx^

and so

on.

Fig.

2.1.

Theorem

finite number

[D] is
The

exactly

straight

Jordan
called

segment

{iy:

arc |CAv|.
cellularly

of

the

the segment
O^y^

1},

2.16

If the

of

region
boundary ofa boundedclosed

piecewise

disjoint,

mutually

smooth

[D]

Jordan

consists

of a

curves, then

decomposable.

is in three

smooth

on

parts.
first

We

Jordan

is based

straightforward,
line\"

is

[D]

the

Part (I) ofproof:
one

a smooth

a
cellular
decomposition
= r1(Kl)nr2(K2)
is

|C12|

example,

or

is
1},|C31|= r3(/C3)nr1(/<:1)

cellularly

proof

this

(2.21)

ur,(y

a nonempty intersection,then

n Tv (Kv) is either one point
(Ki)
T^
If such a cellulardecomposition
exists,
decomposable.

closed disk. In

- - -

assume

on the fact

a sufficiently

the boundary of [D] consistsof
is
C. The proof, which
basically
a smooth
that
Jordan curve is \"almosta
that

curve

small neighborhood

of each of its points.

2.2 Cellulardecomposition
81
ON .

C
N

Qs

)

u

[D]

&

Gl2^

Goi

Gn

G2>

goo

Gio

G20

fll

/?2

\\

R3

0

X

Fig.

2.17

Let

Qhk =
an

define
the

{x + iy:

M =

infinite

whole

kd + S}9

S,k6^y^

0,\302\261l,\302\2612,...,

of squares

number

with

sides

to 5

equal

> 0 and covering

C

plane

complex

+

hS\302\243x^hS

Kk

Then [D]

is coveredby

a finite

number

of closed

subsets [D] n

g^ ^ 0

fc,IE

If

this

is a

cellular decomposition,

adjustments as shown

in

Fig.

cellulardecomposition.
The

details

of this

adjustment

2.17

we are finished.
to change this

make
into
a
decomposition
If

it is

not, we

procedure are as follows.First,let Qhk

be

a

C in at least two points or is
of its sidesintersects
that has this sidein commonwith
be the square
Qhk
(h, k -1), (h + 1, k\\ or (h -1, k)) and let the rectangle
(i.e., (h\\ k!) = (h9 k +1),
u fifc.k.. Denote the rectangles obtainedin this way
R be defined
by R = \302\243>,,*
no interior
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
, Rm-If
points in
P ^ 9. KP and /?9 have
by Rl9 R2, - - . , Rp, \342\200\242
common and [I>] is coveredby the sets [D] n /?p, p = 1,2,..., m, and the
All [D]n/?p
are cells. Let
where gfcfc <jr \\JpRp.
[D]ngw,
remaining
C^] have interior points in common, then
4= Up ^p ** such that G** and
Qhk
one
If
all
or transverselyin exactly
not
at
C
intersects
a side of Qhk
point.
[D] n Qhk is not a cell, then one of the casessketchedin Fig. 2.19 must occur.
By dividing [D] n Qhk into two cells, as shown above, we obtain a cellular
square

such that one

tangent to C.Let Qwk.

82 Cauchy's

Theorem

2.18

Fig.

^L
A

Fig. 2.19

decomposition of [D]. The
obtained in this way.

cellular

shown

decomposition

above

was

decomposition definedin this way is
Let
really
y:t-+y(t), 0 ^ r ^ l,bea parameter
decomposition.*
is a continuously differentiate
representation of C. By assumption,
y(t)
function
of r, such that y'(t) * 0 for t e [0,1],y (0) = y (1), and y(s) * y(t) for
0 ^ s < t < 1.In order to be able to treat the point y (0) = y(l) just as all
other pointsy(t), we extend y(f) to a function with period one defined on the
real line R by putting y (t) = y (t - /c),where t is an arbitrary real number such
now

We

proceed

to prove

that the

a cellular

that

k

^ t

<

fc

-h 1,

k an

integer.

Splitting y(t) into its realand imaginary

we

part,

write

+ ii; = p(t) -h ict(t), 0 ^ t ^ 1be an arbitrary
on C.
y(t) = \302\243
point
Since y' (x) # 0, at leastoneofp'(t)and <t'(t) is not equal to 0. Let usassume
p'(r) ^ 0;then \\C \\ can be represented by an equation y = <t>(x% where ^(x) is

Let C =

a continuously differentiable
If p'(r)
> 0, then p'(t) > 0

monotone
* This

a

fact is intuitively

verification

through

clear

t.

from the

calculation

of \302\243.
C, hence
p(t) is a
the inverse function

a neighborhood
of

neighborhood

of

function

increasing

x on

of

function

on a

Therefore

diagrams. Theproofthat

of this

intuitively

obvious

follows

fact.

x =

is nothing but

Cellular

2.2
t

monotone

is a continuously differentiable,
p~l(x)
=
a neighborhood
of \302\243
p(t).
By applying

=

on
t

=

x -\302\273
z =

z =

x -*

from

C- In

both cases,

obtained

of

of

neighborhood

0

a 5 (e) >

the change of

< 0,

is

\\C\\

represented

then

(x))
t

=

p

representation

a continuously
neighborhood of <J,
of the Jordan curve

(x) is

the orientation on a neighborhood
by the equation y = (f>(x) on a

there existsfor

of x,

function

a continuous

e >

each

Since<!)(\302\243)
=

v/e

rj

(2.22)

if|x-\302\243|<c5(\302\243).

value theorem there exista

= </>(O

(/>(x)

+ </>'(^+
from

get

proved

1, such that

0(x-^))(x-a

(2.22)

if p'(t)

that

0 <

0, 0 <

|^(x)-ir-^(f)(x-f)|^e|x-f|

(2.23)

if|x-\302\243|<<5(\302\243).

^ 0, then

be

can

\\C\\

the equation y =

neighborhood of C y(t) by
(2.23) is satisfied on this
neighborhood.
following. If the condition
=

we

Next,

that

and

4>{x)

on a

represented

want

inequality

to prove the

3|p'(t)|

\302\243
|<7'(t)|

then the

is satisfied,

occurring
in

Since
y'(t)

P(e) >

is a

the

be determined

continuous

and

neighborhood

the value of

of the point (

independent

function of t and since y'(t+
Therefore, for each e > 0, there

<e

^ 0 for

It is sufficient to
this

under

function
nondecreasing

5(e)

y(t).

1) =

y'(t\\

a

exists

(2.25)

if|f-5|<j3(\302\243).

all r, there

existsa k > 0 such

that

(2.26)

|y'(r)|^8/c>0.

(For

=

that

l/W-/(5)|

Sincey'(t)

of

\"size\"

continuous.

uniformly

0 such

(2.24)

can

(2.23)

y'(t)

is

0

that

such

|</>'(x)-</>'(\302\243)|<\302\243

have

\"l

on a

function

a parameter

C by reversing

By the intermediate

We

coordinate

\302\243.

<\302\243'(x)is

Since

p' (t)

\"*

a(p

<\302\243(x)

decreasing

x + i<\302\243(x)is

\342\200\224
C

=

i<\302\243(x),

monotone

differentiable,

and

x +

If
neighborhood of \302\243.

on a

function

increasing

we obtain the parameterrepresentation

to y(f)

p~l{x)

83

decomposition

prove that

assumption
of

|r-s|

< 0(w)if|t-s|

(2.24)

and

\302\243.
Hence

monotone nondecreasing function
=
a(e)
sup0<u^E P(u) isa monotone
a u with
0 < u ^ e such
there
exists

/?(e)

is a

<a(\302\243),so|y'(f)-y'(s)|<

u^eif\\t-s\\

(2.26) we get

10|p'(t)|2 ^ |p'(t)|2+ k'(t)|2=

|y'(t)|2

^

64k2,

<a(\302\243).)From

of e.
that

84

Theorem

Cauchy's

hence
IP'MI > 2k,
that

or p'(r)

> 2k

p'(r)

is,

First,

us

let

assume

Hence,

of

function

(2.25)

if \\t-x\\<P(K).

p(f) is a
t

> 2k. By

p'(r)

p'(r)>K
x =

< -2k.-

continuously differentiable,
interval

the

on

(2.27)

\342\200\224

[t

~l

monotone

+ /J(k)],

/J(k),t

so its

increasing

inverse

function

monotone
of
function
p
(x) is a continuouslydifferentiable,
increasing
\342\200\224
=
x on the interval
[p(t
p(t + /?(k))]. Therefore, </>(x)
tr(p_1(x))
/?(k)),
is also continuously differentiable on [p(t \342\200\224
+
/J(k)),
p(r
/?(k)) ]. By (2.27)we
r =

have

and

similarly

that

the

[p(r

p(t

interval

\342\200\224

/?(k)),

domain

\342\200\224\342\200\224

p(t)

[{

[{

p(r

=

<\302\243'(*)

k/?(k)].

From

=

P_1W,

Pit)

t

p(r) =
is contained

k/?(k)]

From now

p'W

Kfi(K)

Since

k/J(k).

+
\302\243

k/?(k),

+
\302\243

kj}(k\\

>

/}(k))

\342\200\224

+ /J(k))].

\342\200\224

>

= rfi(K)p'(t)dt

+ )3(K))-p(T)

p(T

on, we

regard

ff'(r)

ff'(T)

ff'W

ff'(T)

P'(0

p'(0

P'W

P'(T)]

k'(t)-\302\253T'(T)|

+ k'WI

P'(0

by (2.27)

Therefore,

hence,

p'Wp'W

K

by (2.25)
if|t-t|<)5(K6/4).

|</>'(X)-0'(\302\243)|<\302\243

Since

|p'(t)-P'(T)|

and (2.24)

mx)-<l>'(Z)\\\302\243-\\y'(t)-y'(x)\\;

dt/dx

= l/p'(0
=

\342\200\224-rl i
I

f

Js

< 1/k by
dt^

dx

dx

(2.27)

have

we

\302\243-|x-\302\253l

K

Hence
|</>'(X)-</>'(\302\243)!

<

\302\243

if

|X-\302\243|

<

in

<f>(x) as a

we get

l*'M-*'tf)|:S

<!;

KjS(K\302\243/4).

we
the

conclude
interval

function

with

Cellular

2,2

belongs to the domainof <f>(x)

Note that x

we have

5(e)^

\342\200\224
^
\302\243|

Putting

*/?(*).

monotone nondecreasing

/3(e) is a

e since

all

for

*/?(*)

|x

e. Therefore

of

function

since

85

decomposition

if|x-\302\243|<5(e),

|</>'(*)-0'(\302\243)l<\302\243

hence

if|x-\302\243|<5(e).

|0(x)-f|-0'(O(x-{)|^e|x-{|

Putting e =

= |<t'(t)/p'(t)|
1 and using | <\302\243'(\302\243).

|*(x)-if|<4|x-{|
17(C) = {x +

(7(C) of

ijr. |x-\302\243|

the points x + i<\302\243(x)e|C|

with

Since5(1)= k/?(ic/4),

2.24), we get

if|x-\302\243|<5(l).

a neighborhood

Defining

g 3 (by

we

( =

< 5(1),

+ irj
\302\243

|y-if|

\302\243-3(1)< x

by

< 45(1)}
<

+
\302\243

small k by (2.7)

for sufficiently

get

to [7(C).

belong

5(1)

|C| n [/ (0 = {x + i<f>(x): \302\243-3(1) < x < { + 5(1)}.
The casep' (t) < 2k is treated similarly, the only difference beingthat
functions.
p(t) and p\"1 (x) are monotone decreasing
To

if condition

summarize,

now

(2.24),

3|p'(t)|^|<t'(t)|,

is satisfied

+ irj
\302\243 \302\243

= y(t)

= p(-r) +

hx(t)

of

C, then

+ 5(l)}.
^(x):^-5(l)<x<^
is a continuously
of x
difFerentiable function
Here,
#(x)
\342\200\224
interval [\302\243
where
<!;+ k/?(ic)],
k/?(k:),
k/?(k) ^ 5(1),satisfying
=

|C|n[/(0

{x +

l*W-i|-^(\302\253(x-\302\253)|^c|x-\302\253|

U (C)is dividedby
inequalities

Let

x+

y >

\\C |
<f>(x)

and

x ->

z

= x

a parameter
crosses
C
from

U+

can

be

+

i<f>

(2.29)

on

the closed

if|x-\302\243|<5(\302\243).
\"
and
U
defined
(\302\243)
(\302\243)

two subregions
y < 4>(x\\ respectively:

the

(2.30)
by the

the point z =
through
axis.
increasingfunction. Since

line

parallel to the imaginary
x = p(r) is a monotone

C and

If p'(t) > 2k,then

is

into

= [/ + (0ui/-(0.
i/(0-|C|
/x:y-> /x(>>) = x + ry represent

i<\302\243(x)on

\\C\\

neighborhood U (C)by

on the

represented

=

a point

at

(x)

representation of C on 1/(0, we
= x +
right to left at lx(<f>(x))

see

that

i<\302\243(x).

the
Therefore,

line

lx

if

86

Theorem

Cauchy's

I

'y>

/

tx

0*(O
D

T

/\302\260

jt

\"T\"

'

s

1

+ tyH*)

IT(0
y

o

1^
Z<HI)

2.20

Fig.

[D].Ifp'(t)

t/\"(Q

<=

that

='x

2jc,thenx-\302\273z

hence

-C,

of

\342\200\224

<

C\342\200\224

representation

then x + iyeD,

+ 4S{l)

4>(x)<y<r]

c

X

\342\200\242 t f\\f

J7

\302\243>
and

+

+ i#(x)

(C) c

+

and
(QcD
is a parameter

l/

is,

C- [D]. Similarly,

U~{Q
if

the

condition

(2.31)

3|a'(T)|^|p'(T)|

is satisfiedat

=
+ fy =
\302\243 \302\243

V(0 = {x+

iy:

y(t) and if we

|x-\302\243|

<

put
|y-i;|

45(1),

< 5(1)},

then

+ d{l)}.

\\C\\nV(Q=W{y) + iy:ri-6{l)<y<t,
\\j/(y)

is a

continuously

interval [q

\342\200\224

k)8(k),

i; +

differentiable
k/J(k)] and

function of y

if ly-^

W'OO-f-W.Hj'-*)!.*^-*)
If a

+

point xt

on
i>\342\200\236

C with

0 <

on

defined

< 5(e)
\302\2431
|xx \342\200\224

and 0

<

(2.32)

the closed

(2.33)

5(e).

\\yt

\342\200\224
<
\302\273/|

5(e) is

such that

yi-n
3e +

Xi-\302\243

holds, then
3 |<t'(t)|

(2.34)

l

condition (2.24),3|p'(t)|^
we

\302\243
|p'(t)|,

have

xt

l*i-{-*'(\302\2737)(j>i-*)l\302\243fi|}',-if|

by

(2.33),

that

-Ki-f

is,

-Vto)

<e.

=^(yt)

is
|<t'(t)|,

satisfied.

by (2.32), hence

For,

assuming

2.2 Cellulardecomposition
87

Using

we sget

(2.34)

P'WI

=

3e+l

fiZl

W'(f)|\302\243

-\302\253*

=
\"\302\243

\342\200\224-

1

3

if

Similarly,

(2.35)
|-3\302\243+l

holds, then we have
3|<x'(t)|
we
these
results
can
Using

of [D] canbeobtained
proof. First selecte
36 ^

<5,

as

A

Let us put

described

procedure

e <

cellular decomposition
in the beginning of this

1/3, next select8 > 0 such

complexplaneC with

described

that

an

infinite

of squares

number

Qhk

with

above.

three cases:

We consider

Case1:

the
0 <

with

that a

3(e)

and cover the
width

by

^ |p'(r)|.
ascertain
easily

of Qhk

side

=

Qhk

intersects

C in at

Q00 to simplify

least two

points

or is

tangent

to C.

the notation. Let

L={x + iS:0^x^5}
represent

the

of Q00 that intersects
=
+ id = y(r) be one
\302\243 \302\243
side

and let
point of tangency.The rectangleR
to C

\302\25301

=

C in at least two

of

the

Q00 ug0i

^

J>^^

y^^{x)

Fig.

2.21

?

<!

*

or is

intersection

is given by

ICI

^^^-~\\

^^Ziv^

0

of

points

points

tangent
or the

88

's Theorem

Cauchy

Assuming

that

equation x =

on

ij/(y)

=
at \302\243
y(x), C is given by the
in
(2.32). Hence L intersectsC transversely

holds

2; |p'(t)|

3|<t'(t)|

by

V(Q

exactly
point, contrary to the assumption. (Since35 g 5(e) ^ 5(1), we
= #(x)onl/(C)by
=>
have V(C) /?.)Therefore
\\C\\ is given by the equation y

one

(2.29).

have

we

(2.30)

By

if|x-\302\243|<5(e), (2.36)

\\<Hx)-6-<y(Z)(?c-e)\\ge\\x-i\\
that
C

on

is,

=

4- iS9
\302\243

neighborhood
{x-hry: |x
the curve C is betweenthe linesy

\342\200\224
<
\302\243|

the

= ^-|-(^/(^)-5)(x
^
least
two points,
tt

*

as
\342\200\224^),

in Fig.

shown

= 5

|)>--5|

5(6),

+

(#'(\302\243)

2.21. If

If

by

Hence,

(2.36)

^ 2e|x-f

|0(x)-<5|

| ^ 2e5

if

0

^ x

g 5,

therefore

0<

<\302\243(*)<

25

if0gx^5

g J.

Therefore,

nR

[D]

0\"

> 0,

p'(r)

assuming

= {x

+ i>:0 ^

we have

x g 5,

l.

[D]nR

y=y(x)

6~

Fig.

2.22

<0, we have

C

5

U + (Q e: D and

^
<\302\243(x)

2/5

If p'(x)

of

and
\302\243)
at

of intersection
we put one such other point
4- iS,
Ci = \302\243i
=
<
5
we
\302\243
5
have
and
5(e),
by
tf>(f i)
tf>'(\302\243)^
|^ -\302\243| ^
= 0. So, in both cases, we have
L is tangent to C at \302\243
then
0'(\302\243)

|0'(\302\243)|\302\243e.

since e

+ e)

(x -

L intersectsC in

Since
\302\243

(2.36).

<45(1)}

X

J ^

25}.

Cellular

2.2

In both

cases[D] n R

89

decomposition

.,

described in Example 2.3.Let Lx,L2,..
all sides from among the sidesof the squares
Lm represent
Qhk, h, k
= 0, \302\261
. ., which
intersect C in at least two points
or are tangent to
1, \302\261
2,.
C. For eachLp let Rp = Qhk u QWk. be the union of the two squares
Qhk and
sides.
We have shown that all [D] n
QhW which have Lp as oneof their
Rp
cells. If p ^ 9, then Rp and
are
i?q do not have interior points in common.
(For,supposeRp = R = ()00 ug01. If Rq has interior points in common
is contained
in /?.
one of the squares making up /?, say,
with
R, then
Q00
=
Hence L9 has to be a side of Q00,but all sides of Q00 except L Lp either do
in exactly
one point. Hence
not intersect C at all or intersectC transversely
cell as

is a

Lp,...,

Lq

= L=

Case 2:
before,

Rp and

4= UP

Qhk

we put

= g.)

p

i.e.,

Lp,

=

Qhk

Q00.

of Q00, we have

the interior

Q/,,j. has interior points in commonwith
If the boundary C of [D] doesnot pass
Q00

p. Goo =

and [D]

cz [D]

As

[D].

through

C
that C intersects

Goo

^ a

cell. If

from
(2.29)
passesthrough the interiorofQ00,we conclude
each side of
the boundary of Q00 in at least two points. Since Q00 <\302\243
\\JpRp,
in exactly
C transversely
Q00 either does not intersectC at all or intersects
at leasttwo sides of Q00 in one point each.
one point. ThereforeC intersects
We

cases:

two

distinguish

are parallel.
Let us assume that C
(a) C intersects two sidesof Qo0 which
the
the side on the imaginary axis at ir\\ = y(i), 0 ^ y\\ ^ <5, and
intersects
=
other side at fi
S + irjl, 0 ^ tji ^ 5. At iij we have 3|p'(t)| ^ |<t'(t)|.

(For, sincee < 3, we have 3/(3e+
rj\\/5 ^ 3(3e + 1),holdsat the

by

(2.29),

irj.

The

\\C\\

side

intersects

C

f. Hence, the inequality (2.34)\\ijl
5 + ii^ # z>/ = y(t) of C.) Therefore,
point
is given by the equation y \342\200\224
1/ (/>/) of
<j>(x) in a neighborhood
ofQoo either does not intersect C at all or
{x:0^gx^<5}
in exactly one point. If C intersectsthis
side
transversely

in

transversely

{ <

<
\302\243,0

1) >

= 0

<5,then<\302\243(\302\243)

and

i^ =

0 and if </>'(\302\243)< 0, then
value theorem. This contradictsour assumption,
< 5. Similarly,
< S if 0 < x < <5, hence
<f> (x)
q = (f>(0)<

if p'(t)

[*>] n
lfp'(r)<0,

Goo

by

hence

> 0 then U +

(j>7)

c D

</>(x) >

and

=

{x +

iy:0 ^

x^

<5,

</>(x)

=

{x +

*y:0 ^

x^

<5,

0

cases [D] n

Q00

is

a cell

^

^y^S},

>>

^

as described in

0,then

the intermediate

then
[\302\273]rifioo

In both

< 0
<\302\243(\302\243)

</>'(\302\243)>

if0<x<<5.

0<<\302\243(x)<<5

Therefore

0. If

^
<\302\243'(\302\243)

*(*)}.

Example 2.3.

0 if 0

<x

90

Theorem

's

Cauchy

.

iy>

id

, c
J

Qm

[Din

?i

irL

s

0

X

2.23

Fig.

two adjacent sidesof Q00
the side {iy: 0 ^ y ^
intersects

C intersects

(b)

assume that C
side {x: 0 ^ x ^
a neighborhood

P (it/)

of

if/.

&
\302\243

{, 0 <

1/ (if/) of

Let

us

n goo

\302\243
^ $.

or

> 0,

= {* +

iy:

0

5} at

is

0

if/,

x = ^ (y)

<

r\\

in

5, and

^

and

0^x<f

=

us
the

in
<\302\243(x)

a neighborhood

by an equation

given

for

each. Let

point

by the equation y

is given

equation

\\C\\

< S

<J>(x)

\\C\\

by the

that

if p'(r)

Therefore,

[->]

if/

assume

0 <

then

<0,
<\302\243'(\302\243)

f < x

at
<5}

one

in

y=

<\302\243(*)<

#(x). If
for

0

we have

^ x

^

^
<5, <\302\243(*)

k

y ^

6, 0

\302\243
y

^ <5}.

iyi i

iS

iS

iri

irj

[D]n
0

X

*\\*

p'(T)>0

0

Qm\\

f\\<

5

*

r

Fig. 2.24

In this case[D] n g00isthe

union

of a

cell, as

{x+ iy:0^x^f,tf>(x)^y^<5},
and

a

rectangle,

{x +

iy:

\302\243^x

^ 5,

0 ^ y

^ 5}.

described in Example2.3,

91
2.2 Cellulardecomposition
Ifp'(T)<Othen

V: 0 x
is a cell as described Example

which

= {* +

n fioo

[0]

/?p and

cj: JJp

Qhk

case, [Z>]n

In this

intersects

with [D].
Qw. has no interiorpointsin common
or
consists
of
the
empty
only
points whereC
Since C intersects each sideofQhk in at most one

of Qhk.

ofat most two
point, [D] n Q^ consists
points, we can omit these sets [D] n Qhk
the equality
=

LDl

Hence, [D]

cells,no

C.

C =

Let

y,: t

let

and

Qhk

C2

changing

the validity

of

cover

we

[D]
Cm,

Cj

number of

piecewise smooth Jordan
with all Cj smooth Jordanarcs
is a

=

7j[l)

plane C with
is
covered
a
[D]
by

an

finite

have

= yi(0).

. . . , ym(l)

yi+1(0),

the complex

S. Then

number

infinite

of

of closed

number

0:

*

Qhk

into a finite

above

points in common.

of

y3(0),. . .,

width

with

subsets [D] n

without

has no isolated

ofCj.We
1, be a parameter representation

t ^

0 ^

ya(l) =

Just as in Part (I)
squares

Since [D]

procedure

boundary

\342\200\242

Cx

-\342\226\272
y7- (r),

= y2(0),

7i(l)

The

the

interior

have

which

of

Part (II) of proof:
curve

points.

[J([DlnQhk).

is decomposedby

two

I* </>(*)},

Qfcik is either

sides

the

\302\243
y

2.3.

in

Case 3:

0

\302\243 \302\243
{,

LDl=[J(lDlnQhk).
arrive
this decomposition,
we
at a cellular decomposition, but
=
now the points 7/(0),j 1, . .., m, need special
Put
consideration.
=
=
=
=
=
=
...,
Ci yi(0) ym(l),
...,(\342\200\236
ym(0)
y^d)
y,(0)
y^d),
Cj
and pick squaresgfc fc such that Cj^Qhk- ^et Qj ^ *c union
of the nine
=
squares Qv.k.. such'that
Qwk\"^Q^k\\^0 (i.e., h\" hj-l9 hj, hj+l9

By adjusting

k\"

=

of

that
in

kj-i,
Qhk
Qj,

\\Jfml

=

. Next

is a

n2 squares

into

Qhkpq

with

width

its

center

which

5/n

with
coinciding
are not contained

(where

n

is

a natural

defined by

number)
QkkM

square of width 3<5,
we divide all squares Qhky
Qj

fcj+i).

fcj,

{x +

1)6/n ^x-hS^

iy: (p-

We have
n

Qhk

=

\\J

Qhkpq

P.\302\253=l

pd/n,

(q-l)6/n

^y-kSg,

qS/n}.

92

's Theorem

Cauchy

5-\"

1^

\\

it

\302\243\342\226\240

^s-+

2.25

Fig.

decomposition of [D]

and the

[D]= U ([l>]nGfcMf)u([D]nfi1)u---u([D]neili).
h.k.p.q

[Jh.k.p.q

2.25

procedure

divide the squaresQhk

into a finite

c}: \\J}

illustrates

Q} into n2 smaller

to show that each
fact, at most three)

it suffices

n.) Therefore

large

the
a cellulardecomposition
by

n (2/ikp9)can be changed into
([^]
in Part (I). (Figure
described

number

(in

necessary to

it is

why

squares for somesufficiently
[D] n Q} can be decomposed

of cells,as illustrated

in

Fig.

2.26.*

Define /? (e), k, 6 (e) for

(I) for y
such that

that

(r),

p (e)

0^r<s^l9icisa

y}

6 (e)

1,2,...,

m,

as

were defined

they

function
is, p (e) is a monotonenondecreasing
=
> 0 and \\y) {t)
1, 2,. .. , m,
y) (s)\\ < ej
constant satisfying

|v}(OI^8k>0,
and

=

(t)J

is defined

\\t

s\\ <

> 0,
p (e\\

)=l,2,...,m

by

0<e^4,

[kP(ke/A\\

=

if

-

in Part
e, e

of

5(\302\243)

\302\243>4.

W(k),
yj (t)

Splitting

For

C

=

^

into its

real and imaginary

define

+\302\273/we

part,

we write

1/(0 and

neighborhoods

y}

(t)

V(\302\243)as

=
in

p} (t)
Part

+ ia}(t).
(I) by

U{Q = {x+ iy.\\x-Z\\<6{l),\\y-r,\\<46(l)},
=

V{Q
*

This

{x +

is also

taking
segments.

iy.\\y-ti\\<8(l\\\\x-Z\\<46(l)}.

intuitively

clear:

if C, _,

Qj sufficiently small the

and

C, are

both segments, the

parts of C,_, and

C, contained

is trivial. By
in Qi are almost

proof

2.2

Cellular

decomposition

93

(i)

Cj
\302\243

'(6)

QFig.

By

selecting

2.26

a sufficiently

and
(2.29)and (2.30)or (2.32)

small k, we may
(2.33)

are

O'

\342\200\2245(1)
\342\200\2248(1)

Fig.

2.27

valid

assume

that

for

in

\\Cj\\

similar
the

results to

neighborhood

94

Theorem

Cauchy's

U (0 or

the

of

K(C)

curve, we have

Jordan

=

+ ir\\
\302\243

adjust

these

pointr
to

=

example, if condition (2.24),3 \\p'j(t)\\
and

=

{_,

>

pj(0)

If

=

= {x+ i</>;
=

=

+ ,n,
\302\243 \302\243; \302\243,

^

and if p'}(i) > 0

is satisfied

|ff}(t)|,

then

\302\243
-<5(1),

t/ (0

\\Cj\\ n

y,{f) of C,. However, sinceCs is not a
results if \302\243
is close
to yi (0) or y} (1). For

+ <5
\302\243

(1)}.

(if 3 |p}(0)|\302\243
|er}

becomes

result

this

(0)

yj

x<

^

(x):

(0)| and

if

p}(0)>0)
V (Cj)

n

\\Cj\\

andifp}(0)<0,

3

|<T

\342\200\242

(0)|

^ |p}

\\Cj\\

n K(Q

n

\\Cj\\

The

x

of

that

-

\\4>i M

and for

<f>j

y,

respectively,

*lj

4>'j

(x)

that the

+

valid,

valid,

*,.-*

-

for

U) < y

3

(2.40)

\302\273/;}\342\200\242

4>j

^1 ^ e (x

if

\302\243,)

+ S

tj\302\243x<

\302\243j

(e)

\342\200\224\302\243,|

\\yt

\302\243x
+d(l),

\302\243l<xl<

|<x}(0)|. If
is such that

the point xt + iy
the inequality,

<<5(1),
\342\200\224t]j\\

is

of

C},

rjl<y1<

qt

3e+ l
^ |p}(0)|.

3|a}(0)|
=

For example,

+ 8(B).

iftij^y<r,j

3e+1
^
3|p}(0)|
< 6(1),

then

of Ch

C>
ty-i (1) is the terminal
parameter
representation t -\302\273y;_ j (1
and
p'j (0),
a} (0) in the aboveresults by

Since

(2.39)

(1)},

inequality (2.34)

yi-ij

is

<5

^ (y) are

have

xt +iyt

point

then

\302\243(1),|xt

and

(x
(\302\243j)

*i-tj

is

,/, +

y <

*

ty

(y-1j)\\\302\243e(y-1j)

the

if

+^

{<My)+\302\253y:

is, we

WM-tj-Wlj)
such

(2.38)

(y)

if/j

Hence,

\302\243
\302\243,}.

functions
continuouslydifferentiable
and
the
inequalities (2.30)
(2.33),
respectively, satisfying

functions

and

=

HQ

(2.37)

(1)},

{^x<{j+\302\253

o'j (0)> 0, then

(0)| and

= {^0)
then

if <r}(0)<0,

and

(x):

i<f>j

= {x + i^(x): ^-<5(1)< x

|C,|nU(Q
If

={x +

if 3 |p}_t (1)|^

|C;_. | n

U

(Q

=

{x +

|<7j_!

(1)|

end point of
\342\200\224

0

t),

<\302\243
f ^

\342\200\224

Cj_

and

u

the

1, we

\342\200\224

p'j-^l)

^ x <
#,_, (x): \302\243,

p}_

\342\200\224

arc

t (1),

< 0,

C^x

can replace
and

\342\200\224

er}_

C,-,

t (1).

then

+ <5 (1)},

\302\243,

with

(2.41)

Cellular

2.2

and if 3 \\o'j.l(1)|^

=

\\Cj-x\\n V{Cj)
e <

Choose

35

and
\302\243

=

Qx
Let

i>: 0 ^

{iy. 0

^ y ^

and

3<5},

end point

terminal

=

L4
=

(0)

^

y

{x: 0

the

four

of Cm.

.

iy

have

3i5: 0^x^35},

beginning end

is the

ym(l)

35}be

^ x^

(2.42)
we

3<5}.

L2 = {x +

3(5},

^ + <5(1)}.

gx n [D].If d egn,

O^y^

0^x^35,

0, then

>/,-^ y <

{^-iQO+iy:

L1 = {3<5+

Qrl. The point d

(1) <

a).l

5(e) and consider

^

{x + iy:

and

(1)|

\\p).x

95

decomposition

sides

L3

of the

point of Cx

=

square

and

the

/Cm

u

Zifi

/Cl

/

//

V

L3

Li

-*L

Since 35

\302\243

x

2.28

Fig.

since

3

u

0

^ 5 (e) ^ 5 (1)we

we may

have

assume that k is

Qt

sufficiently

c U

(d). Since5 (1)= k$(ic/4)
small,

[/(d)

does

and

not intersect

= ({C^nQJv (\\Cm\\nQt).Hence,ifz,
C2,C3,... ^.^thatisJCInG!
and
be
can
z2 are two points in the interior of Ql9 but not on |CX |u |CJ, that
connected
by a polygonal line in the interior o(Q1 not intersecting
Ct and
then
and
D
to
or
either
to
the
exterior
of
Cm,
zt
z2
belong
[D].
the boundary
Ci intersects
Lx u L2 u L3 u L4 of Qi- We assume that Ci
intersects Lx and let 35 + iyj, 0 ^ y x ^ 35, be the point of intersection
ofCx
=
and
Since
we
have
Lv
d
d 4-\"heQn,
^i-'/i

35 ~d
hence

3|p'x

Since Ct

25

<T

=

_

3

2<3fi+r

on U (d) by (2.37) or (2.38).
(0)| ^ |<t', (0)| and |CX| is represented
intersects Lx we concludethat \\CX | is represented by (2.37), that is,

96 Cauchy's Theorem
Cx

is

by the

given

parameter representation

x -* x + i(t>1

5(1),

(x),

{1^x<{,+

35,

then 0 <

on 17(d).
have

We

if

{jgx<

To see this let x2 be such that <t>x (x2)
L2 in the point x2 + 3i5,henceCx

+

y-*^i(y)
on

Hence 35-h^ =

^(d).

<t>i(\342\202\254i)

r}l we conclude

there

exists an

x3

x3

^ x2

with

(j>t (x3)

As shown by (2.43),Cx

Lx

u L2

Similarly,

u L3

u L4 of Qx

35,

^ < x2

has

the

parameter

+

i.e.,

iyu

that

fact

the

intersects

we

(2.43)

< 35,then

Cx

intersects

representation

^ CM =

35,^ <

yx

from the intermediatevalue theorem
= yt and d < x3 = x2- Hence^i

< 35, contradicting the

3S+ iyt.

35.

=

^{yx)

Since

=

<

(x)

^y<>7i+5(i)

>h

i>>

^

prove

35.
that

(yx)

=

= 35.

of Qi in exactly one point
intersects
the boundary
Cm
There
four
are
to
point.
possibilities

boundary

that
one

in exactly

\\^x (yx)

^

consider:

(1) Cm intersects
x-x

Lv In this

+ i</>m(x),

case,
\302\243i
^x<d+5(l)

U (d). Ct and Cm have
on
no
parameter representation of \342\200\224
Cm
in
but
other
U
of
intersection
for
Hence,
(d)
d<\302\243m(x)x^
(x)
points
all x with d < x ^ 35 or </>! (x) > (j)m (x) for all x with d < x ^ 35. Let
axis
for
'*:y -> '* (y) = * + iy be the line through x parallel to the imaginary
d < x <^ 35. The line lx crosses Cx from right to left at x + i<f>1 (x) and Cm
from left to right at x + i<f>m (x). Furthermore,
lx intersects C = d [D] in no
c
17
otherpoints on (Ci)- Hence, since Qi U (d) we have, if </>m (x) < </>! (x),
is a

x +

ifO^^^0m(x),

i>e[7>]

x + iy\302\243[D]

if

4>m (x)

< y <

</>1

x +

if

</>!

(x)

^ y ^

35.

i>>e[D]

Hence [D] n Qi is decomposed
into
{x + iy.

{x + iy:

d ^

x ^ 35,0 ^

{^x^
{x + iy: 0 ^ x ^
That the third cell,which

35,
d,
is a

</>1

>>

three

^

(x)^^

(x),

cells:

</>m(x)},
35},

0 ^ y

^ 35}.
is contained in [D] follows from
rectangle,

the

with
the point x in D by
fact that a point z in the rectanglecanbeconnected
This
and
case
a polygonal line not intersecting
Cm.
Ct
correspondswith
Fig.

2.26(1).

Cellular

2.2

97

decomposition

iyf

j:

=

9,\302\253W

Did

? =

?.(*)

/

ccl

1

0

x + iy
x +

(2)
x2

intersects

Cm

then

\342\200\224is

\342\200\224is

^(Ci),

x-

given by the

+ i<f>Jx\\

x

4>i(x)<

^ 35.

in

described

as

< 35

for ^ ^

iy. x2

^ xg

case corresponds
=

x-^i

representsa
x=
y

representation

y < <*(l)-

(2.44)

x <

(245)

8(1%

^ 35 and, by

x<

and

x2

into two

2.44,
<f>m

(x)

>

35 for

x2 <

x ^ 35.

cells:

^1^x^x2,<j>l{x)^y^<f>m(x)},

iy.

y-Vi

< x

is decomposed

[\302\243>]
nQ,

{x +

f,

L2 in the point x2 + 3i5,

parameter representation

^
\302\243t

for

(x)

<f>m

{x+
This

< y

(j>m{x)

by he parameter

given

Cm

^
\302\273h

also

Cm

#m (x)
Hence,

(x),

0, (x) or

Cm intersect

Let

L2.

On

\302\261S
35.

y-+*l>m(y)+iy,

If

^ y <

<j>m

2.3.

Example

0^

if 0

iy\302\243[I>]

y<

(x) g

if fa

e [D]

[D]nQt = {x+1>:4^xg3^,^(x)g^i(x)}.
with Fig. 2.26 (2)and [Z)]n gj isa cell
corresponds

case

x

then

If</>,(x)<<Mx),

This

3<5

2.29

Fig.

Hence

*

6

line

A(y)

= H(x)

(x)\302\243yg,

35,4>x

to Fig. 2.26(3).

The

35}.
equation

3

l+3e
/ through

=

Zl +

= *1i +

Ci =

ti +

ii +

\302\273liSolving

e](y-ti1),

3
1+

3e (x-\302\243,)-

for

x and y

we get

98

Theorem

Cauchy's

Fig. 2.30

on

If there existsa point
C^, then

iy =

x +

^m (y) +

iy

with

tjt

< y ^

3\302\2535
and

x^X(y)

y-f/i
l+3e'

*-\302\243i

3

hence

^ lu^

|pj\342\200\236
(1)|

for

representation
(2.45)

(1)| and

\342\200\224
Hence,
C\342\200\236.

there existsanother parameter

if a

parameter

representation

(2.45)does not

exist,

then

*m(y)<Hy)
In this

(2.46)

if

(2.47)

case
<t>v

For,

if\302\273/1<>'^3\302\243.

if

< n

(x)

< x

<{;,

<

(x)
+
\302\243j

S (e),

< x

\302\243,

\302\243
3.5.

then

\342\200\242tf'lKl); \302\243*,

since

and

>>i

=

<\302\243i
(35)

^ 3*5 we

have

= 2+e-

^'l(W-3T^+e-T+e
We

(x)

<t>i

if

e <

assumed

{! < x g
Putting

x3

\302\243
rii

hence
\302\243,

+ (2

2 +

+ 2e)

2e <

(x-

3/(1 + 3e)and

<
\302\243.)

we

conclude

\\i(x)

3*5.

= A (3<5)we

conclude from (2.46)and (2.47)that

[D]

n g,

can

2.2 Cellular decomposition 99
be

cells

three

into

decomposed

^ x^

{x + iy: x3

3(5,

0j

^ y ^

(x)

x3, fa (x)g y ^
3(5, ^
(y) ^ x ^
y \302\243
{x + iy: * \302\243
{x + iy:

case

This

^ x g

{i

corresponds

with

Fig.

(3) Cm intersects L3. On

2.26

t/(d)

3(5},
/i(x)},
A

(y)}.

(4).
arc

the

by the

is given

Cm

parameter

representation

x-+x + i<M*),
and

[D]

0^x^\342\200\236

cells

is decomposed into two

n (2i

{x+ iy:O^x^^,0m(x)^y^3^},
+ iy: ^ ^ x ^
0! (x) ^ y ^ 3(5}
as shown in Fig. 2.26
3(5,

{x

(5).

(4)

L3. On

intersects

Cm

V(Ci) the arc

Cm

is

a parameter

by

given

representation

is

and [D] n d
{x +

cells

three

into

decomposed

iy.Zlgx\302\243369fa(x)gy\302\24336}9

{x + ^Oixi^i/^yiM},

{x-Hy:0 ^
as shown

in

^>h,

y

0 ^

x ^m(y)}

2.26 (6).

Fig.

Part (III) of

above
proof: Sinceall considerations

means

was

that

it

neighborhoods

of points

of C), the

of [D] consists of a finite
smooth Jordan curves.

Let

{TX(K):

now

k =

obtained above:

(which
small

sufficiently

same considerationsgo through
of mutually

number

boundary

Theorem2.1is

our attention to

to restrict

possible

local

were

disjoint

if the

piecewise

proved.

1, 2,. . . ,\\i\\

be

a cellular

[D] = rl(K)ur2(K)u...ur,(K)u...u
T,
=
=
K
E
0<s<
where
1,
{(t,s): 0^t^
{(r,s); 0<r<l,
1}.
from
be K's interior.It is
the above
proof that the cells

(2.48)

(K),

0<s<l}

Let

clear

point

or exactly

one point in commonwith

For all
squares or rectangles.
Q = CnrA(/C)

other

cells

the

TX(K)

boundary

as

of [D]

decomposition

that

C of

the intersection

have

no

[D] are

100 Cauchy's

Theorem

is

point,

^

n Tv (K\\ k

(K)

Tx

then

|CAv|

=

v,

Now,

neither

is

is a

n Tx (K)

if C

in

|CAv|

nor a

empty

rx(K)nTv(K)

an orientation to

assigning
left of CAv.

point,

\342\200\224

of

TX(E)

such

a

consists of Cx and at mostthree segments.

Tx (K)

If

the boundary |3rA(K)| = YX(K)

arc and

a Jordan

set consisting of one

segment and
a way

such

is the empty

set

or

that
a set

CAv

is

defined

TA(\302\243)

is

on

consisting of

by
the

one

have

we

=

drx(K)

(2.49)

%CXv.
V

For

in Fig.

example,

ar5(/c)

Fig.

If Cx

= C

2.31, d T5

is given

(K)

= c54+ C59+ C57

+ C56

by
+ C53,

2.31

n rx (K) is a Jordan

drx(K)

=

arc,

we

cx+ZcXv.

have
(2.50)

v

For

example,

e r3(K)

= c3

+c34+c35+c36,

5 r4(/c) = c4

4-

in Fig.

c48+c45+c43

2.31. Obviously
Cav

~~
\342\200\224

Cva

(2.51)

2.3 Cauchy's

Theorem 101

and

=

C

(2.52)

ZC,.
x

arc Cx is smooth
then Cx consists of two

Jordan

Each

smooth,

Cauchy's Theorem

2.3

In
its

and

C6 are smoothwhile

C4 and

2.31,

section

this

[D]

d [D]

boundary

interior

Fig.

2.32

a.

Cauchy's

2.2

f

bounded, closed regionin the complexplane

upon already

D is

the

Let

= 0,

k =

{rx(K):

on

holomorphic

If f(z)

Theorem).

(Cauchys

f(z)dz

is

C =

\302\243

a=i

f

/(z)dz=

is holomorphic on [D],then

(2.53)

dlDl

1,2,. .

.,

ft}

be

the

cellular

decomposition

of [D]

equality

f f(z)dz

(2.54)

Jc

Jar^(K)

from (2.49),
drx(K)

function/(z) is called
a region containing [D].

1.1c, a

Section

in

obtained in the proof of Theorem2.1.The

Since

Fig.

Theorem

f(z)

follows

in

smooth.

consists of piecewisesmoothJordancurves.

holomorphicon [D] if

Proof:

is a

is piecewise

C3

piecewise

of [D].

As agreed

Theorem

or piecewisesmooth.If Cx is
smooth Jordanarcs.Forexample,

=

(2.50), (2.51),and (2.52).
drx(K) = Cx+ \302\243vCAv
YjVCXv or

by

(2.49)

and

Theorem

Cauchy 's

102

(2.50),

have

we

f

f(z)dz

f

/\302\253&

=

f{z)dz

z\\

or
=

f

+

f[z)dz

Y\302\247(

f(z)dz.

Hence

\302\243
X=

segment

ZA

Zv

in common.
hence

(2.51),

by

/(Zjdz + Ssf

j;f

is extended

over all

f(z)dz.

pairs (rA(/Q,TV(X))

For each segment|CAv|

=

|CvA|

we have

have

that
CvA

=

a

\342\200\224CXx

by (2.8)

[ f(z)dz

f(z)dz+

[

=

/(2)dz

sum

the

Here,

f

=

09

therefore

and

XI
X

Further,

JC;iv

= C by

X^Q

This

Jc

Jcx

(2.54).

proves

Therefore,
Lemma

(2.52), hence

/(z)rfz= f f(z)dz.

W
x

f(z)dz = 0.

f

v

If f(z)

2.2.

to

suffices

it

prove

$dr {K)f(z) dz

is holomorphic

= 0 for eachcellTX(K).

on the cell T(K),

then

= 0.

/(z)dz

(2.55)

1.3.
Proof. This lemma is a consequenceof Theorem1.14of Section
=
a ^ t ^ fe, 0 ^ 5 ^ 1. Let K
Let
{(t,s): a ^ t ^ b, 0 ^ s g 1} and
=
=
arcs ys: r -\342\226\272
smooth
^(t,
s),
thereby
i? (5)
defining
7s (0
ys (t) and
Put
->
s
we
have
fy:
ty (s). By (1.44)

j

f(z)dz+

Jy0

j

J*y

f(z)dz-

j

Jyi

/(z)dz-

/(z)dz

j
J\302\253y

= 0.

(2.56)

= C1'C2'C3-C49 whereeachC,,i = 1,2, 3,4, is a
assume
smooth Jordan arc or a single
First
that all C, are smooth
point.
Jordanarcs.By (2.19) parameter
are given by Ct: t -> y0 (t)\302\273
representations
By

(2.20)

we have

dr(K)

2.3

(s),C3:t

C2- s->by
\342\200\224

a

y\\(b +

in

t

representations

+ a

-\342\226\272

yx (b

\342\200\224

t), C4:

s for

and

t)

-> y x
(t)

t

s in
1\342\200\224

- C3

for

s ->

\342\200\224

fly

\342\200\224

(1

s).

fly(l

f

Substituting

\342\200\224

and s -\342\226\272
ay (s)

103

Theorem

Cauchy's

obtain

s),

we

for

\342\200\224

C4.

So,

a +

for

fc

parameter
we get

from

(2.56)

+
[ f{z)dz+ [ f(z)dz

f f{z)dz+
and this

Cx is

2.3

of Cauchy's
[D], then

form

(Strong
on

Since

*

Lemma

that

the

on

a <

t

<

by 0

we

put

< 5

a sufficiently

(K) and

the

of

interior

[D],

it

K and let f{z)

rectangle

be

holomorphic on T(\302\243). Then

= 0.

T(Xe)

K =

{{t,s): a^t^b,

< 1}and T(E)is the

small

e, put

{(r, s):o + eg^

Ke =
Since

on

= 0.

er(K)

If

Proof:

the

cell T

/(z)dz
1

on
Theorem). If/(z) is holomorphic

valid for any continuous function

\\dTk[K)f(z)dz

Let E be

2.3.

continuous

(2.54) is

equality

show

suffices to

of mathematics

C = d[Dl

/(z)<fz = 0,

Ic
Proof.

Jyo/(z)dz

case.

this

applications.

continuous

and

is a constant,hence

A = 0. Hence(2.55)is alsovalid
in
is
the
most
beautiful
theorems
Theorem
among

Cauchy's
and has many

D

a point, then y0(t)

Vo (0

Jfl/(yo(0)

Theorem

points, the correspondingintegralsequal 0. If,

C, are

the

of

more

example,

=

= 0

/(z)dz

proves (2.55).

If oneor
for

[

c

fc-e,eg s

the

map:

T: (t,

s)

a+

aye:
byc:

s -*

by Definition 2.4. For

1 -e}.

^

-\342\226\272
T

s

r(a

+ e,

s),

-\342\226\272 \342\200\224

T(fe

e, s),

e ^

\302\243^tg>b-e,

e^f

s^

T(\302\243), Theorem

(r, 5). Hence,

^fc-e,
e ^ s ^ 1 -e,

a +

1-e),

y\\:t->T{t9

E={{t,s):

1},

of T(K)

arcs by

f0: t-+r(t9e),

then

0\302\243s^

on

is holomorphic

T(\302\243)and/(z)

for the rectangleK\302\243
and

interior

1 \342\200\224
e,

1.14

is true

defining smooth

104

Theorem

Cauchy's

Fig. 2.33

we

have

f

f(z)dz+

[

Letting e tend

to + 0 in

(

lim

have

b.
2.4

continuous

/(w)

Proof.
e>

6e/

on T (K) by assumption,
and s on K. Hence

Let

/(r(r,

= (bf(r(t,0))r,(t,0)dt=
in the

seen

s)) Tf

(t, s)

is a

I f(z)dz.

proof of Lemma2.2,that

= 0

f(z)dz

follows from

and

(2.56). Consider, for example

f(r(t,e))rt(t,e)dt.

t

f(z)dz

already
f

Theorem

we obtain

equality,

'

f

of

function

continuous

We

Jaf

Jo+c

is continuous

f(z)

f f{z)dz= 0.

f f(z)dzhi*

this

f f(z)dz =
Jy'o

Since

f(z)dz-

Jtf

Jy'o

equality (2.56).
formula

integral

Cauchy's

on D
(Cauchy's integral formula). If f(z) is holomorphic
weD
is given by
on [D], then the value of f(z) at a point
2m Jcz
l/\302\243(w)

0, contained

= [0,2rc],

in

represent

=

\342\200\224

{z:\\zD

C =

w

and
the

w| <
let
circle

(2.57)

dlDl

e} be a disk with

Ct =

y\302\243
(/)

with center

with
w

and

center

w and

=
0 -> y\302\243
y\302\243:
(6)
radius

e. The

radius
w -(- eew,

boundary

2.3 Cauchy's Theorem

2.34

Fig.

of

the closed

=

\342\200\224

holomorphic on D \342\200\224
{w} and continuous
we can apply Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem
2.3)to
\342\200\224
closed region [D]
UE (w),

the

and

function

this

by

z is

w) of

therefore

{w};

is given

C-C\302\243.

\342\200\224

function/(z)/(z

on [D]

\342\200\224
(w)
U\302\243

region [D]

5([Z)]-l/\302\243(w))

The

105

IJc-c,z-w

hence

Jcz-vv

Since

y\302\243
(6)

-

w

Jc,z-W
= eeie

27riJQz~w

and

y't

(0)

2t\302\253Jo

=

iee/e, we

get
2tt

y\302\243(0)-w

J0

hence

2711
\302\243-0
proving

Jc

Z

\342\200\224W

(2.57).

Formula

special case
Replacing

(2.57) is

called Cauchy's integralformula.

Formula

(1.34)

is a

of this result.
w

by

z and

z by

we
\302\243

get

2ni]ct-z

Corollary.

If/(z) is holomorphicon Z)

and

continuous

on [D],

then the

106 Cauchy 's Theorem
derivative

mth

1,2,.. ., of f(z)

m =

f{m)(z\\

In

of/(z) at

an

integral

formula

d [D]

= Cr

isolated

this is

c.
If

'

>

(259)

(2.58) and Theorem1.17.
of the Laurent expansion
which
is nothing but Cauchy's
(1.58),

closed region [D] = {z:e
center
Cr and Ce are circles with
to (2.58) we have

for the

According

n

from

singularity

\342\200\224
where
C\302\243,

respectively.

and

we

1.4d

Section

given by

from
immediately
deduced
the existence

follows

result

The

D is

c = dm

/,m)(z)=^I(c^dc'

Proof.

on

f\302\256

f

'

jr

f

f\302\256

^

\\z\\

0 and

r}. (Indeed,
radius r and \302\243,

^

at

nothing but (1.58).)
Residues

the

an isolated

c is

point

holomorphic on a

neighborhood

removed,then/(z) can be
/(z)=
The coefficient

\302\243

n- - oo

a.

of

x

in

expanded

a Laurent

i.e., if f(z) is
the point c has been
series (Theorem 1.22)

the residue

of/(z) at c and denoted

of/(z),

singularity

c from

of

which

an(z-c)\\

(z

\342\200\224

c)\"l

is called

byResz_c[/(z)]:

Rcs,.c[/(z)]=

If

is
C\302\243

a circle

If c

c and radius e, where \302\243
is a

with center

positive number, we have
L

f(z) dz

by

=

sufficiently

small

(1.56)

= 2ni Res2=c

is a pole of the

(z-cr/(z)

(2.60)

\302\253-!-

(2.61)

[/(z)].

mth

order

fl-m

+

of f(z)

we have
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

a_m+1(z-c)+

+a-1(z-cT~1+

\342\226\240\342\200\242\342

hence

=
^l((z-cr/W)

(m-l)!fl_.+^ao(2-c)+---.

Therefore Res2=(.[/(z)]= a_i is given
Res2=c[/(z)]

=

\342\200\224Llim
\342\200\224
z-+c
(m
lj!

by

^1
dz

((z-c)-y(z)).

(2.62)

2.3

In particular,if c isa poleof the
Resz .e

[/(z)] = lim

-

(z

Theorem 2.5 (ResidueTheorem).
on [Z>] \342\200\224
{cuc2*.

continuous

and

/(z) dz = lui

1c

Proo/:
put

Let

=

C\302\243
(c,)

5

on D

is holomorphic

the

with

isolated singularitiescuc2,. . . ,c,,...,cm
. . ,cm},

then
C =

[/(z)],

\302\243

[D]

[t/\302\243
(c,)].

(2.63)

c)f(z).

>-i Res2^fj

be disks

U\302\243
(Cj)

we have

order,

If f(z)

number of

of a finite

exception

first

107

Theorem

Cauchy's

a [D].

with center c, and sufficiently
is a closed
t/\302\243
(cj)

(J7=!

8

\342\226\240

small

(2.64)
radius

e and

region and

.\302\243Cc
[[D]\" ,A ^^l=c
and
continuous
Furthermore, /(z) is holomorphicon D \342\200\224
y\"=
x [VE (Cj)~\\
on [D] \342\200\224 t Ue {c^. By Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem2.3)we get
(JJ=

^

f(z)dz = 0

I'C-IjC.tc,)
hence

f

Therefore,

f(z)dz

\302\243f

/(z)\302\253fc.

(2.61)

by

I, c

=

f(z)dz = 2ni

= cT/(z)].

Res2
\302\243

j=i

on [D]and
Now, let /(z) be holomorphic

Under thesecircumstances,/(z)
has
at
Suppose

Proof:

f(z)

has an

most

a finite

#

0 for

zeC =

number of

5[D].
zeros in D.

Then the
Since/(z) is
point ce[D].
0, hence ceD. Since/(z) is
an e > 0 such that
# 0 for
/(z)
c is an accumulation point of
that

number

infinite

/(z)

of

zeros

in D.

collectionof zerosof/(z)has an accumulation
=
continuous on [D], we conclude/(c)

holomorphicon D, there exists

by

0<
the

\\z

\342\200\224

c\\ <

collection

e. This
of

contradicts the

zeros

(1.60)
fact

of f(z).

Theorem 2.6. Let cuc2,. . . ,ck be the zeros of/(z) in D and let mi
order of ci J = 1,2,... , k. If <f>(z) is an arbitrary holomorphic function
on [D], we have

be

the
of

z

108 Cauchy 's Theorem
f(z) =
where

g} (z)

r

(2.66)

(z-Cj)mJgj(z)9

is holomorphic

(z)

on which

a neighborhood

c, has

Each

Proof:

=

mj

and g}(z)

^

0 on that

Cjr>-x9j w+(z -

(z -

Cir\302\273;

From

neighborhood.

w,

we have

/(z)9\"

and 3}(z)
Hence

c,

/' (z) 4> {z)/f{z)
equals mj(j){Cj)
\342\200\224

of

order

first

we have by

[ LQ<t>(z)dz=

/' (z) -<f)

2ni

the residue

(if

{z)/f(z)

i

</>(Cj)

ofc,)

the

and

=

0

residue

holomorphic

theorem:

n

is

2.

a natural

D is

in

given by

,2-67)

sum

The

number)

is also

above

is a

we

{ci,c2,

\\rrij\\

=

of

the zeros

of f(z) in

if some

of the m, are negative
is a
c,

3.

If m,

integers.

D (where

=

\342\200\224

\\m}\\

pole of/(z) of the order \\mj\\.

have

If f(z) is holomorphicand not equal
\342\200\242
\342\200\242where
\342\200\242
,ck}9
c, e D is eithera zeroof orderm}
\342\200\224
then
(2.65) is valid without
change.
m; of/(z),

Corollary
\342\200\224

valid

integer, (2.66) tellsus that

negative

Therefore

of the nth powers
is given by

2m]cf(z)

jtri

The

at cj

on [D]

j>-kIJf*Corollary

then

mj<t>(cj).

1. The number of zerosoff{z)

Corollary

selectedneighborhoodof cy

is holomorphic
on a neighborhood
is
Since /' (z) \342\200\242
by
(2.63).
0 (z)/f(z)

. . ,ck},

{ci,c2,.

on the

(z) is holomorphic

pole of

is a

\342\226\240

ft(zr\"

z-c,

\342\200\242
<f> {z)/gj

to

zero

or

a pole

if N denotes the number of zerosoff(z)
In particular,
P =
number of poles of f(z) on D, then N \342\200\224
and
\302\243*=x nij

on

on [D]
of order

D and

hence

P the

2.3

d.

Evaluation

Cauchy's Theorem can beusedto evaluatecertaindefinite
functions of a real variable.*We give a few examples.
analytic

of

109

Theorem

integrals

definite

of

Cauchy's

integrals

Example 2.6
x

sin

r

standard exampletreatedin

D = {rew: e

7r;

the

then

=

3[D]
Since

e~ix)/2ix

we

on complex

books

most

led to

we are

analysis.

consider the function

eiz/z.

put

< r < /?,

< 6

0

the semicircle

be

CR

6 ^

\342\200\224

< n}.

2.35

Fig.

Let

\342\200\224.

2

Since (sinx)/x = (eix
0 < e < R
Choosing

0 ^

7i

=

x

is a

This

_

dx

6 ->

representation

parameter

of the

boundary

closed region [D] is given

Rei69

by

+ [-K,-e]-C\302\243.

0, K]+CR

on C \342\200\224
{0},

is holomorphic

eiz/z

with

we

have

by Cauchy's

Theorem

(Theorem 2.2)

Cr

J * x
x

Replacing

r

eix
\342\200\224

by

dz-h

*

It

seems

of finding
known

J-rx

JcRz
\342\200\224

x

we

dx=\\

J

r

etx
\342\200\224dx-\\

jz

=
\342\200\224dz

Jc z

0.

obtain

\342\200\224

J-RX

r-e

eiz

\342\200\224

dx+

R

Je

that Cauchy first studied integrals
a uniform method of evaluating

at that time.

dx

\342\200\224dx=-\\
X

functions with the purpose
number of real definite
integrals

of complex
a greater

Cauchy 's Theorem

110

hence

rr

r-e

eix
\342\200\224
dx

J\302\243

X

f

lim
ao

R

\342\200\224
dz =

JcR

0 + i

2

JCc

sin 6)

and dz = iReied6,we

have

eiRcos6-RsinedO

i\\

*

\342\200\224dz.

e-+0

(cos

eiz

f

lim

Z

= /teie =

Since z

dx.

*

*

to evaluate the limits

eiz

JCr

sjnx

\\

J

\342\200\224dz,

+

K-

= 2i

X

J -R

it suffices

Therefore,

r r

eix

\342\200\224
dx

+

Jo

hence
e12

f

I

-dzg

\\JcRZ

f

|

Jo

e-Rsined6.

side of this inequality tends to 0 if
6 on the interval
oo. By replacing the variable 6 by n \342\200\224
[7c/2,7c] we

+

the right-hand

that

show

will

We

R ->

*

I

get
e-Rsindde= 2
sin 0/0

Since

and positive on [0,n/2],itsminimum
then sin 0 ^ //0, \\i
minimum
value,

is continuous

Let // denote this

also positive.

rn/2

f*/2
e-Rsmede^

Jo

r ^

lim

\342\200\224 =

R - + \302\253>
Jc*

z = ee,e
eet6

dz

= \342\200\224(l-c-^'^J^O,

fy

on CP
on
Ce we
dz

0.

have

e^ose^ismB)dQ

i\\

Jo

SinCC

+

k2-l|^kl
+ isin0)

e.\302\243(cosi9

lim

r

E-+0 Jq
and

*,z
\342\200\224 =

dz

i

z

j.

+

r*
\\

Jo

therefore

f

+

c\302\260sinx
J
\342\200\224

Izl3

13y-+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

to 1 uniformly in

converges
I

\\z\\2

i2r

7r

*-?\342\226\240

I -dO

= in

=e|2|-l-0,

value
>

as|z|->0

6 if e -> 0. Hence

is

0, and

as/?-*+oo.

z

\342\200\224 =

Jq *

j

e-RnedQ

Jo

Hence
Since

e-R\342\204\242edO.

2.3

Theorem

Cauchy's

111

Example 2.7

cos (x2)dx=

Jo

These

are led to considerthe

e~1*2 we

= 4

(x2)dx

Fresners

called

are

integrals

sin

Jo

/-.

V2
Since cos(x2) \342\200\224
i sin(x2)

integrals.

=

e~z*.

function

iy>

\\cR
[D]

/

1

4

0

=

[D]

represents

the

[D]

a

2.36

Fig.

of

R

J

re*:

Ogr^/?,O^0^i
closed

fan-shaped

is given

shown in Fig.

region

2.36. The boundary

by

d[D] = [0,K] + CR-L,
where

is given

CR

and L by the
Since e~z2
J 0

Since z =

parameter
is

holomorphic

rein,*9

= einl*
=

z2
/?\302\243?*,

dz =

Jo

R2 cos

20 +

dz ^
=

\302\243-K2cos20

*\302\260P/2

2

Jo

RdQ

rr

=

ein/+

sin

iK2

=

L, we

on

dr

ein/4

e-*2 dr

fn/4

I

^-^

ir2 and

rr
dz

Jl
I f

=

z2

= 0.

e~z2dz

JL

JCR

e~z2

z =

Reie,
0^0
^ n/4,
parameter representation 0 -\342\226\272
-\342\226\272
r
r
/?.
reiw/4,0
^
!g
representation
on C, we have by Cauchy's Theorem

e~*2dx+ e~z2dz-

p

Since

by the

K

Jo
and

20
fK/2

(cosr2

dz =

-K2cos0

\302\243-K2

i?

1

2

/?2/i

e-R2sin6d6 <-\342\200\242--=-

=

2/ty

have
- i sin

r2)dr.

iR^dO, we have
d0

\342\226\272
as

0,

/?->

+oo.

112

Cauchy 's Theorem

Since,

is

as

from

known

real analysis,

i sin r2)dr
(cosrz\342\200\224

=

e~*2

dx

=

e~x

dx

=

J0\302\260\302\260

\302\243

we have

y/n/2,

---\342\200\224

'

2^2

and therefore

P + oo
cos(x2)dx

Jo

=

f+c

Jo

s\\n(x2)dx = j

/-.

2.8

Example

cos x

, =
dx

n

\342\226\240

I
Let

i? >

1 and

[D] = {rew:O^r

^ R,0

\302\2436

^n}.

Fig. 2.37

Now, the

boundary of [D] is given

CR is given
of z
function
where

(z2 +

6 -*Reie,
by the parameter representation

l)2

(z-i)2(z +

on [D]

is holomorphic

by

\342\200\224

{/} and

S
Hence

by

& |_WiF
the

residue

has a

pole of order two

d[
J=S3 & L(^o\"J=^\"'

theorem

\302\243n.The

i)2

at

is by (2.62)

.. d [(z-i)2e\"~\\

0^0

e\"

(Theorem 2.5)

\"|

e\"\302\273

i. The

residue at i

2A
=

Since z

\342\200\224
Rsind

piRcosO

|(z2

\\(R2e2ie+

+ l)2|

113

homology

have

Cp
'R we

on

Reie

and

Differentiability

i

p-RsinO

l)2

^(R2-!)2'

(K2-l)2

Therefore

so

J-cc(x2 + l)
the

which

from

follows.

result

desired

Differentiability and homology

2.4

As

in connection

remarked

we

1.3 of

Definition

with

a holomor-

a function
phic function, usually, in complexanalysis,
f(z) of a complex
z is called
on a region D if it is differentiate
variable
at each
holomorphic
of
In
we
will
that
D.
section
both
this
definitions
are
point
prove
equivalent,
the derivative/'
at each
i.e., that
(z) of a function/(z) differentiable
point of a
D
D.
is
continuouson
region
be differentiable
at each point of the region Z), and let
Let/(z)
=
K
< y,
a<x,b
{t + is:a g t ^ x, b S t S y}>
be a rectangle such that K a D, then we have

= 0.

f(z)dz
I
To

see

this,

put S(K)

S{K) =

will

prove

divide K

=

that

dz.

\\SKf{z)

['fit + ib)

We

(2.70)

dK

f(t

dt

['/(*

have

+ is) ids
f (a

iy)dt-

+

S(K) =

+

We

(2?1)

+ is) ids.

0 by subdividingK into

smaller

rectangles.

First

into four congruent rectanglesK',K\", K'\", and K\"\", as shown in
it
of (2.71)
S(K\,") S{K'\,") and S(K\"\")in the form
writing
S(K'),

Fig. 2.38.By

is clear that

S{K) = S(K')+ S(K\")
Hence \\S(K)) ^ \\S(K')\\ +
least one rectangle, say,

\\S(K\\\")

K\"\\

+ S(K'\")

+ S(K\"\.

+ \\S(K'\\\")
among

+

\\S(K\"\\\.")

the rectangles

Therefore

there

K', K\", K'\", and

is at
K\"\"

114

's Theorem

Cauchy

isk

iy[
K\"

K\"\"

|l

lj

\\\\

K\"

K'
\\\\\\

ib\\

2.38

Fig.

satisfying

We

Kt =

write

K'\" and next we

rectangles K\\, K'i, Ki\",and

and K'[\"thereis at

K'.'\".

one

least

subdivide

say, K'{ such

rectangle,

congruent

the rectangles K\\,

among

Again,

four

into

Kt

K'{, K'{',

that

|S(/e,)l

^|S(Jcv)|.

We write

K2 =

X','and X3, K4,...,
of rectangles

a sequence

obtain

K=>K1=>K2=>
and

defined

similarly.

So we

satisfying

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\200\242
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

S |S(KJ|.

IS^-,)!^

are

Km,

=>Km^>

Therefore
(2.72)

The length of the sideof Km parallel
the side parallel with the imaginary
=

isgivenby<5(Km)

=

{c}
have,

t Km.
f)\342\204\242=

(y

b)/2m

its diameter

and

that

of

S (Km)

Since,

exactly one
by

c

point

which

belongs

to all

Km:

assumption, f(z) is differentiate at c, we

(1.9),

by

+/' (c) (z-c)+0(z-c).

f(z) =f(c)
A

axis is

axis is (x \342\200\224
a)/2m9

\342\200\224

y[(x~a)2-h(y-fe)2]/2^hence5(Km)-^0ifm->oo.

there exists

Therefore,

the real

with

direct

= 0.So

we

computation

based

on (2.71)

yields

have

S(/CJ=

f

f(z)dz=

f

0(z-c)dz

jdK

(f(c)

+f

(c)) (z

- c)dz

2A
For each

e > 0, there

|0(z-c)|

Choosing

115

homology

0 such that

(e) >

\302\243c|z-c|

if|z-c|<<5(e).

5 (Km)

< 5 (e) we have

that

such

m

a 5

exists

and

Differentiability

for

zeKm

\\z-c\\\302\243S(Km)<d(e)9

hence

=ge\\z-c\\gB6(Km).

\\0(z-c)\\

Observingthat

of length (y -

two segments

=

|S(*JI

segments of length

of two

consists

dKm

sd(K)l

ed(Km)l

0(z-c)dz

| [
I

of

and

have

we

b)/2m,

(x \342\200\224
a)/2m

\302\273
\342\200\242\\2m

JdKm

/ =

where

2 (x

- a) + 2 (y

-

b).

this inequality

Combining

with

we

(2.72)

get

\\S(K)\\^eS(K)l

is an arbitrary

and since e

F (x

F(x+

F(x + iy)

a function

Define

is

iy)

+ iy) =

By (2.70) we have

S(K)

Therefore F(x + iy)
\342\200\224

F(x

F(x

Writing

+

is

=

i\302\273

+ iy)

= 0,

iy

0.

by

f(a +

+ i

is) ds.

with respect

hence by

f{t +

F(x + iy)=

x +

=

\\S(K)\\

to x and

+ iy).

+ iy)=/(x

F(x

dt

differentiable

partially

\342\200\224

z =

of

/(r + iy)

we conclude

number,

positive

also

ib)dt

+

partially

i/(x +

i

(2.71)
f(x

+ is)ds.

differentiable

with

respect

to

y and

i\302\273.

= U{x, y) + i V(x,y),

f(x

+ iy)

= u(x, y) +

iv(x,y),

we

have

Vx (x,

y) =

yx (x, y)=

Therefore, U(x, y)
with

respect

a holomorphic

Vy

(x,

y)

= u (x,

-U, (x,

y)

and

V(x,

= v

y) are

y),
(x, y).

continuously

differentiable functions

SoF(z) is
and y satisfying the Cauchy-Riemannequations.
function in the sense of Definition 1.3by Theorem
1.4, and

to x

Cauchy 's

116

Theorem
is also

Therefore,/(z)

by

(1.11).

by

the corollary

given

treatments of complexanalysis

it is

We

proved

Cauchy's Theorem by

to prove

Theorem (Theorems 2.2 and
to

decomposition

for

a cell

the

case

T(K) (Lemmas

[f(z)dz+
the

Writing

JV(r(r,

and

of cells,

2.2and 2.3)from

0)) r, (t,

We proved (1.44)under
sense of Definition
1.3, i.e.,
first

we

assume

reduce

subdividing
K\"\"

and

by

Cauchy's

cellular

only

Cauchy's

f/(z)<fc = 0.

f(T

(b,

s))

r5 (6,

we

get

s) ds

(lf{r(a9s))ra{a9s)ds
by S(r(#Q),

(1.44) can be written

as

(2.73)
the

assumption

that

the derivative/'

that/(z)

is holomorphic

in the

(z) existsand is continuous.

we
that/'
(z) exists, but is not necessarilycontinuous,
Theorem
to (2.73) and proceed from
there
by

the rectangle
observing

1.14:

in Theorem

Jay

equality in explicitform

fJ

Theorem

= 0.

S(r(K))

If

it

(1.44)

equality

(f{z)dz-

0) dt +

expression

reducing

Jyi

side of this

this

first

first

customary

and by next deducingCauchy's

[V(nt, D)r,(r, da-

representing

by

2.3),

\\f(z)dz-

left-hand

method.

Goursat's

Jby

Jy0

subdivision was

by repeated

proof

ingenious

In modern

by Goursat.

(1.3)

1.16.

to Theorem

Remark: The above

in the senseof Definition

holomorphic

K into four congruent rectanglesK\\

K\",

K\"\\ and

that

s (r(X)) = s (r(X'))+s (n/c\ + s {r(K'\+s (r(/c\"\)
of rectangles,
It is possible
to prove (2.73)by repeated subdivision
just as we
=
in
that we did not adopt this approach
The
reason
proved S (K) 0 above.
it is more
natural to assume not
this book is, as already stated earlier,that
we really
existence
but also continuity of the derivative/' (z)and that
only
wanted
to use the continuity of/' (z) in the proof.

3

Conformal mappings

3.1

Conformal

mappings

on a region D a C.
be a holomorphicfunction
defined
of
which
are
the
denoted
the letter
z,
points
by
complex
plane,
of which are denoted by the
the z-plane and the complexplane,the points
becomes a mapping,assigning
to
letter w, the w-plane. The function/then
Let

Letus callthe

each

w =/(z)

to the

z belonging

point

region D of the z-planea point

the
same
w-plane. The complexfunction/isofcourse
a
if
to
call
but
it
is
one
wants
/,
customary
/ mapping

aspects of/

geometric

If S isan arbitrary
of S

under/

If

of D,

subset
is an

W

arbitrary

of the

w =/(z)

thing
to

as the

mapping
the

emphasize

= {/(z): z e S}is calledthe image
then/(S)
subset of the w-plane,the set ofall points

called the inverse image of W and denoted
=
/-1(^:/-1(^
{zeD:/(z)G^}.If/(D)n^=0,then/-1(^)isalso
If W is an open set, so is its inverse
set.
the empty
image.
To prove this, select an arbitrary point c ef~l (W).
Since
a holomorphic
function is continuous, there existsfor eache > 0 a S (e) > 0 satisfying
such

zeD

W is

that/(z)g

if|z-c|<*(4

|/(Z)-/(C)|<6

Since/(c)e
W if

/(z)e

Wis

ffand

|z-c|

open,

identically

accumulation

we can find

< 6(e), i.e.,UdiE)(c)

Theorem 3.1. Let/(z)bea

not

to

equal

point

by

czf~l(W),

function

holomorphic

zero,

a (sufficiently small) e such that
(W) is open.
Hence/\"1

then

region D, which is

on the

the set of

zeros of /(z)

has

no

in D.

Proof: Let D0 be the set of all points zeD suchthat/(z)
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
= 0 and let
= \342\200\242
(z) =
Dx be the set ofall points
=/(m)
isnot equal to
at least one of/(z),/'(z), . . . ,/(m)(z),...
D = D0uD1,
DonD, = 0.

(z),.. .
Since/(z),/'

,/(m)

(z),...

are all

holomorphic

=/'

(z) =

zeD

such

/\" (z)
that

0, then

functions of z (by

118 Conformalmappings
the

(z)

then/(m)

is

D0

also

/(*)=

e-neighborhood

is open.
UE(c)
we
consider the power seriesexpansion
prove this,

To

open.

some ceD,
Ue (c) c Dof

0 for

(c) ^

if/(m)

small

a Dl9

then

ceDx

have that

all z in a sufficiently

^ 0 for

c. Hence,if

1.16), we

Theorem

to

corollary

i.e., Dt

<Uz-c)\"
\302\243
\302\253=o

is valid on a certain neighborhoodl/\302\243
(c) cDofc
from
Since
we
conclude
that
(Theorem 1.16).
=/(n)
(c)/n! by (1.23)
ceD0
an
c
that Ue (c)
D0.
/(z) is identically equal to zeroon Ue (c), hence
D = D0 or
have
either
SinceD is a region(a connected
we
set),
open
0
D = Dx. If D = D0,the function/(z)is identically
on
D.
Sincewe
to
equal
D = Dx. Therefore, if c e Disa zeroof
excludedthis possibility,
we conclude
then
there
exists a natural number m such
that
# 0.
am =/(m)(c)/m!
f(z),
around

which

ceD,

Hence, by

have

we

(1.60)

if0<

f(z)*0
for

some

sufficiently
if c

Now

|z-c|<\302\243

small e

> 0, i.e.,/(z)has

is an accumulationpoint of the

alsoa zeroof/(z),

the

contradicting

no

of zeros

set

above.

and g(z) be holomorphicfunctions
=
(1) If/(z)
g(z)for all z from some nonempty
Let/(z)

Corollary.

then/(z) =

(2)

on Ue (c) than c.
of/(z) in D, then c is

zeros

other

possibility that

C

is the

the

subset

open

D.

region

U of

D,

ze\302\243>.

for all z on some curve

= ^(z)

If f(z)

all

for

gr(z)

on

C

(we exclude

cz D

the

curve), then/(z) = g{z)for all

constant

zeD.

=

flf(z)} has no
contain

cannot

Let/(z)be

a

/(z)

identically equal to g(z) on D, the set {zeD:f(z)
accumulation points in D. Therefore,
{zeD:f(z)= g(z)}
an open set U or a curve C.

is not

If/(z)

Proof:

some subregion

on a region DcC, then
function
U
of
D.
subregions
(Suppose/(z)= a for all z in
nonconstant

holomorphic,

is nonconstant

on all

U of D, then/(z) = a for

all

by the

zeD

Further, for all ceD at leastone of the coefficients
appearing in the power seriesexpansionof/(z) around

ax,

above corollary.)
a2,...,
an9...
c

00

is not

equal to

0. (If ax

=

a2 =

an =

\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
=

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
=

0, then/(z)

= a0 for all z in

3.1

some e-neighborhood

/(c) = 0 a zero

of c.) Just as we called a point c such that
call a point c suchthat/(c) = a an a-point
of

c D

(c)

UE

we will

of/(z),

/(z). The a-points of/(z) are just the
3.1 that if/(z) is not identically
Theorem

set of a-pointsof/(z)has

mth

order

a,

called an

c is

zeros

to a

equal

Therefore, we have by
on the region D, then the
in D. If c is a zeroofthe

= a.

of/(z)

accumulation

no

\342\200\224

of/(z)

119

mappings

Conformal

points

a-point of/(z) of the

In this

order.

mth

c takes
the form
power seriesexpansionof/(z) around
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+ am+l(z-c)m+l+
\342\200\242, am * 0.
/(z) = a + am(z-c)m

case, the

on the region D. If c e D
function
Let/(z) be a holomorphic
is such that/' (c) # 0, then there is a neighborhood1/cDofc, such that
from
a one-to-one
W = /(t/)
is a neighborhood of a = /(c)and/is
mapping

Theorem 3.2.

1/ onto

inverse

The

W.

of/to

restriction/^

holomorphic on D

Expanding

f(z)

f(z)-a =
Thereforez = c isa
ax

some

assumes

a

around

+ a2
the

of

sufficiently

g(z)#0ona

/(z)-a #0
for

a

(z-c)
zero

c in

\342\200\224

(z-c?
first

a power

+

order

this

minimum

|/(z)-a|^|i>0

w-plane

Fig.

(3-D

series, we get
=/'(c)

fll

-,

off(z)

\342\200\224

small neighborhood

if 0 < |z-c| ^

a,

hence,

* 0.
by (1.59),

3.1

by

/i, we

(3.2)
function

continuous

(c)]

with

have, by (3.2),

for zeC.

of c. Therefore

\302\243

small e > 0. The
sufficiently
minimum on the circleC = d\\UE

Denoting

- -

the

= (z-c)g(z\\

f{z)-a
with

of

(w)

and

*=/.-\302\273\342\200\242

^/^W-y^O.
Proof:

z =fjl

w =f(z)-+

mapping/J\"1:

(7 is

center

|/(z)

c and

\342\200\224

a\\

radius e.

120

mappings

Conformal
W =

Putting

{w: |w-

>0

|/(z)-w|

we have

< //},

a\\

if

we ff.

and

zeC

Put
m(w)

= J_

2m

I
J c

J-\302\245L-

\"-*

By Corollary 1 of Theorem

f(z)

\342\200\224

i.e., the

w,

of w-points of/(z)

number

Since

a constant,

obviously

we conclude

on

WaC

Since

Ue(c).

we
\342\200\224f(c\\

of

function

a holomorphic

is

of zeros of

the number

equals

m(w)

2.6,

1.17 that m(w)
by Theorem
a holomorphic
function

know

weW.

dz,

-

w

W.

on

which only assumes integer values

an a-point of the first order of/(z)
UE(C) by (3.2). Therefore, m(a) =
= m(a) = 1.
m(w)

has no

and/(z)

1

Therefore, there existsexactly

is constant

m (w)

that

W.

The

is

c is

point

other ^-points than

c on

hence

and

one

on

zeUE

point

(c) such that

/(z) =

w.

Putting

=

U =f~l(lV)nU\302\243(c)

a neighborhood of c and the point
by z =fjl
(w). Since w(w)
represented
1/ is

IT}

/(z)e

(ze[/\302\243(c):

zeUE (c)
= 1 we

Theorem 2.6

/<r\302\273-*bl

Therefore,/J\"*

is

(w)

and

sides

is

it

of

that

-j^fj1

Ov)

3.3.

Theorem

f

=

\342\200\242/*(*)

be a

Letf(z)

(c) =f\"
that

/: z -> w

=/(z)

Proof:

Let

f(z)-a

w

on

W by

Theorem

1.17

vv

1,

zel/,

=/(z),

follows at once.

(c) =

holomorphic

\342\200\242
- -

=/(m\"L)

Let e be a positiverealnumber,
such

of

function

a holomorphic

both
/ maps U one-to-oneonto W. Differentiating
=
the equality/J^l (f{z)) z, we get, by the chain rule (1.15),
clear

from which (3A)

ofc

\"^

/Ip^

'\342\200\242-,W-5,JC

such that/(z) = w can be
have by Corollary 2 of

then

(c)
there

function on Dand ceD such
= 0,
exists

/*\"> (c)

* 0, m

a neighborhood

is a neighborhood of a =/(c) and the
W\342\200\224
m-to-1 mapping of 1/\342\200\224
{a}.
{c} onto

W =f{U)

is an

= am(z-c)m

^

+ am

+ l(z-c)m

+

1+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242,
*\342\200\236
mi

=^^

that

2.

U czUe(c)
mapping

* 0,

3.1

a around
power seriesexpansionof/(z) \342\200\224
f(z)-a = (z-c)mg(z)

be the

and

/(z)-a#0
of

\\i

{w:|

given

by

for

< //},

a |

w(w) =

C =

circle

the

on

a\\

\342\200\224

w

w

W^ the

e

\342\200\224-

\342\200\224:

the proof

as in

\302\243.
Just

\342\200\224

\\f(z)

W=

of c. Hence

ifO<|z-c|^\302\243

small

a sufficiently

for

have by (1.59)

c. We

small neighborhood

sufficiently

g(z)^0ona

121

mappings

Conformal

of Theorem 3.2,the
is

3[l/\302\243(c)]

number

and

positive

of w-points

minimum

putting

of/(z) in UE

is

(c)

dz,

2*nJc/(z)-w

independent of w.
c is an a-point of the mth
point

hence is
The

othera-pointsof/(z)

in

=

m(w)

So, for w g
chosensufficiently
first

f'(c) =

small

Owe have

m(a)

and

= m

by (3.2) there

are no

hence

weW.

that e has been
w-points in UE (c). Assuming
and w ^ a, these m w-points
are all w-points of the
are m different w-points of/(z) in UE (c). For, since

are m

W^ there

hence

order,

of/(z)

Therefore,

UE(c).

= m,

m(a)

order

there

(1.60).

by

if0<|z-c|<e,

/'(z)*0

henceif z e Ue

(c)

and

-=

/(z)

w

#

a, then

/' (z) ^ 0. Therefore,
putting

U=f-1(W)nUe(c)^{zeUE(c):f(z)eW}

we see that

each we

U

c

is a

UE(c)

l

W\342\200\224

(w) consists

{d\\Jv

between U \342\200\224
and
{c}

on a

to-one

is a

If/(z)

of

m

points.

such

that

Hence/is

Wand

f(U)=

an m-to-1

for

mapping

IV\342\200\224

{a}.

on D and the map/: z->w=f(z)
of
ceD, then/'(c)^ 0.
neighborhood

Uf(z)

Corollary.

of c

neighborhood

is holomorphic

function

holomorphic

of z on a regionD,then,

by

Theorems

is one-

3.2

such
c e D a neighborhood
t/cDofc
there existsfor eachpoint
=
<= D
V
if
a
the
is
a
of
/(c).Therefore,
=/(l/)
point
neighborhood
which
is open,/(^)
<z/(D) is open too.A mapping
maps open sets onto

and 3.3,
that

W

open sets is calledan
We conclude:
Furthermore,/(D)

two disjoint
D=/-1(^1)u/\"1(^2),

open

mapping.

mappings are open mappings.
region in the w-plane. To seethis,

Holomorphic
is a

open subsets of /(D)

such

f~l(lVl)nf-l(lV2)

that

f(D)

= 0,

let

Wx and

\342\200\224WxkjW2.

andr1^)

W2 be
Then

and

122 Conformal

mappings

both

are

f~l(W2)

open subsets

nonempty

of D, contradictingthe

D.

of

connectedness

^ 0 for
holomorphic function on the regionD such that/'(z)
= f(z). Let y: t -> y(t\\ 0 ^ t <* 1, be
zeD and considerthe mapping/:
z->w
a smooth curve in Dand put k (t) = f(y (t)). By the chain rule (Theorem1.12),
is a continuously
difFerentiable function of t and since f'{y(t)) ^ 0 by
k(t)
we
have
assumption,

be a

Let/(z)

(3.3)

A/(0=//(y(0)-/(0^0,

is a smooth curve in the w-plane. Since
the
k{t)
image of the curve y: k =f(y).
-\302\273
0 \302\243
r \302\243
Let yx: f -\342\226\272
curves such that
1, be smooth
y2(r),
yx (r), y2: r
c = Vi(0)= 72(0).
We
defined
the angle 0 between yx and
y2 at c as the

k: t -> w

Therefore,

=

A(f)

k is

curve

\342\200\224f(y(t)\\ the

argument of y'2(0)//i(0)>

i-e>

y2(Q)

72(0)

/i(0)

y'i(0)

The mapping/: z -* w
kx

r

=/(y1):

initial point

-\342\226\272

kt (t)

a =/(c).

*i(0)
A'i

(0)

maps

=/(z)

and
By

the curves

A2 = /(y2):

yx

->
\302\243
A2(f),

and

0 ^

y2 onto
r

^

curves
common

smooth

1, with

(3.3)

= y'a(0)
y\\<P)

between the curveskx and k2 at a = ^ (0)= A2 (0) equals
is
the angle 6 between the curves yx and yi at c. We conclude that
if /(z)
curvesat
0
two
then
the
between
angle
and/' (z) ^ everywhere,
holomorphic
therefore

the angle

a point of intersectionis invariant
A

mapping

preserving

angles

under

the

of intersection

mapping/:

z->w

=/(z).

of
at points of intersection

3.1
called a

curves is

two

mapping also

of conformal

definition

Let/(z) be a continuousfunction

plane.

f(z) = f(x +

We assume that

of x and y.

curve

a

point

f(y(t))

Assuming that at

y

r

/(y):

f(y)

is

if

-\302\273
w

=

=

uxp'(t)

is

initial
t

+ i(vxp(t)

+ uyG'(t)

ux{x, y) uy(x, y)

smooth

are

point

1, in the

^
we

an

called

mapping/is

pair of

arbitrary

+

(3.4)

vyGf(t)).

*0

curves

= y'(r)

ia'(r)

initial

at c if 3(m,

conformal

smooth curves y

Y

and

v)/d(x,

D

y2 in

^ 0, i.e.,thecurve

point

with

y) ^

called

If/(z)

holomorphic

f (z) =

ux

(x,

y) + ivx

(x,

>>)

=

vy (x,

from

deduce

y)

iwy

(x,

angle

c and if for
initial

common

equals

function of z, we

c, the

0 at

the angle
angle between/^) and/(y2) at a =f(c)
y2 at c. If/is conformal at each point ofits domain,/is

is a

Therefore,

a =/(y(0)).

point

common

with

c the
and

w-plane with

get

betweenf{yx)and/(y2) at a =/(c) is well-defined.
The

ceD

y(0) =

c

v)

y2

x + iy.

differentiable

continuously

vx(x,y)vy(x,y)
+
^ 0 at t = 0 sincep'(r)
df(y{t))/dt
in a neighborhood of its initial
smooth

and

yt

z =

y\\

1, in D with
0 ^
/(y(0),

t ^

0 ^

(f),

part yields

z-^xv

5(x,y)

have

more

region D in the z-

on the

z defined

=/(c). Writing y{t) = p(f) + i<7(f),
= u(p(t\\c(t)) + iv(p(t\\c(t))

:f(y(t))
dtJ

we

the

that

somewhat

a

continuously differentiable functions
= /(z). The mapping/mapsthe

y) are

v(x,

and rememberingthat/(y(f))

d(\",

iv(x9

mapping/:

-+z =

y:t

+

w(x, y)

and

the

smooth

the

iy)

u(x, y)

Consider

curve

smooth

=

of

and imaginary

real

its

into

Splitting/(z)

initial

makes sensein

situation.

general

onto

to show

we want

Next

mapping.

conformal

123

mappings

Conformal

point
between
yx
conformal.

equation

(1.11),

y\\

that

3(ii,

\302\273)

5(x,y)

Therefore,

ux{x,

y) uy(x9y)

vx(x,y)vy(x,y)

= LTMI2.

(3.5)

is holomorphic
on the region D in the z-planeand/' (z) ^ 0
the
then
zeD,
mapping z->w=/(z) is a conformal
mapping.
is a conformal mapping definedon the region
Conversely,
if/: z -> w =/(z)
is holomorphic on D and/'(z) # 0 for zeD.
D, then/(z)
from
D. Choose e > 0 such that
To see this, let z be an arbitrary
point
=
z
and
0
r
+
tew,
^
^ e, for arbitrary real 0.
put
[V*(Z)]CD
ye(t)
if/(z)

for

124

mappings

Conformal

z and the angle betweeny0
initial
point
0.
Put
Then
equals
ke{t)=f(ye(t)).
k9\\ t -> Ae(r), 0 ^ r ^ e, is a
smooth curve in the w-planewith initial point w =/(z) and A0 =/(y0)
and
and
conformal, the angle between
^e =/(ye)- Since/is
A0
Xe, i.e., the
of X'0 (0) as a
the
argument of k'e (0)/Ao (0), is equal to 0. Writing
argument
ye is

Obviously

a smooth curve with

y0 at z

and

we have
=

e-ii6+\302\260)re(0)

By (3.4) we

(3.6)

\\X'e(0)\\>0.

have

0+

= ux cos

k'e (0)

= {ux +

cos 0 +

0 4-1(0,

sin

uy

it;x)cos 0 + {uy

+

ii^y )sin

sin

vy

0)

0 +fy

0 =fxcos

sin

0,

hence

=

We (0)

-

ify)eie +

(\302\243

w-

(\302\243
+1*)*\"

by (3.6)

Therefore,

=
2|A;(0)|.
(/,-i/,)^\"l\" + (/, + ^\"2li\"1\"

is a real variable

real

takes

+ if,

in

of

respect

0 we

get

=

^W(O)|
this

the right-hand side only

and since

equality

we conclude

values,

fx

with

+ iX)\302\253\"2l0'fa

-2i(/,
Since 0

sides

both

Differentiating

=

<K

hence

+ i(vx

ux-vy

Since

z =

x + iy

is

an

+

Uy)

=

0.

of D, we

point

arbitrary

see that

satisfy the Cauchy-Riemannequationson D.Hence/(z)
is a holomorphic
function of z = x + iy on D by Theorem
by

such

Consider

3,1.
that

^ 2),

m

the function

holomorphic

. =/(--D(0) = 0, /(m)(0)
= mzm ~l ^ 0 if z ^ 0.Tofind
is, to find all mth roots of w,
=

u (x,

v(x, y)

y) +

iv(x9

1.4 and/'(z)

y)

=0

(3.5).

Example

=

y) and

u{x,
=

. .

\\w\\eiw

we get

,

r=|w|1/m,

=
all
we

=
/\342\200\242\"\342\200\242
|w|

.1/*,

and

w

= zm (m

=/(z)

a natural number

on the z-plane.Obviously,
if z^0
m! ^ 0, f(z) #0
zm =

z satisfying
put

w =

m0 =

\302\260> 2/C7C

a>

\342\200\236
.
0 = \342\200\224
+
m
m

|w

| eico

+ 2/c7r,

/c

w

for

a certain

and

z =

an

integer.

f(0)

=/'(0)

and /'(z)
w #

0 that

rew. From rmeim0
Hence

Conformal mappings 125

3.1

Therefore
=

z

there are

that

conclude

We

p =

p*|Vv|1/'Va,/m,

Since/'(z) # 0 for z #
the

from

region

0,/:

m

different

z

-\342\226\272
w =

zm

the

with

rays

initial

not conformal at 0.

and/is

more detail.

the

^

r

ray

vv

x =

Put
u =

(a2

the mapping/,

iy -* w

+

circle

with

0 and

radius

=

m under

rew, 0

/\342\200\242\"\342\226\240
< +

= 2, /: z = x

center
r -+

oo.

^ r < oo, of the
Hence the angle

-\342\226\272
z =

=

center
r2

of

=

+

w

0 and
the

z2 in

it? =

radius r of

w-plane

and the

te210.

z-plane
Fig.

minus {0}).

point 0 is multipliedby

with

circle

(3.7)

roots z of w ^ 0, given by (3.7).
an m-to-one conformalmapping

ray r

the

maps

= relme, 0

The mapping/maps the

the z-planeonto the
ray r -+ z = rew onto

1.

. . , m-

1, 2,.

(i.e., the z-plane minus {0})onto the

case m

the

examine

now

We

= 0,

(i.e., the w-plane

The mapping/:z->w =
t -> w
ray:
z-plane onto
betweentwo

mth

zm is

{z:0<|z|<+oo}

{w:0<|w|<+oo}

region

/c

e2ni/m,

w-plane

3.3

a

t*

0.

\342\200\224

and
v = 2xy, we get y =
x2 \342\200\224
y2
=
runs
the line x
a, which
parallel

u =

Since
Therefore

v2)/ya2.

r/2a
to

and

the

u. Similarly,/
imaginary axis in the z-plane, is mapped onto the parabola
=
runs parallel to the real axisin the z-plane,
b # 0, which
maps the line y

onto

the parabola

exceptat z = 0,

u
these

=

v2/4b2
two

\342\200\224
of

of

kinds

orthogonally.Furthermore,/maps

the

the

nonpositive

axis on the

part

{u: u ^

the

b2

0} of the

nonnegativepart {u:u

^

w-plane.

parabolas
imaginary

axis

real axisof the
0} of

Since /
intersect

the real

of the

is conformal

each other
.z-plane onto

w-plane

axis of the

and

the real

w-plane.

126

mappings

Conformal

iy\\

l

*

w-plane

z-plane

Fig. 3.4

Each of the equationsx2are

defines

constants,
x2

hyperbola

y2

hyperbola

ft

=

a ^

0 and

2xy =

onto

line

v = /?

of the

0, where

a and

/?

w-plane.

w-plane

3.5

In complex analysis an important roleis played
ontoanother
which map a certain regionone-to-one
a
a conformal mapping which
region D onto
maps
a conformal

^

the

the

z-plane

Fig.

j?

a hyperbola in the z-plane.The mapping/maps
and
a ^ 0 onto the line u = a of
the
w-plane
the

\342\200\224
=

2xy =

y2

mapping that

conformal

by

region.

From

a regionE will

maps D one-to-oneonto

\302\243.

mappings
now on,
always

be

3.1

(1) Iff: z->w =/(z)maps
the region\302\243
of the
w-plane
conformally,

Theorem 3.4.
z =f~l(w)

w->

region

then the

D of the z-plane onto
inverse mapping:/'1:

D conformally.

\302\243
onto

maps

the

127

mappings

Conformal

=
such a mapping / and if g: w -\342\226\272
is a conformal
\302\243 g(w)
D
from
il
of
onto
the
the
the composite
then
mapping
region
\302\243-plane,
=
is a conformal mapping from
D onto
\302\2431
mapping g of: z -> \302\243 #(/(z))

(2) Given

(1) Since/(z)

Proof.

w ->

mapping/\"l:

is holomorphic on D and/'(z) f
z =/\" ^w) is holomorphic
on \302\243
and

Theorem 3.2. Hence/\"1is a conformalmapping
functions
(2) By the chain rule for holomorphic
function g(f(z)) is holomorphic on D and

onto

one-to-one

the

Therefore,

gof

mapping

z-+\302\243

0on

D,

d/~

# 0 by
and D.
1.6)

(Theorem

=

g(f(z)),

inverse

1(w)/Av
E

between

the

which

maps

the

E

is conformal.
\302\2431,

two different
maps
holomorphic function on a regionD,which
if zu z2eD and zx # z2 then
(i.e.,
points of D onto different
points
univalent
on
D. If f:z->w
is
called
then
/(z)
=/(z) is a
f(zt) ^/(z2)),
D
conformal mapping which
the
of
onto
the
then,
maps
region
region \302\243,
the following
result.
course, D is univalent. Conversely,we have

If/(z)

is a

If /(z) is a univalent

Theorem 3.5.

then/: z -> w

oneonD

by

mapping

which

assumption,/'(z)

maps

on some

defined

If w =/(z)

is a

inverse function
phic,

we

conclude

0 at

region is a

region D,

f(D)

all points

region. Since/is one-tozeD, hence/isa conformal
is a

\302\243.

function
univalent

of a

univalent

holomorphic

function

function.

holomorphic

holomorphic function defined

on

a region,

such that its

holomorphic, then/(z) is called
the function
/(z), defined on the region D, is biholomor= 1:
from the equality/\"l(f{z))

z =f~l{w)
If

biholomorphic.

D onto

inverse

The

Corollary.

^

=
\302\243

that

on a

onto the region \302\243
=/(D).

D conformally

already shown

We have

Proof:

maps

=/(z)

function

holomorphic

^-/\"1(w)-/'(z)=l,

exists

and is

w=f(z).

128

mappings

Conformal

^ 0,

Therefore/'(z)

hence/:

maps D onto the region
conformalmappingwhich

z -* w

=f(z)

is a

conformal
iff:

Conversely,

E=f(D).

mapping which
is a
z->w=f(z)

the region \302\243,
is
then/(z)
functions
are
3.4(1).
Biholomorphic
biholomorphic
obviously
univalent
and we have by the above corollarythat a univalent
holomorphic
function is biholomorphic.
The disk with center 0 and radius 1 in the complexplane is calledthe unit
disk.
disk
itself are of
Conformal
onto
that map the unit
mappings
fundamental importance.For aeC such that 0 < |a| < 1 we put a* = 1/a
= a/|a|2.The points a and a* are on the same ray with initial point 0 and
|a*| = l/|a| > 1.Put
maps

the

region

D onto

by Theorem

Fig.

3.6

The function/(z)

|z| = 1,then |z|/|a|
and therefore

that

|/(z)|
=
\\z\\

is,

{zeC:

1.21),

\\f(z)\\

is holomorphic on the z-planewith
= |a*|/|z|
hence the triangles zaO

the
and

exception
a*z0

1}.
1

If

are similar

Therefore, \\f(z)\\ = 1 for all points z on the unit circle
Hence by the maximum principle (corollary to Theorem
if \\z\\ < 1. This can also be verified
directly:

= 1.

<

of a*.

i-MP-i-,?-*''-*
_

az) (1
(1 \342\200\224

l-zz-aa
(l-za)(l-az)

\342\200\224

az)

+ azaz_

(1 -

|a|2)(1|l-az|2

\\z\\2)

Conformal mappings 129

3.1

> 0 by assumption,
if
|a|2
|/(z)| < 1 if \\z\\ < 1. Conversely,
we
solve
|/(z)| < 1 then \\z\\ < 1. In order to find the inverse function
of/(z)
= w for some arbitrary w. From/(z) = w we get (1 \342\200\224
the equation/(z)
az) w
= z \342\200\224
= z \342\200\224
= w.
if (1 \342\200\224
a and,
1 \342\200\224
az ^ 0 and/(z)
a, then
az) w
conversely,
\342\200\224

1

as

and

a = 0, hence 0=1\342\200\224 az=l\342\200\224 aa
az = 0, then z \342\200\224
and
so |a |2
(For if 1 \342\200\224
= 1, contradictingour assumption.)
in order
to solve the
Therefore,
= z \342\200\224
a.
az) w
equation/(z) = w it suffices to solve the linear equation (1\342\200\224
is equivalent to
This
equation

(1 +aw)z = w + a.
1 + aw ^ 0 the solutionof this

If

w

z =

~*

1 -haw

our assumption.

0= 1+ aw
Therefore, the inverse function
w +

a =

0, hence

(w)= t1 +aw
, -

z=f

region {weC: w
< 1;

|/(z)|

disk

^

we

maps

= -^-,

a onto

the unit

0,

3.6.
can

contradicting

is given by

\\z\\

<

z -+w

{zeC.z^a*}
<

\\f(z)\\

disk

|w|

{weC:

disk {zeC:
=/->)

the

unit

be represented

/: z^

w

=-^,
1 -haw

conformal

All

|z| < 1} onto

{zeC:

|a|2,

1 if

\\z\\ <

\\z\\ <

{zed

1

=f{z)

onto the
and |z| < 1

1} onto

the

unit

of the function/(z)to the

< 1}.

1} 0:/(a)

(3.8)

The conformalmapping/
= 0. The inverse mapping

by

/-i:w^z

Theorem

disk

unit

w =f(z)

|z|<l,

az
I \342\200\224

onto the

of / is given

onto

unit

the domain
Restricting
conformal
the
get
mapping

maps

of

\342\200\224

{\342\200\224
a*},/:

region

above,

the

therefore/maps

/:z-.w=/(z)
which

the

{weC:|w|<l}.

former

1

minus

w-plane

seen

As

\342\200\224a*}.

=

w#-a*.

,

Since/\"x(w) is holomorphicon the
is a conformal mapping which
maps
if

by

+ a
~-

= 0, then

If 1 + aw

is given

equation

=/(z)

=

mappings
disk

{weC:

|w|<l.

(3.9)

disk
map the unit
<
|w|
1} and the point a, |a|

which

< 1,

as
e10-^^,
1 \342\200\224
az

OeM.

(3.10)

eiew is a rotation throughan angle 0, and therefore leaves
the unit disk unchanged.
Hence,
by the above result it is clear that the
which
the unit disk onto itself.
isa
conformal
mapping
maps
mapping (3.10)

The

mapping

w -+

130 Conformalmappings
is an

converse

The

of the following lemma.

easy consequence

Sckwarz'sLemma.If/(z) isa holomorphic
{zeC:

<

\\z\\

z

for all

1

^

\\f(z)\\

with

\\z\\

<

1,

= 0,

(2)/(0)

(3.H)

\\f(z)\\\302\243\\*\\,

1.

^

l/'(0)|

Unless

disk

the unit

1} satisfying:

(1)

then

on

defined

function

(3A2)

f(z) = cz,

constant

c a

with

satisfying

=

\\c\\

1,

we have

< 1.

l/'(0)|

Proof.

By

Since a0

=

\\g{z)\\
[Ur(0)]

can

(1.16),/(z)

alz +

a0 +

=/(0) = 0 we

a2z2+

\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\200\242

-,|z|

ff(z) =

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+a2z+

ax

+

+anzn\"1

(3.11) it suffices to prove that
(z) is holomorphicfor |z| < 1.To prove
of | g(z)\\ on the closeddisk
^ 1 for |z| < 1.Let M(r)bethe maximum
=
<
maximum
<
r
1.
the
0
principle
By
(corollary to
{z: |z| ^ r},

Itf

[t/r(0)]

such

that

1/r and

|g(z)|^l/r
<

of

circumference

!/W

=

Ml

M(r) ^

Hence

\\z\\

< 1.

\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

+anzn

Theorem 1.21),there is a point z on the
= M (r).
\\g(z)\\
By condition (1)

If

into a power series

be expanded

have

= zg(z),

f(z)

and 0

(3.14)

Theorem

f(z)

(3.13)

if0<|z|<l,

\\f(z)\\<\\z\\

1, then

if|z|\302\243r<l.

for some r

1/r

^

\\g(z)\\

|#(z)| ^ lim^^ol/r = 1,

satisfying

\\z\\

g

r <

1, therefore

(3.11).

Since /'(0)

hence

if|z|<l.

|0(Z)|^1

Since f(z) = zg(z\\we
= S(O)we have |/'(0)|

The function
^

\\g(z)l
the
|c|

maximum

g

1 and

=

\\g(0)\\

<

\302\243
z if

<

\\c\\

\302\243
1,

=

1. So

Ux
<

{z: |z| < 1}and
unless
is
#(z) a constant, by
(0)
disk

unit

on
\\g(z)\\

proving

(3.12).

on the

Therefore

1 unless

|z|

1, proving

assume a maximum

principle.
\\g(z)\\

\\f(z)\\

is holomorphic

g(z)

1, does not

have

1. If

Ut(0)

gr(z) =

we have

=

c, a constant,then

proved that

\\g(z)\\

< 1

3.1
if

\\z\\

g(z) =

1 unless

<

and (3.14)follow

c

satisfying

mappings which

onto 0 are represented
by

and 0

Proof: Let/: z->w =f(z) bea conformal
onto
itself and the point 0 onto0.Since/(z)
disk
|/(z)| < 1 on the unit
Similarly, I/_1(w)| ^
=

that is, \\f(z)
satisfying

|

131

1, whence

(3.13)

=

\\c\\

for

itself

onto

disk

\\z\\

by

unit

satisfies

is holomorphicand

|/(z)| ^
1. Therefore

^

|w|

maps the

which

mapping

have

we

disk,
w

map the unit

R.

0e

= eiez,

z->w

\\z\\

mappings

directly.

All conformal

Corollary.

constant

c a

with

Conformal

Lemma.

Schwarz's

\\ri(f{z))\\^\\f(z)\\^\\zi
=

\\z\\.

=

\\c\\

by Schwarz's

Hence,

Lemmaf(z)

= c-z

with

c a

constant

1.

Let/: z->w =f{z)bea

Proof of Theorem 3.6:
disk
onto
maps the unit

conformal

which

mapping

itself.

Putting

g{z) =
we

have

the

unit

\342\200\224
OLZ

z -> w = g(z) is a conformal mapping which
is given
disk onto itself, the inverse of which
by
that g:

proved

The composite
conformal

= g

l:w->z

g

that
= a

the

above

w

f(z) =

itself

can

be

= 0 we
^V

g(z) we

get

have

<f>(w)

onto

disk

unit

#(0)

=

is

=f(g~l(w))

a

by Theorem 3.4(2).
0. Hence
itself

6>eR,

corollary.

Substituting

Theorem 3.7.

vv-+

=f\302\260g~1:

=

</>(w)

.

the

maps

maps

1 -haw

<f>

and /(a)

/(s\"1(w)) =

=

*(w

mapping

mapping

Sinceg~l(0)
by

oL=f-\\0\\

^1

=

e\302\273g(z)

All

=

eu>'^-.

conformal

represented

w =f(z)
/: z -\302\273

mappings

that

map the

complex planeC onto

as
= az

+ /},

a, /J

constants

a ^

0.

132

Conformal mappings

Proof: Letz->w =f(z) bea
onto the w-plane, then /(z) is
z =/_1(vv) is an entire

conformal

functions.

transcendental

or

polynomials

there existsa sequence
{zn}

-

limn

m

zn

and its inverse
are either

is transcendental, then

Suppose/(z)

that

such

functions

Entire

w.

of

the z-plane

maps

of z

function

entire

an

function

which

mapping

=

oo and

_>

limn

= 0.

^/(zj

From limn^ODf(zn)
0 we get limn^00zn = \\imn^f-\\f{zn)) =/\"1(0)
is a contradiction
oo. This
and, hence,/(z) is a polynomial
=\302\243
* * '
=
+ amzm,
am * 0.
/(z)
fl0 + 0i* + 02*2+
=

By assumption f(z)

0

^

by the

all z, but

for

Fundamental Theoremof

Algebra, the equation

f(z) =
if

has roots

m

The

3.2

a.

+

fli

Riemann

Euclideanspace

identify the

real

that

=

with
is, S

=

center
=

{\302\243

0 and
({lf

coordinate plane\302\2433
=

line

(fi,

=

(x, y,

where

at ^

0.

radius 1in three-dimensional
{} +

\302\2432,
f3)eR3:

0 in

the

with

IR3

=

+ {\302\247
\302\243|

complex

1}.

plane,

R:

the

\302\2432,
fa)

coordinate

#

plane

Fig.

3.7

product of the

complexplane C and the

north pole and is
the
R. The point (0,0,1)ofSiscalled
\342\200\224
south
is
called the
(0,0,
1)
pole. For every point
point
the
{ intersects
(0,0, 1) of S, the line through N and

C x

=

IR3

0).

the direct

IR3 becomes

way

denoted by JV,
\302\243

+ axz,

we put
z = x + iy

In this

1 and/(z) = a0

sphere

sphere

R3,

that is,

m=

sphere

The Riemann

Let S be the
Let us

+mamzm-1

2. Therefore,

^

= 0

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

2a2z+

= 0

\302\2433

in exactly

one point z =

(x,

y9

0).

3.2

The Riemann

sphere 133

From
=

x:y:-l
we

{.:cj2:{3-l

get

*=

y
-;\342\200\224\342\200\224
1\"\302\2533

=
l-\302\2533

Hence

<315)

'-Vt1- 1 \342\200\224
S3
The

mapping
is called
the
a

gives

possible

associating

{ # N

point

of S the point z =

(x,

y,

0)

{ ->z
stereographic projection. The stereographicprojection
\342\200\224
=
one-to-one
x + iy it is
mapping from S {TV} onto C. Given z
and
to solve (3.15) and find
From
\302\2432,
fi,
4V
+
\302\243i

|z|2=

4i

+ {3

_i

i-\302\253i

(l~^3)2

(1~\302\2433)2

we

each

with

1\"\302\2533

get

,

i*i2-i
(3.16)

C3\"izi2+r

Further
=

+ \302\253{2
\302\253.

z(l

-

*>-

lz

C3,~|z|2+ 1'

hence

2x

*2-.*l2+l

(3.17)

stereographic projection there is a one-to-one
z =
between
the points
the
{ ^ N of the sphere S and
mapping
points
of the
z can
be
(\302\2431
+^2)/(l
\342\200\224{3)
complex
plane C, the complex number
^ N of the sphere S. Thereis no
by its corresponding point \302\243
represented
with
the north pole. As is clear from
the
corresponding
complexnumber
above
from
and
we
and
have
as
{->JV
(3.16)
(3.17)
|z|-> +00.
figure
a point
with
Therefore, we extendthe complex.plane
00, called the point at
which
with N. C u {00}is calledthe extended
infinity,
complex
corresponds
are
used to represent
the points of
plane. The sphere S, the points of which
C to
or the Riemann sphere. If we extend
C, is calledthe complex
sphere
become the extended complexplaneC u {00},
we
also
extend
the lines / of C
/
to becomelines/ u {00} of the extended complexplane.Theplane through
and N intersects S in a circle.Hencethe lines
/ u {00} are represented by

Since

by

means

of the

134 Conformalmappings
circles

N

and

= (0,0,1)

N of
with

sphere S. By

the Riemann

S

the

with

the

neighborhoods

through this

plane Cu{oo}

neighborhood of N on S is

t;

-\302\2433)

extended

sequences,

point

For

S.

the

extended

the

for

point

+ /\302\2432)/(l
(\302\2431

of

limits

with

identification

defined

z =

S is identifiedwith

at infinity,

point

the

identifying

number

complex

Notions such as
Cu{oo}.
of a point and so on aredefined

plane

complex

on

N

through

= (<*!,\302\2432,\302\2433)^

complex

example,

an e-

by

^ + (\302\2433-l)2<e2}.
{\302\243:^
AT, we
have,
by (3.16) and (3.17),
+

If { *

fl+a+K,-i>,-jjj^T
and since 4/(|z|2+ 1)< e2

is

to

equivalent

>

\\z\\2

(4

\342\200\224

e2)/e2

we

find,

putting

UR(oo) =

{zeC:\\z\\>R}u{oo},

that

{ZeS:

ZI +

Therefore
p(e)->

+00

ZI +

({3 -

zn

=

00. For

{zn}

sequence

is

00

suppose e > 0

in

be

=

p(e)

U,(\302\243)(oo),

an e-neighborhood of
if e-> + 0.

Now, consider a

lim,.-^

=

< s2}

l)2

given

C.
given,

by

y/(4-E2)/E.

l/p(\302\243)(oo).

If lim,.-^
then

\\zn\\

there

=

exists

Obviously,

+ 00

then

a natural

> n0{e).
number n0(e)suchthat |zj > p(e)ifn > n0(e),i.e.,znEl7p(\302\243)(oo)ifn
C
is
on
c
e
a
a
of
function
minus
defined
Similarly,
if/(z)
neighborhood
{c}
= + 00, then
such that limz_*c|/(z)|
e
for
limz^c/(z) = 00.Because,
every
> 0, there exists a S{e)such that
>
<
if
0
\\z
|/(z)|
p(e), i.e.,/(z)e C/p(\302\243)(oo),
\342\200\224
c \\ < r and c is a pole of/(z),
is holomorphic for 0 < \\z \342\200\224
c\\ < 5(e). If/(z)
= + 00, hence lim2-c/(z) = 00. We
then
now
the
define
|/(z)|
limz_*c
=
c by
value of f(z) at z

f(c)

=

00.

lim/(z)=

Thereby z -*/(z) becomesa continuous
l/r(c) of c into S. However,/(z)is not

function which
a ^ 0, then
a

assumes

- = lim
0
z-oz

the

-a = 00,

value

a

#

considered

00 at

0.

from

mapping

c. If we

to be
put/(z)

the neighborhood
continuous at c as a
=

a/z, a

a constant,

3.2

b.

Holomorphic

Let

D be

a region in

C such that

let /(z) be a function
defined
every e > 0 there existsan R(e)

> 0,

R0

for

<

|/(z)-fl|

\\z\\ >

\302\243
if

135

singularity at oo
\\z\\ > R0} c D for

some

an isolated

with

functions

The Riemann sphere

{zeC:

and let

on D,

a bea complexnumber.

If

R0 such that

^

if zeUm(co\\

R{e), i.e.,

then we say that the limit of/(z) for z tending to oo equals a. This is written:
lim^oo f(z) = a or /(z) ->a as z -> oo. Iff(z) is defined on Du {oo}and
= /(oo), then/(z) is saidto becontinuous
lim z_* \342\200\236
at oo. If/(z)
is defined
/(z)
=
D
and continuous on and if limz^00/(z)
a, then f(z) can be extendedto a
on
function
continuous
by putting /(oo) = a. Let/(z) be a
Du(oo)
function
defined on {zeC: |z| > /?} = t/R(oo)
nonconstant
holomorphic
\342\200\224
=
z -\302\273
R > 0. Putting z
z is a biholomorphic
1/z, the mapping
{oo},
=
onto
that
l/r(0)- {0} {zeC:0< \\z\\ < r},
maps UR(oo)-{oo}
mapping
=
where r
1/R. Hence the function/(z) defined
by
/(z)=/(z)

=/(!/\302\243)

the

cases can

three

following

Case1:

=
\302\243

on Ur (0) \342\200\224
Since
{0}.

is holomorphic

=
\302\243

0 is

power series that

occur (see Section1.4d):

a removable singularity

off(\302\243)./(\302\243) can

for 0

absolutely

converges

an isolated singularity off (\302\243),

0 is

<

in a

be expanded

< r
|\302\243|

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+ a\342\200\236\302\243n
+ \342\200\242-..
?{z) = a0 + aiz + a2z2+

Hence

/(z)=/(l/z)

can be

expanded in a powerserieswhich
/(z)

Since

= a0

= lim
z

and

we

/(z) =

-* oo

a/z, a ^

0,

we

case,

^am

oo is

for

\\z\\

/?,

(3.18)

+\302\243+....

a0y

>

we

put

is holomorphic on

V^(oo).

In

particular,

taking

get

a#0.

Hence, substituting oo
(3.18) takes the form

this

absolutely

/(z) = a0

=0,

/(z) =

^+...

limf_>00/(z) =

say that/(z)

a/co

In

+

^

=

\\\\mz^^f(z)
/(oo)

+

converges

for

+

z in

(3.18) yields

/(oo) = a0. If /(oo)= a0

\342\200\224+

fl\342\204\242*\302\260\342\200\2242-+\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242J>

called a zero of the

mth

order

off{z).

=

0,

136

mappings

Conformal

Case 2: z = 0 is a

pole

f(z) =
where

a.mzm +

a_m

+

\302\243w
^

have

r we

+

= limz_GO/(z)=

order

(3.19)

\302\253-m^0,

absolutely for

>

R. In

Putting

off(z).

\342\200\224\342\200\224

+

+

\\z\\

\342\200\242-.

and
=0-m*O.

0(oo)

= oo and

lim^oo/fz)

mth

...

+

Z^,

converges

(an/zn)

\342\200\224\342\200\224

f(z) = zmg(z\\
/(oo)

|\302\243
| <

0

+ <io+

+fl_lz

on l/R(oo)

is holomorphic

Hence

...

oo is calleda poleof the

0(z) =
g(z)

series

the power

this case,

<

R

>

\\z\\

n=

Z

Z

we get for

for 0

Since

of/(f).

we

put

oo.

In this case,/: z-+f(z)is a continuous
from
mapping
UR(oo) into the
is
a
Riemann sphere S, but we do not say that /(z)
continuous function
of the domain of the function
which
assumes
the value oo at oo.As a point
in the same way as a point c ^ oo,but
the point at infinity,
oo, is treated
/(z),
as a value
assumed
by the function
/(z), oo is consideredas a special
=
=
az
a
\"number.\"
za, # 0 or/(z) = z2 we get
By taking/(z)
= oo-a = oo,
oo'oo = oo.
a-oo
fl#0,
Case

3:

z =

0 is

/(f) =
where

an infinite

equal to zero.

f(z)=

an essential singularity

In

of/(f).

this

case

a\342\200\236\302\243\",
0<|f|<r,
+f\342\200\224
co

n=

number

Hence

...

of the coefficientsa _x,a_ 2,.

+fl-\342\200\236z\"+

..\342\200\242

+ fl_1z

+

fl0

+

..,
i

\302\243

n= 1 2

. .are
fl-\342\200\236,.

not

(3.20)

an infinite
number of the coefficients a-\\9
for \\z\\ > R9 where
a_ 2,. . . , a-n,. . . are not equal to zero. In this case, oo is called an essential
iff(z) is a transcendental
entire function,
singularity of f(z). For example,
then oo is an essential singularity of/(z). If oo is an essential singularity of
1.23)it is possible, for each
f(z) then, by Weierstrass'Theorem(Theorem
= oo and
a
such
to
find
that
number
w,
zn
lim,,-,*,
sequence {zn}
complex
=
w and to find a sequence{zn}such
that
lim n_00 zn = oo and
lim
n-oo/ta)
\\\\mn^O0f(z)= oo.

3.2

Riemann

The

137

sphere

lim z- \342\200\236
essentialsingularity
does not exist. Hence, if
of/(z),
f(z)
=
at z = oo and if
f{co) limz_>00f{z)eCexists,then/(z) is holomorphic
has
a pole at oo.
/(oo) = limz_00/(z)= oo,then/(z)
Summarizing the above computationalrulesfor oo we have for a ^ 0,
a =
a
a-oo = oo-a = oo, oo-oo = oo.
0,
-=oo, \342\200\224
(3.21)

If oo is an

0

oo

coordinates

Local

c.

above we have

In the

sphere S representcomplex
numbers

the complex

the points

how

seen

z =

numbers

z can be usedto represent

(^ +

^
\302\243

if2)/(l

the

N of

the Riemann

\342\200\224
Conversely,
\302\2433)-

points

of S.
\342\202\254

In this

case

the correspondence

1

\"\"^3

coordinate defined on S \342\200\224
and the complex number z
{N}
is called
of the point \302\243.
the coordinate
This
correspondingwith \302\243
complex
N.
coordinate
does not associate a coordinatewith
In order
to define a
a complex

is called

complexcoordinatewhich
{iH2 + (3 = lwe have,

for z

be applied

for

-1<

to

Af,

we

z =

consider

1/z. Since

< 1,
\302\2433

'

l-{3
hence,

can

l+\302\2433

l-{\302\247

^ 0,

f-i\302\253-i_ii..*iZ\302\253i.

Therefore

we

{ =
With

The

complex

coordinate

<J

call

it

a

->

=

77r,
+C3

\342\200\224

1)}

by

\302\243*(0,0,-1).

A

coordinate, the coordinate of N = (0,0,1)
-* z can be obtained from the
coordinate
\342\202\254
complex
a rotation through the angle n about the ^-axis

z is

->

z by

a complex

/oca/

complex

of S, we
coordinate definedon a subregion
S \342\200\224
{N}
-\342\226\272
z
coordinate
on S. Of course,\302\243 is also a local

complex coordinate. Each point
complex coordinates, related by
=
z -+ \302\243
This

on S \342\200\224
{(0,0,

to this complex

isf = 0.

<^

coordinate

a complex

(U^3)-f

respect

Since

define

(3.22)

correspondence

1/z,

-+
\302\243

is called

z =

\342\200\224
\302\243eS
{(0,0,1),

(0,0,-1)}

has

two

l/\302\243.

a coordinate

transformation

between

the

local

138

Conformed mappings

-* z
complexcoordinates\302\243
1), only

respectively.

The

denote
with

by

we can

\342\200\224

l)eS,

(0,0,

with

the

oo with

{oo},

as

just

z ^

zeC,

we

which

do, which

at infinity

point

identifications,
and

oo,

the south
and z = 0,

f-plane,

identify S and C u

these

With

OeC

1/zeC,

pole and

north

the

-\342\226\272
With
\302\243 \302\243.

= 0
\302\243

C. Extending C with

and Cu{oo}.
=

and

one complex coordinate is associated:
of the complex coordinates is the
range

pole,(0,0,

\342\200\224

corresponds
S

identified

we

0, coincides with

\302\243

OeC. Hence

S = CuC
S

and

0, coincides

z ^

zeC,

z -> z =

obtained

surface

the

is

\\jz

the

In Section3.2b

function/(z)

but f(z)

is nothing

function

the

considered

have

we

C and C such that

coordinate

The

1/zeC.

way the pasting

a holomorphic

with

corresponding

=
\302\243

with

determines

by \"pasting together\"

transformation

should be done.
function/(\302\243)

defined on

considered as a

=/(l/\302\243)
[/^(oo)\342\200\224 {oo}.

function

the

of

This

local

z.

coordinate

d. Homogeneouscoordinates

The

Riemann

can

sphere

complex

as a one-dimensional
product C2 = C x C =

be considered
the

Consider

space.

projective

also

direct

{(Ci,C2):CieCfCaeC}andput
C={Wi,\302\2532M6C}

for

^ (0,0).

(Ci, C2)

Now, C is

of
(0,0).Thecollection

all

the

one-dimensional

C

=

complex

complex

lines (

complex

a complex

e IP1

called

are

lines

line in C2 passing through the origin
of C2 passing through (0,0)is called

space and is denoted
projective
the points of P1 and if

by

P1.

The

(Ci,C2)*(0,0),

{(ACi,AC2MeC}f

coordinates
of the point \302\243.
of the
are
c
^
(Ci,C2)
(0,0)
(C1.C2)
(0,0)
homogeneous oordinates
=
=
P1
if and only if (i
same
and
Ki for some complex
\302\243e
ACi
&
point
number A # 0. If (Ci,C2) are homogeneous coordinatesof the point

then

(Ci, C2)

are

(eP1,

called

homogeneous

and

^

we write

C=

(Ci,C2).

Hence,

=
= XC2 for some
(Ci,C2) if and only if ft = K\\ and \302\243'2
=
0.
k
for
number
The
used
^
,
sign
equality
homogeneous
complex
is a
We want to show that
there
coordinates, will alwayshave this meaning.
=
S
CuC.
For
natural mapping from P1 onto the Riemann
that
sphere
(Ci,C'2)

purpose

put

l/i

= {CeP1:

ft * 0},

U2

=

ReP1:

ft #

0}.

33 Linearfractionaltransformations

139

Obviously,

Pl =

For

U2.

Utv
have

0 we
\302\245\"
\302\2432

(Ci,C2)= (Ci/C2,l)=

C=

U,

mapping C-*z = Ci/C2
for
Similarly, ^ ^ 0 we have

hence the

(Ci,C2) =

C =

hence mapping
=
f=
Vz
coincideon nU2.
P1

and

S =

C by

Cu

maps

l^

one-to-one

C/2 one-to-one

the two

a one-to-one

Therefore,

Ux

Ci/C2,

=
C2/C1 maps
0
and
#
C2 ^ 0,

->

f\302\260r
Ci

C2/C1

* =

onto

CcS.

f-Ci/Ci,

(U),

\302\243 \302\243

the

1),

these

combining

two

mappings

onto CcS. Since
( -* z and ( -* f

mapping is obtainedbetween
mappings into one. Using this
the
of P1 and thereby
points

can
the points of S with
identify
the Riemann sphere S becomesa one-dimensional
complex
projective
this identification, the point zeC gets the homogeneous
space. Under
coordinates
(1,0),i.e.,
(z, 1) and 00 gets the homogeneouscoordinates
=
=
z
(1,0). Now z and 00 are called the inhomogeneous
(z, 1) and 00
= 00
of the points (z, 1) and (1,0)of P1,
coordinates
Since
Ci/0
respectively.
=
if Ci ^ 0 by (3.21),
the inhomogeneous
of \302\243 (Ci,C2) is always
coordinate
given by C1/C2-

mapping,we

Linear fractional

3.3

transformations

Linear

a.

is calleda
aS

\342\200\224

py

^

We

y

of the

+ fl

yz + o

linear

0 is

If

constant.

az

=

f(z)

transformations

fractional

A function

,

form

a, 6, y,

function

fractional

aS

5 constants,

or a

-

/Jy

#

linear function.

included in order to excludethe casethat/(z)
we write a instead of a/S and /? instead

= 0,

0,

The condition
reduces

to a

of /J/<5, obtaining

a^0.
/(z) = az + )3,
two cases:
distinguish

0. In

y ^

Ca5\302\2437:

excluding

{

\342\200\224

/(oo)

d/y}

this case/(z) is a holomorphicfunction
and

since

= hm
^
z-coyz + <5

= hm
z-coy

\342\200\224
=

+ <5/z

-,
y

on

the

z-plane

140

mappings

Conformal

f(z) is

holomorphic at
y2{z +

that

is clear

it

\342\200\224

8/y

too.

oo

S/y)

Writing

y

the

pole of

is a

of f(z),

order

first

i.e.,

/(-<5/y)=oo.
is a one-to-one
Hence, in order to prove that/: z -^w =f(z)
mapping from
to show that for each
the extended plane Cu{oo}ontoitself,
it suffices
w # a/y, the equation f(z) = w has
w g C,
one solution
zeC,
exactly
\342\200\224
=
=
az + /}. Conversely, assume
z^
w
we
From
(5/y.
f(z)
get (yz + <5)w
\342\200\224
=
0
a<5
follows
that yz + 5 and az + /?
az
From
it
+
+
^
8)w
(yz
/}.
/?y
8
are not simultaneously equal to 0, hence
# 0 and /(z) = w. The
yz +

(yz +

equation

(\342\200\224
yw

=

is

ft

to the

equivalent

equation

\342\200\224

<5w

/?

\342\200\224

have

#

yw-ha

=

the equation/(z)

0, hence

w

has

solution

one

exactly

+ a)z

az +

a/y we

w #

since

and

=

<5)w

Sw-p
\342\200\224

yw-ha

inverse

C u {oo}ontoCu {oo}
and

mapping from
is given by

a one-to-one

Therefore,/is

mapping

/-1:w-^z=/-1(w)=

^\"f
yw +

\342\200\224

a

.

its

(3.24)

/(z) is

if w ^ ol/8, f(z) is
and
/_1(w)
6/y
holomorphic if z ^ \342\200\224
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
biholomorphic on the region C { 8/y}. Hence the restriction of/(z)
is a conformal
to C \342\200\224
onto
mapping which maps C \342\200\224
8/y}
{\342\200\224
8/y}
{\342\200\224

Since

C

\342\200\224

sphere S =

C u {oo},
gives

itself. For by
is also
Case

function

The

{a/y}.

of Section

continuous at z =

2:

y

z-plane,
equation

to-one

oo
w

mapping

/(z) = az + j5

0. The

function

a pole

of the first

from

/-i:w-^z=/-1(w)

get z =

C u

mapping

/ as a mapping from

S

into

S,

8/y.

=

+ /? we

from S onto

\342\200\224

is

= az

3.2a,

Riemann

the

on

function

continuous

a one-to-one

results

the

as a

considered

/(z),

(w

\342\200\224

/?)/a.

{oo} onto C u

J

This formula can alsobeobtained
Restricting/(z) to C we get a

=

course

is of

order of /(z), and

{oo}

and

= oo.

/(oo)

f: z

Hence,

on the
Solving the

holomorphic

->w =/(z)

its

inverse

is a one-

is given

by

^--^.

a

from

mapping

(3.24)

from

by putting

C intoX.

y

=

0 and

8 =

1.

3.3 Linearfractionaltransformations
S =

Cu

Section

{00}

we

A one-to-one

mapping
= /(z)

f:z-^w

=

extended

the

from

o

a linearfractionaltransformation

z =

From

respectively.

or

Hence, (3.25)can be represented

Strictly,

the transformation

(3.26) only

from

is

coordinates

of z

homogeneous
cox/co^

transformation.

transformation

we get

determinesthe matrix
following

discussion,

to

within

we can

(3.26)

* -/nKi

r

pen

L-t

U2J

aJUJ-

Hence
__

Ci

__

ycOi-facoj

h

W

=

If
/z

Tl-\302\273

yxz

f}

\342\200\224yw-fa'

as (3.24).

formula

same

\342\200\224

Sw

_

\342\200\224

C2
the

Sa>l\342\200\224pco2

+ dt

(z)

=

\342\200\2247-

y2z +

o2

theirproductf
are linearfractional transformations,
in homogeneous coordinates is given
transformation)
\302\273\342\226\240\342\226\240

-f2

SMB

EH:]-fc
Since
rai^iir\302\2532i?2\"|

=

raia2+/51y,

\302\253i/*2+

/M2~|

(i.e.,
by

the

a

select

'--*

eff'-it-rs
get

=

a linear

as

scalar multiple but, as is clearfrom the
any matrix satisfying (3.26).Since

we

simply

form

(3.25)

fractional

be

of the

0,

linear

C1/C2, w

onto itself

plane

ocS-py*

5^\302\261|f
yz +

The inverse transformation/\"1of a
(g>i>w2)
given by (3.24). Let (d, C2)an^

and w,

sphere

S ontoitselfby

(2).

3.2b,

is called

Riemann

the

mapping from

continuous

a one-to-one

get

defined on

a function

as

/(z)

Considering

141

composite

142

mappings

Conformal

we get the inhomogeneous
formula
+
= (cLlCL2+ply2)z
+ dly2)z +
(yi(x2

/1./2:z-.w=/1(/2(z))

(x1p2+plS2
ylp2+6l62

of two linear fractional
the product
fractional
transformation.
Since the inverse
again
linear fractional
transformation is also a linearfractional
transformation,
transformations
we conclude
that the collection of all linear fractional
We see

a linear

Thereis exactly

Theorem 3.8.

= 09

f{zx)

where zuz2,
/(z)
and where
zx

and z3
=

= 0,

points of

C u {oo}and/(z)

=

g(z3)

zj9 say

is given

zx, equals oo,is found

clearly satisfies

oo, then/(z)

by

by

the requirements,it
function

satisfying

and g(z) are identical.For this

fractional function

the linear

^^,
+
yw

of the

is a linear fractional

if g (z)

g(z2) = 1,and

one

by (3.27)

given

=

that

(3.27)

that

0(/-V))

such

function/(z)

z2-z3

function

show

consider

purpose

different

three

are

fractional

linear

/(z3)=oo,

the formula for/(z), if
tend to oo in (3.27).

to

suffices

one

/(z2)=l,

^/^-^.
z-z3j

Proof: Sincea
g(zt)

a

of

a group.

constitutes

letting

that

this

from

transformations is

g{f~l (w)).Putting

<*5-/Jy*0,

o

we have

7o

= 9(/\"1(0)) =
is, ft =

that

for

w

yields/(z)

triple

function/(z)
b.

also

=

0, and
=

=

o

^\302\261{

y +

a/5 =

- =

3(/-1(l))=l,

^(/-1(oo)) =

cx)

y

1, hence g(f~ x(w))

=

w. Substitution

of/(z)

g(z).

distinct pointswt, vv2, w3 of
of distinct points zu z2, and z3, exactly
such that/(Zi) = w^/^) = w2, and/(z3)

Cu
one

{oo} there is, for
linear
=

fractional

w3.

Cross ratio

As explainedin Section3.2a,a line in the extended plane C u {oo}is
a line / of the complex plane C with
of C
Circles
by
extending
{oo}.
be considered
to be circles of C u {oo}.

obtained
will

y

Given three

Corollary.
each

0,

0,

3.3
three distinct

For

((z-

-

zi)/(z

points

z, zl9

points
zl)/(z2

z3))/((z2-

z2, and z3 and

(z,zuz2,z3)=

Linear

fractional

z3 of
is called
the
and

z2,

zl9

\342\200\224

z3))

is denotedby

(z,

Cu{oo} the expression
cross ratio of the four
z2, z3)

zx,

(z-Zi)(z2-z3)

lz2~zi

z-*i

143

transformations

z-z3j z2-z3 {z-z3)(z2-zi)

z as a variable,
the cross ratio (z,zx,z2,z3) is a linear fractional
=
z
z = z2, and z = z3 we get the values 0,1, and
z.
function of Putting
zx,
oo, respectivelyfor the crossratio(z,zliz2,z3).

Considering

Theorem

z9zl,z2,

then
and z3 are four distinct points of Cu{oo},
one circle or oneline if and only if their cross ratio

If z,zl9z2,

3.9.

and

z3 are on

(z,z1,z2,z3)is a real

number.

Proof:

be the

(1) Assume

argument of

argument of

6

that

(z2

\342\200\224
\342\200\2242n<0
^,

(z

\342\200\224

zt)/(z2

\342\200\224

il/<2n,

0-^ = 0

0-l/r=x
Fig.

3.8

zx

,z2,

and

\342\200\224

zx)l(z

\342\200\224

z3).

z3 are
\342\200\224

z3)

Since

(z,zuz2,z3)

on a circleC.Let0, \342\200\224
n < 6 ^ n,

and

let

^,

\342\200\224

7i<^^^,

the

of (z,zl,z2,z3) equals
real number if and only if

the argument

is a

be

G-f/r=

e-t=

-n

n

144

mappings

Conformal

=
6 \342\200\224
\\j/

is clear

it

\302\261n and

on the

z is

that

considerations

circle C if

and

from simple

only

the
,z2, and z3 are ona circle,
points
if (z,zl9z2,z3) is a real number.

if zt

hence,

0 \342\200\224
\\\\f=

0 or

if 0

= 0

\342\200\224

^

geometric
=
or 0 \342\200\224^
\302\2617c,
are on a circle

and z3

z9zuz2,

if

and

is

and z3 are on a line/ c C. Since (z2 \342\200\224
z1)/(z2
z x)/ (z
a real number, (z, z t, z2,z3) is a real number if and only if (z \342\200\224
if z is on / or z = oo.
a real number, that is, if and only

only

is

zt

that

Assume

(2)

one of

that

(3)

Assume

=

oo (the

other cases

=
(z,oo,z2,z3)
(z, oo, z2, z3)is realifand

if z, z, = oo,
3.10.

Theorem

the points zt, z2,and
are similar).Since

\342\200\224

on a

be a

z3 be four distinct points in

z2, and

z3 are ona line

/, that

is, if

linear fractional
Cu

\\

j(zv)

az +

=

^^6

and only

and

function

and

let z,zl,z2,

{oo}. Then

= (*,*i,*2.*3)-

(3.28)

0)/(yz + <5), ot(5 - 0y #0, we have, for
*zv + p = (aS-Py)(z-zv)
P
+ 5){y2y
+ 5Y
^ +8
{yz

= (otz +

Putting/(z)

f(\\-f<
j(z)

assume that

line / u {oo}.

(/(*) J(WteX/(*3))
Proof:

z3)

-,

if z,

only

Let/(z)

Let us

is oo.

z3

z3)

\342\200\224

z-z3

z3 are

and

z2

\342\200\224

Zi,z2,

v

=

1, 3,

hence

f(z)-f(zl)_(yz3+6)(z-zl)

f(z)~f(z3)

(y2i+\302\253)(2-Z3)'

Therefore

lf(z2)-f(zi)

f(z)-f(zi)

f(z)-f(z3)lf(z2)-f(z3)
theorem

This

fractional

3.11.

Theorem

Cu

3.9 we

Theorem

and

that

shows

transformations.

z-z3\\ z2-z3

cross ratio is invariant
under
of this
immediateconsequence

0

C be

^ 0

^ 2n

a circle in

linear
theorem

maps circlesor lines

linear transformation

or lines (i.e.,a circleis mapped

and a line is mapped onto a circleor a
Let

/za-z,

z^

have

A fractional

{oo} onto circles

the

As an

=

C with

center

c and

onto

a circle

of

or a line

line).

radius

r and

be a parameterrepresentation
of C.C

is

let 6 -* z = c+ reie,
a Jordan

curve on

3.3 Linear fractional transformations145

|z

< r}
\342\200\224c|

U =

{zeC:

C/nK=0.

C/uK,

C is the boundary of the closed
disk [I/]. The interior U of Cison
and the exterior of V is on the right of C (Section2.1b).Now,
let
z3 be three points on C,let Cx be the arc with initial
zx and
point

and

terminal point z3, and let C2 be the
= Cx- C2.On Cx and
point
zx\\ then C
given orientation
then z3 -< z2 -<

<zx

z2

-<z3

Im

Theorem

3.12.

z2 -<

w

>

part Im

of

00 is

interior of the circle
points on C such

and z3 are

zl9z2,

C be
that

>

-< zx

by

the

if z2eC2,
-< z2,

and

we agree that

as

an

0.

denoted

by U, its exterior

< z2

-<z3, then ze U if

zY

Im

Kifandonlyif

(z,z!,z2,z3)

< 0.

Consider the cross ratio
h(z)

=

{z,zi,z2,z3)

as a linear fractional function
Im h{z)

and

and z3

not defined,

and Im w

mean w^oo

0 will

Let the

00

andonlyifIm(z,z1,z2,z3)> Oandze
Proo/:

-< is induced

-<z2<z3

zt

z3 -< zt
and zx -<z3 -<z2.

-< z2 \342\226\240<
z3 then

If zt

zv

the imaginary

inequality

V. If

linear order

terminal

3.9

Fig.

Since

C2 a

point z3 and

initial

with

arc

(Section 2.1a). If z2eCu then

if z3 -<z2 -<zl5then

by

interior

{00}of C:

V= (C- [t/])u

of C

left

zl9z2,

sphere

the exterior

and

S-C=

The circle
the

Riemann

the

divides

representation and C

by this parameter
=
C kj {00} into the
S

is defined

orientation

an

which

is a

-

=

(z-z3)(z2-z1)
of

z. As

continuous function on S

h{z) is
\342\200\224

{z3}.

holomorphic on S \342\200\224
{z3},
0
if
zeC
Since
#
Ji(z)
by

146

mappings

Conformal

Fig. 3.10

Theorem 3.9, Im h(z)doesnot change
sign
V. In order to determine which sign is valid

line through zx
\342\200\224<

e))

d
dt

A(0) =

z2.

e, so

small

sufficiently

ImJi(A(

and

region U or on the region
region we consider the

which

in

and A(e)eU and

to

suffices

it

Im/i(A(0)) =

0. Since

\\mh(k(t))

z1eC

on the

that

prove

\342\200\224

for

0

and

e)eV

A(

Imfi(A(\302\243))

Imfi^) = 0 it

to

suffices

>

prove

>0.

L

From

=

h'(z)

(z1-z3)(z2-z3)

(3.29)

(Z-Z3)2(z2-Zi)'

we conclude

= ,,'(Zl);l'(0)

-f3

=

Putting

[^(A(0)l-o
6 = arg

\342\200\224

((z2

z3)/(zi

\342\200\224

z3)),

z7^

Z3'

we have

0 <

6 < n sincez1<z2<

z3,

hence

Z2-Z3

= Im
[ilm/,(AW)]=o
l/u

we see

KuC,ft(z3)=

that, conversely

Let f(z) bea linear
transformation/:

of

the

z'-plane

Case 1: C
can be defined

=/(z)

by Theorem

function

transforms

the

sin0

> 0.

same

K if

ze

zeV.

Since

Theorem

3.9,

Imfi(z) < 0.

of z. Then the linear fractional
the circle C into a circleor a

line

3.11.

C isa
=f(C)isacircle.
in

z3

\\Zl ~\"Z3|

ze U if Imfc(z)> 0 and

fractional

z-*z'

~Z3

\342\200\224

if zeU and lmft(z)<0 if
00 and lm/j(z) = 0if zgC,z# z3,by

lmh(z)>0

Therefore,
S =

Zl

z2

Jordan

way as on

curve

on

which

an orientation

C. The parameterrepresentation

Linear

3.3

6 -> z =

c+

0

rew,

0->z'

^ 0

of C induces

g 2n,

of/(C).Theorientationon/(C),
not necessarily the same as

defined

the

orientations we

the

by

original

is

representation,

parameter

of

orientation

C

into accountwe

taking them

C =/(C),

have

representation,

parameter

0^0^271,

*?*),

=/(c+

a

147

transformations

fractional

Neglecting
have

(3.30)

f(C)=\302\261C\\

C represents the circle|C'| with reversed
orientation
(Section 2.1a).
side of (3.30), we take three
In order to determinethe sign of the right-hand
different
zt -<z2<z3.
zl9 z2, and z3 on C such that
Putting
points
if
we have
and
to determine
z3 =/(z3),
z\\ =f(zx),
z'2=f(z2),
only
=
if
on
C:
the
then
or
if
the
+
<
<
<
<
former,
C;
z'2
z3
z\\
f(Q
z2
z'3
z\\
where

latter

= -C\\

then/(C)

V and
and
denote interiors
=
= [/'
C.
/(I/)
representing If/(C) +C,
=
=
=
r and/(^) I/'.
-C, then/(l/)
if/(C)

Let U and V

the

then

We

If/(C) = + C,

Im

=

(f{z)9z'uz'2,z'3)

prove

this

as follows:

on C Since

z'2 < z3

z\\ <

then

V the exteriors of C
and /(F) = V\\ while

Im(z,z1,z2,z3)

*\" if ze V by
3.10, we have/(z)e U' if ze U and/(z)e
-C',thenz'3
<z'2 ^z'^hence/tzJet/'iflm^zXz^z^z;)
3.12.If/(C)=
> 0 and/(z)e V if Im(/(z),
z'3, z2, z\\) < 0 and since

by Theorem

(/(z),z3,z2,z'1)=

=

(z,z3,z2,zx)

by

Theorem

Im(z,zt, z2,

z3)

3.10, we
are

see

opposite.

the

that

Hence,

l/(z,Z!,z2,z3)

signs

if z e

Theorem

of

Im(/(z),

I/, then /(z) e K'

z3, z2,
and

if z

z'j) and
e

K,

then

/Wet/'.

C =/(C) is a line. Put C = Tu {00}, where /' is a line in the
~ *
the point
z3 =/
z'-plane.
(00),
z3 is on C. Let zx and z2 be points
Putting
onCwithZi -<z2 -<z3,andputz'x =/(z1)andz2 = /(z2),thenz\\
andz2are
two different
on /', under which
points of /'. Let -< be the orientation
/' divides the z'-plane into a regionV to the left of /' and a
z\\ -< z2. Then
V
to
the
right of /'
region
Case 2:

For an arbitrary z 5*
(z9zl9z29z3)

z3

=

we

have

(/(z),zi,z'2,oo)

by Theorem

3.10

= ^MZ:!i.

Z2-Z1

148 Conformalmappings

3.11

Fig.

Hence,

6 =

putting

1/(2)-Zij

=
\342\200\242sin0

z2-zx

e 17' if

Therefore,/(z)
/([/)

regionof C onto
regionof Con
Assume that

line

/

u

{oo} onto a

V and its exteriorby
are different
Letting

U be

V.

points of
the region

u {oo}),

with

zx

to the left

and

of

maps the

interior

of C by

the

< on / such that

if zl5

then /(zx) <f(z2)<f{oo)
<z2,
/ and V be the region to the right

and z2

on C.
of

/, then

(2) above by considering

case

from

follows

This

z-+z' =/(z)

denote

an orientation

Define
/

of /'.

region

transformation/

circle C =/(/

hence

3.12,

the left-hand side
and the right-hand side

of /'

region

side

fractional

and/(K) = V.

f(U) = V

side

Theorem

by

/ maps

transformation

The

right-hand

linear

the

ze P

V if

and/(z)e

left-hand

the

the

Im(z,z1,z2,z3).

zeU

and/(F) = K.

= [/'

-z\\)\\

arg((f{z)-z\\)/(z2

the inverse transformation/-1.

c.
conformal

First

conformal

Elementary

this section

In

we

want

mappings
to

elementary

mappings.

the linear fractional

consider

transformation

f.z^w =/(z) = (z-j3)/(z-ft
= a + ib is a complex
b
with
where
/?
denote
the region
{zeC: Im z > 0}
H+ is called the upper
H~.
Imz < 0}
a, fl-hfc, and oo are three points on
plane,

(3.31)

> 0.

number

-1,

+
/(\302\253

isthe
hence C =/(R u {oo})
circle.

Let

U denote

*)=
circle

U

u

H~

and

and

region {zeC:
the lower half-

{oo} and

-i,

/(oo)=l

passing

through

the interior

the

and

half-plane

by

/(<!)=-

Let / be the real axisR

H+

by

the unit

examples of

a few

give

of Cand V

\342\200\224
\342\200\224
i

1,

its

exterior.

and

1, that

Put on

U

is,
the

Linear

3.3

orientation -< inducedby the usual
and/(a)
<f(a + b) <f(oo) on C and
right of R, we

have

by

order <. Since a<a
is on the left of R and

Obviously,/(jS)= 0,f(fi) = oo.
linear fractional function f(z) to J/+,

if we

Therefore,

is

a

conformal

U

disk

H+

onto

given

the domain

to Schwarz's

which map the

mappings

unit disk (7 = {wg C:|w| <

the

restrict

of the

transformation

the

the corollary

and

conformal

All

3.13.

onto

/?

result

this

on the

H~

the upper half-plane H+ onto the
0. The
theorem is a
following

mapping

the point

and

onU

b

Imz > 0,

=,

z-P

mapping,

consequenceof
Theorem

z-P

=

=f(z)

f.z-+w

+

=K.

/(//-)

/(/f+)=[7,

H

+

result

above

the

linear

149

transformations

fractional

1}

the

and

point

unit

direct

Lemma.

upper half-plane

onto 0 are

/? e//+

by

=f(z)

fiz-^w

=

OeM.

^7\342\200\224L,

z-p

Example 3.2. Let
P and the terminal
7i/m,m
mapping

a natural
which

C1 and C2 be two
point <5, let the

number,
maps

m

the area

arcs

in the z-plane with
between Cx and

angle
2. We want

^

D enclosed

Let L be the line segmentconnecting
L at P and put
and
Cx

C2 at

point
/?

equal

a conformal

to determine

betweenCt and C2 onto the
/? and

disk.

initial

5,

\\jj

be

the

angle

unit

between

z \342\200\224
o

z-plane

Fig. 3.12

Since f(p)

= 0 and

/(<5)

I\\ =/(C1),

T =/(L),

and

=
T2

oo,

/

=/(C2)

maps C1? L, and
with

initial

C2

onto

points 0 in the

rays

ex-

150 Conformedmappings

f(D)

K7t/m

r

jS^

Fig. 3.13

tended C-plane. Let // = (/? 4- <5)/2 be the midpoint of L. Since/(p) = e**, the
the positive
real axis of the
ray T passes through e1*,hencethe anglebetween
r
a
on
and
conformal
the
C-plane
mapping
equals\\J/. Since/is
z-planeminus
the
S, the angle between r2 and T2 at 0 equals
n/m and the angle
point

betweenT{and T
the real axis of the
C2 ,f(D)

is to
f(D)

co =

Cw

on/(D)
Therefore,

=

C-plane.

the left
=

of

C
{\302\243

pmeim6

rx coincides with
D is to the left
Since
and to the right of r2 by

^. Hence

equals

is a

rx

=

the

to the

of

Cx and

(2)

of Section

of

right

3.3b,

that

is,

n/m}.

P\302\253\"O<p<+oo,O<0<

holomorphic

part of

nonnegative

function of (

= pe'e,

is

which

univalent

is the upper half-plane //+ of the co-plane.
and {co:co = Cm, C e/(D)}
by Theorem 3.5, C -> co = Cm is a conformal
mapping which maps

/(D) onto H+. Putting

=

\302\273(z)=/(zr

\342\200\224--\342\226\240

\302\243^

,

zeD

-\"[\302\243]\342\226\240\342\200\242

the mapping

by Theorem

z

= #

-\342\226\272
o

(z) is a conformal mappingwhich

3.4(2). Therefore, the mappingh: z-+w

D onto

maps
=

given

h(z),

H+

by

g(2)-g(n)

is a

conformal mappingwhich

Theorem

3.13. Obviously,
ht=\\K'

If D is

symmetric

h(z)

h

maps
(/.)

= 0.

the

Since

region

D onto

g (n) =

e,'m^

the
we

unit

disk,

have

(z-Pr-(s-zr

(z-pr
with

-e-2im*(6-zr'
respect

(z-pr-tf-zf

(z-py+is-zr'

to the

segment L,

i.e., if

2iJ/

=

n/m,

then

by

3.3

enclosed

by Cx

and C2, that

C4 and outside

onto the

center

with

circle

the

Let Cl be the

33.

Example

be

unit

C2.
disk.

We

First,

Linear

with

circle

fractional

center

151

transformations

i/2 passing

through 0, let C2

i/4 passing through 0, and let D be the
are
is, D is the collection of all points that

want

to

find a

conformal mapping which

region

inside

maps D

let us put

C=/(z)=l/z.

Fig.

The

3.14

i, zx = (i - l)/2, and 0 are points of Cx and/(i) =
=
= oo, hence f(Cx)
and/(0)
lxu{oo},where lx is the line through
\342\200\224
1 in the C-plane. Similarly, f(C2) = l2 u {oo}, where l2 is the
i \342\200\224

i,/(zi)=

points

-i-1,
and

through
indicated

left of

lt

\342\200\224

2i and

in Fig.
and

the

-;-i

2i
the C-plane. Define orientations on lt and l2 as
3.15. Since/maps the interiorof Cx onto the region to the
of C2 onto the region to the right of l2,f{D)is the
exterior
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
2 in

-i

/.

fiP)

-2i

Fig.

3.15

\342\200\224i

line

h

152

mappings

Conformal

region of the C-plane
C, which is univalent
plane

H+

maps

f(D)

that

mapping

maps

conformal mapping that

Theorem

=

H+. Therefore,

Z) onto

eK,z

is a

l2. (o

e*c is a holomorphic
function of
=
on /(D)
and {(d:cd
e*c,C^AD)}is the upper half-> o> = e^ is a conformal
of the co-plane. Hence \302\243
mappingthat
=
=
->
co
e*/z is a conformal
e*/(z)
onto
/f+ and therefore z

lt and

between

3.13,

fi

=

h'l

- i

maps

(0) = 2i/3.

the

region

D onto

the

unit

disk;

by

4

Analytic continuation

4.1

continuation

Analytic

a.

continuation

Analytic

function
Let f0(z) be a holomorphic

of the complex plane and

let

Z>i be a

on the

z, defined

of

region such

that

region D0
/ 0. A

n Dx

D0

function
on
ft(z) defined on Dt which coincideswith
f0(z)
is calledan analytic
continuation
into
o\302\243f0(z)
Dt. (The meaning of
for
Given a
f0(z)=fi(z)
zeD0nDr.)
\"coinciding\" is, of course,that
function
on
there
does
not
existan
D0,
holomorphic
f0(z)
always
analytic
of f0(z) into Du but if one does, then
continuation
it is unique
by the
3.1.In
is
this
to
Theorem
to
be
said
case,
corollary
f0(z)
analytically
continuable
into Dr. Then, putting
f(z) = f0{z) if z e D0 and f(z) = ft(z) if
on the region
defined
zeDu we obtain a holomorphicfunction
f(z)
of
continuation
DquDj, called the analytic
f0(z) into D.
If the analytic continuation ft (z) of f0{z) into Di exists and if the analytic
continuation
then
f2(z) of fi(z) into the region D2 exists,
^(z) is called the
of ^z)
continuation
into D2. Generally,if a sequenceof regions,
analytic
holomorphic

Dj n D0

D0,

D2,

. . .,

is given

and

if the

Dl9

Dn.u

DknDk-x\302\2610,

Dn,

analytic continuation fx(z)

continuation f2(z) of fi{z)into

of

k

=

into

./o(z)

1,

2,..

.,

Dx, the

n,

analytic

., the analytic continuation fn(z) of
is
said
be analytically continuable along
then
to
into
exist,
Dn
./\302\251(z)
fn-i{z)
.
and
. .. ,fn(z) are
.
the
functions
the sequenceDi9 D29.
, Dn
fx(z\\
f2{z\\

called analytic
/2(z), . . . Jn(z)
analytic

D=
by
then

putting
it is

uniquely

ft{z), f2{z\\ ..
on the

u

Di u D2

The

determined

is defined

f(z)
D0

-.

continuations of ./o(z).

are

continuations

function
holomorphic

D2,

u

.

by f0(z\\
,fn{z)

continuations

analytic

of

f0(z)

D0, Dl5.
exist

..,

/i(z),
DB.

If

the

then a

region

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
u D\342\200\236

f(z) =fk(z) if zeDk.
not necessarily true that

However, if,
f0(z) and fn(z)

as

in Fig.

coincide

4.1, D0nDn^
0,
If, for a

on D0nDn.

154

continuation

Analytic

D2

A
Do

Dn

Dn-\\

4.1

Fig.

e D0 n

point a
values

z =

at

fn+2{z)mtoDn
z e

Z)*,

/c

=

n

^ fn(a\\

f0(a)

Dn,

a. Moreover, if

then the

exist and
arrive

at

different

into
f\342\200\236+i(z)

continuations

analytic

+ 29. . ., fm(z) into Dm
+ 1, n + 2,. . ., m, we

function / assumestwo
if we put again f(z)

Dn+l9

=fk(z)

for

function

a holomorphic

/(z)

defined on a region

D = D0uD1uD2u-\"uDnu

Dn+1

u

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
u

Dm.

values
^a),
0 then /(z) couldassumethree different
e D0 n Dn n Dm. In this way a multivalued
holomorphic
continuations
function /(z) is defined. The analytic
fx(z\\ f2{z\\ f3(z),...
are uniquely determined by f0{z\\ hence f{z) is also uniquely determined

If D0 n Dn n Dm ^
Jt(a), and fm(a) at a

by/0(4
A

holomorphic
function is
a holomorphic function will always

multivalued

possibly

while

function,

called an

analytic

to

be understood

be one-valued.

The function/j(z),

in

continuation.

analytic

contradistinction

Hence,

to f2 (z), f3 (z),... is calleda direct
is a direct analytic
of
continuation
of direct analytic
process
repeated

each fk(z)

and f{z) is obtained by a
continuation starting from f0(z).The function
obtained
/(z),
by repeating
from
the process of directanalytic
continuation
times
starting
f0 (z), as many
is called a completeanalytic
as possible,
1966,
(see L. Ahlfors,
function
Section
1.1).
Chapter 8,

fk~i{z)

relations\"

\"Analytic

analytic

of

continuations
continuations

of

f'o(z).

region Q of

the

between

For

continuation.

holomorphic

functions

if yi(z), f2(z),

are preserved

by

f3(z),... are

example,
analytic
are
then f\\(z), f'2(z\\ f'${z\\
analytic
if <\302\243(w)is a holomorphic
function defined on
Further,
if the ranges of f0(z)
its analytic
and
and
w-plane
f0{z\\

...

a

continuations

.. are

<t>ih(z)\\

01/2(Z)X

in n, then

all included

are

f3(z),...

f2(z),

fx(z\\

155

Analytic continuation

4.1

analytic continuations of <j> (f0(z)).

<j>{fi(z)\\

if

Therefore,

functions
on the region D0, if fx (z),
defined
f0{z) and g0(z) are holomorphic
. ..,
are analytic
..., fk(z\\ ... and gY{z\\
f2(z\\
g2(z\\
gk{z),...
continuations along
.
.
.of
.
and
Dl9D2,
f0(z)
,Dk9..
g0(z) respectively,and if g0(z)
=
=
. .; and if
/'o(z), then gk{z) =f'k{z); if g0(z) /0(z),then
gk(z)
=/J(z);.
=
=
to
then
we
have
considered
now,
0k(z)
<t>{fk(z)\\ Up
0o(*) $Uo(z))\302\273
. . . defined
functions
on regions of the
f0(z\\ fx(z\\
f2(z\\
holomorphic
also
is
but
to
consider
it
analytic continuationsfor
possible
complexplane
of the Riemann sphere S.
on regions
defined
holomorphicfunctions

a

As

For

a

is

ew

holomorphic

whole

the

on

w

logz is calledthe logarithmic

conclude
v

function

exponential

w
Writing
w-plane (Example 1.2 of Section1.2b).
\342\200\224
= eueiv, hence the
=
C*
C
of
ew
11 + 11; we get ew
is
the
range
region
{0}.
ew = z is denoted by w = logz and
z g C* a solution w of the equation

of

function
=

The

function.

logarithmic

continuation let us considerthe

of analytic

example

simple

=

6 +

from

2nn9

n

an

=

w

z=

log z is a

function\"

=

u

arg z,

log| z

function

multivalued

+ i0 + 2wri,

n =

0, +1,

The logarithmic function
\\z \\eie9 |z
of the exponential
function z = ew, but

at each

6 =

\\z\\el6y

we

| and

taking

values:

= log|z|

logz

eu

z=

Putting

\\z\\ and eiv = ew, i.e.,

=

Therefore,

integer.

number of

an infinite

of z.

function

= z that

ew = eueiv

| > 0.

\302\2612,.

(4.1)

log z is the \"inverse
ew is not univalent,

=

w

. .

since

3.5 to infer immediately that
we cannot use the corollary
to Theorem
=
of
w
the domain
logz is a holomorphic function. However,if we restrict
W on which ew is univalent,
ew
to a region
the inverse function of the

restrictionis holomorphic.For each
=
u
\302\273\302\273

+

it;:

- 00

<

k define

integer

2kn

u

<

\342\200\224

+00,

n
<

Wk by
v <

2kn

\342\200\224

+

-n]>

j

and let ek{w)denote the restrictionof ew to Wk,
then
ek(w) is a univalent holomorphic function
k = 3n

and

v

= 0

+ 2nn,

_

Dv =
Hence,

corollary

fk{z) =

+

f

|z:z

inverse

the

nan

v,

the range of ek{w)

+ ie

is

given

2V7T

71
,fl
= r*'V>O,---<0<-

w =

j\302\243(z)of

to Theorem 3.5 and
log\\z\\

and

integer

v

+ 2nni,

z =

given

z = W\\

=

is, ek(w) =

that

on

0, 1,

e>G

Wk9

Putting

Wk.

or 2,

by
2V7T

_

+

711

-j.

ek(w) is holomorphic

on

Dv

by

the

by

2v7T

-^--^

It

< 0<

2vit

11

\342\200\224+-.

(4.2)

Analytic continuation

156

H>-plane

z-plane

Fig.

4.2

Obviously,

C* =
fi(z\\

fo(z),

and

D0uZ)1 uD2.
f2(z) are

holomorphic

functions definedon the

D0,

regions

/i(z)
Dt, and D2, respectively, and f0(z)and fx(z)coincideon D0nDi9and
and
^(z) coincide on Dx n D2 by (4.2), that is, ft(z) is the direct analytic

and f2(z)

of f0(z)

continuation

is the direct analytic

f3{z)9which is holomorphicon D0,coincides
For, writing an arbitrary point zeD0nD2 as

The function
D0nD2.

r-w*--|\302\253i^, -\\<e<-\\.
we

with

on

^(z)

y<^<^,

have

/3(z)

= log|z|

by (4.2).Hencef3{z)
it

of ft(z).

continuation

is

proved

are analytic

that

+ i0 + 2ici
is

the

=

direct

the functions

log|z|

analytic
fx

= f2(z)

+ i>

continuation

(zlf2{z)9f3{z),.

continuations of f0{z)along the

of/2 (z).Similarly,
. . ,fk-t

of

sequence

(z),/k(z),...

regions

Dl9D2,D09Dl9D29D09Dl9D29...

and that the functions /_ x(z), f-2(z)9f-3(z)9...
of f0{z) along the sequenceof domains

are

analytic

continuations

D29Dl9D09D29Dl9D09D29....

Hence

fk(z)

is the

analytic continuation of

f0(z)

for

all

k. By

integers

that logz coincides with
comparing (4.1)and (4.2)it is obvious
=
Hence
the logarithmicfunction
on
k
3n
each
+
v,
region Dv.
fk (z),
continuation.
holomorphic function obtained from f0(z) by analytic

of the

one
log

z is

Since

a

C*,0 is

u D2 = C* logz is holomorphic
on
called
of log z. From the definition
of log z we have
singularity
D0

u Dx

=
ei\302\260gz

Since deu/du =

logarithmic

(4.3)
variable

real

the

for

eu

a

^ o.

z

Z9

157

Analytic continuation

4.1

we

u,

corollary to

by the

have,

Theorem 3.1,
dw

^
For

fixed complex numbera the

for z ^ 0 by

=

ealo*z0Ld

dza

\342\200\224
=

dz

\\z\\eie,

\\z\\

>

= em

z\"

have

0, we have, by

z1/m

exp[(l/m)

zl/m

=

pn|z|l/m^/m9

(e^z)m =

z\"1

such that

m

= elo*z =

log

is

2,

^

usual

the

mth

then we have

z,

of z. Since(T = 0,we

mth root

=

lo*z =

number

natural

[eXp(l/m)logz]m

is an

z1/m

is,

then
m a

1/m,

=

(zi/myn

z=

(4.4),we

on C*. Since

(4.6)

integer,

power of z. If a =

that

holomorphic

= zaa/z by

log z/dz

function

aza~1.

an

is

defined
(4.5)

multivalued

a

is

z*

=

m

z* is

function

power

ealogz.

In general,

If a =

(4.4)

z

an arbitrary

dea]o*z/dz

(4.3) yields

= -.

dz

za

sides of

both

differentiating

Therefore,

define

01/m

=

2, .

= 0. Putting

(4.1),
+

\\z\\

i0/m

+ 2rmi/m],

that is,

Since
z1/m

is

The

(3.7).)

(Compare

p =

z1/m is

function

the powerfunction
b.

series

Analytic

Let r0,

<

-h

oo,

oo

I
B

= 0

W

m-valued

z1/m

0, 1,

. . , m~ 1.
function.

holomorphic
is

continuous

at z = 0. The point

0 is

at z
called

= 0, but
a branch

z1/m.

continuation

0 < r0

/o(*)=

an

lim2-0 |z|1/m= 0,

limz_0 l*1/ml =
of course
not holomorphic

point of

^n./r^

a0n(z-c0)n.

be

by expansion
the radius

in

power

series

of convergence of the

power

158

continuation

Analytic

Then f0{z) is a holomorphicfunction

of the circleof convergence.
of f0(z\\ we pick a point
series about cx
=

foW

cx e

U0, cx ^ c0,and

fli.

fli^-^r,
\302\243
11 = 0

=

l/ro(c0)

the analytic continuation
expand
f0(z) into a power

to find

order

In

U0 =

interior

the

on

we

(4.7)

^Aw(CiX
\342\204\242

4.3

Fig.

series in the

The

power

of a

circle with

Therefore, if

center
represents

rx

right-hand sideof (4.7)

cx and

radius

the

radius

converges

on

the interior

p = r0 \\cx c0 | by Theorem 1.16.
of convergence of the power series,
\342\200\224\342\200\224

have

we

(4-8)

re-let-c01

r^

and the

function

fx(z)

defined

by

00
n

is a

= 0

function on the disk

holomorphic

radiusrx. Sincefx(z)
on

UxnU0
if rx

i.e.,

> p =

r0

with center cx and
U p(cx) of cl9 fx(z) = f0(z)

Uri(cx)

=Jo(z)onap-neighborhood

the corollary

by

=

Ux

if Ux<fcU09
to Theorem 3.1. Therefore,
is the direct analytic continuation of

\342\200\224
\\cx\342\200\224c0\\9fx(z)

Jo(z)into Ut.
We

have

by Theorem

1.11, hence

the coefficientsaXn

of

the

power

series for/i

(z) are

4.1

159

continuation

Analytic

by

given

the

Repeating

the

expand

(4.9)

)aom(ci-c0r-a-

-10
above

we pick a point c2eUi9c2 # ct, and
function into a power seriesabout
c2

procedure,

holomorphic
n=

0

we

W!

Putting
00

/2(^=

= 0

the radius of

r2 denotes

where

U-C2|<r2,

\302\24302n(z-C2)n,
n

of

convergence

the

series under

power

is the direct analytic
consideration, and assumingr2> rl \\c2 ci\\,f2(z)
in this way, we
continuation of fx(z) into U2 = Ur2(c2) <\302\243UimContinuing
continuation
arrive at the direct analytic
the
direct
f3 (z) of f2 (z), ...,
of
continuation
Here
we
know
that
fk(z)
fk-x (z),....
analytic
\342\200\224\342\200\224

rk i= rfc-l

~~

\\Ck~ ck-l

\\>

the center of each powerexpansion^(z) and rk its radius of
\342\200\224
for
eachchoiceof cx e U0, the equality rx = r0 \342\200\224
If
c0 \\
\\cY
convergence.
be continued
cannot
holds,
f0(z)
analytically outside its circle of
ck denotes

where

convergence.

4.1.

Example

Consider

\302\243
m

If
Lw=o

=

z\"!

/o(z)=

l+z

= 0

... .

+ z24+

and if M>1>

then Zr=olzlm!^ir=olzr<+00
= +oo, hence the radius of convergence

|z|<l,
lzlm!

is 1 and

its circleof convergence

0 =

k,n natural

with

+ z2 + z6

Ink/n,

/o(\302\253*)\302\253\"l

m=0

the

unit

of

circle.

numbers, we have

this

For z =
=

(ew)ml

power

then

series

0 < r < 1,
m ^ n, hence

rew,

1 if

r\302\273!.
\302\243

(re*r*+
m

= n

Therefore

lim

that

some

27ifc/n

lim

r-1-0

+oo.

|/o(^,8)l=

r-1-0
Suppose for
then for a 0 =

f0(reie)=

cx e
such

(4.10)

U0 we

have

that

e,e

lim

fAre\")

r-1-0

rt

^^we

>

r0

\342\200\224\342\200\224

|cx

would

=fAew)

have

c0|,

i.e.,

Ut <f:U0:

160

continuation

Analytic

must hold

circleof

for all

Hence,

(4.10).

contradicting

and the function

e U0

if

general,

the equality

region D cannot be continued analytically
then the boundary of Dis calledthe natural

some

example,the unit

4.2

natural

is the

circle

continuation

Analytic

Let y:

t

->

t g

the

across

\\cx

-c0|

of D,

boundary

of/(z).

boundary

In the

above

of f0(z).

boundary
curves

along
fl ^

y(f),

=r0-

rx

analytically acrossthe
a holomorphic function f(z) defined
on
be continued

cannot

f0 (z)
In

convergence.

cx

b, be a

explained in Section 2.1a

in

curve

the

As

plane.

complex

A:r -> k(x)
the
case
arcs, the curve
= ?(#(*)) obtained from
of variables t = <\302\243(t),a ^ t ^ /?,
y by a change
continuous
where </> (t) is a
nondecreasing function of t with <f> (a) = a and
= b, is considered to be the samecurve
as y, i.e., y and
A are considered
<f> {p)
of the same curve. A Jordan arc
as two different parameter representations
with
an
was defined to be the point
C together
orientation
set
-<
in
beused
the
If
case.
definition
cannot
but
this
y is
(Definition 2.1),
general
a smooth
differentiate
curve, then we assume that
<f>(t) is a continuously
= a + (b \342\200\224
if
for
t.
For
function with
all
a)r,
example,
<f>(x)
<\302\243'(t)>0
0 ^ * ^ 1, then y is the same curve as A: t -* X (t) = y (a + (b \342\200\224
hence
a)r)
each curve can be written in the form: y: t -> y(t\\ 0 ^ t ^ 1.
If yx is a curve connecting c0 and cx and if y2 is a curve connectingcx and
c2, then the curve obtained by piecing togetheryx and
y2 is denoted
by

of Jordan

for

72

^v

Fig. 4.4

l.withy^O) = c0fyi(l) = y2(0)
t ->y(0,0
^ * ^ 2,where
-y2isgivenbyy:
=
1
r
for
^ ^ 2.
y(t)
y2(t-1)

Puttingy1:r-*y1(r),y2:r-*y2(0,0^t^
=
= c2,theny = yx
c1,andy2(l)

1

y(t) = yi(t) for 0 ^ r ^

In caseof

three

and

yk(l)

= ck, /c

curves

= 1,2,.

. . , n,

y(r) = yk(t-fc

and

y: f->y(t),

and

more

or

0^

+ l)
f

^

n, is

yk: t
we

-\342\226\272

yk (t),

0 ^

t

^

1, with

fc

=

l,2,...,n

yk

(0)

=

ck_

put

iffc-l^t^fc,
the curve

obtained

by

piecing

together

x

4.2

4.5

Fig.

order

\342\200\242
in that
\342\226\240\342\226\240
, y\342\200\236

y^yi'Vi
Given

along curves 161

c2

c0

yi.72.

continuation

Analytic

y:t->y (f), a

a curve

y*.

y*

^

r

g

fe,

the

oriented

oppositely

curve is denoted

byy\"1

y\"1:
Ify = yi.y2

=

f-^y\"1(f)

y(fe +

a^t^b.

a-r),

y

y2_1 -yf1.

=yn\"1

y\342\200\236,
theny-1

ofthe power
The radius of convergence
the Cauchy-Hadamard formula (1.19)

series

Y,7=o a*(z

~~

c)n ls

giyen

by

1

=

limsup|aj1/n'

n-* oo

/(z) =

~~
Xr=o fl\302\253(z c)n IS reduced to a function definedat only one
on
Since this is an uninteresting case, from now
we will always
point.
a radius
of convergence
r such that
assume that our power serieshave
0 < r ^ + oo,unless
is
the
stated.
The
sum
of a power
contrary
explicitly
\342\200\224
series\302\243*=0 an (z c)n is a holomorphic function of z on the interiorUr (c) of
If r

= 0,

of convergence.

the circle

Let y: t-+y(f),
let us considerthe
the curve y of
/<>(*)=

Definition 4.1.
center

0 ^

t ^

fe,

be

a

continuation

analytic

curve
by

initial point c0 and
series
power
expansion along
with

\302\243an{z-c0)n.

n=

0

If for all t

in

the

closed

interval

[0,6], the powerserieswith

y(t)

f(z,t)=

exists such

that

an(t)(z-y(t))n
\302\243

n=0
the

following

(l)/(z,0)=/o(z),

(2) for eachs e [0,fe]
analytic

there

continuation

conditions

are satisfied:

is a positive e (s) such that/(z, t)
< e(s),
of /(z, s) if |r \342\200\224s|

is the

direct

162

continuation

Analytic

then

analytically continuablealong y

to be

is said

(z)

f0

the

and

family

of

power series

-F =

{f(z9t):0\302\243t\302\243b}

continuation off0(z) along y. Let r(t) denotethe radius
for each power seriesf{z, t) belonging
to this family F. Then

the analytic

is called

of convergence

r(t) > 0 by

the

on

the

defined
condition

t) is a holomorphicfunction
and/(z,
disk Ut
with center y(f) and radius r(t). By
Ur(t)(y(t))
we have if |r \342\200\224
s\\ < e(s), then Utr\\Us^
0 and

(2)

above

assumption
=

if zeUtnUs.

f(z9t)=f{z,s)
the

If

4.1.

Theorem

series f0{z)

power

continuable along a curve y: t
the analytic continuation off0
F = {/(z, f):

0 ^

->y(t),

center

with

t ^

b,

is analytically

c0
initial

with

point

c0, then

y

along

(z)

(4.11)

t \302\243
0 \302\243
6}

determined.

is uniquely

Proof:

Let F =

analytic

continuations

{/(z,

f):

0

of f0

radii of convergence
s > 0 is sufficiently

^ r ^

b} and G =

(z) along

y, and

{#(z,

let r(t)

r):

6} be two
smallest of the

^ t ^

0

denote the

and gf(z, t) with center t. If
small,
0 if 0 ^ r ^ s and /(z, t) =
UtnU0^
=
Jo(z) and g(zy i)
0O(*) on Ut n l/0 by (4.11), hence /(z, f) = g(z, t) by the
of all s such that
the supremum
corollary to Theorem 3.1.Let u denote
= g{z,t)
=
<
u
then
if O^t^s.
fe,
f{z,t)
f{z,t)
g(z,t)
Suppose that
if 0 ^ r ^ w, and for a sufficiently
e > 0 we have Utr\\Uu^ 0 if
small
w \342\200\224
b <
t

<

for

0

for

0 ^

^

f

*s,

while

<

r ^

fc.

series /(z, r)

power

/(z,

t) =/(z,

we concludethat

definition

the

the

then

+

m

(4.11). Hence
contradicting

of

The

of
same

w.

f(z,
Therefore

argument

w)

t)

and

g(z,

t) =

g(z,

= g{z,t) for 0
u = fc, that

now

shows

^

on

u)
t

<

t/M by

t/rn

w-he,

is, f(z,t)
that f{z, t)

= g(z,t)
= g(z,f)

b.

If /(z) is a holomorphic
on a region D,
function
defined
a point
and if
if/0(z) is the power seriesexpansionof/(z) about
c0eD,
F = {/(z, t):0 S t ^ 6} is the analytic continuationof f0 (z) along the curve
= c0 and
with
y(t)eD for all f, then all
y: t-*y(t\\ O^t^b,
y(0)
/(z, r) are power series expansionsof /(z) about y (f).
Corollary.

Let
let

r (r)

r (s)

F =

/(z, f): 0 ^ t ^ fc} be the analytic continuation of f0{z)along y,
of/(z,r) and put l/f = t/r(f) (y{t)). If
the circle of convergence

denote

= -f

oo

for

some

s, then

on the
/(z, s) is holomorphic

whole

z-plane

and

since

the

by

reduced to a

above

corollary

trivial

case.

The
0

S

of

radius

t

is the

since

y(t)

= y(t) by the

of /(z, t)

a continuous

is

that

such

series expansion

power

S 6,

we are

we assume

r(t)

s,0^s^6,a\302\2535>0

arbitrary

s) for all t, 0 S t

O^t^b.

convergence

6. For,

^

/(z, t) =f(z9

Therefore,

+oo,

r(t)<

163

Analytic continuation along curves

42

y

of
is a continuousfunction
f,
function of f, there exists for

(f)e

[/s if

|f

- s| < S.Hence,/(z,

of the holomorphicfunction

corollary to Theorem4.1.Therefore,

/(z,

t)

s) about

z

(4.8)

by

r(0\302\243r(s)-|y(f)-y(s)|.

If r(t)

> r{s) then y{s)eUtand
r(s)^r(r)-|y(s)-y(r)l-

if

Hence,

\\t

\342\200\224

<

s|

then

<5,

(4.12)

|r(r)-r(s)|g|y(r)-y(s)|,

and therefore

The

limf_sr(r) = r(s).
function

continuous

^

r(t)

Sincey(r)

is

p >

r(t)

(4.13)
there existsa

S

> 0

\\t

\342\200\224
<

f) is

s|

<5,

/(z,

s) about

\302\243an{t)(z-y(t)T,

/(z,

y

the power
(t)

such

that

(4.14)

if|t-s|<\302\253.

function

/(*,*) =

on [0,6],

continuous

uniformly

p, hence,if

holomorphic

value p on [0,6]:

0.

|y(0-yWI<p

r(s) >

a minimum

assumes

series expansion of the
to Theorem 4.1:

by the corollary
an(t)

=

\302\261f\302\253(y(t\\s).

164

continuation

Analytic

by (4.9),

Therefore,

<U0=

(4.15)

|f-s|<5,

\302\243(\342\204\242)am(s)(y(t)-y(s))m-n,

and if 11\342\200\224
s \\ < 8, then f(z9 t) is the direct analytic
continuation
of f(z9 s) by
->
series
t
f
0
Let
be
a
curve connecting
^ ^ fe,
power
y:
y(t),
expansion.
be a power
series with
center
co = y(0) and cWi=y(b)9
f0(z)
c0 and
0
t
be
the
continuation
of
the
curve y
analytic
Jo(z)
along
{f(z, t): g ^ 6}
and
has
put )* (z) =/(z, fe). We say that the power series f+ (z) with center
c\342\200\236.
been obtained
from f0 (z)by analytic continuationalongy, and f^ (z) is called
the result of the analytic
continuation
of f0 (z) along the curve y.
Let >>!: t -> yt (r), 0 ^ t ^ a, be a curve connecting c0 = yx (0) and cx
= y i (a) and let y2: t -> y2 (0\302\273fl= * = ^\302\273
be a curve connecting
cx = y2 (a) and
= ?2 {by

c*

Let

{/(z, t): 0

=

Fx

^

f

^

a} be

power series)o(2) with center c0 along yx
analytic continuation of the power

the analytic continuationof the
and
let F2 = {/(z, t): a ^ t ^ 6}

be the

=

(a)

Vi

72(0)

F = FluF2
result of

the

y

cx =

center

with

(z)

along

along
y3,.

y2,

=

. . ,

and

yl9

(z) is the
result

the

/#(z)

(z) is the result of the
A similar result holds if
to form
together
pieced

y2, then f+

along
y

if/i

Hence,

-y2.

yx

yt -y2.
yw

are

. . . yn.

y1.y2.y3..

we want to

Next

yl9

y =

along

off0{z)

of f0(z)

curves

more

or

three

(z)
o\302\243f0

continuation offx

continuation

analytic

f{z, a)

{f(z9t):0^t^b}

continuation

analytic

of the analytic

=

=

analytic continuation

is the

series

alon8 72- Then

study the connectionbetween

analytic

continuation

and analytic continuation along a sequenceof regions,as
along
discussedin Section 4.1a. Let g0 (z) be a holomorphicfunction
on a
defined
and
.
of
let
be
the
continuation
.,
analytic
region D0
gi(z\\g2{z)9. gn{z)
of
the
g0(z) along
sequence regions
k =
1, 2,. . . , n.
Dl9D29D39...9DH9 DknDk.l*09
a curve

Le^(z) be the
let^(z)

order to
=

expansion

series expansion

of g0(z)

of gn(z)

obtain/^(z) as the result of analytic

curve, we selectfor
cn+i

series

power

the power

be

c*- Next,

each

k =

1,

2,.. .,

n

about the point c0eD0and
about

continuation
a point

O^t^U

yk(0)

=

ck9 y*(l)

be the curvesconnectingck with ck +1 in Dk, and let y
by piecing together y0, yl5. . . , yk,. . . , y\342\200\236:
=

along

of^z)

ckeDknDk_l

In

c^sDn.

point

and we

put

let

y,: t^yk(t)eDk9

y

the

y0-yl-y2

y\342\200\236.

be

the

= ck+l9
curve

obtained

a

4.2

continuation

Analytic

along

165

curves

Yn

C\\

4.7

Fig.

Hence

is

y

by

given

= yk(t-k),

y: t-+y(t)
Since

r) is the
j\302\243(z,

r)

is the

f(z,t)=fk(z,t-k)
is a power series
F = F1uF2u

of
=

t (z,
j\302\243_

if

/c

^

center

with

4.2.

the

fc

+

=

gffc(z)

power
t ^

r

^

1, is

on

gk-i(z)

r) by

defining/(z,

1, /c =

0 ^

yk(t),

Since

0,1,2,..

.,

n,

and
t

Let

0X

(z),

02(z),

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242,
gn{z)

-,

on

n +

1) =^(z).

Dn with Dk

of
the
D0 along
sequence

be

the analytic

the

region

n Dk-X ^

0,

k

=

of g0(z) with center
c0gD0
of gn(z) with center
c+eDn.
c0 and C* is selected such that

power expansion
series expansion

0 ^

<

t ^

where

center

proved.

of regionsDl9D2,. -

the

1). Hence,

y (t)

the holomorphicfunctiong0(z)defined

points

{fk(z,t):0^ r ^ 1},

yk.

along

fk(z,0)

0,1,2,. . .,n.

f0(z)

Theorem

be

k =

+ 1,

uFn = {/(z,t):0 ^ ^ n+1}
along
y. Obviously/(z,
analytic continuation of

have

We

fc

holomorphic

the analytic continuation
Dk n Dk-1, we have j\302\243(z,0)

/(z,

^

function on Dk,Fk =
series
expansion of gk(z)with
power

is a

gfk(z)

g> t

k

fe,

connecting

t0, rlf

t2y.. .,tk9...,

r\342\200\236,
rn+1,

= 0
r0

<

tx

<

= b, y(t)eDk if tk ^ t ^ tk+l, k = 0,1,2,..
tn < tn+l
result of the analytic continuation of f0 (z) along
Let Q

be a regionin

the

complex

plane

continuation

1,2,...
and
If a
for

t2 <

,

\302\253,
letJo(z)

let\302\243(z)

be

the

curve y: t -> y(t),
chosen

suitably

tk <

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

., n, then\302\243(z)
y.

and let

oo

I

fo(z)=
n

= 0

c0
power series with center
curves in Q with
initial
point

be a
all

an(z-c0)n

continuable

in CI.

e Q.
c0,

continuable
lff0 (z) is analytically
along
then^ (z) is saidto befreely
analytically

is

continuation

166 Analytic

Let^z) be

pointofftandletyrf->y(t),a
y(b) = c,. Let the power

in

continuable

analytically

freely

^
series

t

^

cx be

\302\2432.
Let

bjConnectCoandc^i.e.jy^)

^(z)

with center cx

an arbitrary
= c0and

be the result of the

off0 (z) along y. In general,/! (z) dependson the choice
does
not
in
but/i (z)
change if the curve y is transformed
continuously
ft. Before proving this important fact, we have to give an exact definition of
in ft.\"
the phrase \"is transformed
continuously
continuation

analytic

of 7,

-* y t (f), a ^ t ^ fr, be two curves
Let y0: t -\342\226\272
y0 (f) and y t: t
yt and
c0 and cx.The curves
y0 are called homotopic in ft
^
if
a
function
there
exists
continuous
the
r(r,
5) from
(denoted
y0)
yx
=
a
f
0
s
K
into
the
complex plane
rectangle
{(f,s): ^ ^ fc, ^ ^ 1}

Definition 4.2.
in ft connecting

satisfying

(i)

(ii) r(f,0) =
(iii)

If a

r>,

y0(r),

continuous

Ci in ft and
and

is

function

ys varies

obtained
the

r(b, 5) = Cl,

s) = c0,

for eachs e [0,1],the
yx

for all t, s,
= yt (r),
1)
T(r,

r(r,s)eft

ys: t

curve

continuously

by varying

terminal

s) satisfying

T(t,

y0

a ^

0^

t

^

5

^

fe,

these three

= r(t,s),a^t
ys {t)
with the variable

-\342\226\272

continuously

point ct = ys(b)of ys

1.

in ft.
remain

conditions exists,then
^

fc,

The initial
fixed

connects

s. Hencewe

can

c0 and
say

point c0 =

by condition

that
ys(a)

(iii). We

have already consideredthe case that rt(t, s), Ts(f, s), and Tfs(r, s) exist and
are continuous in Section 1.3c,without,
that condition
however,
assuming
ft\"
is
in
Since
means
satisfied.
and
are
(ii)
\"yt
y0
homotopic
\"y0 can be
transformed continuously into yx in ft,\" it is obvious that y0 ^ yx if yx ~ y0
and that y2 \342\200\224
these
facts
7o and
yo if 7i \342\200\224
y2 ^ yi- It is easy to derive
~
from Definition 4.2. In orderto prove
that
formally
yx
y0 implies y0 \342\200\224
yi
~
\342\200\224
^
ft
in
If
it suffices
to consider the function
1
and
T(t,
s).
yx
y0
y2
yx

7o

Fig.

4.8

4.2

U '

T(r, 0) =

that

y0(t)

and

y0 2- y0

in ft.

lr2(r,25-l),

1/2^5^1,

function

satisfying

the conditions

T(f,

1) = y2(0, that

We have

equivalencerelationon

under
If y0

~

yt

=

[y0]

[y

x

] if

and

=

r

^

fe,

/(t) =

t -*

yt:

= cl5

yx(P)

T =

and

different

have

curves

two

the

a ^

(t),

yt

a ^

we first apply a

domains,

t ^

0,

with

linear transformation

t -+

y0 (f)

for example, y0:
=
y0(a)
yt (a) = c0

+ fl

^H^(t_a)

and

[a, b] for the

domain

same

the

with

curvesy0:

for two

of homotopy

c0 and ct

connecting

t-^ViW

7o(0,

by [y].

connecting c0 and cx,then

a definition

variable t. If

and y0(fe)

two fixed points

y0 in ft.

We have given

t -*

Finally, we note

relation ^ in Q isan

connecting

is denoted

belongs

y

two curves

yt axe

and

only if
Vi'-

which

class to

homotopy

all curves

of

set

y2

(i) and (iii), while

y0 *n &-

^

the homotopy

that

proved
the

is,

be a regionandletc0,cx e ft. The equivalence classes
The
classes.
c0 and ct are calledhomotopy
connecting

curves

of

c~

y2(t).

Let ft

43.

Definition

=

0^5^1/2,

Iri(f'2s)'

continuous

a

that

such

s)

r1(r,i) = r2(t,o) = y1(o, r2(u)
T(r, s) defined by

the function
\342\204\242s*=

is

T2(r,

= y0(t),

r1(t,o)
Hence,

T^t, s) and

functions

continuous

exist

there

then

along curves 167

continuation

Analytic

(4.16)

of homotopy. That is, we say that yx and y0
^ y0) if yt (/) ^ y0 in Q in the senseof
as
yt
(written
homotopic
Definition
4.2, where
^b. Rather than transforming
y x (I): t -+yl (/(f)), a^t
t into t through
t = /(r), we could have
t into
t through
transformed
=
t
with the same result.
rl(t)
before

the definition

applying

in ft

are

have

We

from

y: t

curve as y.

(4.16), we may

\\lt(a)

t ->

i//(r) is
= a and

t

^

fe,

Therefore we
the

transforming

Since

a ^

y (t),

X:

the curve

considered

-\302\273

variable

the

by

have

t into

assume that
X(t) =

y(^(r)),

X is

X:

x ->

change
to

X{x) =

prove

the variable
given

X
t

a

y(<\302\243(r)),

of variables
~
by

t

y in
the

=

<f>(r)

^

/>,

to

be the

ft. By, if

obtained

same

necessary,

transformation

linear

by

a^
*(r) = 0(/(t))
monotone increasing function

a continuous,
= 6, the function
\\l/(b)

^ t

r

^

*>.

of

t such

that

168 Analytic continuation

is also
^s(fr)=

a

monotone

b

for

each

of

function

increasing

t

that

such

ips(a)

= a

and

Putting

se[0,1].

r(r,s) = y(s^(t) + (l-s)r)

r(r,s) is a
a^t^b, O^sgl}

Theorem

43

plane,^

(z) a

connecting

and if
In

other

curve y
class

~

y t

Therefore,

K = {(t,s);

rectangle
=
in

1)

T(r,

y(t%

=

X(t\\

fi.

Let fi be a region
in the complex
center
c0 e fi, and Cj e fi. Further,le^ (z) be
in fi and let the powerseries^(z) with center

power serieswith
continuable

result of the

be the

V(t,0)
X c* y

T(t,s)efi,

y(fr).

the

(Monodromy Theorem).

analytically

freely

ct

and T(6, s) =

= y(a),
5)

T(a,

that:

such

on

defined

function

continuous

of f0(z)

continuation

analytic

If yx

c0 and

ct in fi.

y0, the

result of the analytic

curve

is another

a curve y0
and
c0
ct in fi

along

connecting

continuation

off0

(z) along

equals

yt

continuation
of f0 (z) along a
of the analytic
cx in fi is uniquelydeterminedby the homotopy

the result

words,

c0 and

connecting

[y] of y.

a ^ t ^ b, there existsa
=
function r(f, 5) defined
K
{(r, s):a ^ t ^ 6,0 ^ s ^ 1}
= yjt), r(a,s) = c0, and
=
such
that
T(r,
1)
r(f,s)efi,
r(t,0)
yo(t),
=
=
is a curve
t-+
a^t^b,
T(6,s)
ys(t) T(t,s), ys:
cx. Putting
ys(f),
continuation
connecting
c0 and cx in fi, hence there existsan analytic

Putting

Proof:

y0(t) and yt:
on the rectangle

t ->

y0:

t -\342\226\272
yt (f),

Fs={fs{z,t):a?Zt^b}

of^(z)

along ys. In

continuation

off0

order to

(z) along

y

In

an

to prove

order

e(s) >

0 such

this,

it

we

will

use

analytic

the result/! (z) =Jj>(z, b) of the
is
it suffices to prove that
fs(zyb)

y0

along

0\302\243s\302\243l.

suffices

that for

to prove

fu(z,

Theorem

independent of u

b) is

independent
4.2.

and considerFs, defined
convergenceof the power series f5(z,
Fix s

b) of the

each s e [0,1] there

exists

(417)

if|ii-5|<\302\243.

if fu(z, b) is

5e [0,1], then

^(z,

that

fu(z,b)=fs(z,b)

(Because,

result

with

t coincides

analytic continuation of f0(z)
of s, i.e.,
independent

/s(z,fc)=/1(z),

the

that

prove

of

on
u

above.

t)

with

on

of each

a neighborhood

In order

[0,1].)

Let
center

r{t)
ys(t)

point

to prove (4.17)

denote
and let

the radius of
Ut

denote

the

4.2

interiorof its circleof
r(t) ^

(4.13)

By

convergence.

along curves 169

continuation

Analytic

0

p >

and for 5 from (4.14)

if|f-r|<5

|y.(0-y.(OI<P
t') is

(z,

hence^

the direct

fs(z, t). Since V(t,
0 < e < 8 such

is an

fs(z,t0) = f0(z).

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\302\273
^fw

ci = ys(^)

of

|u

satisfies

then

*\342\202\254lA>
**+i]>

\342\200\224
s \\ <

\\t-tk\\

<

< e.

(4.18)

that

. , n.

0,1,2,..

rk), /x(z), /2(z),... ,/n(z)
the sequence of regions

=/s(z,

/k(z)

along

^(z)

fs(z9 b) is the power
Vu: l -> ytt(0\302\2730 ^ f ^ fr,

and

Let
\302\260f\302\243(z)-

cx,where u

=

Putting

continuation

analytic

^ti\302\273^r2>

of

expansion

existsan e with

|k-s|

b such

tn+x =

tk <

*
<\302\253\342\200\242

-r| < e and

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

Uk+i-'kl

We have

if |f

< p

< 11 <

= a

r0

series

power

on X, there

continuous

that

u)-r(f,s)|

|r(f\\

Pick

analytic continuation by

is uniformly

s)

series

a curve

be

center

with

expansion

c0 and

connecting

apply Theorem 4.2to this
e, hence by (4.18):
e and

let us

curve.

If

\\yu(t)-ys{tk)\\<p.
Since

Utk

is

disk

the

with center

ys(tk)

and

radius

have

r(rk)^pwe

ifre[fk,rk+1].

yu(t)eUtk

By Theorem 4.2,fs
of f0(z) along yu.

(z,

fe) equals

Hence

(4.17)

the result^
is valid.

(z, fe)

of

the

analytic

continuation

that
a closedcurve,
is, if c0 = y(a) = y(b),
->
then
^b,
y0: \302\243
y0(0> <*^t
c0 is called the base point of y. If the curve
in
4.3
is
curve
base
that
a
with
closed
Theorem
is,
point c0,
occurring
=
if y0(b) = y0(a)
c0, then the result ft (z) of the analytic continuation of

If y: r -> y(r),

f0{z)

along

y0 is

from

different

a

^ r ^

a power

b, is

series

with

center

c0,

in general

which

will

be

f0 (z).

If 8(t) maps eacht e [a,b]onto the same point c0, the curve 5: t -> d(t)
= c0 is a closedcurve.If y is a closed curve with
base
c0, then y is said
point
as y ^ 0) if y ^ 5 in fi. If y ^ 0, the curve y
to be homotopic to 0 in SI (written
can
be contracted
onto c0 while the point c0 remainsfixed.
Sincethe result of the analytic continuation off0(z) along 5 is of course
f0(z\\

we

Corollary.
then

the

have

If
result

y

is a

closed

of the

curve

with

base

point

c0 in

analytic continuation of f0(z)

ifi

along

and

if y
y is

^ 0 in

fo{z).

\302\2432,

170 Analytic

continuation

o

4.9

Fig.

the unit
defined on

C be

Let

function
base

with

can be

C. Then t

c0 =

point

in the

circle

y

\302\243-plane,

z =

->

t -*

form

7r

(e,r),

^ r g

\342\200\224
t !\302\247
n !\302\247
n9

y (elt\\

a continuous

be
y(\302\243)

\342\200\224

rc,

z-plane. It is clear that

(\342\200\224
1) in the

written in the

y

z =

let

and

is

a closed
closed

each

for

some

curve
curve

continuous

in the z-plane
function y (\302\243)
on C. Hence, we can defineclosedcurves
defined
=
as continuous mappings y: C -\302\273z V (C)> which
map the unit circle C into the
A
unit
be
disk
Let
the
closed
z-plane.
{C-ICI^-}in the \302\243-plane, then C is the
->
e C, be a closed curve with
e ft, \302\243
base
point
boundary of A. Let y: \302\243 y (\302\243)

Co

= y(-l)inft.

Theorem 4.4.

0>:
which

passing
<D(7t,

=

the

0>(K)

mapping

C ?*

the continuous

(t,s)->C

maps

(That

=

to a

Consider

Proof:

= A

through
=

follows from the

\342\200\224

1, the

inverse

7r,71]

s):
fact

onto

\342\200\224
f
7c ^

that

the

^

for

rc, 0

each

circle

with

^ s

^ 1} onto A.

s, 0 <
center

s ^ 1, the

\342\200\224

1+s

= <D(-tt,s)
0(r, 1) = e\"eC and <t>(r,0)
\342\200\224
=
=
s
0 or f = + n. If
if <b(t, s)
1, then

have

mapping

(ii) r(r,0) = co,
r(-7t,

\342\200\224

conversely,

= seii

is continuous. Sincey
on K satisfying:
(i) r(r,s)efi,
(iii)

We

1.)

and

Q~1:\302\243

[

\342\200\224

\342\200\224
1

+ s- 1

K = {(t,

maps

ft
C -\342\226\272

mapping

= seu

0>(r,5)

rectangle

*-\342\226\272<&(*,s)

s)

if and only if the continuous mapping y:
continuous mappingT: A -> ft.

0 in ft

^

y

be extended

can

+ s-l-*(t9s)
~

0, there

s) = r(7t,

exists a continuous function

r(r,l)

=

s) = c0.

y(e1'),

T(t9

s) defined

4.2
Let r:

C

->

be a

T(C)

continuation

Analytic

continuous

mapping

iQ extending

into

A

from

171

curves

along

the

->
from
C into Q. Putting T(r, 5)
continuous mappingy: \302\243
y (\302\243)
5)),
r(d>(r,
K
is
on
a
continuous
f
unction
defined
conditions
T(f, s) clearly
(i),
satisfying
if there
exists a continuous function T(r, s) defined
(ii), and (iii).Conversely,
on
K satisfying
the conditions (i), (ii), and (iii) we put
=

=

r(C)

If <D(f,

s)

=

C=

if

r(f,s)

s = 0

\342\200\224

1, then

or

<I>(r,s).

t =

\302\261
7r,

hence

T(

\342\200\224
=

1)

c0 by

conditions (ii)

and (iii). Since<D(r, 1) = eu9 I\"V) = T(r, 1) = y(elt) by (ii). Furthermore,
is an extension of y: \302\243-*y(\302\243).If
Y(Qeil
r(C)efi
by (i). Hence, Y\\ \302\243-\342\226\272
\342\200\224
= T(r, s) and (r, 5) = O\"1(\302\243)
of \302\243.
are
continuous
functions
1, T(0
C #
show

To

that

us assume that there
1 and |r(\302\243n) \342\200\224c0|
lim \342\200\236_\342\231\246
^ e
a, \302\243\342\200\236

at

continuous

also

r(\302\243)is

\342\200\224

=

1, let

\302\243

A with
exists a sequenceof points
\302\243ne
= *
e > 0. Put \302\243n
of
(rn, sn). The point sequence{(f\342\200\236,
sn)}
to a point (t^sJeK.
K possesses a subsequence
which
converges
we may just as well assume that lim,,^^ (tn, sn) = (t^, s^). Since
=

for some

T(r*, s*) =
s^ #

have

we

<b(t*,sJ

=

If the

=
\302\243

continuous

=

sn)

lim HC)

oo
n -\302\273

hence

t+&\302\261n,

=

\\imn-.O0<l>{tfnsn)

at

continuous

0,

lim
T(rn,
n -\302\273
oo

Q is

->
from
y (\302\243)
mapping y: \302\243

given by yr:

=

->

\302\243 yr(\302\243)

the curve yl = y shrinks
continuously
C = 7o(Q = T(0).Therefore,
we
say
onto a point. The closed curve y is
if y ~ 0 by Theorem
4.4.

fi

Fig.

4.10

\342\200\224
This
?\302\243 1.

contradicts

-1.

Therefore, T(0

C =

5A

is also

1-

a continuousmappingT:
in

Hence,

\342\200\224

A into

->
from
\302\243 T (\302\243)

curve

in

# c0

^f^s*)

limn_00Cn=

points

via the
that

If r

curves

yr

the closed

contractible

extended

to

each r e [0,1] aclosed
from 1 to 0,
decreases

fi, for

T(r\302\243), \302\243eC.

fl is

into

onto

to

become

curve

y

the point

is contractible

a point if

and only

172

continuation

Analytic

Theorem 4.5. Let
7i

>o

Put

Proof:

= c0

and

y0(rc)

unit
can

n

'

A. If

^

y

be extended

Putting T(r, s) =

easily verified

to

Hence, ^ y0
continuous
yx

function

Putting
it can

C

if

y0

be curves connecting
~ 0 in fi.
-yf*

0,

= ct.

Then y

=

function on
^ 0 in fi.
y

A,

^

c0 and

cx

tt, with

yo(0) =

in

is given by the

then

fi,

y^O)
mapping

O^r^Tr,

into fi. Considerthe

=

r

y0 -yf1

lyi(7r-0,

mapping

s) = (1 -s)ei{t~n)+S\302\243l(K\"f)

V(t,

K = {(t, s):0 ^
then the continuous

to a continuous

t

^

a

s^

n90 ^

function

from

function

r^ft, s)),r(f,s)is

1}ontothe

y (() defined
A into fi, by

continuous

closed

on C

=

dA,

Theorem 4.4.
which is

on K

function

(i), (ii), and (iii) of Definition 4.2.
in fi. Conversely, if yx ^ y0 in fi, then there exists a
T(r,
s) on X satisfying conditions (i), (ii), and (iii).
the

satisfy

r(C) = r(r,5)

be shown

0^

yx: t-y^f),

the rectangle

maps

disk

yi (n)

s) -

4>: (t,
which

=

circle C

unit

the

yx

and

*-y0(0

y0:

7
from

and

y0

and only

O if

\342\200\224
in

if

conditions

C

=

\302\245(f,5)

just as in the proof of Theorem4.4that
which

extends

y(\302\243).Since

obviously

T(C)

is a

we conclude

r(f)efi,

Definition 4.4. A region fi is called simply connected if all
contractible onto one point.Iffi issimply
connected,
curves are homotopic to 0 in fi. Hence, if c0 and cx are two
y two curves in fi connecting c0 and cx,then
y0 :y~l
y0 and
in fi by Theorem 4.5.

continuous

then

all closed
in fi,

points

~

in

curves

closed

fi are

0, i.e., y0

and
~

yx

Example 4.2.

fi is called convex if any
of points
A
can be
region
pair
line
in
fi.
and
of
Disks
interior
a
the
connected by
segment
rectangles are
Let A
Convex
domains
are simply connected.
examples of convexdomains.
z = y (ew\\
0 ^ 6 ^ 2rc,
unit disk and let the mapping y: eie -\342\226\272
be the closed
from C = 3A into fi define a closed curve in fi. Let z0 be an arbitrary point
e fi for 0 ^ r ^ 1,hence
of fi. Sincefi is convex,ry (eie) + (1 \342\200\224
r)z0
y can be
extended to a continuous mapping
T: reie->z = T{reie) = ry(eie) + (1 - r)z0,
reweA,
from

A

Example

{z:z =

into

43.

x + iy,

fi.

Let fi be the region obtained by
0 < x < 1, 0<y<l}
an infinite

deleting
number

from
of

(Q) =
segments

Analytic continuation

4.2
=

Lk

= 2~*

{z:z

connected.
y:

-> z

ew

+

To prove this, it
= y(ei0), 0<.0^2n,

extended to a

k =

^^y<\\,

ry,

1,2, 3,.

suffices

to

show

from

the

unit

. .}.

that a

along curves 173
simply

continuous mapping

C =

circle

is

fi

Then

continuous mapping from the closedunit

dA

into
disk

fi can

be

A into

fi.

Writing

y(eie) = p(eie)+ io(eie)
a function

define

we

T(re\")=

\342\226\240**\\
=

p(cie) +

(2r-l)to(cw)

2rp(0

+

l-2r

+

continuous mapping from A

is a

which

T(rel6) by

(l-r)i
+-

i,\302\243r\302\243l,

O^r^i

4'

that r(ete)

Q such

into

= y{eie).

Q

I

Fig.

Theorem

4.11

Let fi

4.6.

(1) If

f}x

y! are

and

curves in fi

the

fi then

connecting ct and c2,such
/?! -/?2 = Vi \"^ *n fi-

(2) If P and y

are

curves

in fi,

plane.

complex

connecting c0 and cx

in fi

curves

(3) Let y

be a regionin

such that

/J

that

^

y in

pi

if /}2 and y2 are
and
^ yt and f}2 \342\200\224
72 in

fi, then /?\"*

^

y

~* in fi.

in fi with
a curve connecting
c0 and cx in fi, a a closedcurve
in fi with cx as base point.
base point, and /}a closedcurve
~
If a ^ 0, then a -y ~ y and if /} ^ 0, then y \342\200\242
y.
/}
be

c0 as

Proo/:

8:

t

If a

->

^

from
4.2. For part (3),let
Definition
Parts (1) and (2)follow
directly
=
of the
<5(t)
c0, 0 ^ t ^ 1, be the curve consisting only
point c0.
0 then a ~ <5, hence a -y ~ <5 -y by (1). Therefore, in order to prove

174
a -y

continuation

Analytic

to prove Sy

suffices

y it

=k

y(0) = c0 and y(l) = clt and

rectangleK = {(t,s):0 ^

Put

(ii)

t

y0(t)

= y. Since

y0

if 1

^

r

yx

0 S

such

If p

that

= px -/}2

c\302\273

px

p2

yl9

<5(f)if

region fi. Let c0 be a
classes

[y] of closed

curves

with

base

..

y2,.

fixed

point
with

c0 in

pm

=

y
~

0^

f

^

Since

2.

1 and

^

=

(f)

yx

ym

yx

<5

-y

^

y0(t)
with

y(r

\342\200\224

1)

y.

curves in fi

ym are

-y2

in fi, then p c- y

fi.

in

group of

the

so-called

fundamental

in Q

and let

us considerthe

briefly

curves y

point

9

1,

d-y.

and

j3m

to discuss

we want

Next,

~

t g

T(t, s) on the

is identical

= c0 and T(2,s) = y(1) = cx. Hence
The second half of part (3)is proved
similarly.
Corollary.

t

0^f^2

t->yo(0>

=

1),

T(r,

r(0, s)

(iii)

0 g

-\302\273y(f),

function

by

1}

=

c0 =

=

have

2, we

^

\302\243

yx(t)

y0:

(t)

yx

by: t

given

all (t, s) e K.

= T(r,

= y(t/2) the curve
y:

g s

2, 0

g

be

a continuous

T (t, s) e fi for
0) and

Obviously,

(i)

^ y. Let y

define

base

fi, then

point
-y2

yt

is

a

homotopy

c0 in Q. If yt and y2 are closed
also a closed curve with
base

class
and by Theorem 4.6 (1),the homotopy
[yx -y2] is
point
uniquely determinedby [yx ] and {y2]. Therefore, we define the product of

c0 in fi,

[yi]and[y2]by
The
[<5]

=

of the

class

homotopy

1. By

Theorem

l[y]

= [y]l

=

y

by [y].

we

curves

fundamental

homotopy

Since yy~l ^

have

also

the

that

have

Since both [yj([y2]-[y3])

closed

= c0,0

g

t

^

1, is

denoted by 1:

by replacing

0

Theorem

by

y

class [y\"1]

by

4.5,

of

y\"1

is

we have

y\"1

= i.

[y\"1][y]

associativelaw

5 (t)

= [y].

determined

Since (y-1)\"1

t ->

<5:

4.6(3) we have

By Theorem 4.6(2)we
uniquely

curve

is satisfied.
with

group

base

and

([yj-foa])

Therefore,
point

of fi

c0 in fi

and is

[y3]

the collection

the
equal [yry2-y3],
of homotopyclassesof

forms a group. This groupiscalledthe
c0). The identity of the
^(fi,

denoted by

4.2

continuation

Analytic

along

175

curves

fundamental group nx (ft, c0) is given by [<5] = 1;the inverse
of the element
=
^
[y] is given by [y\"1]:^]\"1
[y\"1].Ify 0, then y <5, that is, [y] = 1.
As an abstract group,the fundamental
7rt (ft, c0) does not depend
group
on the choice of the point c0, i.e., if c e ft is an arbitrary point, then nt (ft, c)
and 7^ (ft, c0) are isomorphic:
c) ^ fljft,
7^ (ft,
c0). We prove this now.
is
in
ft.
If
and
c
an arbitrary
Let P bea curve connecting
closed curve
y
c0
* \342\200\242
is a closed
with
base
curve with base point c in ft
c0 in ft, then /J\"
y \342\200\242/?
point
is
and [/}\"*-y \342\200\242
determined
j3]
by [y] (by the corollaryto Theorem
uniquely

4.6).
/J

is a
\342\200\242/?\"*

curve

closed

determined

is uniquely

[y]

Conversely,

with

base

point

4.5, hence [y]

=

the one-to-one

mapping [y] [/}\"
Since [yx] [y2]_1=

isomorphism.

[jS-^-yjS-jS\"1]
-\342\226\272

*

This
-y \342\200\242/?].

by [/}\"l
and
c0
jSjS\"l

^

by Theorem 4.6(3). We will
-y -j3] from t^ (ft, c0) onto 7^

[jiy2*]

is because

Theorem

0 in ft by

that

prove
(fi,

c) is an

have

we

ir'yimr'yiPr^lp-'yiPr'yi'n^lp-'yiyi'Pli
is a homomorphism.
Finally, let
mapping [y] -+ [/?\"* -y \342\200\242/}]
curve with
base
(ft,
c) be an arbitrary element; then X is a closed
[A] \342\202\2547^
=
c
in
fi.
closed
curve
with
base
Putting y /J-A-/}\"1,Aisa
c0 and
point
point
since j5_1,j?^0we have

proving that the

4

Theorem

series

Let fi

J.

be a simply

connected

region

analytically
If/0 (z) is freely
the collection of analytic continuations of/0 (z)
a holomorphic,
one-valued
point c0 in ft defines
with

Proof:
in

ft,

and

analytic

of curves
determined

curve y.

c0 eft.

center

Let c bean
let fc{z)
continuation

c

point

in ft,

let

y

be

iz) be a power
in ft, then

continuable

with

curves

along

initial

function.
connecting c0 and c
which results from the

a curve

denote the powerserieswith center c
any
of/0 (z) along y. Since ft is simplyconnected,
c0 and c in ft is
by Theorem 4.3 and

connecting
by

arbitrary

and let/0

homotopic,

hence

fc (z)

is independentof the

is

choice

pair

uniquely

of the

of the power series X {z)9select
Let r(c) denote the radius of convergence
<=
ft
<
0
and
such
that
^ r(c\\
e(c)
e(c),
put U(c) = t/\302\243(c)(c). Of
Ue(c){c)
course
on
Since ft = \\Jcen ^(c), in
U(c).
fc(z) is a holomorphic function
order
to prove that the collection of all analytic
continuations
fc(z), c eft, of
one-valued function on ft it suffices to prove that
/0 (z) forms a holomorphic,
if U {cx) n U(c2) # 0 for two points
cx and c2 in ft, then/Cl (z) =/C2(z) on
n 1/ (c2). Let c e U(cx) n 1/ (c2). If we expand/Cl(z)into a power
series
17 (cx)
the
with center c, we obtain the analytic continuation/^(z)of/0(z). Similarly,

176

continuation

Analytic

power seriesexpansiono(fC2
coincide

fC2(z)

Let/o(z)bea powerserieswith

the region fi. Let c
let /c(z) be
fi, and

be

an

fc (z) will

also/c(z). Hence/Cl(z)and

of c, and so

center

c0 e

fi which

point

in fi,

y a curve

arbitrary

the power serieswith

analytic continuation of f0(z)
general

c is

center

coincide

on

continuable

in

they

3.1.

U(c2) by Theorem

l/(c!)n

with

(z)

a neighborhood

on

along

is not

not only on c, but

be dependent

c0 and c in

connecting

is the

c that

center

y. If fi

is freely

result of the

simply connected,in
on

also

(4-19)

fAz)=fcM
Let

4.8.

Theorem

c0 and

c be two fixed

classes of curves

of homotopy

collection

of y:

the choice

points of the
c0

connecting

fi.

region

The

and c is finite

or

denumerable.

Proof: It
=

{yn:n

curve

y

suffices

1,2,3,...
connecting

to
show
there is a denumerable collection
that
of
curves
connectingc0 and c in fi, such that for each
}
for
some
c0 and c in fi we have
yn. The set Q of
y ^y\342\200\236

set Q (i) consisting of all
the
rational numbersis denumerable.
Therefore,
Q (i) is
complexnumbersr +iswith r, s e Q is also denumerable.Obviously,
=
.
in
a
C.
If
.
is
.
.
a
dense
finite
.,
,
ck,.
everywhere
sequence
{cl,c2,
cm}
of points in Q{i)9 let L(o) denote the polygonal line consisting of the
the points c0, cl9 c2,.. ., ck, ck+1,...,
connecting
cm, c in that
segments
of
a
order. Since Q(i)is denumerable,
all
finite
the
set
sequences of points of
of all polygonallinesL(a) is
that
is, the collection
Q (0is alsodenumerable,
List all polygonal lines L (a) cz fi as follows:
denumerable.

L(al\\L{<T2),L(c3),.
and

=
yn

put

connecting
connecting

c0 and

\"sufficiently

c in

close to

Fig. 4.12

y\".

L(an\\ . . .

definition,

L(c\342\200\236).By

c0 and c in

..,

all

Let

t -+

y(t), 0

^

lines

polygonal

fi. It is easy to verify
fi is homotopic with a
t

^

fc,

that

polygonal
be

yn

are

an arbitrary
line

a parameter

yn

curves

curve
which

representa-

y

is

4.2 Analytic continuationalongcurves
tion

of y. Since

{y (t):

C

it and

between

0^

t

is positive.

if |z-y(r)| < p,
e =

Put

p/5, then for

and

t2,

...,

\342\200\224
<

tk\\

|fk+1

distance

the

p

zefi.

then

some S > 0 we

have

if|r-n|<\302\253.

|y(f)-y(!i)|<e

Select rl5

a compact subset of fi
Hence we have for all t.

b} is

^

\342\200\224
fi

Yll

tm,

0 = t0

that

such

choose points

6. Next,

<

t2 <

<

tx

tm <

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

tm+1 =

such

c1,c2,...,cme6(i)

b

that

\\ck-y(tk)\\<e

and

(7 =

put

{cl5 c2,.

. .,

ck+1,

ch,

. . .,

cm}.

Fig. 4.13

< e, |ck+1 \342\200\224
Since |y(tk+1) \342\200\224
ck\\ < 3e and the segment connecting
y (tk)|
is
circle
with
center
and
within
the
y (tk) and radius 4e. Sincep = 5e,
ck
ck+!
=
=
c fi, that is, L(a)
for
we
conclude
some
n. A parameter
L{an)
L(o)
y\342\200\236
=
->
f
is
r
of
0
^ ^ b, with
yn
L(a)
yn(r),
given by
representation

(tk+l-t)ck + {t-tk)ck+l

y.M =

*k

If

+ 1

~~

then

rk^t^tk+1,

tk^f g

h

|y(t)-y(fk)|

=

tk+1,fc

< e and

.. ,m.

0,l,2,.

|y\342\200\236(r)-ck|

<

3e,

hence

ly(0-yn(0l<5e,i.e.,

= p,

|y(0-y.WI<5e

Hence

the

yn(t)

and

function
(i)r(f,5)efi

(iii) r(0,
Putting

O^r^b.

0 <^ s ^ 1, on
+ (1 \342\200\224
s)y\342\200\236(0>

the segmentconnecting
=
is a continuous
+ (1
y(r) are in fi. Therefore r(f,s)
s)yn(t)
defined on the rectangleK = {(t,s):0^r^fc,0^^1}sy (t)

points

\342\200\224

sy(t)

Since

for

s) = c0,T(fe,

all

(ii) T(t,0) =

(f,s)e.Kf
s)

= cwe

c = c0 we get the

conclude

following

y

^

corollary.

yn.

yw(r),

T(r,

= y(f),
1)

and

178

The fundamental

Corollary.
a group

or

continuation

Analytic

a

with

there are among the/cy(z),
series.

power

of y

group

fi.

or a

finite

cfcv is uniquely
by Theorem 4.8,

with center
in

Hence,

denumerable number of

. , denotethe

= 1,2,3,..

Let fCtk(z\\k

m=fcAA

by f(z)=fck(z\\

f(z)

which

function

(z),

different/^

the

zeU\302\243(c

f(z)

analytic

c. Each

of an
fact

(z)

k(z)

is freely

say

that

A power

a

analytically
the

analytic

series obtained

arbitrary branch of/(z)along
is expressed

analytic

is called

by saying that

in fi

a curve

the

analytic

on fi.
of fi and iffCtk (z) is a branch of
subregion
analytically continuable in fi and the collection
c is a
offck(z)
along curves in D starting from

connected

is freely

continuations

(z) is

k

in fi.

continuable

univalent function
holomorphic
denoted byfDk (z) and is calledthe
Obviously,X,k

branch^

we

a branchoff(z).This

If D a fi is a simply
f(z) at c, then/Ct
k (z)
all

at

define

and

fi,

/(z) is an

function

The

these circumstances,

isfreely analytically

is complete

function

k)(c),

seriesfc%k(z\\

power

and Ueick)(c)<=

multivalued. Each powerseriesfc

is, in general,

continuation

ceil.

the

of

^ r(cyk)

0 < e(c,k)

analytic

is also

1,2,3,...

radius of convergence

branch of the analytic function
continuable in fi. Under
function/(z)

=

fc

Let r(c,k) denote the
choose e(c9k) such that

of

a

only

fi isa finite

of elements.
series,

power

a region

is

that

by

c0) of

(fi,

class [y]

by the homotopy

different

x

number

denumerable

According to Theorem4.3,the
determined

n

group

the power

on D.

branch

This

holomorphic

of the analyticfunction

series expansion

is

function

f(z) over D.

of the holomorphic
function

restriction/^ (z) of the analytic function/(z)to the simply
fotk
D consists
of a (finite
of
or
number
connected
denumerable)
region
=
k
In
D
is
if
taken
to
be
the
1,2,3,....
largest
particular,
branches/^* (z),
disk l/r(c) (c) (Section 1.3d) with center c containedin fi, then, since/Dk (z) is
on D = Ur{c) (c), its power series expansion,/Ctk(z), about c is
holomorphic
on Ur{c)(c). Hence, its radius of convergencer(c,k)
convergent
absolutely
(z) about

c. The

satisfies

r(c,k)^r(c).

(4.20)

an
and
we need to consider the compositionof a holomorphic
function. Let f{z) be a freely
continuable,
analytically
analytic
complete
be a holomorphic
function defined on a
function on a region fi and let g (\302\243)
the composite
regionD of the C-plane, such that g{D) cz fi. We consider
=
D
a
in
c
and
Let
bean
arbitrary
point
g(a). LetfCtk(z)
function/(gr(0).
put
c C/r(c)(c),then
a branch
of /(z) at c. Selecte > 0 such
that
denote
g(Ue(at))

Next

4.2 Analytic continuationalongcurves
holomorphic function on Ur(c)(c)by (4.20),
on
holomorphic function of \302\243
UB (a) which can be
a. For the sake of simplicity,
series
about
we denote
is a

fCfk(z)

fa (0)

/Ci*

179

is a

hence/c,*fa(0)

expanded in a power
this

series as

power

also.

=
be a curve in D with
initial
^b and y: t -\302\273
\302\243 y(r)
then the holomorphic mapping g maps y onto a
g(y): t->z = g(y{t))in ifi with initial
point c = ^(a). Under these

Let O^t
a = y(0)eD,
the

circumstances,

Theorem 4.9. LetfCt k (z)
be the analytic
O^t^fe}
continuation

analytic

is valid.

theorem

following

be a

branch of/(z) at

continuation

c = g (a),

seriesfCtk

=

{/(z, f):
gr(y), then the
with center a is

and

let/

along

of/ck(z)

the power

y of

along

point

curve

(g (())

givenby{/fa(C),0;O^r^fe}.

Proof: Let
with

center

circle of convergence
of the

all considered

for

(t))

(-plane such

in the

y(r)

of the

interior

the

center g (y

t) with

series/(z,

disk

be

$tt

t

that

Ut =

let

and

c

g(Ut)

<%t.

U (y

Now

power
(t))

be a

expand

of C on Ut9 in a power seriesabout
function
0>which isa holomorphic
In
to
that
order
the
collection
t <; 6} is the analytic
y (t).
prove
{/fa((), f): 0 <\302\243
continuation of the power series fCtk fa (0) =/(#(\302\243), 0) along y it suffices to
show that if for each se[0, 6], we have picked
an e(s) > 0 such that

/fa (Of

< e(s),

if \\t-s\\

y(r)el/s

then/(g(0, 0 =/fa(0,5) on l/f
c

g(y(r))

<
|r \342\200\224s|

<2fs,

t)

=f(z,s)

s)

-s|

U

g(y(t))e

e(s) implies

series expansion of/(z,

Therefore,/(z,

I/, if

n

#(y(t))

on

<#fn ^s

if

corollary to

|r-s|

<

l/s implies
the power

r) is

hence/(z,

<%59

by the

about

Since y(f)e

< e(s).

Theorem 4.1.

hence

e(s),

0

/fa(0,

=/fa(0,s)onl/rn[/s.

We call the

branch of the
theorem

power seriesfCtk(g(0)
composite

continuable in D. Putting
c =

connecting

which is
curve

g(y)

gr(a) and

the result of the
in

function

all branches

that

fi, is

fCtk

y(b)

center

with

at a,

/fa(0)
(g(0)

=

ft in

of

where c

aeD,

and can say

/fa(0)

one of the

above

freely analytically
proof, g(y) is a curve

0(/?),and the powerseries/(z,b),
analytic

the

by

are

the above

continuation

= #(a), a

of/Ctk(z)

branchesfg^jiz) at

g(P)

with

=/(z,
of

center

#(/?),

0) along the
the

complete

with
Hence the power series/fa((),b) =/^)ti(r?(0)
analytic function/(z).
of the branchfCt k fa(0) of/fa(0)
continuation
center ft obtained
by analytic
at j3. Hence the
at a along the curve in D, is one of the branches
of/fa(z))
by the analytic continuation of an arbitrary
power seriesthat is obtained

180

continuation

Analytic

branch
can

say

of f(g(z)) along a curve in D is again a branch of f(g{z)).Thus,
we
that the composite function/(gr (\302\243))
is freely
continuable
analytically

on the regionD.

and complete

If

is

D

fi

of a
initial

with

function is
function

branch/Ct *(#(\302\243)) off(g(Q)
a constitutes
a regular

point

denoted by

holomorphic

function

holomorphic

functions

function

is a

branch

Each

D is

region

breaks into

f{g(Q)

about

^ k. We

iff

If the

4JO.

is the

fck(g(Q)
f(g(Q)k

simply connected,then
f(g(Q)k,

function defined

D. This

the

are different

and

as

the

the

k =

on D.

complete

collection

composite

1,2, 3,.

...

analytic function
of all power series

power series with center
(z) are arbitrary
k (2) and/,f,

of a
if/Ct

in

of the composite

a branch

branches

continuation
fi. Hence,

on

function

univalent

power series expansionof

freely

in

a curve

along

gr(a),

have proved

continuable
Iff(z) is a
analytically
on a regionfi, then/(z) is considered

obtained by analytic
c0 e fi along a curve

c =

<*,f(g(Q)k and/(0(C)),

different

holomorphic

4.7 the collectionof analytic
at a,

is called

and

f(g{Q)k

Since

f(g(Q).

Theorem

then by Theorem

connected,

simply

continuations

some

c0 for

branchesof

obtained by the analytic continuationoffc k (z) along a
/ (z) then/dt j
suitable curve in fi connecting c and d. In this sense,/(z) is one analytic
The
function f{g(0\\ as considered above, is freely
function.
composite
and
continuable
complete, but does not necessarilyconstitute
analytically
in the above
an analytic
function
sense. In particular, if D is simply
of a branch^,
of
the
collection
all
connected,
*(#(\302\243))
analytic continuations\"
=
D constitutes
of
a
at aeD,
in
when c 0(a), along curves
f(g(Q)
is
on
hence
obtain
defined
it
to
D;
holomorphic function/(g(Q)k
impossible
(z) can be

in D, another branch
a curve
connected, the composite function
and
continuable
breaks into a number of freely
analytically
f(g(Q)
generally
complete analytic functions on D.

by analytic

continuation offCtk(g(Q)

fc,j(g(Q)at a.

4.3

if

Also,

D is

continuation

Analytic

along

not simply

by

integrals

function

Let fi be a region in the complexplane,let/(z) be a
a ^ t ^ b, be a smoothcurve
on fi and let y: t -\342\226\272
y(f),

integral

of/(z)

along

obtained

from

the

in

explained
y

given

by Theorem

fi.

in

The

1.6.

[bf(y(t))y'(t)dt.

[f{z)dz=
As

y

is

continuous

via

previous
the

coordinate

section, the curve
transformation

A:

t ->
t =

A(t) =

$(t),

y

a ^

(</>(t)),

t ^

/?,

4.3

where </>(t) is a continuously
all t and 0(a) = a and <f>(p)

continuation

Analytic

function such that 4>'{x) > 0 for
curve as y. Therefore we have
to

differentiable
=

same

fe, is the

181

by integrals

verify

\\f(z)dz=[f(z)dz.

= y'{t)4>'(x)dx,
we

Since k'{x)dx

JfV(y\302\253)/(0*,
a

a
J\\fif(k(x))k'(T)dT=

proving our statement.
If y\" *: t -> y~ *(!) = y(a
by

the

reversing

f
t =

Putting

f

\342\200\224

=

fe,

curve

is the

have dy~l(x)/dx=

-

y'(b

from

obtained

\342\200\224

y

\342\200\224

+ a

hence

t),

f/tyMMO*,
Jo

Jb

is,
/\302\253&.

J>*~Ij
y =

curve

The

7i\302\273
?2>

yx

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> Vm is

called
=

Jy

then

+ f /(z)ife+

f f(z)dz
Jy.

t -> yk(r), ak-1
is
y
given by y: t

together smoothcurves

jy/(z)dz is defined

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

Jy2

^
->

by piecing

smooth and

piecewise

yk:

Putting
fe

ym obtained

-y2

f/(z)&

=

we

t ^

f/(y(r))yf(r)A=

Jy-1
Jy
that

a ^

t),

have

we

t,

/\302\253<&

\342\200\224

- r/(fc + fl-T))/(6+ fl-T)dt.

=

a

b +

+ b

orientation,

/(z)dz

have

f

^

y(r),

afc,

f

by

/-(z)<fc

Jy\302\253

where

a^t^b,

a =
with

^i <

a0 <
y(r)

^2

= yk(t),

\342\200\242
\342\200\242\"
<

<

tk_

am

t

^ t ^ tk.

Therefore
m

f{z)dz=/(t)

t

<

point
F(z)

and

y'(t)

= y'k{t)

if

f(Hi))Y(i)dt.

Now let/(z) be a holomorphic
a fixed

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242.
\302\253m-i}

Hence

ak.

J/w*-\302\243
be

J
/(r(t))ri(OA.

on [a.6]-{ai,a2>

is continuous

a4_! <

fak

I

\302\243 |

=

and consider

=1-

f(z)dz,

function

defined

on the

for arbitrary zefl,

region Q. Let c0eft

Analytic continuation

182

where y

is

purpose

we

a piecewise

curve in Q

smooth

connectingc0 and z. For this

write

F(z) =

/\302\253M,

-j;

Fig.

(4.21)

4.14

y.
represents the terminal point of the path of integration
disk
Let c be an arbitrary point in Q and let U(c)= Ur{c)(c)
be the largest
in fi. By Theorem 1.16,/(z) can beexpanded
in a
c contained
center
with
series which absolutely convergesin U(c)
power

where z

n

= 0

Putting

the power

series Fc(z)is also absolutely
Fc(c)-Q,

\302\261Fe(z)=f(z\\

that

is, Fc(z) is a primitive

is a

piecewise

J>

Since

U(c) and

on

convergent

function

of/(z)

smooth curve in

on t/(c).

Hence, if z e U(c)and

(7(c)connectingc and

z,

then

if j?

by (1.30),

f(z)dz = FM

the

integral

we can

write

in the

W=Ff(z)dz,

left-hand

side of this equality

zeU(c).

does

not

depend

on /J,

(4.22)

4.3

We

183

by integrals

put

=

F0(z)

Next,

=

continuation

Analytic

F(z,

a piecewise
ft we put

for
in

y(0)

r) is

FCo(z)=

P f(z)dz,

J

zeU(c0).

c0

smooth curve y: t

-*

y(t),

F(z, t) =

P/(y(r))/(0dr + F^z),

a power

series with

center

and

y(t)

0 ^

t

^

6, starting

from c0

(4.23)

zel/(y(f)).

absolutely

convergent on the

disk U(y{t)).Sincethe radius r(y(t)) of U(y(t)) equals the distancebetween
we
have
the point y(t) and C \342\200\224
\302\2432,
(4.24)
r(y(t)) ^ p > 0,
C
\342\200\224ft.
where p denotesthe distance
between
and
{y(t): O^t
{F(z,t):
^b}
0 ^ r ^ b} is the analytic continuation of F0(z)
the curve y. To prove
along
this it suffices to show that for sufficiently
small *s > 0,|r \342\200\224
s\\ <e
implies
of F(z, s). Pick e > 0 such
that F (z, t) is the directanalytic
continuation
that
and 5 and
have,

by

t

such

letting

|s

\342\200\224
t \\ <

an arbitrary

e. For

z e l/(y(f))n l/(y(s)),

we

(4.23) and (4.22),

F(z,t)=
Since

that

<e

if \\u-s\\

<p

\\y(u)-y(s)\\

|y(u)

<
\342\200\224y(s)|
be

\\zy{t)f(z)dz

['f(y{u))y\\u)du+

p
the

s ^

if

w

^

J^/(y(w))y'(w)dw
in U(y(s)) connecting

J

^\"7.
7(5)

4.15

y(f)

no

by

y(w)el/(y(s))

(4.22),

P f(z)dz
J y(s)

f(z)dz.

(4.24). Hence,

connectingy(t)

the integral of/(z) along

f(z)dz=

['muWMdu+l2

J y(f)

the segment

y(s) and z. Therefore,
by

J s

t/(y(s))

f,

along

integral

+ $zy{t)f(z)dz equals

Fig.

P

\\5f(y(u))y'(u)du+
Js

JO

=

Fyis)(z).

the

and

segment

z,

184

continuation

Analytic

Hence we have

on

n U(y(s))

U(y(t))

F{z, t) =

+
[f(v(u))y'(u)du Fy(s)(z)
proving that F{z, t) is the directanalytic
Let y:
=

connecting
co
fe

^

f

^

and /J:

t

-*

t

y(r),

y(f),

fc

F{zy s),
of

continuation

Ffo

s).

t ^
t, be a piecewise smooth curve in Q
= y(r). Selectfc, 0 < b < t, such that y(t)eU(y(b))

0 ^

y(0) and z
t. The curve
->

=

y is divided

5* t

^ t.

by

fe

That is, y

two

into

= a

curves;

\342\200\242

/}.

a:

Under

r

->

y(r), 0 ^

t

^

if

6,

circumstances

these

|7\302\253M+(7\302\253M.
J0

|7\302\253M\302\253

Jy

J\302\253

0

*

Fig. 4.16

hence, by (4.22),

I

f(t;)dt;=Fm(z).
p

Therefore

=
JVttM

f/(y(0)yW'

Now we considerz as a
with

variable

U(y(b)) while a

z in

/\302\253M

=

(4.25)

+W4
varying

over

U(y(b)) and

remains fixed.Then,by

allow p to vary

(4.23),

zel/(y(fc)),

F(zf&X

ly
\302\243

i.e.,

Jy/(f)^C

is the

holomorphic

analytic continuation of the

power

function F(z, b) which
series

F0(z)

is

along the

the

result

curve a: t

of the
-> y(f),

Analytic continuation by

43

0^

t

z = y(r) by w

y(r) and representing the variable by z,
continuation
of F(z9 b\\ hence
F(z, t) is the

b. Replacing

^

=

F(z, t) is the direct analytic
power series expansionof F(z,b) about
y(r).
equalsthe value F (w, t) of the power seriesF (z,
have proved.
Let

4.11.

Theorem

F0{z) =

be a

f(z)
zeU(c0)

jzCof(z)dz,

if k

casein which

t

is,

a polygonal line ys

curve in fi

smooth

and

t

in

y(t)

continuable along ys

^

F(z,s)=

[0,

the

b]

proof

fi,

put

a

t, is

^

then

such

result

the

is

of the

continuable

analytically

casein which
k: t ->

curve

=

ks(s)

analytic function

initial point c0 = k(0).This
4.11. In order to reduce the

of Theorem
that
ys c* ks.

connecting c0 and

and

complete

fi with

fc, in

is piecewise smooth, from
Theorem
k is not piecewise
smooth to the

there exists

=

t

by analytic continuationof
this fact by saying that F(z) is

show that F0(z)

first

let us denotefor eachs e
ks: t -> As(r) = A(f). In the

smooth,

and

0 ^

t-y(f),

y:

= F(w, b)
y (t). We

fi

on

function

=

y.

along

F0(z)

k(t), 0 ^

->

express

continuable

we

this,

k

each curve

is clear,

that

of

analytically

freely

on fi. To prove
along

z = y(r). We

continuation

F(z) is a

series obtained

power

its center

at

y

the

of

value

the analytic

at

t)

and z

= y(0)

c0

connecting

J^/(C)^C
its center w

[Zf(z)dz

F(z)=

F0(z)along

Hence

holomorphic
If zefi and

c fi.

piecewise smoothcurve

equals the

integrals 185

piecewise
^ r ^ s, by k\\

0

k(t\\

4.8 it
Since

A(s),

k is

ys

F0(z)

that

shown

was
is

a piecewise

is analytically

analytic continuationis given

by

+ Fm(z)

\\f{z)dz

Jy,

by

(4.23).

determined
By Theorem 4.3, F(zy s) is uniquely
by the homotopy
curve
of ys in fi. Hence, for a given
k, F{z9 s) is uniquely

class [ys] = [As]
determined by s

0)

F(z,

Obviously,

continuation

analytic

\\k{t)-k(s)\\

wherep was

defined

choice of the polygonal line ys.
= F0(z). In order to prove that {F(z, s): 0 ^ s ^ b) is the
that
of F0(z) along k we pick an e > 0 such

and

of the

independent

if

< p
following

and k(u) for ue(s,s + e)
segment // and the curve

and
A\":

|r-s|

<e,

(4.24).

Let

yM
put
t -> A(r),

=

be

\\i

ys-/i.

5^

r

^

the segment
Since ys :_

w, are

k(s)

connecting
As

in

both in

fi
t/(A(5))

the

and
c

fi,

we have

li *

hence

yu

in fi,

K

\342\200\224
ku

by

Theorem

4.6(1).

Therefore,

the power seriesF{z,u)

186

continuation

Analytic

Ufris))

Fig. 4.17

obtained by analytic continuation of F0(z)alongyu = ys \342\200\242
be obtained
\\i can
of
continuation
the
Since
by analytic
F(z9s)along
//.
segment
F(z,s) is
on
the
disk
is
holomorphic
l/(A(s)),F(z,u) the power series expansion of
and
F(z9
s) about
A(u). Therefore
F(z9u) = F(z,s) on [/(A(w))n
U(X(s))
{F(z9 s): 0 ^ s
of the analytic

^

is the

fc}

+ f

f /(*)&

J

Jy*
where

~

yfc

joining

a piecewise

A is

terminal

the

of

point
with

A(fe)

result

The

as
continuation can be represented

6) =

F(z,

of F0(z) along y.

continuation

analytic

is

yb

/(*)<**, ze

l/(A(b)),

Mb)

smooth curve (actually a polygonalline).Since
the segment
A(b) we can piece together yb and

z. Calling

this curve

y

we

have

F(z,b)=ff(z)dz.

Hence F(z)

= J* /(z)

dz

is freely

and complete in Q.

continuable

analytically

(4.25)

By

(4.26)
sj/M*-/\302\273

In general,
on

the

F(z) is a multivalued

curve

connecting

y

c0

connecting

and

function

and

c0 and z in fi such that

its value

z. However,
yi

^y

mil,

if

at z dependsonz and
yt

is

curve

another

then, by Theorem

4.3,
(4.27)

/(*)&.
Jyi

Ji

each curve y there exists a smooth curve ^ such that
may assume from the start that the path of integration y is
of the analytic
function F(z) = jzyf{z)dz
(4.25), the branch FCtk(z)
Since for

y

^ ylt

smooth.
at

c eQ

we
By

is

Analytic continuation

4.3

by

187

integrals

by

given

Fe.k[z) =
yk is

where

I

k =

+ Fc(z),

f(2)dz

1, 2, 3,.

..,

(4.28)

smooth curve in fi connectingc0 and c and
c such that Fc(c) = 0. Putting /} = yfc~*
center
c and we have
base
point

a piecewise

power series
closed curve

with
with

is a

Fc{z)
y,,

/? is

a

\\f{z)dz-\\f(z)dz.
hk

f/(z)rfz=

Jp

hi

Hence

that

is,

two different

between

difference

the

(4.29)

(f(z)dz,

FCJ(z)-FCtk(z)=

branchesof F(z)at a point

c e

fi

is constant.

If fi is

fi by

on

function

is not simply

As

the

Theorem

4.7. In

Q is

given by

FdAz)

\302\253

+

c is

f/(z)dz

f

is a

single-valued holomorphic
=
F(z)
J* f(z)dz. If fi
branch of F(z) over a simplyconnected
F{z)

this casewe

a point in D and

(4-3\302\260)

/\302\253*.

yk

a

in fi

curve

example

c.

continuation

by

\342\200\224.

logz=
Jv

(4.31)

2

We first prove that this
Putting

definition is equivalent
to the definition
given
t
0
y(t), ^ ^ t, with y(0) = 1 and y(t) = z

y: t ->

have

r--pr?*
Writing

y(f)

differentiate,
y'(r)

hence

=

=

function,

=
C \342\200\224
1/z,
(0},/(z)
and z. We define the logarithmic function

4.1a.

connecting c0 and

to consider
by integrals we want
as discussed in Section4.1a. Let
fi
=
C*
fi
and
bea
in
smooth
curve
1,
c0
connecting

of analytic

logarithmic

Section

write

Jyk

Jc

C* =
1

the

then

of

D

an

then

connected,

subregion

where

connected,

simply

p{t)eW(t)

with

real function
= p'(0^(f)

p(f) =

of t

with

+ p(0^(f)^/(0,

|y(t)| > 0
p(0)

= 1

and

0(t)

and 0(0) =

a

0,

continuously
we

have

in

we

188

continuation

Analytic

therefore

and

and

o VI})

z =

Putting

= logp(x)+ iO(T).

Mdt

I

= 0-1- 2n7r,

0(t)

p(x)eieix) =
Hence

from

conclude

we

\\z\\eie,

n an

integer.

fzdz =
logz = \342\200\224
log
z

+

\\z\\

y(x)

n an

i0-I-2\302\2537ii,

Jy

which is just (4.1).
d

i
\342\200\224

az

an

principal

- =
z

the

= 1

ze\"10*2

-e-l\302\260*1

=

1, that

^ 0, -7r < 0 ^ 7t, log|z|
denoted by Log z. Thepower

+ i0
series

is,

w

=

logz

is called the
of

expansion

wf0

the

\302\260\302\260
f\342\200\224IV\"1

-=

J 1 *

n

= {z: z = \\z\\eie
the negative
deleting
If D

^

-

7r

4.4.

+

coxa-l
X+l

I,fO

is the

0 < 7c}

<

are

given

Logz + 2knU
We want

dx,

*=0,

(z-l)\\

real axis,D isa simply

the branches of logrover D
logz =

z at the point 1 are given

-^

f
0,

|z-l|<l.

(z-l)w,
^{\342\200\2241\342\200\224
W
= 1

of log

branches
= 2*7ri+

logz

of this power seriesequals1.Hence

of convergence

radius

Therefore,

(-in*-ir

I

l + (z-l)
Cz dz

using

(4.26)

\\z\\eie

ttt\342\200\224n=

Logz=

Example

integer,

1 is

1/z about

and

z =

log z and

of

\\z\\

z

arbitrary
value

=

p(z)

-.

Sinced(ze~^z)jdz = 0 we have
is the inverse function of z = ew.
For

at once from

that

\\z\\e>6

l

=

logz

we get

(4.31)

by

logz

Defining

=

k =

by

\302\2613,....

\302\2611,+2,

region obtained from

connected

subregion

C*

by
0,

\302\261
1, \302\2612, \302\2613,

to determine

0<

a

<

1,

analytic function.
e < |z| < /?, 0 < 0 < 27c},
|z|e*,

a (multivalued)

Put D = {z: =
the
Consider,
z

over

simply

by

of C * and

connected

region

where

D, the

0 <

e < 1

< /?.

branch log|z| + /0,

4.3

continuation

Analytic

4.18

Fig.

Then

of logz.

O<0<27i,

= exp[(a-l)logz],

f~l

f(z)=*\342\200\224,

z+ 1

is a single-valuedholomorphic
function
radius e and

to this
each

u

[e, R]

by

\342\200\224
{\342\200\224
1}. The

boundary,

different

boundary
with

be extended

can

function/(z)

two

assumes

but

circles

CR are

Cc and

where

CRuC\302\243

D

on

R, respectively.The

center

0 and

continuously

+ iO)and/(x

values/(x

of D is

\342\200\224
at

iO)

R]:

xe[e,

/(x + iO)

=

/(x + tf)

lim

\342\231\2465-*
+0

=

f(x-iO)

+

theorem

residue

4\"

xfl_1exp[(a-l)27tj]

+ iO) dx

f(x

r

+

into

f(z) dz-\\

Je

form:

r

cr

JCK

of cells, we seethat

a number

2.5) takes the following

(Theorem

Je

I

0

cr
\\

X

=

lim f(x-id)

i-

= ^-r,

the closed region[D] suitably

By dividing
the

189

fe

o

given

by integrals

f(x-iO)dx-\\

fiz)

dz

JCt

= 2raRes2=_1[/(z)].

By (2.63)
= _

Res,

t

[/(z)]

= exp

- l)ni] =

[(a

-

eaKi,

further

[RU(x

+

\302\2530)-f(x

-

=

dx
\302\273)]

(1 -e2\"\")

\\R^dx.

From

It

II

f(z)dz

mdz\\

<-\342\200\224r2nR

R-l

lite.=

=

/?-> + 00,

R-l

2nea

1-e

6-\302\273+0,
-\302\2730,

190

continuation

Analytic

we conclude
r+oo

_

(1

y-fl-i

e2\302\260\302\253i)

1

x +

Jo

_

=

dx

27c/efln

Hence
+ 00
I,

4.4

- 1

vfl

_

dx=-

+ 1

x

-,

I \302\273

sin an1

Theorem

Cauchy's

0 < a < 1.

(continued)

Let/(z) be a holomorphicfunction

U (c0)bea disk
If,

ze[/(c0).

in

c0 contained

center

with

for

zefi,

arbitrary

a

is

y

ifi

and

l>
JY

smooth

piecewise

along

y is a

4.11. We want to

c0 in

fi. The

power

series

Fx (z) and F0(z)coincide
by

hence Ft (c0)= F0(c0)= 0.
4.12.

point

curve in iQ
the analytic

consider

result Fi(z) of the
c0 and

center

with

= Fl{c0).

f(z)dz

~ 0 in
lQ, then

Theorem

base

with

of F0(z)

continuation

analytic

If y

curve

a closed

be

y

put

smooth
piecewise
as
can
be considered

connecting c0 and z, then F(z) = \\zyf(z)dz
continuation of F0(z) along y by Theorem
this
Cauchy's Theoremagainst
background.
Let

region fi, let
J* /(z) dz for

on the
F0(z) =

z defined

of

we

Therefore

the

to Theorem

corollary

4.3,

have

on
Let/(z) be a holomorphic function
closed curve in Q. If y s. 0 in fi, then

fi

and

let

y

be

a

f(z)dz = 0.

L>
This

simply
$yf{z)

connected,
dz = 0 for

Theorem 4.7.

Next
=

we

yt -y2

ym
curves

yl9

introduce

to
is

curve

the
y2,

-

function/(z)

\\f(z)dz
The right-hand

is
ofCauchy's Theorem. If \302\2431

then each closed curve is homotopicwith
is
This
each piecewise
smoothclosed
curve.

want

smooth
continuous

the homotopy variant

is called

theorem

..,

hence
\302\2431,

from

concept of homology. If y
by piecing together the piecewise
for
each
the given order, then we have,
the

obtained

ym in

defined on fi,

= f f{z)dz+ f f(z)dz+

sideof this

0 in

also clear

equality

-

is independent

. -

+

f /(z)dz.

of the

order of thecurves

4.4 Cauchy's

Theorem

Vi> y2>

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> ym>

y =

hence

\342\200\242

ym> as

y2

yx

a path

191

(continued)

of integration,can be

as

written

= yi+y2

y

+

Section

(Compare

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

(4.32)

+ym.

2.1a).

Extending this a

bit

linear combinations

us consider

let

further,

m

y

=

Z

=

\"*y*

a linear combinationy
Since

short.

(4.33)

yi-y2

ym

we define

Further,

=

y-1

and finally

5 =

It is easily
group,

integer

y\\

... +

y!+y2+
+

+y2

(4.33)

integer,

coefficients. Such

chain or

a 1-chainfor
curve

the

identify

ym:

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\226\240

(4.34)

+ym-

for an arbitrary curve y
(4.35)

-y
the curve

denote

we

. . , ym with

generalization of (4.32),we

=
ym

-y2

yi

nk an

a one-dimensional

1-chain

the

with

y2,.

called

is

is a

+ nmym9

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

of curves yi9

finite number

of a

+

+^2

\"iyi

= 1

k

5: t

->

5(t)

= c,

where c is a fixed

by 0:

point

0.

(4.36)

Similarly, a

of 1-chains in Q can be made
chain group of ft, denoted
by Cx (ft).

the collection

that

verified

the one-dimensional

linear combinationof pointscx,c2,. . ., cm

eft

into

with

a

integer

coefficients
m

Z

*= i

is called

nkck =

niCi +

n2c2

+

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

-I-nmcm

ofall
a 0-chain in ft. The collection

can

0-chains

be made

into a

chain
group and denoted by C0(ft).
group, calledthe zero-dimensional
If y is a curve with initial point c0 and terminal point cx,then the 0-chain
\342\200\224
of y is denoted
the boundary of y. The boundary
cx
c0 is called
by dy:

dy =

If

y

=

i n*y*

Zk-

dy =

We have

c1-c0.
*s an

arbitrary 1-chain,its boundary

by
(4.37)

nk3yk.
\302\243

to prove that

this

definition

sy*=

Z

*= 1

is consistent

with

of

(4.34),

(4.35)

and

ym let c0 be the initial point
y t (and
y), let ck be
initial
of
and
let
be the
the
(and
cm
point
yk+i)
y). Then

m

m

Z

defined

k=l

\342\200\242
(4.36). For y = y x y2
the terminal point of yk
terminal
point of ym (and

Jk=l

is

(c*-ck-i)

= cm-c0 =

dy.

192

If y

continuation

Analytic

curve with
arbitrary
c0 as its terminal point

is an

has

d: y

of

dy

obviously

= 0.

dS

have

The map

yeCx (fi) satisfying dy
where

c0,

= 0

if and only if c0 =

ct,

a 1-cyclein fi. Ify is
point and cx the terminal

that

only if

if and

is,

y

homo-

a

is

is called

c0 is the initial

\342\200\224

= 0

dy

chain group C0(fi)

group C{(Q) into the

= cx

hence

y,

*

dy

morphism.
A 1-chain
we have

as

cx

cx, then y

terminal point
point, hence

c0 and
its initial

-\342\226\272

chain

the

from

and

(4.36) we

S of

curve

the

point

= -dy.

dy\"1 =c0-ct

For

initial

a curve,

point

is a

closed

a

linear

curve.

Theorem 4.13. An
of a
combination
coefficients:

curves

closed

of

number

finite

be

fi can

in

1-cycle

arbitrary

as

written

with

fi

in

yk

integer

m

y

Z

*= i

n*y*-

If, for some k, nk

Proof:
=

=

= 0,

hence we may

l^ly*\"1*

then

assume

=

nkyk

< 0, then

0; if nk

=

nkyk

*

\342\200\224

nkyk

that

m

y

We

will

=

Z

*= i

(4.38)

on the sumx)f coefficients

by induction

theorem

the

prove

o.

\"* >

\"*y*>

n

Em

(1) If

n

(2) Let
will prove

=

1, then

y

=

yt and

us assumethat

the

the

theorem

the

of

truth

dy

=

0, hence

holds

theorem

for

n

=

y

a closed

is

for all

v. If

dy

x

with

n

then

=0,

curve.
\342\200\224

n ^

v

yx

is a

1. We

closed

curve and
m

=

y-\"iyi

Z
k

is a

\"*?*

1-cycle. Since ZIT=2 n*

of a finite
of a finite
If

= 2

dyx

of

number

= cx

\342\200\224

^

c0

one of the curves y2,

Putting y0
y

=
=

y2*yl
yo +

v~~ ni

\342\200\224
v\342\200\224Uy nxyj

=

is a

linear combination

curves in fi.

Therefore, y is a linear combination
the induction hypothesis.
closed
= 0 that for at least
0, we conclude from Zr= i nk^k
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
we
have
\342\200\242
, ym> say v2>
c0-c2,
c2 ^ c0.
y3,
dy2

of closed

number

=

curves

in fi by

we have

(\"i-i)yi

+(\"2-1^2

+ ^3 +

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

^nmym

4.4

Theorem

Cauchy's

and the sum of the coefficients on the right equals v \342\200\224
1. Hence
of closed
combination of a finite
number
curves in Q
by the

coefficients

If

4.5.

y is

a linear

with

integer

induction hypothesis.

in
The above representationof a 1-cycle
closedcurves in Q is not unique.

Definition

193

(continued)

the

1-cycle

y

in

Q

as

a linear

combination

be represented

lQ can

of

as a linear

combination
m

=

1

of closed
written
if

jS

If

y

=

then

y

0 in

Xr=

i

called

is

fi, written
^icyic

piecewise

f/(z)ife=

definition

y

^

-y2

nk
\302\243

ym,

y

is

\\i
k = 1 Jyk

a piecewise

J J{z)dz=
while

obviously

where

\302\243

\\f(z)dz=

if

(4.39)

integers,

Q

y.

such that all

y=

[f[z)dz9

all

with

yk are

(4.34),

(4.40)

nkyk.
\302\243

k = 1

Jyk

(4.35),

piecewise

and

(4.36), that

smooth curves,

is, if

then

(4.41)

/(2)dz

smooth

curve, then

-[f{z)dz

\\6f{z)dz

fi,

curves yk are piecewise smooth,
smooth. Now let y = Y!k = i nk7u be a piecewise
of the function/(z) (continuouson
the integral

is consistent

Jy

and

define

k= 1

Jy
=

jS

~

1-chain

is a

smooth 1-chainand
Q) alongy by

This

nk

curves y*, homo topic to 0, then y is said to be homologous to 0 in
y in Q are called homologous in
y ~ 0. Two 1-cycles/? and

\342\200\224
~

y

- 0,

y*

n*y*,
\302\243

k= 1

\342\200\224
0.

(4.42)

194

continuation

Analytic

Theorem 4.14 (Cauchy'sTheorem). Let f(z) be a holomorphic
defined
on the region fi and let y be a piece wise smooth

If

y

~ 0

then

in fi,

= 0.

J7(z)dz
Since

Proof.

be

h

=

~~ 0,

y

curve such that
also

^ 0 in

yk

fi,

as

represented

the equality

as

be written

can

y

.., p. Omitting

1,.

function

1-cycle in fi.

=

k

=

y

=

y

=

J]J

x

.., q.Sincey

1,.

Z*\302\253i

m*A>

from

curves

one-point

a closed

smooth,

is piecewise

y

can

smooth curve,
the meaning of

kh is a
the outset

where

yk is

where

nkyk,

9

P

miA=

Z

Z

nkyk

*= 1

1

h=

be transformed into the same 1-cycle
Z; = i hPj by using (4.34) and (4.35).To prove this in detail, first write yk and
=
=
as: yk = yki -y*2
and
Ak suitably
Xh
\\> G *(*)
ykff
hrK
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
all different curves among the
andr T^andlet/?!,/^,\342\200\242
represent
>ft
is that

curves yfc,
fi

=

^;

..

1, 2,

v =

., p. If

either ft or ft,-

sequenceas

both

all

If not

., ft,. Eachcurve
kh are

and

Pa,. Hence,Z* =
with

smooth
=

Pfx

and

i mhK

coefficients

integer

=

1, 2,.

combinations

linear

are

with

integer

Z* = i n*7*
of ft, /?2,.

**

can

.., ft,

then

smooth

piecewise

Jyk

yk

are

direct

- i

n*V*-

Since

curves

closed
not

all

yk

are

denote

and

and

to show

it suffices

smooth,

piecewise

yk

piecewise

that

such

the ft which are not piecewise
smooth.As
each
curve
p in fi, there existsa polygonal

Let ]5j

.., q and
ft
ftj\"l, then we omit
. .. We write the resulting
either ft or
yky, A^ equals
fc

=

(4.42) and the theorem is a

smooth,

piecewise
Z*

. , r(fi),

of

consequence

4.12.

Theorem

=

2,. .

= Z
- 1 nk[f(z)dz
k

h\\f(z)dz
and

1,

are identical.

expressions

(4.41)

.

combinations

closed curves yk

If all

by

. -,

=

ft, /J, such that
/?i,/?2,. . \342\200\242,
ft,.

ft,.
yk

//

a pair

sequence
. .,

j9 hence

as linear

written

. . , a(k),

is

there

of fil9 p2,.

coefficients

and

j32,.

px,

1, 2,.

the

from

some

for

ft\"*

Z* = i n*7*can

= iw*^*an^

Yfh

smooth,
in
line

the

proof
is

which

there

that

yk ^ yk
there are

in

yk.-yk(.

yk^,

\\

exist

and

y

curves among
of Theorem 4.8, for
homotopic to p in fi.

line such that ft ^ ^ in fi if ft is not
=
put ^
ft if ft is piecewisesmooth.We put ykv =
= P?1 if
=
and similarly
yk
a polygonal

fi

piecewise

/?/* if
=

\\

ykv

/\302\273/!

4A

andXfc =

XN-^2

195

(continued)

From

Xv

P

Theorem

Cauchy's

Q

=

mhh

Z
h=l

nkyk
\302\243

k= 1

we get
P

9

^

*= 1

h= 1

Since
Afc

=

is

Afc

a smooth

J|-

Since

=

yk

=

7k, *s

y^, *y^

V^t

a

is

y/c2

V*\342\200\236

by Theorem

a closed curve in fi and ykv
in fi, and
closed
curve

Cauchy'sTheoremasstatedin

2.2

homotopy.

bounded

closed

using

Remember

k =

=

t

A= 1
Section

\342\200\224

CvX

dTx(K) =

2.3a).

The boundary

drx(K) ^ 0 in

and

y

a

have

we

=

YJCx
X

fCtk{z)

that/(z)

\302\243vCAv

or

the

by

2.1,

= Cx

drx(K)

C

the

function

holomorphic

defined

homologous to 0 in
on the

connecting c0 and
analytic continuation

in fi

functions
continuable,

the

is holomorphic

f(z)
complete

Jordan

smooth

piecewise

1-cycle C is

is the
F(z) = \\z f(z)dz
=
F0(z)
yCof(z)dz about c09zeU(c0\\by

branch

=

dTx(K)

Theorem 4.14.

extendedto multivalued
Let/(z) be a freely
fi and letfCtk(z) represent

a finite

and

Hence

curve

of

curves and

consisted

Jordan

on a

dTx (K) of eachcellisa

fi.

= 0 by

If/(z)isa

C, of which

smooth

defined

1, 2, ...,//},

^Z^vCXv9CXv

$cf{z)dz

yk

region fi ^ [D]. Denoting
in
as
obtained
the proofofTheorem
[D],

of

decomposition

{rx(K):

in fi,
~ 0

:_ yk

2.2 can be considered as a special
seen by rewriting the proof of Theorem
that [D], occurring in Theorem 2.2,was a

piecewise

disjoint

function

holomorphic

cellular

y^

Theorem

the boundary,

region,

number of mutually
a

a

can be

This

4.14.

Theorem

in fi

and

Xh

4.6(1).

caseof

(cf.

=

hence \\

too,

lc= 1

1

\342\200\242

was

smooth

are

Xh

9

P

yk

the

curve,

kh. Therefore

an

fi

region fi, c0 a fixed
point

arbitrary

along

Theorem

as discussed
analytic

curve and

y

4.11.

of

the

This

so

and

point

zefi,

then

power

series

result can

be

below.
function

on the region

branches
of/ (z) at cefi,fc = 1,2, 3,. ..
c
on the greatest disk U(c)
center

.Each

with

and

196

Analytic continuation

contained in ft. In orderto define

integral

bf(y(t))Y(t)dt,

J/W*-J!

where y: t

the

smooth curve in :Q,we have
to
=
k
determine
1, 2, 3,. . assumed
by/(z)
values/y(0k(y(f)),
at y(t) we want to consider. For this
a
select
purpose,
branch/y(fl)tk(z) at the
initial
of
and
let
be the analytic
y(a)
y
point
f={f(z,t):
a^t^b)
continuation
at y(t) and
along
y offy(a)tk{z). All/(z, t) are branches
of/(z)
on
>
Pick
e
the
disks
0
such
that
U(y{t)).
holomorphic
->

y(t\\

which

a ^ t
of the

^

if

/(y(0\302\273

0

\342\200\224
<

s|

\\t

=/(?(*)>

.,

(4.43)

if|f-s|<\302\243.

y(t)eU{y{s))

Then,

a piecewise

is

fr,

0 =/(z, s) on [/(y(f))n t/(y(s)),
a
is
continuous function
off.
Therefore,
r)

have

we
\302\243,

hence

/(z,

s) and/(y(f),

we

define

=

f(y(t),t)y'(t)dt.

i

ifiz)dz

of this integral of course dependson the choice
of the branch
The
value
of
y(a)
y.
f(z, a) =fy(a),k(z)at the initial
point
in
ft
Now let y: t -* y(t), 0 ^ ( ^ t, be a piecewisesmooth curve
an arbitrary
c0 with
connecting
point z e ft and consider the integral

F(z) =

t)y'(t)dt
[of(y(t\\

where {f(z, ():0 ^ t
f (z, 0) = fCotk(z)
off(z)

ro(z) =

=

(2f(z)dz

t} is

^

at

f
J fc

the analytic continuation alongy

of

the

branch

c0. Put
(4.44)

ze[/(c0).

fc(z)<fe,

C0

Theorem

4.15.

F(z) =

the

is

$zyf(z)dz

analytic

continuation

along

y

of

Fo(4

Proof:

We put,

just as in the proof of Theorem

4.11,

'f
F(M)=

It suffices

along y

of

f(y(tlt)y'(t)dt+
0

to show that
F0(z).

on U{y(t))n

To

U(y{s))

if

t): 0

{F{z,

do this,
0

^ r

zeU(y(t)).

f(z9t)dz,

\\

Jy(f)

it

is

^

t

^

sufficient

\342\200\224
s <

t} is the
to show

e, where

e is

analytic continuation
that F(z,

t)

=

F{z,

s)

determinedas in (4.43).

4A

If 0

^
s^u^t

-

t

s <

e, then z eU(y(t)) n

implies

u)

/(y(u),

Theorem

Cauchy's

we have

Hence

=/(y(w),s).

s) and

t) =f{z,

f(z,

implies

U(y(s))

197

(continued)

for an

arbitrary

zeU(y(t))nU(y(s))

u)y'(u)du
[ f{y{u\\u)y\\u)du+ f/(y(u),
Js

F(z,t)=

=

s
J|V(V(\,5)/(U)^+")

|V(v(w),w)/(w)dii+

J0
=

+
w)/(\302\253)rf\302\253

r/(y(\302\253X

f

J

Jo

that

fact

The

F (z) is a freely

function.Since homotopy
is a directconsequence
of
along y

F0 (z), it

of

is also

fact

that

is the

F(z)

analytic

complete

f(z,s)dz

analytic

complete

valid if/(z) isa multivalued

continuable,

freely

f

J y(f)

on fi

function

f(z) is a single-valued holomorphic
of Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem 4.12)

variant
the

/(z,r)dz

s)dz = F(z, 5).

/te

when

as

the

f

J y(f)

y(s)

continuable,

is proved in the same way

is a

+

J0

analytic continuation
function.

function

on fi

That

is, if/(z)

and if

y

is

a

dz equals the
smooth curve in Q connectingc0and cr, then
piecewise
\\yf(z)
value of the power seriesFx(z) obtained
continuation
by analytic
along y of
at its center cx:
F0(z)

1
by

of

f(z)dz = Fl(cl\\
4.15.

Theorem

If p

is a

the

piecewisesmoothcurve

of F0(z)

continuation

analytic

with

homotopic

along

ft

is

y in Q,
the same

then the result
power

series

Fx(z\\ hence

[f(z)dz=

j3^y.

[f(z)dzy

(4.45)

on the choice of the branch fCoik(z)
that
(4.44). Equality (4.45) holds underthe assumption
appearing
of
both integrands
are analytic continuationsalongthe path of integration
initial point c0. If cx = c0, that is, if y is a
the same branch fCOik(z)
at the
~ S
base
closed curve with
(Sis the onec0 and if y ^ 0 in fi, then y
point
Of

course,

FY(cx)

depends

in general

in F0(z)

point curve c0).Hence

J/w*-i
Therefore

we have

f(z)dz

6

=

0.

198 Analytic continuation
4.16.

Theorem

on

be a

Let/(z)

region fi and let

the

i>

valued

the

on

f(z) =
fi =

region

center 2,

1 and

base point

to 0, then (4.46)is not

is homologous

function

Fig.

4.20

z=

|z|e,e, -

obtained

region

tt

<

6 ^

connected and the branchesoff(z)
the
on D with
we have by the

holomorphic
first

order,

=

\\f(z)dz

For

sufficiently

let CE

be

the

e, let

^ =

with center

= 2ni

ft

with

is a

have

we

.

= ^/(Izl)^2. LetD be the
\"

D are

C. D

from

/+ (z) and /_

is simply

(z).Since

(z) is

/+

point 2, which is a poleofthe

= 2niy/2.

Resz = 2 [/+(z)]

[e, 1] be the segment
0 and radius e, then

(f(z)dz = f/+(x)dx+
1
J

two-

circles

y = a'/?-a~1'/?~1
1 in fi. Let us evaluate

real axisU

with
analytic continuation along the circleC\302\243
hence,
by (4.45)
/_(z),

J*

be

\342\200\224
L

of the

exception

a and

/-(Z) = ^f
Z

have yjz

over

true.

residue theorem (Theorem2.5)

\\f+(z)dz

small

circle

point

yjz = eLogz/2>

the negative

by deleting

then

0,

7t, we

Let

{0,2}.

/+(2) = -^4-,
Z \342\200\224
L

=/+ ~ (z),

f(Z)

then

a holomorphic,

is

2)

\342\200\224

base

for yjz by

a branch

Fixing

C

with

curve

Writing

y

necessarily

\342\200\224
y/z/(z

respectively

piecewisesmoothclosed
$yf(z)dz.

~ 0

(4.46)

The function

4.5.

Example

function

curve in fi. If

closed

a piecewise

be

y

completeanalytic

f(z)dz = 0.

if y

However,

freely continuable,

connecting
* A\"!

/J

initial

point

f /(*)& + Jf/-(x)dx

JCC

E

e and 1 and
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

CE

(z)
\302\243,/+

A in

fi. By

becomes

4.4

199

(continued)

4.21

Fig.

e tend

Letting

Theorem

Cauchy's

to 0 from the right,
Sep1012

C2n

C

Jo

Jcc

we have

~-

Ee

hence

J/(z)</z=-2p^rfx.
Since

continuation

analytic

by

J
Ja

f

point

becomes/-(z), we

have

=

Jo

we

f(z)dz

= Ff-(x)dx+(

f(z)dz

=

J/r1

a *p,/+(z)

=
|/+(z)dz 2iri>/i
1 of p~1,f(z) =/-(z) also, have

f f-{z)dz

Jo

at the initial

Since

-

=

f(z)dz

*

along

kr

ji

f(z)dz+(lf^x)dx9

J*

hence

f

l[^-dx.

Therefore

Since
obviously

y is

In
y

~

=

y

not

y

a-0-a\"1
~

0 in

-/T1

\302\2432.
Since

homotopic

with

= a
j^Az)

*fe

^

0, we

by

and

(4.34)

(4.35),

conclude from Theorem4.16that

0.

if y is a closed
general,
converse is
but
the
0,

example.

=0

+ )3-a-j3

curve in a

region 12,then

not necessarilytrue, as

y

shown

~ 0

in iQ implies

by

the

above

5

Mapping Theorem

Rie ma tin's

5.1

Riemann's

Section 3.3c some examplesof conformal

We gave in
/: z

=/(z)

disk

in

impossible to
U by

find

a conformal

mapping/which

which

D onto

z-plane into

in

it will be

general

maps D onto the

functions.
of suitably chosenknown
of
the
existence
theorem
following
concerning

map

mappings

in the

the composition

have the
mappings

D \"of simple
shape\"
mapping
the w-plane. Given an arbitrary regionD,
a region

_\342\226\272
vv

the unit

Theorem

Mapping

unit

disk

we

However,

conformal

U.

D be a region in the complexplane C, z0
Riemann's MappingTheorem,
Let
a point
in D, and U = {w:|w|< 1}the unit disk in the w-plane. If D is simply
one
conformal
D # C, then there existsexactly
and
connected
mapping
=
=
_\342\226\272
> 0.
0
z
w
D
U
that
from
onto
satisfiesf{z0)
and/'(z0)
/:
/(z)
D
and
Obviously for a conformalmapping/between
that D be simply connected and D # C. Since,
necessary

Theorem

(Theorem

1.24), a

function

cannot

exist

C isa constant,there
conformal
/
mapping

from

that

is holomorphic

a conformal

D onto

mapping

U exists, then

U to
by

exist,

it

is

Liouville's

and bounded

on

from C onto U.Ifa
/ is a one-to-one

continuous mapping from D onto U and its inverse mapping/\"1
is
continuous. Therefore, D has to be simply
the
connected
by
simple
of simple
connectedness of U and the definition
connectedness
(Definition
first
We
4.4). This sectionisdevotedto proving Riemann'sTheorem.
give an
outline of the proof.
(a) We first show that there exists at least one conformalmapping
z^>w
U such that /(z0) = 0 and
from D onto a subregion
of
/:
=/(z)
there
exists
3.5, this is equivalent to saying that
/'(z0) > 0. By Theorem
at least one univalent, holomorphic function defined
D satisfying
on
1 for all zeD.
|/(z)|<
3F denotethe collection
of all univalent,
Let
(b)
holomorphic functions

5.1 Riemann's Mapping
> 0.

f'(z0)
If

and satisfying
(a), & is nonempty.

on D

defined

/(z)

By

a conformal

f{z0) = 0

and

/: z -> w

mapping
> 0

/'(zo)

is, <\302\243(w)is
obviously 0(0) =
|<\302\243'(0)|

=
=

0.

by

Schwarz's

our

=

U

\342\200\224f(D)onto

satisfies

we have

1 and

^

\\<f>(0)\\
with

c: [/,

g(D)

\\<f>(w)\\

c

some

for

cz

> 0 and

assumption,/'(z0)

g'(z0) =f'(z0) if and only
s=

Now,

put

Lemma,
<f>(z)

^.

to

=

\\c\\

1, and

<

the case
1. Since

= 0'(zo),

<mr(zo)
and

By

only if
we have

9(z),

<\302\243(/\302\273)

and,

course f{z) belongs

is a conformal mapping from
for |w| < 1 and
holomorphic

1 occurs

1/ that satisfies

D onto

3.4, ^

that

zeD, f(zQ) = 0 and

for all

from

=f(z)

then of

exists,

picking an arbitrary g(z)e&, we
By Theorem

< 1

|/(z)|

201

Theorem

if g(z)

g'(z0)> 0.Therefore,
identically.

=/(z)

g'(z0)

^f'(z0)

Let s be defined

by

0'(zo).

sup

If a conformalmapping/:
z->w =/(z) from D onto [/ exists, then/(z) e ^
s. We
that there exists a function
f(z)e^
satisfying
and/'(z0) <\302\243
prove
=
if
5.
we
show
that
is
an
To
this
end,
arbitrary
/'(z0)
sequence of
{f\342\200\236(z)}
=
functions fn(z)e& with limn_ oo/n(zo)
s> *hen there existsa subsequence
\342\200\242
\342\226\240 is
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
<
<
<
that
on all
uniformly
convergent
n,{/\342\200\236,(z)},\302\253x n2
the
limit function f(z)
1.19,
compact subsets of D. By Theorem

=

on
limi_00/;j(z)is holomorphic
=
=
s>0.
/(zo)
0and/\"(zo)
holomorphic

function

is a

fi = C

Putting

Section4.2,

/iD2(z)=

h{z)

{a},

has

subregion
\342\200\224

/i(z),

the

=

h(z)

where

y/(z

of this

range

D

on

D and

hence a

c)

is a

is U, that

function/(z)
D

from

is a

\342\200\224

point

<x

is,

I/.

onto

in

that

C such

freely analytically
on Q. Hence, as

o\302\243D.

continuable

explained in
branches
hDl(z) and hD2(z) on the simply
of Q. Putting h(z) = hDl(z) we
have
function

analytic

two

Hence,

lim^^/^z).

3F.

there

assumption,

\342\200\224

and completetwo-valued
connected

to

conformal mapping,

D \302\243Cby

=

f'(z)

function/(z) is univalent

belonging

we prove that

(d) Finally,
-> w =/(z)
z
/:
(a) Since

this limit

that

show

We

(c)

and

D

fc(z) is

a holomorphic

defined

function

on

D,

satisfying

/|(Z)2 =

The

function

h(z)

Z-(T.
is univalent

on D: if

fifo) =

fc(z2),

then

zx

= cx-h^Zi)2

Riemann 's MappingTheorem

202

= a+

=

h{z2)2

respectively

= a

zx

z2. The

\342\200\224

+ h(zr)2 =

o+

the

contradicting

<7,

=

h(z2)2

and -h{D) =

{-h(z):zeD}

of

h(z\\

h(z2),
points. (If h(z1)= \342\200\224
=
hence 2h{zl)
h(zl)-h(zl) = 0y

common

no

have

h(z\\

is, Zj =

ranges h(D)
z2,

then
that

o$D.)

assumption

Since

*'(*o) = i/(*o-*)*0
3.2 that

Theorem

from

conclude

we

\342\200\224

Therefore,
neighborhood f/\302\243(-/i(z0)),
Therefore,
Hence, if zeZ), then |fc(z) + fi(z0)| > \302\243.
g(z) = e/(h(z) + h(z0)\\

the

function

is also

gr(z)

satisfying

<

\\g(z)\\

1 for

from D ontoa subregion

small

a sufficiently

contains

Ji(D)

0.

e >

fi(\302\243>)^ \302\243/\302\243(-fi(zo))

=

0.

putting

on D
defined
a univalent, holomorphic function
=
->
w
all z, that is,#:z
#(z) is aconformal
mapping

0. Putting a =

^(z0) ^

[/, but

of

gf

we consider

(z0),

the mapping

/ =
D

unit

the

from

e10

\342\200\224
w
a
\342\200\242-

(f>.

a subregion

and, since

=

tf>'(w)

itself (Theorem3.6),and
= /(z)

Clearly,

f\\z->w

of U

satisfying

/(*o) = *fo(*o))=
-

e\"(l

real number,

0 a

-,

1 \342\200\224aw

U onto

disk

g and

<t> \302\260
0, of

onto

<*(w)=

w ->

0:

|a|2)/(l

-aw)2,

0. So

we

of a

A sequence

D if

Theorem

of functions

there exists a
5.1

{MonteFs

defined

functions

Theorem).

on the

that

subset of D.
(1)

Let

such

that

If the

Q (i) denote

D is

we

converges

and

let

a subregion

bounded

uniformly

\\fn(z)\\ < M

for all
of

{/\342\200\236(z)}

bounded

uniformly

the setof all complexnumbers

where r and s are rationalnumbers

the

established

D onto

called

of the

opposite

have

from

sequence

region D is uniformly

exists a subsequence{/\342\200\236
(z)}

Proof.

on

defined

{/\342\200\236(z)}

constant M

6 the

for

Taking

conformal mapping/: z -+w =f(z)
of U satisfying f(z0) = 0 and/'(z0)> 0.

(b)

mappingfrom

= 0,

Since

on

composition,

*(\302\253)

/'(z0) = ^(l~|a|2)-1s'(z0).
we have g'{z0) / 0.
g is conformal,
>
argument of g'(z0), arrive at/'(z0)
existence

the

is a conformal

the countable

on

zeD.

holomorphic

D, then

on each

of

the

there

compact

form

set D n

r+

is,

Q(i) be

5.1

DnQ(i) = {cl,c2,c3,. . . , ck,...}.
is everywhere dense in D. We first prove

n 6(0

subsequence
ck. For
purpose,

of

{fnj{z)}

monotonic

nn

of {nkm}

so

denote

we

of natural

sequences

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
The

and only if the
the fact that

< if

{fnj(ck)}

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242}<

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> njm,

increasing

'' ' <njm<

<

< nj2

possible to selecta
converges for all points

that it is

let

= {njl> nj2>

injm}<

that

such

{/\342\200\236(z)}

we

this

represent

203

Theorem

Mapping

by

represented

D

's

Riemann

sequence

set of natural

numbers, that

numbers

{njm}

is

subsequence
a subset of {n^},

subsequenceof {\302\253km}< by

{njm}< is a

is,

is a

{njm}<

{nkm}<

Obviously,
{\"*\302\273.}<

For the

=>

sake of legibility,

function

sequence

{/(cbn)},

which

<

...

bounded

^
\302\253fcjn

...).

z =

Substituting

=5

{\302\253im}<

for

that

=>

we

Then

we have by

of

=>

'

*kk < nkj

=

^

rijj

=

if

nj

Jc
is

obtain

we

nim)}

the

subsequence
this way, we arrive at a

natural

numbers

=>

< ^

{\"km}

\" '

<y,
a monotone

implies

{nfc, nk+!,

sequence

Therefore,

the

ck,

nk

+ 2,.

{/(cfc,nkm)}

sequence

Jc

=

function

1, 2,

n}

. . , n,-, . . . } is

converges,
sequence

=

increasing
=>

njjE{njm}

a subsequence

so does the
= {/(z,
{/n.(z)}

sequence
{nkm},

the

of {nkm}<.Since

sequence {/(ck,H,)}.
h,)} converges at all

3,

(2) By assumption, the/n(z)areholomorphic

z e D we

{/(z,

(5.1)

= {r^,
{n^}

points

the

sequence {f(ck,nkm)} converges.

n2, n3,. . ., n,,. . .}
natural numbers. Since k<j

the

in

put

\"*

hence

of
' '

number

Jt, the

each

Now

cx

a convergent

has

Continuing

{n2m}<.

=> (\"3m}<

{\"2m}<

c2 in

which
\302\253im)},

ofa sequence
sequenceof subsequences
such

z=

Substituting

n) =fn(z).

put/(z,

obtain the bounded number
sequence
convergent subsequence {f{cunlm)},(nil < nl2

{/(c2,

where

{\302\253lm}<

(5.1)

njm.

{/(z, n)}, we

sequence
n2m)}>

we

has a

<nlm<

{/(Q>

implies

{Wjm}<

on

the

region

D and

for all

have

\\fn{z)\\

< M,

For ceD, let p > 0besuch

Ma constant.
that

U3p(c)

c: D,

where

\302\243/3p(c)

is

the

disk

with

Riemann 's MappingTheorem

204

3p. Then

radius

c and

center

<J\\Z-C\\

For,

C

if

'

ForCeC

while

is a

circle

we

center

with

c and

radius 2p,

we have

(5.2)
by

11

C-z

C-c\\

=

\\z-c\\

<|z-c|
=
K-z\\K-c\\ p-2P

hence

< M,

K\\z-c\\M-2p
=
2p2
iiG^-^w
of
We prove that the subsequence{fn.(z)}

(3)

Theorem

Cauchy's

have

1

|/B({)|

< P.

if |Z-C|

\\fn(z)-fn(c)\\

{fn{z)},

=

M
\342\200\224
\342\200\224|z c|.

P
which

at

converges

2(0, converges uniformly on all compactsubsetsK c D.
K and C \342\200\224
D. Since
K is compact we have
Letr denotethe distance
between
e > 0 there exists a natural
r > 0. We have to prove that
for
arbitrary
if
such
that
number
zeK,
j0(e)

all points

D n

ck of

if h >j>jM
IfnjW-LkW < B
Put p = r/4 and select<5 > 0 such that MS < ep/3 and 5 < p.Since for each
zeK
there exists a point ckeDn Q(i) such that \\ck \342\200\224
z\\ < 5, K is covered by
=
K
is already
the disks Ud{ck), k
covered
1,2, 3,.. . . SinceK is compact,
disks
a
of
Hence
we
have
finite
number
the
by
Ud(ck).

Kcz

1

m (possibly

some

for

Since

k =

1,

if

An

number

the

2,. .

.,

m,

we

after rearranging the point sequence{ck}).
sequence
{fnj(ck)} converges for all points
for a sufficiently large j0(e):
have

j0{e) then

h>j>

zeK

arbitrary

Suppose

Us(ck)nK*0

(j l/,(ck),

k=

zel/^cj,

\\fnj{ck)

< e/3,

-fnh(ck)\\

belongs to at least one of the
then \\ck-z\\ < S < p, hence

l/3p(cfc)c=l/4p(z)=l/r(z)c=D.
Therefore,

by

(5.2),

/.W-/-(ck

<-z-ck
p

<

\342\200\224
<-

p

3

Ud{ck\\

Jc

=

1, 2,

k =

1,

. . .,

ck,

m.

2,.. .,

m.

5.1 Riemann ys

205

Theorem

Mapping

and hence

We conclude

1/^)^/^)1

<

\\fn(z)-fi(z)\\

J+

that

,,Mz>,<f+,/.<,>-,.(,>,<\302\243

for h >j>j0(e).
on D,
Let & be the collectionof all univalent,
functions
holomorphic
=
0 and/'(^o) > 0 for some fixed
such that \\f(z)\\ < 1 for all zsD,f(20)
e
of
is bounded.
To
&
is
D.
The
set
all/'(z0) for/(z) e \302\253^
z0
By (a),
nonempty.
c D and put h(z) =f(z0 + pz). Since
that
see this, select p > 0 such
Up{z0)
<
for
is
1, \\h(z)\\ ^ 1 and fc(0) = 0, we have,
|z|
by
h(z)
holomorphic
= |fr'(0)|/p ^ 1/p.
Schwarz's
Lemma,
^ 1 hence
|/'(z0)|
\\h'(0)\\
Put

5 =

(5.3)

f'(z0)

sup

f(*)<^

and selecta function
=

5.1, there existsa subsequence{fnj{z)}
on each compact subset of D.
uniformly

converges

=

/(z)

we know,

Theorem

by

that

that

#

Zi

Hence,

the contrary, that
=/(z2).

z2 and/(zx)

putting

a =/(zx), we

exists an e > 0 such
for

on

the

large

U\302\243(zr) of

Let p be the
circle

zt.

value

minimal

C = d

there

is,

limj_00/l^(z)is
are

two points

on D,

while

know by

Theorem

3.1

and

Z).

on

univalent

zl5 z2eD such

Since/'(^o) = s > 0,/(z) is not

then /(z)

sufficiently

neighborhood

is holomorphic

have/(z0) = 0 and

a constant.

(1.60), that there

that

if0<|z-z1|^e
Now,

f(z) =

function

this

f(z)

= 0, we

= 5.

lim f'nj(z0)

/-00

prove

that

1.19,

Sincefnj(z0)

=

us assume

Let

lim/n,.(z)

limj^^f^jiz).

We

which

{/\342\200\236(z)}

J-00

/'(z0)

(c)

\\\\mn^^ffn(z0)

of

by

Defining/(z)

=

that

such

Theorem

s. By

f'(z)

{/w(z)},/w(z)e\302\253^',

sequence

[U^z^ ]

|/(z)-fl|^/i>0,

- a * 0.

j, fnj(z)

has at least one a-point on

We prove this now.
assumed
by the continuous
center

with
if

zeC,

zx and

radius

function

e. Then

\\f(z)

the

\342\200\224
a \\

Theorem

's Mapping

Riemann

206

hence, since the

function

compact subset

sequence

C of D, we

for

have

that

assume

Now,

a)

l/(fnj(z)

is a

(5.4)

not possess any a-points
function of z on [mUt(zl)']m

does

fnj(z)

\342\200\224

large ;

sufficiently

if zeC.

|/nj(z)-a|^>0,
holomorphic

principle (corollary to Theorem 1.21),l/( \\fnj{z)
maximum on C. Therefore,by (5.4)
maximum

\342\200\224i

that

the

by

Hence,

its

\342\200\224

assumes

a |)

\\i

is,

if zeUAz,).

|/n;(z)-a|^>0,

This contradictslimj_00/nj(z1)
In a similar way it may
We

Ue{zi\\

Since

on D.

univalent

f(z0) = 0

and

that/WJ(z) has at

be proved

and

|

\\f(z)

f'(z0)

least one a-pointin

disjoint,

contradicting
^ \\fnj(z) | ^ 1 for
lirn, _\342\231\246

a-points

=

U\302\243(z2)are

in D

< 1. Since,
principle that \\f(z)\\
= s > 0, we conclude j(z)e&.

maximum

the

= a.

=f(zl)

that Ut(zx)

assume

may

that/nj(z) has at least two
from

in t/c(zi),then

if zeVE(Zl),

-\302\243-,

\\fnj(z)-a\\

the

on

uniformly

converges
{f\342\200\236j{z)}

hence

the fact

it follows
is

that/wj(z)

all z e D,we

conclude

as observed

above,

In order
to prove that the range/(D) of/(z) coincides
the unit disk
with
I/. From
this assumption
we will derive
the existence
V, we assume/(D) \302\243
of a function g(z)e 3F with g'(z0) > s, which contradicts the definition, (5.3),
(d)

of s. Iff(D) \302\243
[/, there
have 0 < |t| < 1.The
mapping

point ret/

such that

w->(w

mapping

itself mapping

U onto

from

is a

\342\200\224

t)/(1

\342\200\224

fw)

is a

= 0,

we

conformal

t onto 0; hence

^(z)-=/(z)'T
^l'

t \302\243f(D). Since/(z0)

l(5.5)

1-t7(z)

'

of z defined on D and satisfying
function
a
is
continuable,
analytically
complete,
freely
^/w
C* = C \342\200\224
two-valued
Hence,
analytic function defined on the region
{0}.
have
Theorem
that
we
D
is
since
4.10,
by
simply connected,
>/[^(z)] breaks
\342\200\224
into two branches h(z) and h(z). The function h(z) is a holomorphic

is a
0

<

function

univalent

holomorphic

\\\\l/{z)\\ < 1 for

defined

h(z)2 =

all z.

on

D such that

<A(z),

0

<

\\h(z)\\ <

1.

(5.6)

5.1 Riemann's Mapping
since ij/(z) is univalent

Therefore,

is h(z).

D, so

on

207

Theorem

Observing

that

# 0,

h(z0)

we put

l-PHz)

Sincew

U

\342\200\224

e'a(w

/?)/(l

/?w)

0, g(z) is a univalent,
< 1 for all zeD and

\\g(z)\\

mapping which maps U onto
function
defined on D such
Since h{z0) = /}, we have

a conformal

\342\200\224 is

/? onto

and

that

-+

holomorphic
=

gf(z0)

0.

l-l^l2'

Since

f{z0) = 0, we

from

have

2h(z0)h'(z0) =

and

(5.6)

V^o) = (1-

(5.5)

M2)/'(zo)

hence

= (l-li?l4)rUo)

2l5k^'(20)

0 = |/J|g*

since h{z0) =

|0| <

0 <

1, we

have

the

prove

<f>(w)

z ->w =

let g:

=

/:

g(z)

be

z-+w

conformal

another

and 0'(zo)

=/(z)

> 0.

= g(f-1M)

gof-l:n-+<t>M

=

fif(z0)

= ei0w,

we

0,

OeU.

[/

onto

region

connected

satisfying

in

such

that

<f>{f{z))=

g(z).

by the corollary to Schwarz's Lemma that
> 0,
Therefore ei6f(z) = g(z). Since g'(z0)
we have
have

g(z) =f{z)
Mapping

identically.
Theorem.

the

complex

plane

C, then

\342\200\224
F

it

F

itself,

the complementF = S D,
=
S
to the Riemann sphere
Cu{oo}isaclosedset. is
if is impossible
to find two nonempty, closedsets F0
= F0 u Fx and FonFi = 0.

(e) If D is a
of D with respect

F!

= 0

g(z0)

e'Vteo) = 0'(zo) > 0, i.e.,eie = 1 and
This completes the proof of Riemann's

called

hence

of a conformalmapping

onto U satisfying

conformal mapping from

Since

Therefore

mapping

<f>

is a

uniqueness,

from D

mapping

The

p2.

D onto U and satisfying/(z0)= 0 and/'(^o)> 0.

mapping
To

=

h(z0)2

*\342\226\240

the existence

proved

> 2|/J|,

1 +10|2

have

0f(*o)>/'(*<>) =
We

=

\342\200\242*
(\302\260''

2|fil
Since

= ^(z0)

-t

and

and

208

's

Riemann

calleda

If the complementF

5.7.

Definition

=S

D

then D is

is connected,

\342\200\224

of D

holes.

without

region

an example of a regionwith

5.1 shows

Figure

Theorem

Mapping

holes.

D

F2

Fig. 5.1

(SeeL.Ahlfors,

Theorem 5.2.
without

region

16.) If D c

4, Theorem

Chapter

a function

holes,/(z)

closed curve in

smooth

1966,

on D, and y

holomorphic

C isa

a piecewise

D, then

f/(z)<fe = 0.

Proof:
a ^
S

t

^

y be

Let

Let

fe}.

\342\200\224
\\y\\
containing

oo)

containing

F

are

closed

containsa

have

we

have

we

fi contain

sets

F =

F ail
with

=

F

S-DcQufi1.
(F0 = FnQ

{z:|z

neighborhood

of C and

subset

Qhk =

(compare

a ^

t

^

fe,

let

and

\\y\\

=

{y(r):
set

open
of

S

\342\200\224

|y|

0

| >

=F

and

have

F in

plane

and

=0.

Fx =
Since

FnQx
both

=

F and

0.) Since the regionfi
oo, T -= |y|ufi! = S \342\200\224fiis
r c: S \342\200\224
F = D. Since T is

=
Fx

R} u{oo}of

sinceFcQwe

Cli

F0nFt

hence

and

Since F is connectedby
\342\200\224

C is positive.Picka <5

into an infinite

>

0 such

number of squares

8

side-length

{x +

Fx and

F0v

T
compact, the distancebetween
that 28 < r and divide
the complex
with

y(r),

finQ!=0.

oo, we concludeF0 ^

a bounded

->

Q denote

= fiufi!,

Since |y| c: D,
\342\200\224
SI

t

the connected componentof the
oo (i.e., the largest connected open subset
and Slx the open set defined
by

S-|y|

assumption,

by y:

represented

iy: h8^x^hd

Section

2.2b).

+ 89k8^y^

kd

+ S},

Kk =

0, \302\261
1, \302\2612,...,

5.1 Riemann 's Mapping Theorem 209

Fig.

5.2

all squares

Arrange

that

Qhk

have

a nonempty

intersection

with

T

in a

sequence:

<2i, 62.

and denotethe

-\342\200\242-.&>---.

of

union

those

6v,

squares

Since the diameter of each square Qx

hencercKcD,
by

the

sides.

four

+ C8,

The

<2a

= Qhk,

=

C4A-3

equals

-r-C4A_2 +

C4A-1+C4A

\342\231\246
C4A-

5.3

^26,

we have

KnF

= 0,

*9QA of a square Qx is a 1-cyclemade up
=
Put dQx
Ct + C2+ C3+ C4, 3Q2 = C5 + C6 + C7
boundary

C4A-1

Fig.

* 0,

by K

Then

dQx

G*nr

Riemann 's

210

Mapping Theorem

sides of Qx are |CJ, y = 4A \342\200\224
3,
4X
4X
where
1, 4A. If the side |C;| of QA = Qhk is also a side of Qhk^
= (ft - 1, Jc), (ft + 1, Je), (ft, k - 1) or (ft, Jc + 1), then we write C, as
(ft', k)
CJ if Qhk> c K and as C'j \\iQww $ K. The sides \\C)\\ of & coincide with a
=
side |Cj | of some other squareQ\342\200\236
Qw- Taking orientations into account,
the

Ignoring

- 2,

we

have

four

the

orientation,

-

=

C)

\342\200\224

C\\.

c

K with

C'j

are cancelled:

ai

c=
X

| of (2a are not contained in any square Q\342\200\236
the
sumof all 1-cycles
taking
dQ^k = 1,..., v, all
sides

The

A. Hence,

^

| C'j

t= 1 5(2,= Ycy.

(5.7)

of the point set K is \\C\\ = \\J\\Cj\\. If zeT, then
the boundary
c X, we have
for
some
Since
zgQm
square.
Qhk
z^|C}'|, hence z\302\243\\C\\.
T is contained
in the interior of K:
Therefore
Obviously,

ra(K) = K-\\C\\.
We

will

that

prove

/W = ^
=

for ze(K)

the equality

i f
^o^
T^-^C,

2ni)ct-z

holds.Thefunction/ is holomorphic
ze
z e gA for some square
then
we

have

by

Qx

Integral formula

by Cauchy's

(Theorem 2.4)

\342\226\240

r

/(2)
and

on D by assumption and K c
a K. If z belongs to the interiorof (?A

D.If

(z)

(K),

(5.8)

ze(IC)

po\302\253

Theorem

Cauchy's

(Theorem 2.2)

27t'Jec\302\273^_z

Therefore,

by

(5.7) and

(4.40),

/it'^TTlJ^C-Z
that

is,

equality

(5.8) holds

27ClJcC~Z

if z belongsto the interiorof Qx.The

integral

on

of
z on (K) by
the right-hand
function
side of (5.8) is a holomorphic
of z. Therefore
function
Theorem 1.17, and thereforea continuous
(5.8) is
also valid if z is a point on the boundary of the squareQx.
Since
(5.8)
|y| cz T cz (X), we obtain from

i^-lH^-

5.1 Riemann's Mapping

211

Theorem

Therefore

I'w*-2bJ>\302\253f\302\243=

Putting

the

region ft

^(dz/iC-z)2).

Since y

of

function

-

=

</,'(\302\243)

on

(

\342\200\224

cC

{oo}

is

*J/(Q is a

function

the

\\y(dz/{^-z)\\

^(\302\243)

\342\200\224
\\y\\
by

we have by

closed,

holomorphic

Theorem

and

1.17

(1.30)

\342\204\242--Is(\302\243)*-a

Therefore ^r(C)

region Q \342\200\224
{oo},

on the

constant

is

conclude that ^(0 = 0 identically

We

an

with

point

arbitrary

uniquely determined by
in D

curve

another

If y

zeros.

zeD, the

of

value

the

z and

Writing

a holomorphic

choiceof y.

*/? is

y\"

we

f'(z) -\302\253fc
=

J,-.- f(z)

as

j;(/'(z)//(z))rfz

= 0.

= 0.
\\yf{z)dz

J* (f'(z)/f(z))dz

integral

of the

on D,
Since,moreover,/'^)//(z)is holomorphic
hm

\342\200\236
^(Q

piecewise smoothcurveconnectingz0

is independent
connecting z0 and z, then

],m

and/(z)

z0eD

holes,

is a

lim(_

Hence

onfl-{oo}.

Now let D c C bea regionwithout

function on D without

while

a closed

have,

For,

if

is
f} is

curve in D.

by Theorem

5.2,

0.
function

the
J^(/'(z)//(z))\302\253iz,

/(z)

is a

holomorphic

hence

=

d(el{z)/f(z))/dz

on

defined

function

D. By

=f'(z)/f(z),
and since/(z0) = 0

(4.26), dl(z)/dz

e*{z)/f(z) is constant

0. Therefore

we conclude

/Uo)'

Selectingan arbitrary

value

of

log/(z0)

we have

exp[/(z) + log/(z0)]=/(z),
that

the

is,

holomorphic
analytic

multiple-valued

In

the

above

holomorphic

proof
only

/(z) +

function

log/(z).

of Riemann's

to show that
branches

over

log/(z0) is a branch over D of the
Hence

+ log/(z0).

= f
^dz

log/(z)

connected

function

(5.9)

Mapping Theorem we assumedDis simply
a) and
y/ [^(z) ] have two single-valued
D each. Therefore, this assumption can be

J (z

212

by the

replaced

and

's

Riemann

branches

assumption

zeros

without

and

h{z)

that

on

for

D, yj[f(z)~\\
\342\200\224
D. If D
h{z) over

in (5.9),

as occurring

Theorem

Mapping

each

that is

function/(z)

has two

holomorphic

single-valued,holomorphic

c Cis a regionwithout

log/(z),

holes,

is a single-valued,
function
holomorphic

on

D and

holomorphic
exp [log/(z) ] =/(z). Hencey/[f{z)] has two single-valued
the
branches h(z) = exp [logf(z) ]/2 and - h(z) over D. Therefore
following
holds.

theorem

C is a region without
holes and z0
5.3. If D \302\243
z->w= /(z),
there exists exactly one conformalmapping/:
=
0 and/'(z0) > 0.
and
unit
disk
satisfies/(z0)

Theorem

As

stated

above,

disk U, then

if there

D is simply
A region

Corollary.

exists a conformalmappingfrom
connected.

in D, then

a point

from

D onto

the

the unit

D onto

Hence,

without holes in the complexplane

is

simply

connected.

This fact

follows directlyfrom

For, suppose

that

the

complement

equality

with

(5.8)

in the

respect

proof of Theorem 5.2.

to S =

Cu {oo}of

the

c C is the disjoint union
of two
nonempty
simply
region
\342\200\224
=
closed sets F0 and Fx, i.e.,S E
F0 u Ft and F0nF1 = 0. If oo e F0,
of C. Letting
then Fx is a bounded closedsubset
F0yFu and E\\jFx play the
in the proof of Theorem5.2,we
role of F,T, and D, respectively,
occurring
for an
find
that
there exists a 1-cycle C such that
(5.8) holds
equality
\342\200\224
an
is
and
function
that
on
S
F0
arbitrary
arbitrary point
holomorphic
zeFx.
E

connected

Putting/(z) = 1,we

get

(510)
\342\200\242-ssIfj*
of homology
By Theorem 4.13 and the definition
(Definition
4.5) all 1-cycles
E. Therefore (5.10)
are homologousto 0 on a simply connected
region
contradicts Cauchy's Theorem(Theorem4.14).
a region without holes in C as a simply
Ahlfors
has
defined
connected
L.
Section
Definition
that
definition,
Ahlfors, 1966,
4.2,
(see
1). By
region
In order to prove that
Theorem.
Theorem 5.3 becomesRiemann'sMapping
\342\200\224
D
over
have two single-valued holomorphicbranches
y/(z a) and yj[^(z)]
in the proof of Riemann's Mapping Theoremwe used
the Monodromy
was not used
Theorem (Theorem 4.3). Note that the Monodromy
Theorem
for the proof of Theorem5.3.

5.1
If the
is

boundary C ofa bounded

For, suppose S
and

Fx
C

Since

with

Fx.

DuF0,F

Fi

C u

{oo}

0. It
<=

F0;

= DuCuF0

\342\200\224
=

D

to

suffices

F0 =

that

prove

closed sets F0

0 or Fj = 0.

connected closed set, we have C c F0 or
the case C c: Fx is treated
similarly.
Putting
= [D] F0 is a closed set and S = F u Fx

u

conclude

0.

Hence, by the above corollary,if the

connectedclosedset,

DcCisa
the

for some

F0kjFx

closedset,we
Since S is of coursea connected

=0.

F nFt

c C is a connectedclosedset,D

is a

\342\200\224

F =
=

=

DczFqvFx
[D]
Let us assume C

C cz
and

\342\200\224
D =

F0nFt

=

D

region

213

Theorem

Mapping

holes.

without

a region

's

Riemann

the closed

C of

boundary

C of

boundary

D is

then

simply

a bounded

region

In particular,

connected.

region D is a Jordancurve,

D is

then

if

simply

connected.
C and
A
Theorem 5.4. IfD \302\243
C e A, and the angle 0 are given,

mapping/:

z-+\302\243=/(.?)

exists

there

A that

onto

=

satisfies/(z0)

and

Co

By Riemann's Theorem there existsone conformal
mapping
disk
U that satisfies g(z0) = 0 and
#(z) from D onto the unit

Proof:
z

then

D

from

regions and z0 e D,
exactly one conformal

connected

simply

= 0.

argAzo)

g:

C are
\302\243

-\342\226\272
w =

g'{z0)> 0

and

conformal

one

mapping

h:

-+

\302\243 w

=

satisfies fi(C0)
and fc'(Co)> 0. Putting <\302\243(w)=
conformal mapping from U onto itselfthat satisfies
= 0

f=h-lo<t>og:z->i;=f(z)

is a conformal
mapping

from

D

A onto

from
fi(\302\243)

ei0w,

=

<\302\243(0)

[/ that
a

<j)(w) is

w->

<j):

0. Hence

= h-l(ewg(z))
onto A and satisfies f{z0) =

h~1(0)

=

\302\2430:

\\h

A

u\342\200\224>u

both

Differentiating

and putting z

=

h'(i;o)f'(zo)

z0

sides

of the

equality h(f(z)) =

yields

= eieg'(z0).

Therefore

f'{z0) = \\f(zo)\\ei9,
thatis,arg/'(zo)

= 0.

|/'(z0)l = ^,
\"

(Co)

ewg(z)

with

respect

to z

Riemann 's MappingTheorem

214

Iff:
then

z->\302\243

=

(j)

is a

=f(z)

h of

=

so

eww,

the

Regions D and

A

each

with

other

(0,

maps 0

each other are

regions

equivalent

Conformally

can be

as the analytic functions on theseregions
C are
5.4, all simply connectedregionsD \302\243

as far

By Theorem

equivalent.

Correspondence of boundaries

Let D and A

be

connected

simply

their respectiveboundaries.
There

the question of what
conformal

mapping

kind

that

assume

both

are

D and

and let C and T be
results known pertaining to
between C and T is inducedby

regions

several

of correspondence

between

problem depends on the
we

mapped onto

be conformally

equivalent.

concerned.

conformally

a

U that

onto

Lemma, we have </>: w -> </>(w)
conclude
that there exists only one conformal
= 0.
and z0 onto Co that satisfies
arg/'(z0)

can

that

A

conformally

5.2

z0 onto

to Schwarz's

corollary

onto

D

called

identified

1/

and

0 = arg /'(z0). We

mapping from

are

D onto A

conformal mapping from

<>g~x is a

onto 0. Hence,by

mapping from

conformal

A.

The

in C

degree

of difficulty

of this

on C and F. In this paragraph
imposed
T are piecewise
smoothJordancurves.

restrictions

C and

C of a bounded regionD is a piecewise smooth Jordan
boundary
= DuC
D
is
then
the
interiorof its closure
curve,
[D]
of [D]; then Q is a region.Since
To see this, let Q representthe interior
3
3
Q
0
the
D,
[D]
assumption DgQ impliesC n fi ^ 0. Let y: t -\342\226\272
y(r),
=
that
^ t ^ 1 with
y(0)
y(l), be a parameter representation of C such
is an a, 0 < a < 1, such
a
There
0
t
<
that
for
and
^
y(0)e\302\243l.
y(t)eQ,
-\342\226\272
f
C
We
divide
into two Jordan curves,Cx:
0 ^ t ^ a, and
y(a)\302\243fi.
y(f),
there
C2: f -> y (0, a ^ t ^ 1. Since C is a piecewisesmooth by assumption,
exists a sufficiently small d > 0 such
for all r, 0 < r ^ 5, the
that
circle
/r
with center a and radius r intersectsCt as well
as C2 in exactly one point
If

the

Fig.

5.4

5.2

[ft] -

boundary

its

minus

of intersection,

point

Section 1.3a);henceUs{y(a))

turns

y(a)$Q
the

contradicting

fact

the interior of [D].

So,if
Jordan

the

boundary
putting
A

C =

mapping

such

that

(j3) e

Xr

the bounded

the interior of

in ft (see

smooth
region D is a piecewise

=

C

hence

have

we

= |C|

-D

[Z>]

[D]

\342\200\224
D is

(see Definition2.2).

setin C one-to-oneontoanotherpoint
both / and its inverse mapping are continuous
is
a point

/ from

the

C and

orienting

Therefore,

d[D],

circle

ft, the

is contained

C2,

[D],
bounded closedregion[D].

of the

and

the
the

Therefore,

ft. Therefore

C2

D is

then

(a)}

{y

region

with

Ar(a),

\342\200\224c=

C of

boundary

curve,

is a

ft.

<=:

id D,

ft

[t/a(y(fl))-C2] c: [ft].
out to be in an interior point of [ft] = [D],
D = ft, i.e., D is
that ft is the interior of [D].Therefore

IVsivia))] =
Hence

Q-

of ft is a subsetof C2.Sinceft

boundary
Ar

of

ft

[ft] = [D] and

(see Section 2.1b). Since
ft is a subset of C and

Ar(a)

respectively

Ar(/S),

215

of boundaries

Correspondence

in C

set

called

a

homeomorphism.
6, Section 4). Let D and A be
Chapter
=
->
D
z
be
a conformal mapping from
\302\243f{z)
let/:
regions
A. If the boundaries of D and A are piecewise
onto
Jordan curves,
smooth
to a homeomorphism/from
the conformalmapping/can beextended
[D]
onto [A]. The mapping / maps the boundary
C = d[D] of D onto the

Theorem 5.5

(see Hurwitz,

boundary

Proof:

1929,

in C and

bounded

T

=

of

d[A]

(1)By

way

A

orientations:

preserving

let us first

of preparation

of a point qeC. Lety:

neighborhood

t -\342\226\272
y (f),

a parameterrepresentation
ofthe piecewise
=
< a < 1. Let
for
0
some
a
with
y(a)
q
=

Ar:0-Ar(0)

represent the
for

circlewith

0 all circlesAr

two points Ar(a)
this
for
a point y{a)
proved
obviously

same

course,a =
will examine

a(r),

/?

result
=

/?(r),

0 ^

smooth

radius r. We

q and

center

C in exactly

the

consider

what

in the

happens

with y(0)
curve
Jordan

\302\253?
^ 1

= y(l) be
C and put

r^

(? +

small d >

a sufficiently

= T.

/(C)

=

=

y(w),

y(ak)9

holds also
m

=

the properties of

u(r)

with

u >

0 <

a, and

where

saw in Section2.1bthat
r ^

<5

Ar(/?)

the curve

intersect

=

the

y{v), v <

curve

a. (We

C is not smooth;

for points y {a) where C is smooth.) Of
of r. We
and i; = v(r) are all functions

these functions below.

216

's

Riemann

Theorem

Mapping

Fig. 5.5

As stated

earlier, |y(t) \342\200\224
q\\ is

increasing

the closed

t on

of

function

is determined by the

u== u(r)

function

f = w(r) is the

inversefunction
is a continuously differentiable,
closed interval
and
[0,5]
9+
hence

q=

y(a)

=

function

the

of

monotone

u'(r) > 0.
=

r^\302\253W=Ar(a(r))

is a

a(r)

interval [a, a + k] for

|yM-\302\253l>*

^lr(0-9l>a
The

differentiable, monotone
k > 0 and
some

a continuously

equation \\y(u)

r =

\342\200\224
=

r, i.e.,

|y(r) \342\200\224
q |. Therefore,

w(r)

of r on

function

increasing

The function

q\\

a(r)

is determined

the

by

y(ti(r)),

r.

of

function

differentiable

continuously

Since

we have

y(u(0)),

lim e'a<r>= lim

r-* +0

r-+ + 0

Since ((d|y(t)-gl)/A),=

y^Uir))~q =
y'(a)u'(0).

+o

r

=

y'(a)

by (2.16),

we

have

u'(0)

=

l/|y'(\302\253)|.

Hence

lim
r-+0

/(fl)
\302\253-*\302\273-

|/(fl)|

a(0) = limr- +0

This proves that

y'(a). Hencea(r)
the

right

is a

derivative

exists

a(r)

of r on

function

continuous

D*y(a) of y(t) at

t

and

equals

the argument of

[0, S'].Here,y'{a)

denotes

= a.

\342\200\224
interval
<5,0]
/?(r) is a continuousfunction ofr on the closed
[
~
=
and j8 (0) \342\200\224
7i equals
n if
the left derivative D y (a). Therefore,
+
<x(0)
/J (0)
C is smooth at y (a) and /3(0) # a(0) + 7i if C is not smooth at y(a). Since

Similarly,

A,nD =

{Ar(0):

a(r)

<

6 <

P(r)}

(5.11)

5.2 Correspondenceof boundaries 217
have

we

=

Ud(q)nD

<

rem: 0 < r

{q +

<5,

< 6

a(r)

< )8(r)},

(5.12)

with center q and radius S. HenceUd(q)nD
is a
a
set.
connected
open
region
We
want
is uniformly
to prove that the holomorphic function
(2)
f(z)
on D, that is for each e > 0 there existsa S(e) > 0 such that if
continuous

where Ud(q)

disk

the

is

and therefore

<

|z-w|

on D.Letus

a

(5.13)

not uniformly continuous on Dand deduce
continuous
on
/(z) is not uniformly
by assumption,
for each natural
that
number m there are zm
there exists an e0 > 0 such
Since

such

and wmeD

that

<

km-Wm|

SinceDand A

are

and {/(ww)}are bounded
bounded
every
sequence possessesa
it is possible to find
a sequence
Therefore,
{mn},
\342\200\242
< \342\200\242
of natural
numbers
such that all subsequences
\342\200\242,

sequences.

subsequence.

and

{zm\342\200\236}>
{wm.}\302\273{/(zm.)}\302\273

1

Hence,

{zm}, {vvm}, {/(zm)},

bounded,

convergent

rewriting

that

are

{/(wm\342\200\236)}

~

m\"1

\"\302\273

zn

and

zm>

as zn,

wm

zn

lim

n -* oo

have

we

wn,

(5-14)

Hence

and

are convergent.

{/(wn)}

Since

we put

wn.

then

geD;

Suppose
(5.14).

contradicting

{/(zn)},

w\342\200\236
by
(5.14),

=

oo
n-\302\273

qe[_U].

respectively

\\f(zm)-f(wm)\\Zso,

lim^^

q = lim

have

m,^nwe

n

and the sequences{z\342\200\236},
{vvn},

lim^^

Since

convergent.

m\342\200\236

\\zn-wn\\<-,

=

^ Co-

l/(Zm)-/K.)|

1M

is well-known

It

Now,

< e

|/(z)-/(w)|

f{z) is

that

assume

contradiction.

D,

then

(5(e),

qed[D]

\\im\342\200\236^aaf(zn)

= C.

We

put

=

\\im\342\200\236^00f{wn)=f(q),
\302\243\342\200\236
=/(z\342\200\236),C!>\342\200\236
=/(w\342\200\236),

and

P =

lim
n-*oo

Now

Pe[A].

=

Hm
C\342\200\236
n -\302\273oo

Suppose

f(zn),

PeA,

Q = lim

=

lim

co\342\200\236
n-\302\273oo
n-*oo

then q =

limn^GOzn

=

/(w\342\200\236).

=

lim^^/\"1^)

A conformally
since the inverse map /\"* of/ maps
f~1(P)eD
PeT and similarly QeF.
that
contradicting qeC. We conclude

onto
By

D,

(5.14)

|P-Q|^eo>0.

sufficiently small p, 0 < p <
l/p(P)r\302\273A
= P and
lim^^o),,
regions by (1). Since lim.,-<*>\302\243\342\200\236
For

e0/3,

and

are

l/p(Q)nA

= Q, we

have

for

a

Riemann 's

218

Mapping Theorem

5.6

Fig.

if n*j,

If

we

choose

defined

as

<5,

j is

Fig.

Since

curve

sufficiently small, we have

this

for

j:

\\imn^ODwn

=

q, for

arbitrary

0 <
\302\243,

e <

5, we

have

sufficiently large.

5.7

\302\243\342\200\236
=f(zn)e

a: s->o(s),

s ->/\"~1
(ff(s)),

in (1),

WjtU3(q).

*ltV6(q\\

n >

(5.15)

thent;neUp{P\\coneUp(Q).

Since lim^^^z,, =
where

number j:

natural

large

sufficiently

0

UP(P)

by (5A5),

it

0 ^ s ^ 1, in the
1, connects z7

^ s ^

is

possible

region
and

to connect

UP(P).
zn in D.

and

\302\243,

\302\243\342\200\236
by a

The curve f~l(c):
Since zj \302\243Us(q) and

5.2

zn

for all r

z{r) =
t in

the circle

Up

(Q\\

in

at

kr

w(r) =
Since

angle <p
the

on r.

depends
\" *

curve/

(t)

connecting cojand con

Similarly,

w,- and

connects

wn

in

\302\253W<^<W

ArW0,

point on the curve

is a

a,

we

The

two

cases

assume

<f> <

<

$

and

\\j/

\\j/

^.

=

kr{6)

p<

the same way,

so

let us

q +

^jef{kM)de
J/'^(0))^(0)^
=
we
h
ence
have A;(0) ire16,
reie,
^

\\f{Km-f(K{<t>))\\

Lf(/lr(0))| r as the
Schwarz's inequality,
<

have

=

=

Writing

P2

in exactly

treated

<f> are

we

Then

m\302\2530)-/(^(*))

Since

<

and

have/(z(r))el/p(P)

Since \\P-Q\\ ^ e0> 3P>
co{r) =/(w(r))el/p(Q).
= l/(w(r))-/(z(r))|
> p.
IM(W)-M(\302\253)I

similarly,

by

intersects

D and

one point:

least

\302\243r
=/(z(r))

z (r)

one point

at least

*(r)<<i><P(r)

Xr{4>\\

where the

by (5.11),
a curve

/

r

e <

with

l

(a) intersectsthe circlekr in
< S. Since z(r)e kr n D, we have

curve

the

e U\302\243
(q),

219

of boundaries

Correspondence

T

(

Hence, since (x(r)

product of Jr
<

l/UW)l\302\253\302\273Y

<

<f>

<

\\j/

\\\\f'(K(0))\\rdO.

<

(}{r)

[rdO

< a(r)

and

|/'(Ar(0))|

[*

^/r

we get, by

|/'(Ar(0))|2rd0.

+ 2n, we

obtain

f/l(r)

p2

sides

arrive

we

<5,

P_

2tt
The

J

both

Dividing

e to

<2nr

integral
W.

=

\\f{q

of the

at the

log-<
\302\243

+ reie)\\2rde.

\302\253(')

above inequality by

27ir

and

integrating

inequality

(5.16)

|/'(<7+ re\|2rdrrf0.")
Je

from

J

on the right

a(r)

is an integral over the

(l/a(\302\253)-[U.(\302\253)])nfl

=

fa +

r\302\253*:
\302\243
< r

subregion
< <5,a(r)

< 0

< j8(r)}

of D

the
area
of the subregion f(We) of A. For,
writing
representing
= x
with
center
as
rew
and
coordinates
+
q
-I-1>
considering (r, 0) polar
in the (x, y) plane, we have by the formula for the change of variables:

z =

|/'(z)|2rdr</0
a(r)

=

|/'(z)|2
J

Wt

</*<*>;.

q

Riemann's

220

Theorem

Mapping

=

Now putting/(z)

we have

+ iv,

u

=

(z)|2

\\f

/I =

area of A

aiwiof/(\302\273y.

we

from

get

(5.16)

S

P2

contradicting lim\302\243^+0

=

S/e

log

+ oo.

Hence/(z) is uniformly

continuous

D.

(3) In

order to extend a

/(z) =/(z)ifz
points

|C|,

define

to

suffices

it

to a

where {zn} is a sequenceof

if zgC,

ro/(zj

limn^

on D

/(z)

is easily verified as follows:SelectceC
such that {zn}converges to c. Foreach8 > 0there exists an

points zneDconverging
zn e D

on [D] = D u

/(z)

eDand/(z) =

function

continuous

uniformly

function

continuous

uniformly

and

by (3.5), hence

Jw.d(x*y)

J*.

on

(x, y)

(\302\253,
v)/d

=

f \\f'(z)\\2dxdy= f |^axrfy

Putting

d

z. This

to

satisfying

n0 (5)

if

|z\342\200\236-zj<<5

continuous on Dfor eache > 0we

is uniformly

Since/(z)

m>n>n0(6).

a

find

can

<5

(e)

If

|vv

> 0

satisfying

<

l/(z) -/Ml

if

\302\243

|z

- w|

<

>

n >

<5

z e

(e),

D, wg

D

and therefore
-/(zJ|

|/(zn)
that

is,

the

sequence

< e

if

{/(zn)}

converges. Put

m

n0 (S (e)),

( = lim^^/\"^.

< <5(e) for sufficiently
and wgD, then |w \342\200\224
zj
\342\200\224
to c. Hence |/(w) f(zn)\\ < e. Letting n tend
converges
< <5(e)

Hence,if
converges

is
w\342\200\236gD,

{wn},

to

that
\302\243

independentof

the

is,

of

choice

the sequence

lim

zn

= c,

zneD.

n-*oo

function f(z) defined
D is extended
on
=
on [D]
defined
that
Du|C|. In order to prove
continuous on [D], we replacec by z in (5.17)
^

For wgC such
to w. Since |wn

that

|w

\342\200\224
z\\ <

(5.17)

{zn}. Therefore we write

way the

l/(vv)-/(z)|

{zn}

conclude

converging to c, the sequence{/(vvn)}
is uniquely determined by c and
limfI_00/(zn)

n-*oo

this

c|

a sequence
=
\302\243

7(c) = limf(znl
In

n,

oo, we

to

wgD.

if |w-c|<<5(e),

|/(w)-C|ge

large

since

\342\200\224

\302\243

if

|w-z|

\342\200\224
<

<5

(e) let

z|

S (e)

{wn}, wwg D,

large

f{z)

function

is

f(z)

uniformly

weD.

< 5(e),

for sufficiently

to a

n,

be a sequenceconverging
we

have

|/(wn)

\342\200\224

/(z)|

^

e,

5.2

hence

^ e.

|/(w)\342\200\224
f(z)\\

Therefore
if|w-z|<<5(\302\243)

|7(W)-/(Z)|^\302\243,

is uniformly
continuous
on
[D],
continuous mapping from [D] onto [A].Theinverse
A conformally
onto D. Therefore it is possible
that is,/(z)

on

continuous

= #
-+
\302\243 z

#:

mapping

which
(\302\243)

maps

inverse off: g = /\"*.(For,
way
sequence converging to z, then
g is the

above,

as

Km
0 (7W) = \302\243
f

if

Similarly,

\302\243eT,

restriction

of/to

(4) We

then

onto

[D]

mapping

fi

it suffices

D = {z:|z|<

Since /(D)

1}.

Then

0

= T,

that

maps

is a

=7(z)
*

of/maps

mapping/\"

g =Tl to a
[A] onto [D] in the same
z e C and if {zn},zw e D, is a
to extend

=

=

lim

z.
z\342\200\236

is a homeomorphism
=
=/(D)
A,/(|C|) = |T|, that is, the
Therefore J

mapping

is, / preserves
D onto the unit

C,

T.

onto

\\C\\

Let g be a

orientations.
U and

disk

mapping which maps U
to consider the case in which
circle.
is the unit
C = 3[D]

0-+z = 6w,O^0^ 2n, of

representation

if

z-*\302\243

[\302\243>]./:

(/(z\342\200\236))

a homeomorphism

which

a conformal

is

lim

= C-)

7(0(0)

is

prove /(C)
mapping

Then

=
/(z\342\200\236))

[A].
\\C\\

conformal
Therefore

of boundaries 221

Correspondence

onto

A

is

D

From
obtain

we

put

h

*\342\200\242

=-/\302\260#~

and/=fc\302\2600.

the

unit disk.

the

parameter

the

parameter

representation

O^0^2tt

/(Q:0-+C=/(^

for the Jordancurve/(C).Since|/(C)| =/(|C|) = |r|, we
7(C) = -T (seeSection2.1a).
=
= 3 [t/r], and Ar =f{Ur),
Putting
Ur
{z: \\z\\ < r}, Cr
of A and
0 ^ 0^

have/(C)

Ar is

=

T or

a subdomain

smooth curve in A, represented
=/(^),
by 0->C
of
radius
C
the
the
onto
Jordan
curve
/ maps
[0,1]
=
X: s -\342\226\272
s
The
curve
X
is smooth
^ 1,in [A].
X(s)
except at its end
7(s), 0 ^
a conformal
from
at X (r) =/(r)
mapping X crosses/(Cr)
point X (1). Since/is
>
left
s
to
the
left to right.HenceX (s) e Ar if s < r and X (s) \302\243
if
is
r, i.e., Ar
[Ar]
=
is defined
by Definition 2.2.
of/(Cr). Therefore f(Cr) d[Ar],where
d[Ar]
is a

f(Cr)

27r.

Sincethe boundary
have

example,
(Cauchy's

T

\342\200\224

Q =

f(Cr)

closed

region

[A]

~

an arbitrary

0 in

Ar

is given

by

C \342\200\224
{/(0)},

as

explained

region containing[A]
in connection

Theorem).

In order to

\342\200\224

= r-/(Cr)

3([A]-Ar)
we

the

of

prove that7(C)\342\200\224
/(Cr)

mapping

M:(5,0)-+M(5,0)=7(seie)

^ 0 in

with

Theorem

\342\200\224

Ar,

for

4.14

Q, we considerthe continuous

the

from

K =

rectangle

fi(s) = M

Putting

Theorem

's Mapping

Riemann

222

(s,0),fi:

s->

r ^

fi (s),

7(1) in [A] -ArcQ. Themapping

closed

with

curve

base

g s ^ 1,0^

{(s, 0):r
Af

5 5*

1, is

the

maps

0^

into

2tt}

[A]-Ar.

connecting/(r) and
boundary dK of K onto the
a curve

point/(r):

^\342\200\242/(Q-Ai'^/CQ-1.

Hence, //-/(C)-//\"1

-/(C,)\"1^ 0 in

fi,

hence

7(C)-/(Cr)~0

in fi by

(4.34), (4.35),and the definition

of

r-/(Cr)

(Definition

homology

-0 in fi. Hence

4.5). Also

r-/(C)~0
Q.

in

Now

\342\200\224

1/(C

/(C)

suppose
/(0))

of C is

=

\342\200\224then

2r

T,

holomorphic

on Q

~ 0 in

= C \342\200\224
we
/(0),

Q. Since the
conclude

function

from Cauchy's

Theorem (Theorem 4.14)

if-*--*

JrC-/(0)

5.8

Fig.

Since

r =

/(0)eA,

d[A] we

have

by

Cauchy's

integral

formula

(Theorem 2.4)

2*;Jrc-/(0)-

So

we

have

Now

let

at a

arrived

that

assume

us

regions and

that

C

contradiction

=

d [D]

both D
and T

and hencef(C) = T.

and A are simply connected bounded
= d [A] are piecewisesmoothJordan

5.2 Correspondence
of

223

boundaries

Using the orientation defined on C,we have for three distinct points
and
at, a2,
a3 on C eitherax<a2< a3 or a3<a2<
at (see Section 3.3b,
wherethe caseof the circle was treated). Let/; z -\342\226\272
be a conformal
( =/(z)
->
D
onto
and
z
which
A
be
the
\302\243
let/:
mapping
maps
=/(z)
homeomorphism of Theorem 5.5,from
onto
[D]
[A].
curves.

Given three different

5.6.

Theorem
ai

<a2~<a3

o^

-<a2

there

<a3,

and/(a3) = a3.

Proo/
is a

1}.If

(afc),

3[t/]
=

\302\243
(afc)

mapping

wk, it

satisfying w1^<w2-<W3.Sincef{ak)
exists
there
suffices to prove that

itself

determined

by/=

4>\302\260g. Since

hence/=

<f>

oik.

Section 3.3b.

onto
By

A

the

unit

U

disk
h~log

g(C)=

that

Theorem

Since

at

one

< a2

3.13,

f(ak)

=

be

the

3.6,
fractional

C*

<xk.

the mapping

one

g(ak)
the

conformal

A onto

mapping

is a

3.3a),

are three

corollary

transformation

-< a3 by assumption,<f> maps

4>

(Section

=

A

by a

-*

transformation

Ci <t>2 <\302\243>*-By
fractional

from

mapping

is given
<f>\\ \302\243 </> (\302\243)

5.5,

a

g be

Let

an arbitrary

sphere S onto itself
Theorem

is, it

that

vvk,

disk.

unit

1}. For
conformal

Theorem

linear

Hence there existsexactly

satisfies

g(ak) =

the

if

only

one conformal

exactly

A is

and

if

oik

<
{(:|\302\243|

linear

+ T by
such that

points on the unit circle T,
Theorem 3.8 there existsexactly
$ (Ck) =

g. By

<f>

the Riemann

from

homeomorphism

A =

\302\260

<\302\243
(C). The

function

that

case

the

A, let

D onto

=

U that satisfies

D onto

from

g(z)

mapping/from

linear fractional

that

onto

A

= a2,

from D onto [/, then/=

D onto A.

suffices to prove the theorem for
D onto
conformal mapping from
onto

a1,/(a2)

-\342\200\224>
A

mapping g: z->w =

conformal

from

=

f(at)

satisfying

D onto
is a
A, g = fc \302\260/
/ is a conformal mapping from
= + 5
Theorem
D
U.Since
from
onto
5.5,
/T(r)
[I/] by
mapping
=
on
the unit
here
and below k
where
1, 2, 3, are threepoints

conformal
/i

and a3 on C such that
and
a1,a2,
a3 on T such that
al9a2,

if

Conversely,

circle

mapping

conformal

mapping from

conformal

=

a conformal

g is a

\302\243>

wk

be

h

Let

= {w:|w| <

points

different points
exists exactly one /

three

and

to

<p such

itself by
from D

224 Riemann ys

conformal mapping from
unit disk U. Replacing A

is a
the

conformal

the
by

H

+

can be written

conformal mapping from D onto
his a homeomorphismfrom

is a

transformation

h

(oo) = 1, ft\"1

R

u

that

such

= ooif and only

7(0

the

get

Riemann

onto

C = d [D]

{oo}. Therefore/maps

three points on C
we

[D]

the

maps

Since

the

[IJ+]. Since
unit circle d [I/] onto

from

homeomorphism

U.

c0 -<cx

=
(c0)

if g

-1,

onto

<c^
\302\243
(cx)

=

and

and7(0=

=h~l

the

linear

where
\302\260g,

fractional

onto itself,

sphere

=

(0)

\342\200\224

1, h

(1) =

\342\200\224

i and

u

positively

three different

are

c^

there exists exactly
D onto //*
from

D onto

from

onto

line

[W+]

Ru

{oo}.
points on C = d
one

H+ can be

= fl+uRu{oo}
such

[D]

conformal
?(c0)

satisfying

that

mapping
=

Ojlq)

= 1

\302\260\302\260-

The

5.3

oriented

then

c0<cx
<c^y
f:z->t=f(z)

fi

/
[Z>]

homeomorphism7from

= d[D] onto the

(2) If c0,cl9

as/

the positively orientedline
{oo}. If Cq,^, and c^ are
then 7(co) = 0,7(ci)= 1, and
- i, and g (cj = 1.Therefore

R

Theorem 5.7. (1) The conformalmapping
that C

onto

result.

following

extendedto a

\302\243-plane

above proof, all

= //+uRu{oo}ofH+inSand/=fc-1^is

*\"1([^])istheclosure[H+]

a

half of the

in the first

H+

* of
the

H

half-plane

upper

D onto

/from

mappings

g

Theorem

Mapping

a.

of reflection

principle
The

of reflection

principle

arbitrary region D in the complexplane let D be defined by
=
D
function of z on D, then/(z) is a
{z: zeD}. Iff(z) is a holomorphic
For an

holomorphic

of

function

Expand f(z)

Proo/:

f(z)=

into

z on

a

Z).

power

series

around

an arbitrary point

ceD:

*n(z-c)\".
\302\243

Then

7(f)

=

<uz-cr
\302\243
w= 0

power series expansion of
holomorphic function of z on D.

is the

Let

D

be

interval

a region

(a,

b\\

of

D

around

ceD.

Hence/(z)

is a

upper half-plane of the z-planesuch that the
is
of D, that
the real axis is part of the boundary
A
u (a, b) u Disa regionin the z-plane.
let
Similarly,

in the

D and
(a, b) c [D] \342\200\224

open

f(z)

The

5.3

Fig.

5.9

region in the

be a

upper half-planeof the

(a, P) of therealaxis
that

such

equivalent,

/: z

f(z) from
(a, b) onto A
g:

mapping

z^^

0 (z)

mapping

the open

interval

to extend a conformal mapping
=
D onto
A to a homeomorphism /: z -> \302\243
/(z) from
u (a, /?), then it is possible to extend/ to a conformal
\342\200\224
from
g{z)
Du(a,
fc)uD onto Au(a, /})uA. The
is

possible

is given by

0(z)=
Since g

that

of the

is part

it

If

5.8.

-> C =

Du

such

\302\243-plane

A and
boundary of A, that is (a, ft) a [A ] \342\200\224
in the C-plane.If Dand A are conformally
u (a, /?) u A is a region
the following theorem holds.

A

Theorem

225

of reflection

principle

*eZ>

(7M.

re

M

(5.18)

MX

l/(z),

zeD.

(z)isan analytic

continuation

can be

of/(z),/(z)

extended in only one

way.

on D
D

and

u (a,6)

continuous

onto

A

that is, if z e (a,fe),
the

continuous

function g{z)

holomorphic function of z on D,J(z)is holomorphic
on D u (a, b). Since/is a homeomorphism
mapping
u (a, j3) such that/(D) =/(A), we have/((a, b)) = (a, 0),
is a real number and so/(z) =/(z).Therefore
then
\302\243
=/(z)
is a

Since/(z)

Proof.

functions/(z)
defined

in

(5.18)

holomorphicon DuD. In
to prove
Du(fl,fc)uD it

order

suffices

small

neighborhood

Ue(c)

coincide on

and/(z)

is continuous
to

that

of each

prove

it is

that

b). This
proves that the
on Du(fl, fe)uD and
g(z) is holomorphic on

(a9

holomorphic on

somesufficiently

point ce(a,b). Since [t/c(c)]c=Du

226

Riemann

(a, b)

u D for sufficiently

's

M*)

=

^|
2ni

is

on

holomorphic

Theorem

Mapping

small

Jc

c. = a[i/.(c)]

rr^.z

\342\200\224

w

function

the
\302\243,

1.17.

Theorem

U\302\243(c) by

to prove that g(z) = h (z) for z e UE (c), we put V =Ue(c)nD
=
V
Ue (c) n D, whereby\\UE (c)] is divided into two cells [ V\\ and [ V~\\.
=
we have, for ze P or zeV,
+3[F],
C\302\243 3[K]
In order

2711

w~z

Jam

and
Since

2^J^[P]W~Z

Fig. 5.10

IfzeV,

on

then the function
hence

V9

g (w)

\342\200\224
is

gf (w)/(w

z)

also

continuous on [V] and holomorphic
on V.
on [ V ] and holomorphic
continuous

of w is

Hence

dw =
i

0

amw\"

Theorem
by the strong version of Cauchy's
on [ V] and holomorphic on
continuous
formula (2.57),

= J_f

h(z)

= g

h(z)

Therefore,

= g

Ue(z).

Hence

(z). If z e

(c),
U\302\243

g (z)

we

g

(z)

V9

follows

from

the

it

then

we

have

conclude

that

is holomorphic on Ue{c).
on

the

fact that/:

z->\302\243

is proved

by Cauchy's

D u
from

=/(z)

in the

same

0. Sinceh (z) and
=
g (z) holds identically
h(z)

(c), Im

if zeUe

holomorphic
region
That g (z) isa one-to-one
mapping
function

V,

g (w) is
integral

g(W,

(z). Hence, h{z) =

continuous on

2.3). Since

(Theorem

z#

have

We

(a, fc)
D u

that

0 (z) are
on

that g (z) is

a

u D.

(a, fe) u

is a

proved

way

D onto A

homeomorphism

u (a,

/J) vj

A

mapping

5.3 The principle of reflection
(a, b) onto

D u

3.5, g:

z->\302\243

Au(a,

j?)uA.^

of g (z). Therefore,
(a, /?) and the definition
is a conformal mapping from
g(z)
Du(a,

Let / be a line
assigns

to each

respect

to /,

the

in

reflection ofz

with

be reducedto

complex

point z the

z

by

-\342\226\272
z. A

transformation.To seethis,
=

X(w)

z and

respect

reflection

select

z* are

with

which

symmetric

point

with

the

is called

z*

to the real axis U is,
an arbitrary line / can
the help of a linear
points c0 and ct on / and put
(5.19)
respect

with respect to
to IR with
respect

two

different

+ c0.

(Cl-c0)w

correspondence z -+ z*
to I. The

reflection
with

reflection

a

with

to I. The

respect

plane. The

point z*, such that

the reflection

is called

of course,given

by Theorem
onto
6)uD

u

A

=

227

5.11

Fig.

-> z =
X:w
X(w) maps the points 0,1,and oo of the
onto
the
and therefore the
plane
points c0,cuand oo, respectively,
\342\200\224
=
real axis IR onto /. Hence, u -+ z X(u), oo < u < + oo, is a parameter
representation of /. If z = X (w), then z* = X (w). (For, putting

transformation

linear

The

extended

w =

-f iv,

u

\\

u,ve

{X (w)

U,
+

X

V

^

0, we

(w))

have

= X
(u\\

(w) = 2 (cx

X(w)-X

-

c0) iv.

segment connectingX (w) and X (w) is perpendicular to the line /
X
is on /. Hence the linear transformation
X(u)
midpoint
z-> z*
w->w
the reflection
the
reflection
with respect to R into

Hence, the

and
transforms

its

respect

to

/.)

The above

X

is a

with

line
w ->

onto
To

IRu{oo}
z =

\\i

special

of the

(w) is another

example

of a

linear transformation

extended complex plane
linear fractional

onto

If

/u{oo}.

transformation mappingR

/u {oo}, then z = n{w)impliesz* =
see this, put $ = X~lofi; then <f>:

\\i

the

mapping

u

\\i\\

{oo}

(vv).

w-Kf>(w)

is

a linear

fractional

228 Riemann 's MappingTheorem
transformation

a^ = #_1(oo),

(1). and

= #_1

0i

itself.

onto

Ru{oo}

mapping

*

(0),

cf)

real numbers and

a^ are

and

au

a0,

a0 =

Putting

*M\302\253

(w-0(\302\253i-\"ao)'

Hence

=

$ (w)

(\302\243(w),

Iffor example

=

a0

(j>

the

maps

oo, ax

half-plane

upper

cl9 and

let c0,
A

Since

A

=

(0)

=

of z

reflection

=

(1)

A

A(w)->

Let c

(w)

A

C and put

on

points

A\"1

w-w0

=

c^, the

where z =

linear fractional

z* ^

and

(w)

distance

from

fractional

X

c is

given

with

by

respect

to C

3.3b).

(5.21)
(c).

UR

putting

Again

|?^.^-^,

w~w0

Thus

(w).

\\z*

r >

a line are invariant

is, if C is a circleor a

line

in C

c* =

z*

\342\200\224
=

and

This
\342\200\224c|.

linear
\\j/

a linear

oo*

c

(R2/r)ei6.

through z and its
that the
also shows

at c

of the choiceof the

{oo} onto C.Thereflections

oo

under

and

/?2/|z

have

starting

ray

is independent

from U u

are given by

we

0,0eR,

\342\200\224
=
c\\

to C

respect

transformation

circle or

=

and z # oo,z* is on the

reflection z-^z*

(Section

real.

half-plane onto

z*-c

z \342\200\224
c = reie,

writing

Hence, forz^c

of C

the

C, A maps

= /?2.

(z-c)(z*-c)

Therefore,

(c)

of A.

choice

again. Hence

w-w0

A

^

\302\243,

the lower

A maps

is valid

(5.21)

(c),

the

+

(oo)

z-c = Ite*-\342\200\224^,

to a

C be a circlein

the
maps the line Ru{oo} onto C. We define
=
z*
A
to
C
as
as
in
Just
above
the
(vv).
respect
to a line, it is proved
that the reflection z
respect

Re*

If c^ < cx< c0,then

with

1/vv. In this case,
vice versa. Now

and

upper half-plane conformally onto the interiorUR
Putting w0 = A'1 (c) we have by Theorem 3.13

w0 =

=

<\302\243
(w)

z* = A (w) with respect to C is independent of the
be the center of C,and R its radius. If c0 -<c1 <cOD on

l(w) = c +

have

with

case of reflectionwith

=

respect

-c,)

cl9 and

= A(w)

w-+z

transformationA:

A

c0,

we

= A
(4>(w)),

(w)

circle. Let

to a

c^ be three different

<co-0(c

=

(w)

\\i

= 1, and a^ = 0,then
onto the lower half-plane

we want to define reflection with
z-plane,

z =

using

= z*.

= >l(^H)

= >l(0(w))

A/(w)

therefore

= c.

Reflections

fractional
fractional

of

linear

oo

c and

with

transformations,
transformation

respect

that

of z,

5.3 The principle of reflection

5.12

Fig.

then

\\j/

229

of ^ (z) with

reflection

is the

(z*)

to

respect

or line

the circle

ty

(C):

<Mz*)=<Mz)*.

this, let k: w

To see

-+

{oo} onto C, then \\j/

R u

with

R u

from

transformation

to

respect

Let

5.9.

Theorem

of C

C is

case

in

w -+

ok:

{oo} onto

\\J/

k (w) be a linear fractional

z =

\\j/

is given

(C)

C be

(C).

by

^

the reflection

Therefore
\\J/

from

transformation

(k (w)) is a linearfractional
(z)*

=

a line or a circlein

(\\jj \302\260k)
(w)

the

z-plane

of

ip

(z),

^ (k (vv)) =

=

and let

z =

A(w),

^ (z*).

c be the center

a circle.

z-planeintersectingat the
point a ^ c and let 6 be the angle betweenyx and y2 at a. If yf, yf,
and a* are the reflections
with
of yx, y2, and a, respectively,
respect
to C, then the angle between yf and
y| at a* equals \342\200\2246.
z -> z* with
The reflection
to C maps circles or lines into
respect

(1) Let yx

(2)

and

y2 be

smooth

curves in the

circlesor lines.

Proof: If

A:

w->

z =

k(w) is a linear fractional

transformation

mapping

the

to C is obtained
z-> z* with
respect
{oo}onto C,then the reflection
A. If
from the reflection w -+ w with respect to R via the transformation
=
=
->
w the theorem is obviously
z A(w), then z*
A(w). For the reflection w
from
which
the theorem follows.
true and A is a conformal
mapping,

line R u

We

want

now

LetCbe

a

the

reflection

to derive

from Theorem

5.8the principleof reflection.
c and radius R and let z -> z* be

in the z-plane with
center
with respect to C. Further,letD bea

circle

region

contained

in the

Riemann 's MappingTheorem

230

D*

D

-r

Fig. 5.13

exterior of C,such that c$D and let the arcy \302\243Cbe part of
D. If (y) represents
which
the arcy from
the
the boundary of D: y c [D] \342\200\224
D* is
we
two end points have been removed,
further
assume
that Du(y)u
one regionin the z-plane. Here, D* = {z*: z e D}.Ifz e C, then z* = z, hence
\342\200\224
cz [D*]
D* and
each point z e (y) is an interior
y
point of D u (y) u D* by
that
is
assumption. Let A be a region in the upper half-plane of the C-plane
the
interval
of
the
real
axis
of
to
let
the
D,
(a, j3)
equivalent
conformally
open
C-planebe a part of the boundary of A and assume that A u (a, ft) u A is a
region in the C-plane.

interior or the

Theorem 5.10

/: z-+C=f(z)
z C =f(z) mapping
-\342\226\272

conformal
# is

and

of

(principle
for

mapping

D

given by

*eZ>,

*e(y),

Let w0 be a point in
in the interior of C and
contained
of C, and put
Proof:

Hw) = c 4w -\342\231\246
z =

=

A(w) is

(5.22)

zeD*.

l/(z*),

A(oo)

mapping

homeomorphism/:

onto
A u (a, /?), then / can be extended
to a
(y)
=
-\342\226\272
z
D*
u
from
A
u
onto
\302\243 #(z)
(a, /?) A*
g:
Du(y)u

9(2)-/^

axisRu

be extended to a

D u

17(4

A:

conformal

the

If

reflection).

A can

onto

Ite*

^-^,

w-w0

the

such

w-plane

vv0 <

Im

^ e

a linear fractional

that

Im w0

0 if D is containedin

the

if

D

is

exterior

R.

transformation which

onto
{oo} of the extendedw-plane
c -f /?\302\243^is a point on C. Since y Si

> 0

C, we

maps

the

real

A(w0) = candA(w0) = oo.
assume from the outset that

C and

The

5.3

^ has beenchosensuch

that

\302\243
y. If

A(oo)

the domain of definition

we restrict

A-1: z->w = A~l(z)
the
inverse
of
transformation
\342\200\224
a conformal
becomes
mapping from C {A(oo)}
c $
3.3a). If D is containedin the interiorof C,then
oo

hence

\302\243D*,

C

to

\342\200\224{A(oo)},

A-1

onto

C

D by

assumption, hence

in C \342\200\224(A(oo)}.

is contained

Du(y)uD*

231

of reflection

principle

\342\200\224

(Section

{w0}

A'1

Thus

maps

conformally onto the
If Im w0 > 0 then A\"*

in
region A~l(D)uA~*((y))uA\"*(D*)
the interior
of C onto the upper
the
maps
w-plane.
of
C
onto
the
lowerhalf-planeof
and
the exterior
half-planeof the w-plane
the w-plane.If Im w0 < 0, then A\"l maps the exterior of C onto the upper
If D is
of the w-plane.
and the interior onto the lower half-plane
half-plane
contained in the interiorof C,then Im w0 > 0 and if D is containedin the
in the
of C, then Im w0 < 0, hence in both cases, k~l(D) is contained
exterior
of the w-plane and A~l(D*)is containedin the lower halfhalf-plane
upper
of
the
w-plane.Further,ifz = X{w) then z* = X(w\\ hence w = X~l{z)
plane

Du(y)uD*

implies
A(oo)

w

=

\302\243
y, A\"l ((y))

A\"1(D*) =

therefore

A_1(z*);

is an

open

Therefore

interval

=

A-1(D)uA\"1((y))uA-1(Z)*)

Since

/: z -+ f

by assumption

the real

fe) on

(a,

C = f{A (w)) maps

to a
A

u

=
\302\243

homeomorphism

D

(Z)) conformally

/\302\260A which

by Theorem

Therefore,

(a,/?).

A

maps

5.8, f<>

u (y)

onto

\302\243u(a,

A can

b) u

flf

=

GoA~1:j-^C

\302\243
u

(f(X(w)l

we\302\243,

KM*)),

we(a,b),

l/(A(w)),

is given

by

=

u

(Du(y)) onto
to a conformal
/?) u A.

conformal

Hence,

mapping

A(\302\243u(a,b)u\302\243)onto

(5.18):

G(w)=j

w =

and

Au(a,
a

/ can

A:
(a, /?), f\302\260
can be extended

be extended

\302\243
onto

= G(A\"1(z))fromDu(y)uD*

Au(a,j?)uAandby

Putting

A

onto

A

= A-1
fr)

(a,
G(w) from
mapping G:w->\302\243
the conformal mapping / can be extendedto
=

w-plane.

A and

onto

conformally

be extendedto a homeomorphism
/ mapping
w ->

Since

A_1(D).

axis of the

\302\243u(a,fc)u\302\243.

= /(z) mapsD

~*

=
\302\243

where
\302\243,

A_1(z), we

we\302\243

have z =

A(w)

and

z* =

A

(w),

hence

^(z) =

G(X~l(z))

(5.22).

is
C to bea circlein the z-plane, but the principle of reflection
is a line.In that case, we have to assume that D is a regionon
onesideof C,that y c C is a segment such that y c [D] \342\200\224
D.
It is important
to note that by the principle of reflection, a function
f(z)
on (y) can be extended to a function that is holomorphic
that is continuous
in each point of (y).

We assumed

also

valid

if C

232 Riemann's Mapping

Theorem

a circle or a linein the z-planeand
to C. Further,
let D be a simply
connected
such that Dr\\C = 0 and the boundary

C be

Let
respect

z-plane,

Jordan curveand let the arc or segment,

z ->

let

z* be

bounded

and

D is

of

the reflection with

region in the
a piecewise smooth

of the

a part

C, be
y \302\243

boundary

d[D] of D, orientationsconsidered; other words, y a d[D]. Since
D n C = 0, is either in the interior or the exteriorof C, C is a circle,
=
and on one sideofCifCis line. If /: z
f(z) is a conformal mapping
in

D

if

-\342\226\272
\302\243

a

+
half-plane H of the \302\243-plane,

the upper

D onto

from

a homeomorphism/:z-+C=/(z)

to

= H+

u

{oo}. We assume

/_1(oo)^
positively oriented line Ru{oo}, /((y))
u

R

/((y)) = (a,0), -oo^a<)3^+oo.
5.10 to

Theorem

5.11.

Theorem

=

A

from

0(z)

+

(y).

an

is

Since

onto

[f/+]

maps <3[D] onto the
segment on R, say,

/
open

y\302\243C,

(a,0)\302\243R.

Applying

from

D onto the

be

can

mapping

f:z->\302\243=f(z)

extended

to a

H+ u (a,/?)u

D* onto

Du(y)u

Since

yields:

conformal

A

upper half-plane H
=

i/+

[\302\243>]

mapping

be extended

/ can

then

conformal mapping g: z -*\302\243
The

//.

gf(z) is given

function

by (5.22).

principle

w ->

X\\

z =

Jordan

analytic

t

-+

fractional

of

by

of

the principle

the
the complex plane with
is
functions
called an
analytic

real

are

linear

this transformation

generalization

a^t^b9\\n

y(t\\

both Re y(t) and Im y(t)
arc. Let W a Cbea.

that

property

arc y:

Jordan

smooth

a

reflection

the

from

the

using

By replacing

(5.20).

A(w),

an arbitrary conformalmapping,
reflection is obtainedas follows.
A

(5.10)

principle

real axis (Theorem5.8)by

for the

transformation

reflection

the

derived

have

We

regionwhich

with

is symmetric

respect

W\\ [a, b] c: R n W, a < b, and A:w-+z = A(w) a
conformal
from W onto the region A( W) in the z-plane. Under
mapping
a ^ t ^ 6, is an analytic
arc in the zthese circumstances,y: t -\342\226\272
Jordan
X(t\\
z* of z with
to
plane. We define, for points z e k( W\\ the reflection
respect

to the real axis(i.e.,W

the curve

y

by

z = A(w)

^> [a,

j3]

maps

fi onto

c:

R niQ,

D

be

with

w

A(vv),

a region in C

a < /?, and

/i(fi) and

point Ce//(Q)
Let

-\342\226\272
z* =

fi be

let

Similarly,

=

fx:

respect

is

which

=
a> -> \302\243
//(co)

define 6: x
to

\342\202\254
W.

->

=

\302\243

mapping

^ t g j3. The reflection
Jordan arc 6 is given
by

z-plane, such

that

Dcl(lf

to

respect

/*(*), a

the analytic

a region in the

with

symmetric

a conformal

+

),

which

of a

where

The principle

5.3
+

W

- D and Du(y)u D*is a region

[D]

={vv6^:Imw>0},yc

Here (y) represents {y{t):a<t <b}. Similarly,
in
A and
region the C-plane such that 8 a [A] \342\200\224
Au((5)u

z-plane.

the C-plane.If D and A
theorem.
5.12

Theorem

f:z->C=f(z)

/:

mapping

-+

C =/(C)

conformal

D

g:

mapping

g(z) is

function

The

A can

Du

As an

construct an
Let

U =

=

I/(**)*,

zeD*.

c2,

and

c3,

that of

lt

/ can be extendedto a
onto Au(5)u A*.
Du(y)uD*

(5.23)

of the principle of reflection

example of a so-called
<

1} be

the

/3 and

IsonC,

/x,

and let Px

P3 that of

/x

now

to

z-plane and C = {z:\\z\\ = 1}.
and /3 be the tangents to Cat ct,

/2,

be the point of intersection of l2
and

want

in the

disk

unit

we

function.

modular

respectively,
and

a region in
we have the following
A* is

functions

application

c2, and c3 be threepoi

Let cx,

the

be a

given by:

zeD9
ze(y),

{z: \\z\\

in

c fi(Q+)

A u <5, then

gf(z) from

f/(-X

Modular

A

If the conformal mapping
be extended to a homeomorphism

onto

(y)

z->\302\243

let

reflection).

of
onto

g(z)=\\ /(z),
fc.

equivalent,

conformally

(principle
from

z

are

of reflection 233

/2. The

circle Ct

with

center

and

/3, P2
P1 and

passing through c2 and c3 intersectsthe unit circle C at right angles, as do the
the circle C3 with
C2 with center P2 and passingthroughc3 and cx and

circle

ofC\\, C2, and C3
passing through cx and c2.Theintersections
closed disk [[/] = U u C are arcs yi9 y2, and y3 and the end points
of yt are c2 and c3, the end pointsof y2 are c3 and cu and the end points of y3
are cx and c2. Let D be the region
enclosed
by the three arcs y^ y2, and y3.
The closure [JD] of Disa \"three-side\"
with
sides
y x, y2, and y3 and vertices
ct,
c2,and c3. Since clyc2,and c3areon the unit circle C, we will call [D] a threeside of arcs inscribedin C.
the
the unit disk U as a modelof the non-Euclidean
plane,
Considering
lines of the non-Euclideanplane U arethe arcs in U of circles that intersect C
at right angles.The openarcs(yt), (y2), and (y3), obtained by omitting the
end points from yl9 y2, and y3 are therefore lines in the non-Euclideanplane
and
the lines
[D] n U is a three-sidewith
(yx), (y2), and (y3) as sides.If w is an
in
a line (y) passing through w
the
interior
of
that
three-side,
arbitrary
point
will
of
intersect
at least one
the sides (yj, (y2), and (y3).
=
For v
with respect to Cv the reflection
1, 2, 3 we will call the reflection

center

P3 and

with the

234

's Mapping

Riemann

Fig.

Theorem

5.14

the arc yv and denote this reflection by z -> z*. By Theorem
z-> z* with respect
to yv maps the circle C, which intersects
into
a
circle
at
which
yv
right
angles,
maps Cat right angles again, while the
Hence the reflection z-+z*
points of intersectionof C and yv are invariant.
respect to
5.9 the reflection

with

maps Contoitself.Sinceit

also

the refection

onto

itself.

Thus

Now

let us

consider

maps

oo onto

Pv, the exteriorof Cismapped

z-^ z* maps the interiorU of Contoitself.

the reflections with

respect

three-side of arcs [D] inscribedin

to the

three sides

yl9

y2,

and

the image of D
the images of cx
underthe reflection
with respect
to yx and let c Jp yfx denote
and yA, X = 1,2,3, under the same reflection.Sincethe image of C under the
reflection with respect
to y x is C, c \\x is the point of intersection of Cand the
= yx.
line throughPx and clf while c%t = c2 and cjt = c3.Obviously,
y^

y3 of the

C.

Let

DJ denote

The principle of reflection 235

5.3
By

Theorem

using

and c, is the

arc

5.9, the
intersecting

image yf x
C at right

of

the

arc y2,

angles in

c%x

which intersects
=

c3 and

C in c3

c\\x. Similarly,

the
intersecting
y%Y
angles in c2 and c^. Therefore,
of [D] under the reflectionwith
to yx is a three-side of
image
[f>*]
respect
arcs inscribedin C with sides yl9 y%l9 and yfx and vertices c^, c2, and c3.

is

the

C at right

arc

The imageof [D]

under

the

reflections

with

respect

to

y2

and

y3

is

similar way. To state the result, let the image of D, cv, yA, and
=
1, 2, 3, and A, ji and v all different) under the reflection with
)V (v, K H
to yv, be denoted by D*, c*v, y Jv, and y*v, respectively. Then [DJ] is a
respect
three-side
ofarcs inscribed in C with, as sides, the arcs yv, yjv, and yjv that
the
intersect C at right angles and as vertices
points
c\302\243v,
cA, and
c^. We see
in C under reflection with
of arcs
inscribed
that the image of a three-side
to any one of its sides is again a three-sideof arcs inscribed
in C.
respect
a
from
of
arcs
inscribed
in C
this
three-side
Repeating
process, starting
[D]
we arrive at an infinite number of three-sides of arcsinscribedin C. In order
to prove this let us write
of D, cv, yA, and y^, under the reflection
the
images
with
to yv, as Dv, cvv, yAv, and y^, suppressing
the *. The imageof
respect
=
under
reflection
with
to
is
the
respect
[D]; the image
[Dx]
yn
original
yx
of Dx and yA1 under reflection with respect to one of the other sides,say, y21,
is again a three-side of arcs
we denote
by D12, and yA12, respectively.
[D12]
=
its
sides
the
arcs
are
inscribedin C and
yt 12, y212
y21, and y312,all of which
found

in a

Fig.

5.15

intersectC

Theorem

's Mapping

Riemann

236

at

of D12 and

the images

Denoting

angles.

right

under

yxl2

threeD12l9respectivelyy
=
side of arcs inscribedin C with sides y1121
y112, y2121,and y3121,all of
which
intersect
C at right angles. Denoting the imagesof D121
and
yA121,
to
under
reflection
with respect
y3121,by D1213, respectively
yA1213,
in C with sides y11213,y21213, and
t^ 1213] is a three-sideof arcsinscribed
with

reflection

x 121, [D12 x ] is a

respect toyll2by

731213= 73121*
an

For

such

words, Dv, yXv

D\342\200\236vp

and

ypv\342\200\236;

to

respect

reflection

the

with

suppressing the *, and similarly,
respect to the arc y^; zVfl^>zVflp
zv/ip

-\342\226\272
zv/ip<T

of an

reflections

all

with

reflection

the

composition

3's,
],

[DVfip

In other

with respect
with respect

to yv;
to y^;
to

respect

reflection

yavfip,

denote

us

Let

the

are

[Dvtl ],

similarly.

are

yAv/1

and

with

],
[\302\243>v

of arcs inscribedin Cis defined
reflection
images of D and yx under

2's, or

l's,

of Dv and yXv under
reflection
images
the
and
are
of
under
reflection with
images
DVfi
yXvfl
yXvfip
of Dv/lp and yAv/ip under
the images
DVfipa and yAvp<T are

and

DVfl

of

a sequence

are different,

terms

three-sides

. .of

[Dv/lp<T],.

. .} consisting

{v, //, p,(x,.

sequence

arbitrary
consecutive

that

arc

the

the

represent
zv\342\200\236

with

reflection

the

of reflectionsis a conformal

zx-+zxtl,

zVfl

-\342\226\272

. .

zV|ip,.

compositions of reflections z-> zVfl,

U

zv,
with

reflection

to

ypvil;

Theorem5.9,the
Since

mapping.

map

onto

itself, the

conformal

are

z-^zxlipa,...

z -*

by

yv

respect

to y<TV/ip,....By

respect

even number

z-+zx,

zv ->

let

to

respect

brevity's sake let us write {v,}
of {v,/i,p,a,...}, where
instead
{vi> v2, v3,...,vj,
vj+1,...}
= 1, 2, 3,j = 1, 2, 3,... , and
For each such sequence{v,}
v, ^ v, + 1.
Vj
a sequence[L>VJ, [DVlv2]> ... of three-sides of arcs inscribed in C is
from [D] by repeated reflectionsand the
defined.[Dv v
v ] is obtained
which

mappings

itself. For

onto

U

map

=

side

yx

of

[D]

The side
and

[Dv

respect

=

v._iV.

yv.Vj
v

with the

corresponds

]

v

is the

side yXv

is a
v._t

yv.Vj

of [Dv

image

v.of

^

[DVj

Vj

v

=
], X

common side of [D,^

v

] under

v

the reflection

1,2,3.
v.

tv]
with

Vi.

to2yViJ'

The reflection

with

to

respect

yv

v v

is

v

represented

by

(5.24)

Zv1v2...vJ_1 \">Zv1v2...v/

The compositionof the
is

reflections

...,

z

_

by

represented

vj-ivj

zVi-+zViV

z-*zv

(5.25)

The

mapping

mapping for
[DViV2mmu

z-^ zv

] and

even

v

v

j

by

maps

the

Theorem

U by
[DViVj. .

]\"\\

onto itself and isa conformal

unit disk

denote the intersection of
is obtained from
[DVi v,,. v.]'\"

5.9. We
that

is,

The

5.3

237

of reflection

principle
'\"

We use
to indicate
its vertices.
that three vertices
v]by omitting
[Dvv
and
are
two
have to be omitted.If [Dv
different threev
vl
[D\342\200\236
\342\200\236
\342\200\236
]
*\342\200\242- . . .
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
hk-1
V,V2
fiifi2 \342\226\240
Vj-\302\273
have
and
of arcs, then the corresponding
sides
v ]'\"
[P^ ^
[0ViV2
^T\"
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
common points if and only if k =j\342\200\224l,fit = v19/jl2 = v2, \342\200\242
,A*k
Vj_t or
=
=
.
.
We
have
j
k-l,vt =vl9v2 ii29.

^^/i^.

vT\" n

[^vlV2...

where

(yViVi.

_. ViX

are obtained
and (y^^...^)
omitting
by
respectively 7^^...^-^
U is the union of D\" and all
[DVjV2

disk

unit

1, 2, 3,. . .

vj* vj-iJ=
Now

let

connected,

us

put cx
there
exists

=

\302\2432m/3,

c2

=

\302\2434wi/3, and

c3

= 1.

the
v.]'\",

a conformal

+ of the
the upper plane H
w-plane by
to extend/
Theorem 5.7(1), it is possible

Riemann's

end
v,.

Mapping

points.

=

Since D

mapping /: z->w =/(z)

arcs

the

from

(y^,...*,.,)

yvjvlv2...vj_ly

The

=
XjJ\"

[DVjV2.

3,

1, 2,

is simply

from

D

Theorem.

onto

By

to a homeomorphism/mapping
+
=
to select a
By Theorem 5.7 it is possible
[D] onto[H ] H+ulRu{oo}.
=
=
=
to
We
want
an(*
\302\260\302\260such
that
*>
0, f(ci)
mapping /
7(ci)
?(c3)
of reflection
of this conformal
consider the analytic continuation by means
the
arc
The
/ maps
homeomorphism
open
(yx) onto the open
mapping /
interval
5.11, the conformal mapping/
(1, + oo) of IR. Hence,
by Theorem
+
D onto
H
from
can be extended to a conformal mapping g: z->w= g{z)
u(l,

fromDu(y1)uD1onto//+

+ oo)uH\".

toextend/toconformal
isalsopossible
a

oo,

H+u(\342\200\224

0) u i/~.

= g(z)fromDu

holomorphic

function

Fig. 5.16

from

(-oo,0),it

Du(y2)uD2

onto

these extensionsalsoby
to extend / to a conformal
mapping
u
the
ontoi/+
\".
I
n
this
(0,l)uif
way,
(73)^^3
to become
continued
f(z) defined on D is analytically

Since/((y3)) = (0,1),it

g:z-^w

mapping

Since f((y2)) =

We denote
is also

possible

-+ w
g: z

= g(z).

Riemann 's MappingTheorem

238
the

function

holomorphic

g(z)

on the

defined

region:

S(1)= Du(y1)u(y2)u(y3)uD1uD2uD3

= [D]\"'uD1uD2uD3.

The

function

is given by

g(z)

zeD,

=/(z),

(g(z)

r-

\\

where z-+zy denotesthe reflection
\342\200\224
in the
g(z) is the region C {0,1}
all

Du

g(z)

zeD,
(yv)u

= (1,

+

is not
v =

Dv,

(5-26)

zv6(yv)uDv,

[g(zv)=f{zl

to the arc yv. The range of
Since
w-plane.
g(zt) = g(z2)= g{z3) for
but
on each region
is univalent
g{z)
with

univalent,

1,2, 3.

Putting

oo), (J2) = (- oo,0)

and

respect

=

(l3)

v =

=?((yv)),

(Jv)

= //\"ulRu{oo}

and

(5.27)

Since the side y21 of [Dx]
with respect to yx, the mapping zx

S((),2i))=/((y2)) = li = li

=

conformal
possibleto extend
=
mapping zr->w g{zt)
the

-\342\226\272

Using

the

where

z ->

original

/(z)

-> gr
(zv)

zv

from

^e

(y^) u

domain
from

\\i

g(zv)
^ v. The

onto

Dv u (y^) u
extension is given

from

reflection

to represent

we

the

with

to

respect

have

function

g(z)
continued

the arc

y^v.

by (5.27),

sake,

we denote

[D2]\"'

reflections z-^zx
defined

on the

to become

and

zv

region S(1)

the

y (yuDJ

[DruD1uD2uD3u(

= \\PT u [DJ'\"u
simplicity's

of the

composition

zv/I. In this way the holomorphic
= [D]'\"u Dx u D2 u D3 is analytically
on:
function
g{z) defined
holomorphic

(For

by

(5.29)

represents

-*

S(2) =

Dv/1

(5.28)

Dv/1

zv/1 is the

g(zVfl),

.

the
Similarly,
/f\" can be

[I/].)
Dv

=

+

ff~u(J2)u//

g(zv\302\273)=m
zv/1

Dv

reflection

the

under

onto

Dlv(y21)<<jD12

as a variable with
gr(zv), v = 2, 3

-+

[ff

] = [//\"]

the open

maps

g(zt)

w =

0(zv)>

1,2, 3, where zv

image of y2

is the

extended to a conformalmapping
zv->w
onto
//\" u
for // = 1, 2, 3 and
(IJuH+
v =

mapping

+

arc (y21) onto
Hence,
by Theorem 5.11 it is
(-oo,0).
to a conformal
zl-^g(zl)
mapping

from

(Here zx is to be considered
conformal mapping zv -*

onto

[Dv]

conformal

the

extending

onto H\".

for

(I,)

Putting

(0,1).

zv->g(zv) is a homeomorphism
mapping

=

have

zvelDJ,

g(zv)=7(4

0(zv\342\200\236)

we

1,2, 3,

u

[Z>3]'\" u

( (J

DVA

all analytic continuationsof g(z)by

g(z)

The principle

5.3

5.17

Fig.

be represented

S{2) can

also.)

239

of reflection

as

S(2)= U ^v^([S(1)]nl/).
v
ft*

m =

For

we define

3,4,5,...
S(m)=

the

Sim) by

region

(5.30)

([S(m-U]nI/).

U^,...^

to yield
continued
function
g(z) on S(2) can be analytically
=
m
union
The
on
functions
defined
Slm\\
3,4, 5,6,....
g(z)
holomorphic
of
union
the
on the right-hand side of (5.30)denotes
v occurring
v
\\JDV
one
of
where
take
the
3 x 2m\"1 regions Dv v
, vm-l9 vm
vl5 v2,...
v ,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
values 1,2, or 3 and vx ^ v2 ^ v3 # \342\200\242
^ vm_ x ^ vm. [S(m~ n] is a polygon
~*
3 x 2m
with
intersect
the unit circle C at right angles.
arcs
that
yv v v
v
The sideyv v \342\200\236
is common
to the three-side [Dv v ''' v ] and the
\"\"\" vm~l
m
* 2
V\" 1Y
-\342\226\272
z
be defined
as in (5.25), the analytic
[S(w
polygon
2)]. Letting
v
zv v

A

holomorphic

continuation g(z) is given
0 Kv2...

if

m

is

=/(*)>

vJ

and

odd

*v, v2...

is

In

just

even,

this

way

*Va... ^

as (5.26)

the

to

extended

vMe

(y

vw_,)

Vl...

^

->Vl

v2...

v

(5.31)

v

(5.32)

by

0 <zvlV2...O =/(*),

if m

by

(y

Vl...,._

and (5.29).

holomorphic

function

holomorphic

yield

t)

u \"Vlv2...

f(z) defined on D is analytically
functions
g(z) defined

on

S(1),S(2),S(3),...,S(m>.
Since

D

c S(1)

/(z) can be analytically

c S{2)c

... c

continued

S*10

c

-.-,

to

yield

[) S(m)=l/,

m=l

a holomorphic

function g (z)

240

's

Riemann

on U. Putting

defined

Dv u

=

D u (y v) u Dv,

=

\302\243v

and

Theorem

Mapping

\302\243v/1

u

Dv\342\200\236,
(y\342\200\236v)

generally

a

is

1 v HI

U

vm-l

an

holomorphic

v\302\273'

of

' ' ' v B|'}

1 v*

each

On

U.

of

\302\243Vlv2...vm

and z ->w = g(z)

is univalent

g(z)

vm-l

...

vlv2

and the collection {Ev

covering

\302\260Pen

function

... vm-l^U

^vmvl

of U

subregion

>s

\302\243Vlv2...vm

the

...

^vlv2

vm-lvm

' ' '

\302\243v
1 v2

all

=

...

vlv2

a

is

onto H+ <<j(IvJvH~. Therefore
g(z) is an example of a so-called
0'(z)#O
of
the
z =/_1(w)
be the inverse function
Let
modular
function.
=
= f(z)
w
w-+z
on
then
function
D;
/_1(w) is a
f~l:
holomorphic
that maps the upper half-planeH+ of the w-plane onto
conformal
mapping
of reflection,
D. By repeated application of the principle
f(z) is analytically
on
U.
the
Fromthis we see
continued to yield
function
g (z)
holomorphic
conformal

C

\342\200\224

{0,

multivalued

/\"*

is

(w)

on

function

analytic

continuable

analytically

freely

its analytic

that

1} and

function

The

zeU.

all

the inverse

that

from Evvv

mapping

for

we
is invariant under analytic continuation (Section4.1a),
= w, that is, z = g~l (w) is the inverse of w = g (z).

to

In order

that/\"1
Wx

analytically

freely

g(z) to
u (JA) u if\", A =
of

restriction
=

is

(w)

H+

onto

v
1.2\"*fn

\302\243Vi.

Wv

from

mapping

Divide P into
<

<

^_x

Wk

rh

n

complete

analytically
the

power

->z

g~l\302\253
12 mmm v in

/J: r ->
Vm.
\302\243Vj
V2
\342\200\224
curve in C {0, 1} and let
Let

function/\"1
-\342\226\272
w =

ph: t

= 6,

/J

W3;

that

w

{g~x

series

put

is, |/?J

ft

{t\\ 0 ^

rfc,

continuation of/\"*(w)
with

along
(w,

t): 0

to h,

respect
ft

to

c

^A(h).

^

t

g~l (w, t) of

^.J.

^
w

\342\200\224

/J(f)

g^

that/\"*

\342\200\242

<

tx

region
(h>) can

(w) defined

by g jjjj,
(w)

we denote this
all inverse

along /?.

*
Since/\"

with

analytic

r0 <
in one

(See Definition
are

fe,

=

is given

along/^

and

^

H+

contained

we assume

P{th^x)

t

on
0

from

conformal

a

is

(w)

defined

^ r g
is

ph

=

us consider the

(w)

(\302\253?),
rfc_x

such that each

W^W^and

induction

continued

continuation by
that

w

=

continued to yieldthe holomorphic
function

on H^(1),the analytic
Using

:

...v

a conformal mapping

vm(z) *s

holomorphic
tn

we

and

vJz)

gViV2

3. Obviously

0Vlv2

, 0V~J,
12

curves

regions

be analytically

by

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
<

<

{h) of the

ffi

be a

of the

(w))

g(g~l

analytic continuation g (z) of /(z),
the
in C \342\200\224{0,1},we denote
continuable

onto

H^

= c0eH+
>5(0)
continuation

=

z->w

0Vlv2...vm-

have

the

\302\243Vlv2...vm

1, 2,

region

= C-{0, 1}.

H^1u^2u^3
Since

using

directly,

verify

the

in

continuation g~l(w) is a holomorphic
= w
C - {0,1}.Sincethe identity/(/~l
(w))

has

(w).

been

analytic

4.1 and notice
functions of

w

The

5.3

= g (z).)

Since

Since

^(fc),

some

with

coincides

that/\"*

the analytic

(w)

is freely

_,*(/.)

*s a

on

(w)

continuable

analytically

is freely

(w)

g~l
of

(w,th_x)
/?(*/,-1)\302\253

holomorphic single-valued function

continuationof g~l {with_1)

(w). g~l

g~l

just

/J*. We

along

along /J. Hence/\"

{0,1}

this

and

conclude

(u>) is

freely

analytic

and complete

continuable

analytically

*

on

1}.

onC-{0,

c.
Let
of

function

Theorem

Picar(Ts

F (z) be an
z defined
on

5.13

Theorem

rangeof

of

the whole

z-plane C.

values

with

z, i.e.,

F (z)

A nonconstant
one exception.

most

at

is either

F (z)

function

entire

an

entire function

Theorem).

(PicartTs

all complex

assumes

. .vm

and |ftj c W^,
a neighborhood

of 0h

point

continuable on the region C -

analytically
continuation is

g~J2

v^/U/oM

g^Jj...

it is

J is the initial

p (th_

241

of reflection

principle

is a holomorphic

entire function
F(z)
In other words,the

C or C\342\200\224
{w0}

.or

some

vv0

e C.

F (C) c

C \342\200\224
wx} for some w0, wxeC (vv0 ^ w,). Since
{w0,
\342\200\224
the linear transformation w-+(w\342\200\224
w0) maps
w0 onto 0 and wx
w0)/(w!
\342\200\224
c:
C {0, 1}. Substituting \302\243
1 we see right away that F (C)
for z in the
onto
=
of w
the
inverse
is
modular function g(z) discussedabove,
\302\243 g~l
(w)
\"x
=
is
a
The
function
multivalued
0 (C).
g (w)
analytic function,
C \342\200\224{0,
continuable and
and
moreover
freely
analytically
holomorphicon
1}
\342\200\224
onC
the
function
Therefore,
g~l (/(z) is freely
complete
composite
{0,1}.
is a
on C by Theorem 4.9. Therefore,g~l (F(z))
continuable
analytically
an
entire
on
is
function
that
C,
is, g~l
(F(z))
single-valued
holomorphic
hence
function, by Theorem 4.7. On the other
hand,
C = 0-1(w)el/,
<
1.
a
is
Theorem
constant
Liouville's
Hence, g~l (F(z))
{F(z))\\
\\g~l
by
our
with
(Theorem
1.24) and F(z) reducesto a constant,in contradiction
Assume

Proof:

assumption.

If F (z) isa polynomial

in

F (C)

z, then

If F (C) = C\342\200\224
{w0},

of Algebra).

the

= C (by

value

vv0

the

Fundamental

is called

Theorem

the exceptional

value

of the transcendental entire function
the

value

of

cos z

has no

exponential

function

exceptionalvalue.

F (z). For
example, the exceptional
ez is 0 (seeExample
while
the function
1.6),

d.

The

If D

is a simplyconnectedand

bounded by

Schwarz-Christoffel

a Jordan

curve

consisting

formula
bounded

of

n

region

segments,

in the
then

complex plane
region

the closed

242 Riemanns MappingTheorem
[Z>]

an n-gon.

is called

d[J>] =

Let [D]

be an n-gonand

>vy;.+i

yi-y2

let

be given by

its boundary

y\302\273

the vertices cx_x and cx. Let 0X, \342\200\224n<0x< n,
between
angle
yx+1and yx at cx (the so-called exterior angle). If
+
the upper half-plane H
w =f(z)
D onto
is a conformal mapping from
/: z -\342\226\272
yx connects

each

where

be the

to a homeomorphism/from
of the w-plane,then/can beextended
[D] onto
=
H+ u R u {00} by Theorem 5.7 (1) and /maps d[p] onto the
[H+]

line

oriented

positively

IR

u

{00}. Hence,

< ax

\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
<

\342\200\224

ax-t

co<a1<a2<

ax

putting

<

\342\200\224f(cx\\we

an <

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

=
\\C0

assume

may

+ 00.

Cn

Cn-X

n

5.18

Fig.

Let

the

<}> denote

inverse

of/:

mapping from H* onto D.We
only

= 9

functions

elementary

(j>

z-zJ

=

will

now

<f>:

w -\342\226\272
z = <j> (w)

establish

of w. The reflection

by) the segment yx

determined

Then

=f~1.

is

^^i(Z--cA_1)

given

a formula
with

respect

is a

conformal

for 0 (w)
to

(the

using

line

by

+ c,.1.

(5.33)

D under the reflectionwith respect
to yx by DJ.
with
to yx. Since
that
is the symmetric
of
[D J] isan n-gon
[Z>]
respect
image
=
*n
theconformal
case
a
convex
is
mapping/
f((yj))
n-gon,
(ax-1>\302\260a)\302\273 [D]
+
=
from
D onto
H
can be extended to a conformalmapping
0A: z-+w
gx(z)
from D u (yx)u Z)* onto H+v(ax_l9ax)yj
H+ by Theorem 5.11. (If A = 1,
then we let (fl0^i) represent(an, + 00)u {00} u (\342\200\224
The function
00,^).)
We

denote

the

image of

gx

(z)

is given

by

inverse

the

denote

of 3A by ^A.

^l

gr

from //+ onto D can
from [H+] onto [D]. The mapping
= $(w)

mappingfrom
of 4>. Since

*

ff

$ =/\"*, ^
=

Since all \\j/x

by (5.34).

from H* u (aA_ l5 ax)
holomorphicfunction

\\\\fx

given

a

to

w-+z

onto D u

mapping </>:

homeomorphism

= ^A(w)

(yj u

w -+

DJ

z

$

is a conformal
an

and

extension

by
+

wetf

mappings,
$'x (w) # 0. Also if [D] is not
in (5.35) is a holomorphicmapping
as defined

conformal

are

-\342\226\272
z =

w

\\l/x:

is

(w)

The conformal

extended

^:

u JJ~

ax)

lf

<Mw),

j<Mw)

convex,

u (aA_

be

(5.34)

*

z?e(yJuDJ

^(2*)=/(z),
We

of reflection 243

The principle

5.3

(w)

onto D u

(yj u

and
\\j/x (w) ^ 0. Hence, the
DJ
be
(j>
analytically continuedto yield an
on
function
is holomorphic
^ (w) = \\j/x (w), X = 1, 2,. . . ,n, which
analytic
=
weif\"
.
.
.
and
For
#(w)*
^(w)
,<*\342\200\236}.
Rujoo}-^,
^(w)
= $ (w)* do not coincide if X ^ //, hence ^ (w) is a multivalued function.
and
its branches ipx(w)
There exists a very
between
relationship
simple
and z-> z* takes the
zf->z
^ (w): Since the composition of the reflections

u i/~

(w) on

H+ can

form

aM*0

zJ-z^a^zJ+Z^,

by (5.33),

we

have

=

^(w)

weH~.

a/xA^(w)-l-j3/lA,

Hence
\302\273;>)

\302\273f;(w)

=

Therefore

wgH-

^i(w)'

^\302\273

the function

*m-\302\243tt
&
(w)
is a

holomorphic

from which the

since ^

of

w

=

(w)

is

single-valued function

points a0, al9. . . , an_x
a

00, we have

holomorphic

on a

on the Riemann
have

univalent

neighborhood of

been

function
00

deleted.

R u

{00},
In particular,

sphere

on a neighborhood

Theorem

's Mapping

Riemann

244

where /J(l/w) is a power seriesin

/?(0) =

that

such

1/w

= 0.

fc(oo)

(5.36)

In order to study thebehaviorofh (w) in a neighborhood
$ (w) on a neighborhood of aA. For sufficiently

consider

chosen

suitably

defined

0. Hence

kx the

angle

mapping

qA:

=
z -+ \302\243
qA

of each point ax, we
small e > 0 and a
(z), where

(z)

qA

is

by

=
qA*) = J\"*(z-cJ\"a\\
cox
n-6x,
=
< e} on the upper half
disk
maps the fan-shaped regionSx {zeD:\\zcx\\
=
=
Im
>
<
0
0
and
radius
center
and
with
C
|fl
p
eK,to*lVx
{\302\243:
p}
[/p+ (0)
is a subregion
of the upperhalf-planeH + of the w-plane and $ maps
=f(Sx)
=
where
onto
conformally
Wx
<DA (w),
Sx. Hence the mapping Q>x: w -> \302\243
d>A

(w)

is defined
(w)

<DA

by
=

eiK*

-

(<\302\243
(w)

(5.37)

wg^

cj*'^,

.

\342\200\242

\342\200\242\342\200\224

ax

b

K

\342\200\242

-p

\342\200\242

\342\200\242

0

p

Fig. 5.19

is a

conformal mapping from
within

contained

(a, b) of the
interval

{a,

a circle

real axisofthe
b) is part

<bx

homomorphism
w

from

Wx\\j

->

C = eiK* (#
(a,

b) onto

17* (O).jfmaps that part of yx -yA+1
onto
the open interval
cx and radius \302\243

boundary of

from

(w) -

ax

Obviously,

w-plane.

of the

conformal mapping

onto

Wx
center

with

Wx

cA)n/ft\\

Wx.

onto

It

follows

*
U (0)

we^u

U* (0)u ( \342\200\224p,
p).

= f(cx)

Thus

e (a,b).The open

from

(5.37) that the

can be extendedto a
(a,6),

Oa can

be extended to a

5.3 The principle of reflection
conformal
(O)u(-p,

tfp+

*\302\245x:

W^

u

b) u

(a,

onto

^

l/p(0). Since a^efofr) and $(aj

=

p)ul/p+(0)
= 0.

*F A (aA)

have

(w) from

=
w -\342\226\272
\302\243 %

mapping

245

=

we
c\342\200\236

Hence

^A(vv)=(w-aA)GA(vv),

where

Since *FA

=

(w)

* (w)
by

and

akT^

FA(w) is

7t

(w

-

u

(a, 6)

u

and

Wk

GA (w)

# 0

for all w.

have

Fx

FA (w)

(w),

= (*-**

GA

(w))\302\273*'\"

holomorphic on a neighborhoodof

=
cojn\342\200\2241

^

=

0' (w)

Wk

vve^we

= (w-

-ck

Since

# 0.

FA(aA)

<DA(w) for

Here,

(5.37).

on

is holomorphic

(w)

GA

(FA (w)

aJ-W

ax

and

have

\342\200\224OJn,we

+

\342\200\224

(w

-

flJ

F'A

(w)),

a>2

hence

0 (W)

flW

w\"\"flA

where
=

(w)
\302\253a

Since

FA

(aA)

^

holomorphic

log
/aw

(FA

(w)

+

\342\200\224

(w

-

coA

a,)

F\\

(w)).

0, Hx (w) is holomorphicona neighborhood
which
on a neighborhood of ax from

of 0A

and

ax has been

ft

(w)

Therefore,the expressionfor ft (w), which was obtained under the
w e Wx is valid on a neighborhood
assumptionthat
ofaA. Since ft (w) is holomorphic
on the w-planefrom
.
.
.
have
been removed,
which
,an
al9a2,
*(w)+ I
is an

entire

~^\342\200\224

of

function

w

and

lim^.^

ft

= 0

(w)

by (5.36). We

Theorem

Liouville's

\302\243ejn

h(W)=-

x

Therefore

Iogtf>'(w) =

for we//+

and

ft(w)=-

X

hence

n

log

</>'

(w)

=

\342\200\224

J]

a-i

(^AO

(w
l\302\260g

~

fl^) +

constant

is

deleted.

conclude from

246 Riemann 's MappingTheorem
conclude

we

which

from

n

4>' (w)

Fixing

an

= C0

[7

(w

-

w0e//+,

arbitrary

(w)

=

C0

f
J

where

C0 and
5.14.

Theorem

of

the

w-plane

C\\

are

fl

- flj\"#^ *v + Clf

0*

w0 A=l

C0 ^

constants,

A conformal

onto the

mapping

C0

and

the

Schwarz-Christoffel

that maps

proved:

the upper half-planetf+

can

n-gon

be represented

as

w0X=l

C, are constants,

\342\226\240\342\226\240
\342\200\242the
\342\200\242
exterior
0!,02\302\273 \342\226\240
>^a\302\273 \342\200\242,#\342\200\236

called

(5.38)

0. We have

interior D of an
J

where

constant.

we have

\"
4>

co a

ai)~exl*>

C0 ^ 0,w0

angles

formula.

at the

a

fixed

point

in H+

and

vertices ofthen-gon. (5.38)is

6

Riemann

This

book

famous

Differentialforms
To
the
groundwork

6.1

surfaces following

analytic functions on Riemann
The Idea ofRiemannian Surface.

with

deals

chapter

Weyl's

surfaces

what

for

lay

follows we study

differential

forms.

a.

\342\200\224

y)

u(x

du =
y)

(p\\(x,

(p

which

and
=

cpi dx +

or

assume

dy,

dy,

a region

D in the

ux = ux(x,

y),

=

cp2
du,

is given

uy(x,

=

function

of

but

by

y).

expression

(p2(x, y)9

a differential

is called

the coefficients

complex-valuedfunctions,

if the

y, the

x and

y\\

the

differentiable,

uy

of

of

is continuously

for short) of u

functions

= cpx{x,
cpi

y)

u(x,

iy)

complexplane is

is continuously

(or differential

Generally,

u(x +
...

real
C\302\260\302\260,
analytic,

previous expressionfor

a 1-form.

<Pi{x> y) can be

on

u(z) =

If u = u(z)=

are arbitrary

cp2

generalizes the

form of degree
(p2

uy

(p2(x, y)

7

=

differential

uxdx +

class

function

rea' variables

....

analytic

total

the

defined

of

iy) oftwo

+

real
C\302\260\302\260,

differentiable,

If

iy,

differentiable,

continuously

w(*>

real-valued

the

that

variable z = x +

complex

class

forms

Differential

We say

cp\\

in

=

this

(p\\(x, y)

section

and
we

is
functions, unless the contrary
and
clear
that
the
coefficients
cp\\
necessary
cp2 are real-valued,
(p = cp\\ dx + q>2 dy is called a real 1-form.
If the coefficientscp\\ and cp2 are continuous functions of x and y on the
D in the complex plane (or on the point set S), then the 1-form
domain
=
dx
+ <p2 dy is said to be continuous on D (or on S). If cp\\ and
q>\\
q>2
cp
are continuously
...
on D, then
differentiable, of class Cn9 of class C\302\260\302\260,
...
the 1-form cp is continuously
of class Cn, of class C\302\260\302\260,
differentiable,

indicated.

that

cp\\

When

cp2 are

and
it

is

real-valued

to make

Riemann

248

surfaces

on D. Usingthe

z =

variable

complex

the 1-form cp

x+iy,

is

written

also

as

cp(z) =
If

cp{(z)dx+
u =

function

the

class

of

forms

cp

class
=

+

the

defined

and ip
+

(acp\\

\342\200\224dx

ip2

+ (<3(p2+

cp =

1-

a, b eU

bip2)dy,

1-form

the

and

w

+ bip of two
is
defined
dy
by

cp\\

dx

+

cp2

dy

is

by
=

ucp

+ (ucp2)dy.

(ucp\\)dx

The following two

obvious:

are

rules

bv) = adu + bdv,

d{au +

\342\200\242

a,

now
to introduce
a new
We
want
exterior product. The exteriorproduct
\342\200\224
ip Acp =
<p A ^

for 1-forms

(a<p +
<p

A (flV

cp =

=
<fc A <\302\243t

by) A

0, dx: A

rfy

is

A V),

= a(cp Aip) +

b(cp

A #).

cp2dy

and

=

A dx

\342\200\224

dy

for

1-forms

called

the

i.e.

anti-symmetric,

&(%

= ((p\\ip2

(p Alp

\\p\\dx + xpidy and
and dy Ady = 0, we have

xp

\342\200\224

=

observing that

A dy.

(Pi^p\\)dx

of the form

An expression
co =

+ b%)

operation A

V) +

a(<P A

=

V

cp\\dx-\\-

eR

satisfies

moreover

ip and

and

(p

b

vdu + udv.

d(uv) =

Putting

combinationacp

-{-

ip\\

bip\\)dx

function

of the

product

1-form

the

then

The linear

on D.

cpidy

acp + bip =
and

region D

...,
C\302\260\302\260,

q>\\ dx

of class Cw, of
differentiable,
du is continuous, of class

is continuously

j>)

w(x,

on the

C\302\260\302\260,
...,

Cw_1,

cp2{z)dy.

con dx

A

co\\2 =

dy,

co^ix,

y),

for cp A ip, is called a differential
which generalizesthe previous
expression
the
In this section we will assume that
form of degree 2 or a 2-form.
is
unless
the
w
is
real-valued
of
the
2-form
coefficient
contrary
conix,
y)
of
If a; 12 = conix, y) is continuous,
indicated.
differentiable,
continuously
a) = a)\\2 dx A dy is called continuous,
the
2-form
class Cn, ..., then
of a function
u
of class
C\\ ... . The product
continuouslydifferentiable,
and a 2-form co is defined by

uco = (ua)\\2)dx
and

the linear

aco +

A

dy,

combination aco +
bip

=

(aw\\2

bip

two

of

+ bip\\2)dx

A

dy,

2-forms
a,

co and ip by
b GR.

Differential forms 249

6.1
=

con

Putting

=

(O

-I

0) =

\342\200\224

dy

=

a)jk
con

^2

2

n

we arrive

dx,

dx).

in

2-forms

for

result

variables:

n

dXk>

putting

by
\342\200\2240)%,

dy A

A

^J

Mj*

be written as

<fy A

o>2i

is a specialcaseofthe

This formula

where

+

dxAdy

-(o>i2

a) can

2-form

the
\342\200\224Q)2i9

x\\ =

x and x2 \342\200\224
a)2\\dx A
y. Since
A dy. In the case of two
w^dx

\342\200\224

2,

a> =

at

coefficient is ton, hencethe
the only independent
is
to distinguish
not
but
used
the 2-form
really
necessary,
coefficient
a;i2.

variables

is

subscript
from

the

domain, than

the

a>

Obviously,
If

can be

This

1-form defined on a

\342\200\224

Adx

dcp\\

defined

by

+ dq>2 A

dy,

cp is

xp).

cp

=

dx

(p\\

+

(p2

dy.

reduced to

have

We

+ bxp)

d(acp

and, since for
(pi

of

derivative

dip

A

differentiable

a continuously

is

<p

exterior

utp = u(cp

A \\p \342\200\224
(p A

ucp

rf* +

udcpi

\342\200\224

adcp

a

continuously

A

we

dx,

+

ER

a, b

bdxp,

function

differential

w,

d(ucp\\)

A dx

= du

d(u(p) = du Acp + udcp.

If
uyx

twice

is

u

=

Uxy,

(6.2)

differentiable,

continuously

hence

A

have

then du =

uxdx +

uy

dy

and

by (6.1)

ddu = 0.

(6.3)

b. Line integrals

Let
y :

t

w(z)

\342\200\224\302\273
z =

*(0 +

=

u(x,

y) be

a continuously

defined on a region Q

z = x+iy

y(f),

MO*trie

a ^
function

/^ 6, be a
u(y(t))

in

smooth

= u{x(t\\

the

curve

Hence

ux(y(t))x'(t)

+

complex

in

uy(y(t))y'(t).

of

function

plane

Q. Writing

y(t)) is continuously

and
differentiable

-d_ u(y(t)) =
dt

differentiable

and

let

y(f) =

Riemann surfaces

250

u(y(b)) -

=

u(y(a))

f
Ja

For a 1-formcp = (px{z)dx + (p2(z)dy, which is continuous
the integral of cp along y by
=
f cp

\\y<p a

call

Q,

we define

(6.5)

in (6.4). It is easy to see that the above
if
the curve y is piecewisesmooth.We
\\Ycp
of line integrals
we have
line integral. Using the notation
occurring
be used

integral

of

definition

on

+ (p2(Y(t))yV))dt

f ((pi(Y(t))x'(t)

the

generalizing

(6.4)

+ uy(y(t))y'(t))dt.

(ux(y(t))x'(t)

can

also

=

u(y(b))-u(y(a))

du.

(6.6)

f

Jy

1-forms cp

For two continuous

(cicp +

=

c2V0

and

ip we

9 +

ci

c2\\

Jy

Jy

obviously

have

V,

ci

<?i>

R.
\342\202\254

Jy

/(z) be a complex-valued continuous function
= u + iv, u = w(z) and v = 0(z), we have

Let
f(z)

f(z)dz =
*<p =

Putting

=

cp

udx

vdywt

=

f(z)dz

(p\\dy9

\342\200\224

1*

+

cp

Now, accordingto definition
=

\\f(z)dz
Jy

\\
Ja

\342\200\224
v dy + 1(0 d*
w <\302\243c

a 1-form<p

*<p of

dc +
\342\200\224<P2

=

+ / rfy)

fc;)(dx

form

dual

the

Generally,

+

(w

q>

=

on

is defined

cp\\dx-\\-

Q.

Writing

+ u dy).

by

cp2 dy.

obtain

(6.7)

(p.
the

(6.6),

of f{z)

integral

along y is given

by

f{y(t))y'(t)dt.

From

= ux'(t)

f{y(t))y'{t)
we conclude

real 1-form

put/(z)

=

(p\\(z)

f (p

Jy

If t(z)
satisfying t'(x)

-

= Re

+

Kvx\\t)

uy'{t))

\\cp + i\\ *<p.

\\f(z)dz=

Jy

For a

- i>/(0+

cp

Jy

Jy

=

(p\\(z)dx

i<P2(z).

f

/(z)<fe,

(6.8)

+ cp2(z)dy9 which
=

Then/(z)rfz

/(z)

=

cp

+

^ (z)

is continuouson Q, we

i*(p,hence

-

icp2(z).

(6.9)

Jy

of r, a ^ r ^ /?,
is a continuously differentiable function
= b, then the curve A : r \342\200\224\342\226\272
> 0 for all r, /(a) = a, f(/?)
A(r)

6.1

= y(t(r))9 cl ^t ^ /3, can be
a ^ t ^ b (see Section4.2).The

: t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),

the curve y

with

identified

251

forms

Differential

equalities,

following

and

be

can

Jy-J
/y-

Jy

proved

by using

resulting

from

(6.9). If

y

=

y\\

the

together

pasting

in that

- - - 9 Ym

Yi,

Jy
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

y2

is the

yw

73

curves

smooth

piecewise

=

<P

=

nm be
(p is

(61\302\260)

53\302\253*y*k=\\

hk

k=\\

the
results, this definition is compatible with
for example (4.34), (4.35) and (4.36).
on D and if
the 2-form a> = conix, y)dx A dy is continuous

above

the

By

y

<?>

]C'2*

y\\,

obviously

order, then,

J/m
Jy
Jy,
Jy2
smooth
curves in Q, let \302\253i,...,
Let
yi, ..., ym be piecewise
=
a
1-chain.
The integral Jy(p, where
and
let
be
integers
y ]C*=i\"*y*
a 1-form which is continuouson Q, is defined
by

Jy

curve

standard

definitions,
If

jd

<

y)\\dxdy

|a>i2(xr,

+oo

then we define
\\

CO

=

JD

JD

The integral \\Dco
on the

y)dxdy.

0)\\2(X9
said

is

closed region

continuous

y)dxdy.

conix,

It is clearthat $Dco
is decomposedinto

is

[D], then we define

Jr
J[D]

)[D]

J\\D]

absolutely. Further, if co

to converge

as J[d]0>

as well
the

closed

regions

is linear in a>.
[A]\302\273

If

the

closed

region [D]

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
then
\342\200\242\302\273
[^/iL

[AL

cy.
J.-\302\243J

Theorem

6.1

such that

its

(Green's
boundary

(6.11)

[A]

Theorem).
d[D]

consists

Let

be
[\302\243>]

of a

finite

a
number

bounded

closed

of mutually

region
disjoint

Riemann surfaces

252

piecewise

a region Q D
<P

=\\

Jd[D]

1-form

cp

J[D]

[D] = r,(tf)

(6.12)

dcp

U

U

T2(K)

into cells

be decomposed

can

[D]

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U

rx(K)

Theorem

#[\302\243)]

=

(6.13)

T^K)
in

obtained

= Q

^vCXv

and

(see Theorem

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U

U

decompositon of [D]
2.1. Since dTx(K)=
or dTx{K)
the cellular

represent

differenti-

is continuously

then
[\302\243>],

Proof: Firstwe note that
2.1). Let

-Cva

If the

curves.

Jordan

smooth

able on

=

the
J2vCXv9

Section

of
=

^Q

(6.14)

Hence

2.3a).

By (6.11)

Ckv

we have

d[D] = Y^dn(K)

(see

proof

and (6.13)we have
dcp

it suffices

therefore

1idTk{K)
holds

for all

cells FX(K)

are
Tx(K)

>y>

to prove that
dcp

H

hk{K)

cells FX(K). As is clear from
the
of Theorem
proof
all of the form of the cells of Example
2.3,i.e.
=
{z:z = x + iy,a^x^b,
y(x)
^y^
d(x)}9

i

iy

ib

jX^L^_.

~J
'?/
*/

tm*

[_
1

c

\342\226\240p
Ib

x

l^>

rm

[co

\\ll

V

2.1, the

Differential forms 253

6.1

or

Ti(K)= {z:z =

where y(z)

and

[a,

interval

b] such

that

JdT(K)

for

a cell

(6.15)

dcp
JT(K)

T(K) given by

T(K) = {z:z = x + iy,a^x^b9
the other casebeing treated similarly.
u(x,
cp = udx + vdy, u \342\200\224
Writing
C

of two line

Q consists

a :y

\342\200\224>
z =

a +

z =

fi:y^

fe

+

x

on

v(x, y)

are, by assumption,

The boundary

Q.

^ y ^

iy9

y(a)

iy,

y(b)^

a^
a^

id(x),

\342\200\224\342\226\272
Z =

X+

and

y)

segments:

and two smooth curves:
z = x + *y(x),
:*->
y
6 :

^ (5(x)},

y(x) ^ y

functions

differentiable

continuously
T(K)

y{y)

iy9a^y^b,

defined
continuously differentiable functions
<
<
if
a
b.
We
will
the
y
prove
d(y)
equality

<

y(y)

cp=\\

f

+

d(y) are

and

y(y)

similarly,

on

are

d(x)

closed

the

on

^x^

d(y)},
differentiable functions of x defined
continuously
< d(x)
such
that
if a < z < b and
[a, b]
y(x)
x

d(a),

y^Si

x^

b,

x^ b.

i.e.

= Y+P~

=

ar(x>

a\\

-5

\342\200\224

a.

r{K)

b

dcp =

Since

(vx

\342\200\224

uy)dx

A dy9

x

we have
cd(x)

rfcp

=

JT(K)

JT(K)

We

first

observe

(i;*

that

\342\200\224

uy)dxdy

=

\\

Ja

dx\\

(vx

iy{x)

\342\200\224

uy)dy.

of the cell

254

Riemann

surfaces

rb

rd(x)
dx\\

J y(x)

Ja

j\302\273b

=

y)dy

uy(x,

[u(x, d(x))

J a

-

rb

rb

=

u(x, 6{x))dx

Ja

=

dx

y(x))]

u(x,

u dx

\\

\342\200\224
\\ u

id

\342\200\224

Ja

u(x,

y(x))dx

dx.

Jy

Next we put

and we
(jc,

y)dy

v(x,

t,s)=\\

\302\256(x,

notice that

continuously differentiable

is a

t, s)

<I>(x,

function

s such that

t) and

<>*(*,

t, s)

=\\

0>,(x,

t, s)

= v(x,

\302\256s(x,

t,

s)

vx(x,

y)dy\\

t)\\

= -v(x9

s).

Hence
rd(x)

p6(x)

d_

dx

=

y)dy

v(x,

+ v(x, d(x))d'(x)

vx(x9 y)dy
Jy(x)

Jy(x)

-

Integration of both

with

sides

rd(b)

-

y)dy

v(b,
iy{b)

v(x9 Y(x))y'{x).

from a to b yields

to x

respect

the

equality

od(a)
y)dy

v(a9

Jy(fl)
rb

=

rd(x)
dx\\

\\

J y(x)

Ja

vx(x,

y)dy

rb

+

rb

-

v(x, 6(x))6'(x)dx

Ja

v(x, y(x))y\\x)dx.

Ja

Hence
c6(x)

cb

Ja
Since

vx(x,

ds\\

obviously

JT(K)
Formula (6.15)

vdy-

y)dy=
JP

Jy(x)

Ja\" dx

Jy

=

\\pu

JP

dx

=

Jd

is the counterpartfor

Ja

vdy-

Jd

vdy+

vdy.
Jy

conclude

0, we

Ja
1-forms

JdT(K)
of formula

(6.6).

of

Differential forms 255

6.1

closed region[D]such that
ux(x,
u(x, y) is continuously differentiable on the interior of [D] and
y)
functions
and
and uy(x9 y) can be extendedto continuous
ux{x9 y)
y)
uy(x9
on [D] and the partial
on [D] is said to be continuously
differentiable
derivatives
ux(x,
y) and uy(x9 y) on [D] are defined
by ux(x,
y) = ux{x9
y)
A

and

function

continuous

= uy(x, y).

uy(x9 y)

on [D]

u(xy y)

defined on a

1-form

continuous

A

is said to be continuously

=

cp

cp\\

on

differentiable

+

dx

[D] if

(p2dy
q>\\

[D]. Green'sTheoremis still

differentiable on
continuously
are
forms cp which
continuously

valid

on [D] in the

differentiable

defined

and

are

(pi

1-

for

following

sense:

be a bounded closedregionsuch

Let [D]

Theorem

6.2.

consists

of a

curves.If the

cp is

1-form

=

<P

of

number

finite

J[D]

Jd[D]

assuming that

y\302\243(x)
for

small

a sufficiently

=

T(Ke)

(see

the

proof

r(^\302\243)

{x

C

ey(x)

0 and considerthe cell:
+ iy:a + e^x^b-e,
yE(x)
2.3).

=

Jrc/co

(p=\\

+ (1

- e)(5(x)

cp is

^y^

differentiable

continuously

y(x) <y<

6\302\243(x)}

on

6(x)}

<ty

e tend

to +0

we obtain:

dcp.

JT(K)

1.14 of

To see this we first

=

<5\302\243(x)

e >

6.1. Letting

JdT(K)

\302\243(5(jc),

hence

Jar(/i:)

by Theorem

+

cell

d(x)}.

^y^

y(x)

{x+iy:a<x<b,

T(E\\
<P

Theorem

\302\243)y(x)

of Lemma

T(E) =
and

-

(1

on the

differentiable

is continuously

=

then
[\302\243>],

<fy

T(K) = {z+ iy:a^x^b9

To this end, put

on

differentiable

(6.15):

equality

Jrc/:)
cp

mutually

dcp.

=

<P

Jar(A:)

its boundary

disjoint piecewise smooth Jordan

continuously

It sufficesto prove

Proof:

that

Section 1.3 can be derived

observe

that

equation

(1.42),

directly

from

Theorem

6.2.

Riemann surfaces

256

^(/TO,
can be written

=

s))

s))Tt(t,

s))Ts(t,

Q-t(f(T(t9

s)),

as:

d(f(T(t9

s))Tt(t9

d(f(T(t,

s))dT(t,

f(T(t, s))Ts(t, s)ds)= 0,

s)dt +

i.e.
s))

= 0.

From
s) A dT(t,
d(f(T(t, s))dT(t, s)) = f'(T(t, s))dT(t,
s) = 0
it is obvious
that a holomorphic function f(z) of z satisfies
this
equation.
functions.
K be the
So we have established (1.42) for holomorphic
Letting
rectangle
k = {t + is : a ^ t ^ b, 0 ^ s ^ 1}

is1
k

K

\\

,

t)

ci

0

6.2 yields

Theorem

f

J a/:

f(T(t,

s))dT(t, s) =

and the left-hand memberof this

f
Jfl

=

differentiable
form.
cp is

Since
closed.

s))Ts(b,

/(T(ft,

JO

\\)dt

= 0

equals

equality

f

s))

s))dT(t,

f

/(.Ha,

s)ds

5)^

ff))r5(fl,

+

f /(z)&-

f f(z)dz-

Jy,

Jby

f
Jya

/(z)&.

(1.44).

A 1-form
differentiable

\302\243/C/\"(T(r,

Jf a:

JO

/(*)&

f

iwt(t,

f(T(t,

Jy0
yields

0)dt +

0))r,(f,

f /(T(f,

ia

This

t

cp

that

can

function

be represented

is called an

as

cp

=

exact differential

du with
form.

w

a

continuously

A continuously

= 0 is called a closed differential
1-form cp satisfying
dcp
ddu = 0 by (6.3), every continuously differentiable
exact
the
is
valid
converse
of
this
statement
too.
Locally,

form

6.1

257

forms

Differential

Theorem 6.3. Let the 1-formq> be continuously
on the
differentiable
=
0. Let c be an arbitrary
of Q and choose
region Q such that dcp
point
r > 0 such
Q.
that
Then
there
a
exists
twice
C
Ur(c)
continuously
= du on the disk
differentiable
function
u such that
cp
Ur{c).

Proof:

Put

=

cp

+

dx

cp\\

where

dy,

cp2

are continuously differentiable
define
a function
u on Ur{c) by

u=

=

y)

u(x9

Ja

Now u(x,

y)

uy(x9

u(x, y)

=

Jb

q>2(x9

<p2

c =

Putting

=

<P2(x, y)

a + ib,

we

rj)dr}.

to v and

respect

with

q>i(x9 b)

+

dcp{\\dx A

dy

=

y)

Q.

and

(p2(x, y).

is alsodifferentiable
ux(x9

b)d\302\243+

with

(p\\(x, y)

on

functions

q>\\{^

y) is differentiable

=

<pi

to x

respect

d
P
I

and

rj)drj.

t-<P2{x9

by assumption

Since,

fdtp2

\\dx

dcp =

=

0,

J

dy

we have

d
[y \342\200\224

[y d

=

Y])dr]

<p2(x,

-Q-q>\\(x9

rj)drj =

(p\\(x,

y)

-

q>x{x9 b).

Hence:
Therefore

u

=

du =

c.

=

y)

ux(x9

q>i(x9 y).

y) is

u(x,

twice continuouslydifferentiable

Harmonicforms

If f(z) is
f(z)dz is calleda
f'(z) = p + with

a

1-form.

df(z) = du

= ux
p

+

+ idv = (p + iq)(dx

Since f\\z) is a holomorphic
holomorphic1-form.Fromthis
a holomorphic

1-form is

d(f(z)dz)= 0.

(This

because

vy

and

d(f(z)dz)

Writing
q =

+
\342\200\224uy
+

function,
fact

region Q, the 1-form
f(z) = u + iv, we have

on the

function

holomorphic

holomorphic

iq

is

and

Ur(c)

= (p.

(p2(x, y)dy

+

y)dx

tp\\(x,

on

it follows

i dy)
the

vx. Hence

= f'(z)dz.
differential

that the

f'(z)dz

exterior derivative

is a
of

always 0:
= df{z)

Adz = f\\z)dz Adz

(6.16)
=

0.) By

(6.7) the

258 Riemann surfaces
1-form

holomorphic

follows:

f(z)dz =
where
that

the real part
d(p = d(*cp) =

Definition

6.1.

region

Q and

the

and

cp

u dx

\342\200\224

V dy,

both closed forms,

part *cp are

imaginary

is continuouslydifferentiable

cp, which

1-form

so

the

on

satisfies
= 0

d(*(p)

is calledharmonic

on

(6.17)

Q.

above result, the

By the

=

cp

0.

A

=

dcp

i * cp,

+

cp

real and imaginary parts as

be split into

can

f(z)dz

real part

1-form f(z)dz

a holomorphic

(p of

harmonic.

is

Conversely:

If the

6.4.

Theorem
is a

holomorphic

Proof:

1-form

cp

cp

Writing

=

\342\200\224

udx

vdy

0 = dcp = d(u dx \342\200\224
v dy)
0 = d(*cp) = d(v dx + u
UX

=

Vy,

=

Uy

cp2 dy,

=

cp

cp\\

cp2

we

dy

u(x, y) and

v

=

cp

(x, j>)

=

\342\200\224
{\342\200\224vx uy)dx

=

dy)

A dy,

\342\200\224

(ux

A dy,

vy)dx

equations

/(z) =

u

iv is

+

**<p =

have

a holomorphic

dx
*(\342\200\224cpi

+

(pi rfv)

=

of

function

\342\200\224
cp\\ dx

\342\200\224

(6.18)

\342\200\224cp,

that the

conclude
the

dual
part

imaginary

form

of a

form is again harmonic.
1-form
holomorphic
f(z)dz = cp + i * cp is
*cp

of a

harmonic

harmonic.

d.

Harmonic functions

Let u =
differentiable
*du

i *

i.e.

Hence,
also

+

dx

**<p -z
We

+

-i;^.

Therefore,
by Theorem 1.4,
z = x + /y and
= f(z)dz.
q> + i*q>

For

u =

with

the Cauchy-Riemann

e; satisfy

and

u

cp

we have

functions

continuously differentiable

i.e.

region then

on some

harmonic

is

1-form.

=

can
\342\200\224vx

w(z)

\342\200\224uydx+

be written

=

w(x, y)
defined

functions

uxdy

as

and i; =
on

the Cauchy-Riemann

=

\302\243^z)

a region

v(x,

y) be

continuously

complex plane. Since
equations ux = vy and uy =

in the

Differential forms 259

6.1
=

*du

dv.

(6.19)

for a holomorphic function
= ddv = 0. Generally,
let

Hence
d{*du)

continuously differentiable

=

f(z)

u(z) =

u =

iv we

u +

(6.3)

by

a twice

>>) be

w(x,

have

then,

function,

d(*du)

=

+

dx

d(\342\200\224uy

= (w^

ux dy)

+

A dy.

Uyy)dx

Putting

&u

&U

we have
=

d(*du)

Obviously

+ d2/dy2

d2 /dx2

is calledthe

If a

6.2.

Definition

(6.20)
w.

in

linear

is

Aw

A dy.

Audx

The

linear

differential operator

Laplacian.

twice continuously differentiable

=

0,
we

As

=

f(z)

u

a regionQ ofthe complex
satisfies
plane
then u is called a harmonic
function.
have seen, the real part u = Re/(z) of a

Im/(z) =

Re(\342\200\224if(z))

Theorem 6.5.

be

written

harmonic

is a

iv

+

as

A

the

is

also

harmonic

real part

small neighborhood

of any

Hence

function.

a harmonic

function

of a
point

u =

function

defined on
Aw

=

A

the Laplace

equation
function

holomorphic

its

w(z)

imaginary

part

v =

function.

u =

u(z) defined on a

holomorphic

function

region Q can
a sufficiently

on

f(z)

of Q.

Since by assumption *du is a continuously
1-form
differentiable
Proof:
=
on Q satisfying d(*du)
0, there exists a twice continuously differentiable
function v = v{z) on a sufficiently small neighborhood
of any point of Q
such

that

*du

=

Cauchy-Riemann

*dw = dv

is just another
we
conclude
that
equations,

dv.

Since

of

way
f{z)

=

u +

writing

the

iv is

holomorphic.

Corollary.

Harmonic

functions

are real

analytic functions.

For a harmonic function
u defined
on a region Q, the
v
function
=
dv
is
determined
on
each
satisfying
*dy uniquely
neighborhood
apart
\342\200\224
= 0 hence V\\ - v is
from a real constant
if dv\\ = *du, then d(V\\
(for
v)
a constant). This means that the holomorphic
function
f(z) satisfying
=
u
on
determined
R, uniquely
Re/(z) is, apart from a constant ib, b \302\243

Riemann surfaces

260

each

determined

ddu =

is

a

d(*du) = 0, is a harmonic
du + i*du = f'(z)dz
1-form.
with

Q

G

Co

Fixing

by means of

is

of f(z)

f\\z)

uniquely

Q.

on

defined

function

Since

Q and

1-form on

du

holomorphic

point z

a holomorphic

and

u

by

derivative

the

Therefore,

neighborhood.

(6.21)

a point co G Q and connecting
an arbitrary
a piecewisesmoothcurvey we put

r/'(z)&+M(cto).

/(z>=

h

continuable
Now, /(z) is a freely
analytically
function on Q, which, in general,is multi-valued.

f(z) =

du +

* du-\\-

i\\

Jy

and

= u(z)

u(co)

(6.6)

By

+

i\\

Jy

complete
analytic
we have

* du.

Jy

we have proved:

Therefore

lfu

6.6.

Theorem

is a harmonic

= u(z)

f(z) = u(z) +

on

function

Q, then

a region

*du

(6.22)

i\\

Jy

is a

freely analytically

Hencea
multivalued

and

continuable

function

harmonic

is the

u(z)

analytic

real part

function on Q.

of a holomorphic

= Re/(z).

: u(z)

function/(z)

complete

Riemann surfaces

6.2

a.
As

Let

denote
\302\251

0 G

(i)

UM6&C/

(iii)

If [/ G

that

G

for
\302\251

(i),

(ii)

is a

subsets

arbitrary
then
\302\251

set and

and

the

of IR2,

U2

plane

its

with

open

sets.

then

\302\251,

v G

and
\302\251

if 2

general,

(such

U2 G

and
\302\251

(ii)

In

spaces

Hausdorff

consider
an example let us first
of open sets
the collection

(iii)

if

and
\302\243\302\247>
G \302\256,

[/ fl

F G

it is

agreed

above are

\302\251.

which sets are

satisfied), then

2

called open
is

called

topological space.
6.3.

Definition

A set

2 together

with

a collection

of 21 satisfying

(i) 0eq,Xe
(ii)

Uue&U

\302\251,

G

for
\302\251

each

subset

\302\243&>
of\302\251;

\302\251
consisting

of subsets

a

Riemann

6.2

UG

(iii) if
is

satisfies

the following

(iv)

for

P G

system

arbitrary

P G

that

such

KG\302\251

2 and

Q

\302\243/,
0

then the topologicalspace2 is called

be a Hausdorff spaceand

Let 2

P

G

a subset

2,

Just as in
the idea

is

on 2.

topology

[/

Q) there exists
n F = 0,
G V and \302\243/

G

2,

^

(P

a Hausdorjf

let

that P

be
\302\251

e U

the notation

possible

to base

open set,

closure,

point,

boundary

a

defines

of open sets.
If

also
\302\251

G

and
\302\251

space.

its

of open

system

\302\243/
is
G \302\251

and

sets. For
an open

called

U{P) to denotean arbitrary

open

point P.

it

R2

use

We

F\\

of the

neighborhood

such

2

\302\243/
of

neighborhood of

\302\251

a system

called

of open sets
condition (iv):

the

that

say

U n V G

then
\302\251,

is
space and \302\251

a topological

called

We

V G

and
\302\251

261

surfaces

the definitions of

closed set and

of neighborhoodsUE(P),so in

interior

a Hausdorff

space

point,

on

function

continuous

it is

possible to

define these conceptsusing neighborhoods
U(P).
of 2. Then P G 2 is calledan interior
Let S G 2 be an arbitrary
subset
of S if there existsa neighborhood
of
U(P) C 2 ofP.The collection
point
interior
of S and denoted by (S). The
all interior points of S is calledthe
such
set of all points
that each neighborhood
P,
U(P) has a nonempty
intersection
with S is called the closureof S and
denoted
by [S]. Obviously,
S
is
called
The
set
the
of S and a point
C
(S)C
[S].
[5]
(5)
boundary
of S. If S = [S] then
belonging to the boundary is calleda boundary
point
S is called
a closed set. It is clear that
all
sets
U G \302\251
are
sets and
open
=
because
as S
conversely all open sets S belongto \302\251
(5), there exists for
all P G 5 an open neighborhoodU(P) G \302\251
such
that
U(P) C S. Hence by

(ii) of Definition

we

6.3

S =

have:

(J [/(/>) g \302\251.
Pes

Therefore

Let

\302\251
is

S c

the set

precisely

2 be a

subset

of

of all open sets of the
the

Hausdorff

Hausdorff

2 and

space
of open

space
put

2.
\302\251|5

=

sets of 2. Then S
system
{C/nS'.C/G\302\251},
a system of open sets, calleda
becomes
a Hausdorff
space with
1|5
2.
is
of
Unless
the
stated, subsets S of a Hausdorff
space
subspace
contrary
2 will always be considered a subspacesin this
sense.
Since the real line [R,
the plane
R2 and so on are all Hausdorffspaces,subsets
of IR, IR2 and
so on
can be considered as Hausdorff
spaces.
where

denotes
\302\251

the

Riemann

262

A subset

surfaces

of

[/cl

Hausdorff

the

space

U as the union of

to write

possible

(compare Section 1.1b).A

2 is

two

called connected if
nonempty

disjoint,

is not

it

sets

open

a region.
open
between two Hausdorff spaces 2
Next, we want to consider
mappings
and
T
with
of
subsets
Let
\302\251r respectively.
\302\251s and
systems
open
for each point
be a mapping from 2 onto T. If it is possible
f : P \342\200\224>
f(P)
P G 2 and for each neighborhood V(f(P)) G \302\251r of f(P) G T to find a
neighborhood

\302\243/(P)

subset

connected

is called

that

G \302\251ssuch

D F(AP))

/([/(/>))

then the mapping / : P
ie. P G
G Feir,
/(P)

(6-23>
is called

\342\200\224\342\226\272

/(P)

/_1(F)

continuous. This means that
then there exists a

if

V eJBT,

and

Therefore, a mapping /
continuous if and only if the inverse imagef~l(V) of all
V G \302\251rare open in 2 : f~l(V) G \302\251s.
subsets
open
let / be a one-to-onecontinuousmap
the Hausdorff
Now
sending
space
2 onto the Hausdorffspace T. If the inverse
is also continuous,
map f~l
then
a homeomorphism
exists
/ is called a homeomorphism.If there
2
onto
then
2
T
and
are
called
T,
mapping
homeomorphic.A
2 onto
T induces a one-to-one correspondence
homeomorphism
mapping
between
Hausdorff
and
\302\251s
\302\2567\\Therefore,
spaces can be
homeomorphic
identified as topologicalspaces.
defined
on a
be a real-valued or complex-valuedfunction
Let
f(P)
>
2 and let Q G S. If for each
e
0 there
subset S C 2 of a Hausdorff
space
exists a neighborhoodU(Q)such that
neighborhood

that

such
\302\251

2* f~\\V).

U(P)

T is

into

2

from

G

U(F)

P G

|/(P) -

C/(g) H 5,

e

<

f(Q)\\

(6.24)

at Q. If f(P)
function f(P) is said to be continuous
of
domain
then
is
its
calleda
continuous
S9
points
f(P)
(6.24) can be written as

then the

is continuous

all

function.

at

Since

f{U(Q)nS)CU\302\243(f{Q))

f(P) is a

from

or

C.

R

into

function

continuous

function

as
\302\243,

be a subsetof the
S =
of 2 such that

Let S
sets

containsa finite
covering

of S

Definition

6.4.

finite

number

such

subcovering.

that

S is

if and

a Hausdorff

space

Hausdorff

TICK,

with

space

\\J u^ruU
of sets,

only if

is a continuous
/(P)
/ : P \342\200\224\342\226\272
as
a
system of open sets,
JB\\S

2. A

is called

an

collection Zi
open

C \302\251sof
of S.

covering

I?is

open

If Z{

another
the covering is calledfinite.If
then T? is called a subcoveringof Z{.

called compact

if each opencovering

of

\302\243
contains

a

Riemann surfaces 263

62

Proposition.
Proof: It

A

compact

suffices

to

that

5clJ

exists for

=

it

Denoting
n%=lVk

set

we

have

that

from

space2

is

by

open

map

Vk and

by

=0

5 C (J*=.i^*-

the

space

subcovering

open

have

we
\302\243/*,

each F

of Riemann

from

the sets

<
\302\2433

S :

coordinate

U2 =

G
{\302\243

1-53

by

zi(\302\243)

=

I -> z

z-,

=

>

\302\2433

-1/2}

by

=

z2(\302\243)

-\302\273
z(\302\243),\302\243 z2

complex coordinate on C/2. Since
at least one local complexcoordinate:
zi(\302\243) or
local

local

zi(\302\243) through

^-ds-

coordinates,
the

zi(\302\243)

coordinate

and

+ \302\2433
\302\2472

S

a local
restriction
=

\342\200\224

{N}

U\\ =

example,

G C/i
\302\243

Z2(\302\243)can

=

G
{\302\243

complex
of z to
a

z2(\302\243) determines

C/2, each point

z2(\302\243). If

Z2(\302\243), while

\302\2473

is

z(\302\243)

the

S = C/i U

two

1+

=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
zi
zi(\302\243) determines

on U\\. Denoting in the same way

S :

+

=

z(\302\243)

of

h

z(h\\

corresponding

\302\243>,
\302\2430, S?

definition of
the restriction of z to, for

1}. Denoting

38

surfaces

domain

The

3.2c).

<
\302\2473 1/2}

from

/ is

SinceS is

= (&,
Riemann sphere S = {\302\243:\302\243
there are defined two complex
coordinates

(Section

has
\302\243

Since

of f(S).

K^, i.e. 5 is compact.

= (JJLj

f(S)

Definition

denote

F*

Letting

| -* z = z(\302\243)=
G
{\302\243

F*

we conclude

the subset S of the Hausdorff
if S is compact,
then
its
image

On the

1}

and

is open,
U = f~l(V) of
hence
G 28
image
= /_1(F),
is
of
F \342\202\254
an
S.
open covering
Si}
\302\243
can
be
covered
Z{,
\302\243=1,2,
by a finite number Uk \342\202\254

w :

S :

G
\302\243?

6.3 (iii)

: [/
{\302\243/

6.

=

=

F(0

putting

since

Definition

number

C ULi U{Pk).

:5

U(P)

have

J7(P) we
a finite

from

T and

inverse

the

compact,

with

\302\243/(P*)

V such

compact.

Proof: Let P C lr be an

...,

U =

e V(Q) and Sf|^(0)

Hausdorff

the

into

is also

Zl =

the

among

If / isa continuous

6.7.

Theorem

continuous,

open sets U and

[SI.

fig

f(S)

Q

point

to

According

[S],

m

= 0. Since F(0

U(Pk) f]Vk

P G S

5 is

V corresponding

the

implies Q fi

0. Denotingthis [/ by
compact, S can be coveredby

...,

1, 2,

each

F =

U n

Since

U(P).

/>G5

[/(/>*),

Qfi S

that

show

6.3 (iv) there
P G C7, Q G F and

Definition

is closed.

S C H

subset

of
\302\243

S has

n C/2, then
be

obtained

transformation

(625)

264

Riemann

Apart

from

surfaces

For example,

identifying the

stereographic

projection

=

G
{\302\243

<

S :

0, 0) onto the (\302\2431,\302\2432)
plane

^-^,
1 -51

61

+

|z|2

*2

T

plane

the

\"Western

the

=

hemisphere\"

\302\243/3

to (3.17) and (3.16) we have

0}. According

\302\2431

S.

on
A,

\302\247i<0,

complex coordinateon

a local

the complex

with

(\302\2431,
plane
\302\2432)

from (1,

\302\243-Z3=Z3(\302\247)

yields

coordinates can be defined

local complex

z2, other

and

z\\

|z|2 + T

*3

|z|2

+

l

hence

.z+1

.z-z+|z|2-l

z-1

|z|2+ l-z-z

=

if

Therefore,

\302\243

Zi

=

Z3

=

*3\302\253),

,

-Z2

Z2

=

Z2(\302\247),

betweendifferent

local

The propertyof being connected
coordinate transformations is the most fundamental
are biholomorphic

coordinates

morphic
local

Z3

=

coordinate transformations

that the

see

,*v

Zi(\302\247),

n \302\243/3,
\302\247 \302\243/2

.1+Z2

*11

Zi =

- 1

for

(6.25),

^3 =
We

then
\302\243/3,

\342\226\240
-1 + 1
*
7,

^3 =

hence, by

C/i n

complex
by biholoof

property

coordinates.

complex

In order to
surface.
The Riemann sphere is an exampleof a Riemann
let
2
of
be
a
definition
Riemann
a
connected
a
surface,
give general
the points
of which we denote by p9 q ... . Let 2 be
Hausdorff
space,

covered

or

finite

a

by

countably

infinite

number

of

regions

C/2,

U\\,

continuous
functions
there be given complex-valued
\342\200\224>
:
are
such
that
the
each
on
homeomorphisms
maps
p
Zj(p)
z7Zj(p)
Uj,
then the sets
^ 0,
mapping
Uj onto regions Uj C C. If Uj n \302\243/*
=
=
:
and
:
C
peUkD
{zk(p)
Uj}
Uj
Ujk {zj(p) peUjf) Uk\\
W*y
C W* are both open sets in C and

and let

...,[//,...,

-\302\273
z*(/>)
zy(p),
*> \342\200\242
is a homeomorphism from

'
tjk

maps

Ukj

7 and

\342\200\224\342\226\272
for

Zj :

Z/y*

/?

\342\200\224>

Zy(/?)

are

with
\302\243

called

peUjf)
\302\243/#

onto

(6.26)

Uky
Ujk.

If

all

homeomorphisms

^0 are biholomorphicthen
/oca/ complex coordinates on [// and
Uj DUk

the
the

265

Riemann surfaces

6.2

t

iy

Uj

*
J4^>

zC>)

p*

1%
\342\200\242

zdp)
Zk

***^^^^

uk

o\"

collection

Z2, Z3,

{z\\,
local

of

system

local

A

complex

Riemann

and

surface,

by

coordinates
system of localcomplex

Let

7\302\243
be

a Riemann

local
covered

let {z\\, Z2,
be the
The

the

Uj containing

*\342\200\242
^ -\342\226\272=

a point

zy

the
local

its
7\302\243,

selected

a

complex number
If
z7. p G C/y n C7* then
is a

(6.27)

local coordinatez* =

onto

z^(p)

zy

=

is biholo-

zy(p),

definition.

can identify the
identify

G

have

ijh(zk\\

*/

which maps the

morphicby

Zj(p)

function

p

is
7\302\243

is called

zy(/?)

a point

complex

course

Of

zy(/?).

number

system of

transformation

coordinate

Since

=

local

\342\200\224>

is uniquely determined once we

= zy(/?)
zy

z>

: p

For

p.

point

...} be its

zy,

domain of the

c\302\260mplex

p. Of course, zy
of the
to
the
rangeUj \342\200\224
belonging
zy(C/y)
region

...,

coordinate)zy

coordinate of the

local (complex)

7\302\243.

let Uj

and

(or simply complex
by the Uj : TZ C (Jf^/-

coordinate

and
7\302\243>
for

surface,

coordinates

complex

coordinate

space 2 on which a system of
.} is defined is called a
\"y
is called the
{zi, Z2, ..
Zj ...}

{zi,Z2,

denoted

is calleda

on 2.

Hausdorff

connected

coordinates

complex coordinates

of local

...}

zy,

coordinates

complex

6.5.

Definition

...,

G Uj

p G 7Z

is

by its

determined

complex number zy
with

the point

identified with Uj. Hence,the

/?

Riemann

=
it

zj(p)

local coordinate zy
with the point p

corresponds

surface

with,
TZ can

=
G

zy(/?), we
If we
Uj.

then Uj becomes
be considered as the

266 Riemannsurfaces
by piecing together the regions U\\9 U2,
of the complex plane in such a way that the points z* G W#
and Zj = Tjk(zk) G Ujk C Uj coincide.Considered
this
the
way,
=
the same point of 7\302\243
if
Zj G Uj and z* G Uk represent
z7
Tjk(zk)=

T^

surface

...

...Uj,
C Uk

points

RegionsU in

Example 6.1.

Example6.2.
S can

by

(3.16)

Riemann

S is

sphere
coordinate

two

the coordinatetransformation
Z2 =

surfaces with

are Riemann

plane

complex

z.

|z?| = (l+&)/(l-?3)<3
y/3}. Similarly, U2 = {z2 :

<

: |zi|

The

be coveredby

that

the

z -*

coordinate

local

one

only

{zi

obtained

[jjUj

is

a Riemann

surface.We

neighborhoods

U\\

if &<l/2,
<

\\z2\\

Since,

U2.

Ul=zl(Ul) =
to (6.25)

According

\\/3}.

seen

have

and

by

given

.

T2i(Zi)=\342\200\224

Z\\

and

with

U2
<

\\/y/%

\\z\\\\

u = u(p)

Let
\302\243)
n

radius

be a

z2 =

Zj

=

in such

way

two disks
that

U\\

z\\ eU\\,

coincide.

on

defined

functions

a

on

defined

a Riemann
a region

surface TZ.
D C 7\302\243.
On

by the local coordinateZj(p)henceputting
peDD

Uj(zj(p))9

Ujy

on the open set
z7 defined
=
C Wy. Since zj(p)
rJk(zk(p))by (6.27), uj(zj) = uk(zk)
Uj)
= Xj + iyj and w,(^-, #\342\226\240)
=
Uj(zj)(x, j), we have
Tjk(zk). Writing zj

of the

Vj = zj(D H
if

U2

real-valued function

a function

is

Uj(zj)

=

G

together

pasting

plane

complex

1/zi

consider

/? is represented
\302\243//,
u(p)

the

in

y/%

\\/3 and

<

we want to

Next

surfaceobtainedby

the Riemann

S is

Hence

<P) =

Xj +

yj)9

uj(xj9

complex

The pair (*/,jj) isalsocalled

a local

variable

=

iyj

peDD Uj.
of p. Since zy- : p

zy(p),

coordinate

\342\200\224>

z7-(/?)

if and
a homeomorphism,
only if for all j
w(/?) is continuous on \302\243)
D D
satisfying
Uj ^ 0, we have
Uj(xj9
yj) is a continuous function of Xj
to complex-valued
is
similar
with
situation
functions
and
The
respect
yj.
f(p) defined on a region D CTZ.Putting

is

=

f(p)

fj(zj) is a function
The function f(p)
DHUj

Definition

^

of

on Vj and fj(zj) = /*(z*)if Zj
z7 defined
is continuous on D if and only if for

0, we have
6.6.

peDDUj,

fj(zj(p)\\

If for

is a

/}(zy)

all

y

satisfying

continuous

DDUj

=

Tjk(zk).

all j

with

function of z7.
^

0, the functions

uj(xj9

yj)

Riemann

62

of Xj
then

class C00, ...

If

differentiable, of

yj are continuously
the function u = u(p)
and

all

for

the

on

variable

complex
the region D C
If we consider

D C

region

satisfying

j

the

is continuously

267

surfaces

class Cn, of classC\302\260\302\260,
...,
C\", of

class

of

differentiable,

11.

function
^ 0, fj{zj) is a holomorphic
is
a
defined
then
f
unction
holomorphic
f(p)
z/,

of

DDUj

on

TZ.

surface

the Riemann

TZ

obtained

a surface

as

regions Uj, j = 1,2,3, ...,

by pasting

of
the
complex
plane, then the
together the
the
with
the
and
functions
identified
is
eTZ
\342\202\254
point p
u(p) and
point zj ZY/
and /(z7), i.e. the subscript j of w7 and /}
as
f(p) can be written
u{zj)
and
Since
and
in
occurring
z7 \342\202\254
\302\243Y;
fj(zj) becomessuperfluous.
u,-(z/)
=
=
we
have u(z;)
are the same points on 1Zif z,Z* \342\202\254
Uk
w(z*)
^(z*),
=
= /(z*) if
the
and
are
i.e.
different
and
from
zj Tjk(zk),
u(zj)
/(zy)
/(zy)
for
in
obtained
and
z*
w(z*)
expressions
by substituting
/(z^)
z;
we write u(zj) = u(xj + iyj) as u(xj, yj). With this notation,
usual,
respectively. As
=
a function
w(/?)
w(j9, yj) defined on a region D <z 1Z is continuous,
if and only if it is a
differentiable, of class C\302\260\302\260,
...,
continuously
function
of the local
differentiable, C\302\260\302\260,
continuous,
...,
continuously

coordinatesXj
holomorphic

with

of

function

the coordinate

on Uj

coordinate

local

the

transformations

to z,

respect

D W*

is holomorphicif and

= f(zj)

f(p)

Tjk is biholomorphic,

as

because,

yj and

and

Tjk(zk)

saying
is

the

with respect to z* on Uj D UkIf f(p)
is a holomorphic function
V = f(D)
is a region in
range

Zj. Here,

\342\200\224\342\226\272
are

: z*

Tjk

that

same

=

/(z7)

on

defined

that

essential

biholomorphic

is holomorphic

f(zk)

as saying

is a

if it

only

is

it

is holomorphic

it

that

D ClZ9

the region

its

then

the complexplane, sinceholomorphic

We say that /:/?\342\200\224> f(p)
D conformappings
open mappings.
maps
=
is a single-valued holomorphic function
on
mally onto V /(\302\243>) if f(p)
is single-valued,
D C 1Z. (The fact that f(p)
the region
of course, means
are

p ^ q implies f(p)
function defined on the

that

^ /(#).) If w(/?)
region W C 11,

local complexcoordinateon
number

infinite

of regions

PT.
W\\,

single-valued, holomorphic

function

{wi,

local

h>2,

\342\200\242
ww,
\342\200\242.,

...}

of

If 1Z
W2,

a single-valued,

is

w :

p
w(;?)
is covered by a

...,
wn(p)

Wn,

holomorphic

\342\200\224\342\226\272
can

...

is defined,

or

finite

on

if

and

wn

a system

as a

countably

each

then the

complex coordinates

of local complexcoordinates
ofTZ. There
of
a
of
different
local
many
ways
choosing system
complex
for ft.
constitutes

be used

Wn a

collection

: /? \342\200\224\342\226\272
ww(p)

are

infinitely

coordinates

268 Riemannsurfaces

6.3

a.

Differential

Let

TZ be

surface

a Riemann

on

forms

Differential

forms

surface, {z\\, z2, ...,

a Riemann

local coordinates, Uj the
=
W7
Zj(Uj) its range.

coordinate

local

the

of

domain

of

its system

...}

Zj9

: p

zj?

\342\200\224>

Zj(p)

and

If we

z/(/?) then, as we
identified
with
becomes
section, Uj
Uj and K
=
becomes obtained by pasting togetherthe regions
\\J jUj. In
Uj C A : TZ
The
this section too we identify
:
with
=f
coordinate
Uj.
Uj
Uj
Uj
and z/ \342\202\254
: Zk \342\200\224\342\226\272
are biholomorphic
transformations
\302\243/*and
Zk = Tjk(zj)
Tjk
if z7- = tjk{zk).
are identical
Zk \342\202\254
[/*
Uj and [/* are both regions of the
in

seen

have

the

identify

p

point

coordinate

local

its

with

Zj

the previous

complexplane,

Uj D

that

assume

we

but

w

the

in

=

u(p)

continuous

DnUj

^ 0, then

Dn

and

Tjk{zk) on DO

=

Zj

on

be

\302\243>
can

Now

=

<Pj(zj)

on each

is given

the

a continuous

^ 0

then on

+ (pj2(zj)dy9

Zj

and if on D D

DDUj^0
<pk(zk),

Zj

=

Uj

=

< \\/3}. If
D C TZ and if

< |zi|
of

w/(zy)

function

together in the

for
defined
w(/?)

= w^(z^)

way\"

right

continuous

a 1-form,

xj +

iyJf

(6.29)

D a 1-formcp is defined by
<Pj(zj) is transformed into <pk(zk) by
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
Tjk(zk). That is to say, writing
Zj
Wj

=

ZJ

= r./*(z*) =

r./*(**

(6.28)

DUk^0

Tjk(zk),

that

+

on

Zj defined

putting <p{zj) = q>j(Zj).Equality

XJ

radius

if continuous

if

and

Riemann

0 and

region

a continuous

then

6.2, the
center

function

Conversely,

Tjk(zk).

Dn Uj

by \"pasting

(Pj\\(zj)dXj

=
(Pj(zj)

transformation
Zk

zy

: l/>/3

{z\\

on

uj{zj) defined on each DO Uj 7- 0.
in a similar
1-forms on D are defined
way. If

functions

means

=

UjHUk ^0

obtained

D

defined

w(z7) is

= w*(zfc) if
defined
on

are

Uj{zj)

U\\

function

=

w,(z7)

w,(z7)

\302\243/,-

functions

but

plane,

complex

is a

U2 =

part of

common

the

denotes

Uk

in Example
Uj and Uk consideredas subsetsof Tl.Thus,
=
with
S
both
and
are
disks
U
U\\
U2,
U\\
C/2
sphere
\\/3

=

+

(6.29)

the coordinate

iyk)

and

t/*(z*) =
we

from

conclude
dxj

=

^ =

ajk(zk) +
dfr7

ctjk dxh
A/*

<&*

1 d^-

+

-

/3jk

+ ay*

iPjk(zk\\

Tjk(zk)(dxk + i dyk) that
=
dyk9
ajk(zk), 1
ajk
=

rfy*,

)8y*

=

)MZ*)-

J

hence by (6.28)
<Pj(zj)

=

(aJk<pji

+ Pjk<pj2)dxk +

(-fijk<Pj\\

+ CLjkcpj2)dyk.

~

3Q.

6.3
(6.29) implies

Equality

=

<Pk\\(zk)

right-hand side

of the above

ajk(pjl(zj)+Pjk(pj2(zj),

=

<Pki(zk)

The 1-form cp
...
if
C\302\260\302\260,

in the

1-form

the

that

269

surface

<pk(zk), i.e.

equals

equality

forms on a Riemann

Differential

called

is

(6.31)

+ ajk(pj2(zj
*A J

-/3jk<Pji(zj)

continuously

continuous,

are continuous,continuously

all <Pj(zj)

differentiable,

of class

differentiable,

of

class

....
C\302\260\302\260,

(Oj(Zj)=
is given

and if on

(ok(zk)9

then a 2-form w is
D D Uj ^ 0. Since dry
A

A dxj

(Ojn{zj)dxj

Dr\\UjDUk^0

(Oj(zj)=

\302\243&,-

2-form

each Z)n[/;^0a

if on

Similarly,

=

dyj

=

Zj

D

on

defined

=

A dyj

(6.32)

Tjk(zk),
by

(a2jk +
A

\\Tjk(zk)\\2dxk

a)(zj) = C0j(zj) on each

putting

A dy*,

[52jk)dxk

i.e.
(6.33)

rfy*

(6.32) becomes

equality

=

a>k\\2(zk)

The 2-form
...
if
C\302\260\302\260,

called

is

co

(6.34)

\\Tjk(zk)\\2Q}ji2(zj).

continuously

continuous,

are continuous,continuously

all a>j(zj)

differentiable,

of class

differentiable,

of

class

C\302\260\302\260,....

function

to define

order

In

u

where

on a

defined

w/(z7) =

uj(xj

of a continuously
region D c Tl, we put Uj(zj)
the differential

+

iyj) is a

continuously

differentiable

=

u(zj)

n

7\302\243/,

function

of

on D

differentiable

0,
Xj

and j>,-, satisfying
=

Wy(Zy)

on D D

Uk{zk\\

Zj

=

Tjk(zk),

nt/^0.

\302\2437/

We will prove:

rfw/z,) =

duk{zk\\

Zj

=

(6.35)

xjk{zk).

We have
dxyduj(zj) = \342\200\224--

+

duk

uk(zk),

__

dyk

hence

dUj

dxk dxj

dxk
duk

dxj

__

dxj

dyj,

dyj

dxj

and Uj{zj)=

\342\200\224L

duj

dyk dxj

dyj dUj
dxk

dyj'

dyj duj
dyk

dyj'

duk(zk)

=

\342\200\224-

dxk

dxk

+

-\342\200\224

dyk

dyk

Riemann

270

surfaces

=

Since dxj/dxk
we

=

dyj/dyk

and dyk/dxk

ajk

= dxj/dyk = Pjk,by

(6.30),

have

duk _

y

cfcty
duk

=

shows

dyj'

akdUj.
Jk

I

dxj

Hence dufej) =

-^~

dxj

BkdUj
Jk

dyk

(6.35)

^ + #.J

(6.31).

by

duk{zk)

cp(zj) = duj(zj) on each D D
differential

of

This 1-form

^ 0.
Uj\342\226\240

by du.

denoted

u and

1-form

a continuous

obtain

we

that

dyj'

Equality (6.35) shows

cp

on

is

called

zj =

= (pk(zk%

by putting
the

of

differential

the

that

is invariant
under
a continuously differentiate function
=
transformation zk \342\200\224\342\226\272
zk
Tjk(zk).
of
Next we want to define the exterior differential
1-form defined on D. Let the continuously
differentiable
form cp be given by (p(zj) = (pj(zj) on each D D Uj, while

cpj{Zj)

D

cp

the coordinate
a

continuously
1-

differentiable

(6.36)

rJk(zk)9

i.e.

This means
for

dxj

(pki{zk)dyk.

dyk and /3jk dxk + ajk dyk
ajk
ajk dxk
left-hand side we get the right-hand

the

on

respectively

rfyy

+

cpk\\{zk)dxk

\342\200\224

substitute

we

if

that

and

=

+ (pJ2(zj)dyj

<Pj\\(zj)dxj

expression

Considering

yj as

and

Xj

-

dxk

(pj\\(zj)(ajk

+

dyk)

fijk

<Pji(Zj)(f}Jk

of

functions

yk their

and

xk

dxk + aJk

=

dyk)

differentials

cpk{zk).

are given

by

dxj = ajk dxk

-

[ljk dyk,

=

dyj

f}Jk

dxk

+ ajk

dyk

hence, by (6.3)
-

d{ajkdxk

d(Pjk
Therefore

+ ajk

dxk

by

= ddxj =
dyk) = ddyj =

pJk dyk)

0,
0.

(6.2)

=

dcpk{zk)

dcpjx

A

(ajk

= d(pji(Zj) A

dxk
dxj

-

dyk)

+ dcpp,

+ d(pJ2(Zj)

A dyj =

Pjk

A (Pjk

dxk

+ ajk

dyk)

dcpj{Zj\\

i.e.

dq)j(Zj)

on D fl

[//

= dcpk(zk),

DUk^0.

we obtain a

So if

Zj =

(6.37)

rjk(zk)

we put oj(xj)\342\200\224
dcpj(zj)

continuous 2-form.This

2-form

co

on

each

is called

DnUj^0

the exterior

63 Differentialformsona Riemann
derivative

(6.37) shows that the
of a continuously differentiable 1-form is invariant

coordinate

transformations

of

derivative

similar way.

Zj

=

We

*(<P/i dxj +
=

=

-

dxk +

~(pk2

=

the

if

that

cpj(zj)
(6.31)

-

+

dyk)

fijk

dxk +

cpn(Pjk

(ajk(pji +

on the

region

and

= cpk(zk)
we have

ajk dyk)

/3Jk<Pj2)dyk

dyk

<pk\\

\342\200\224

on

*q>j(zj)

\\p(zj)

each

D n

on D.

defined

local properties, operations and

In this way all

functions and

defined

cp

dyj

<pyi

(pk2dyk).
So, if we put
*cpk(zk).
dual form *cp = ip of (p is

=

under

dxk +

*(<pk\\

Hence *<Pj(xj)
Uj 7- 0, then

to verify

have

CLjk(pj2)dxk +

iPjk<Pj\\

=

*(p

= *cpk(zk).Using(6.30)and

dxk

-(pfi{ajk

exterior

dyj)

<pJ2

dxj +

-cpj2

=

Tjk{zk).
of a 1-form

z7

form

only

Tjk(zk) then *q>j(zj)

by dcp.

=
\342\200\224\342\226\272

zk

define the dual

We want to

D in a

denoted

is

and

cp

271

surface

so

on,

to

pertaining

region in the complexplane
that
are
invariant
under biholomorphic
transformations can be considered
and
on
as properties,
so
pertaining to functions and differential
operations
forms
defined
on a region of a Riemann
surface.
In what follows we will
so
for
and
on
defined
functions or differential
apply concepts,operations
or differential
forms
on the complex plane to functions
forms defined on a
Riemann
whenever
the transition is trivial. For example, if cp is a
surface,
differentiable
1-form on the region D of the Riemann
real, continuously
surface
71 satisfying
is called
harmonic
on D
dcp = d(*cp) = 0, then
cp
A
twice
differentiable
function
(Definition 6.1). real-valued,
continuously
defined

forms

differential

on a

satisfying d(*du) = 0 is calleda harmonic
function
a
to
Theorem
1-form
is
on a
harmonic
6.4,
6.2). According
cp
(Definition
on all
region D of TZ if and only if there are holomorphicfunctions
fj{zj)
that
can
be
written
such
as
+
cp
i*cp
UjD D^0
w,

cp

on

each

+

i *

D

C 11

(6.38)

fj(zj)dzj.
u

is twice

Aju(Zj)dxj

DDUj^

0. Hence, by (6.34)

on D n Uj f)Uk
the

differentiable on

continuously

the

then, by (6.20)

d(*du) =

Aku(zk)

transformation
for

=

cp

real-valuedfunction

If the
region

D and

on

defined

=
7-

Laplacian.

A dyJ9

\\T'Jk(zk)\\2Aju(zj),
0.

This

is the

AJ

Zj

formula

=

=
for

d2

^

+

d2

^

Tjk{zk)
the

coordinate

(6*39)

(6.40)

Riemann surfaces

272

ft.

Line

integrals

map y :

A continuous

t

\342\200\224>

y(t)

which

the closed interval

maps

called a curve. Since \\y\\
[a, ft] c
=
to find a
{y(t) : a ^ t ^ ft} is compact by Theorem 6.7, it is possible
finite number of coordinateneighborhoods,
If
y(i) e Uj,
\\y\\.
Uj covering
then the local coordinate
of y(t) can be given as
IR

the

into

surface

Riemann

71 is

zMt)) = *j(t) + iyji*).
If the local coordinate Yj(t)
is
differentiable
continuously
If
then
is
called
a
smooth
curve.
is a smooth
0
for
all
t,
y
y
y'j(t) ^
Yj(t) =

and

if

curve

functions
of f, then y is called
such that all xj{t) and yj(t) are real analytic
an analytic curve (cf. Section5.3a).The definition
of piecewise
smooth
and piecewise analytic
should
be clear.
curves
is not invariant
Since the concept of a \"line
under biholosegment\"
it makes
no sense to consider \"line segments\"
morphic transformations,
on a generalRiemann
but we can use analytic Jordan arcs instead
surface,
of line
Two line segments in the plane are either disjoint
or their
segments.
intersection
consists of one point or a line segment.The
for
situation
Jordan arcs on a Riemann
if
surface
is similar:
the intersection \\y\\ n |<5| of
two analytic Jordan arcs y : t \342\200\224>
a ^ t ^ ft, and
d : s \342\200\224>
c ^
y(t\\
d(s\\
s ^ d, is non-empty,
then
it consists
of a finite number of points
at
and
note
we may
most two analytic Jordan arcs. To see this
assume that
\\y\\

n

I(51

is

an

accumulation
Pm

=

y(to)

point,

y(tm)

= d(sm)

to po. Sincey

set. A compact, infinite
set
a ^ to ^ b and c
d(so),

infinite

point. Let po =

=

then

there

+ Po, a ^

has

an accumulation

^ so ^ d, be such an
exists a point sequence {pm}with

tm

^

ft and

c ^

sm

^

d, which

converges

arcs, we have tm \342\200\224>
to and sm \342\200\224>
so if
=
=
\342\200\224>
m
oo.
Let
y(*o)
d(so) and
Uj be a neighborhood containing po
in
series
around
and
and
so
to
expand yy(0
respectively.
dj(s) power
d are

and

oo

both Jordan

oo

functions
and dj(s) are extendedto holomorphic
of t and s
on
of
and
Since
a
defined
so respectively.
respectively,
neighborhood to
=
it is possible
yj(to)
dj(so) and y'j(to) ^ 0 and dfeo) 7- 0 by assumption,
=
3.2to
solve
the
to
Theorem
equation
according
dj(s)
y7(f) with respect
=
with
X a holomorphic
to write
s
to s on a neighborhood of to and
X(f)
function of t : (5/(A(f)) = Vy(0- Hence <5/(s0)A'(fo)= r#*o), so A'(*o)
^ 0.
=
=
is a
Since Yj(tm)
sm. The function A(f)
dj(sm), we have A(^m)
= A(f) =
of
t
Section
Hence
function
5.3a).
A(f) is alsoa
(see
/u(t)
holomorphic
t
a
of
Since
both
of
on
to.
tm and
neighborhood
holomorphicfunction

Hence

Yj(t)

6.3
\342\200\224

are

X(tm)

sm

point of the

0, hence

/u(i) =

real,

set of zerosofft(t).

3.1, i.e. x(i) =

identically.

x(t)

forms on

Differential

=

to

a Riemannsurface 273

limm\342\200\224oofm

Hence

p{f)

Hence,

X(t)

an

is

accumulation

identically, by Theorem
is real for real values
of
t.
= 0

=
is
Therefore,
neighborhood of to to the curve t \342\200\224\342\226\272
yj(t)
dj(X(t))
\342\200\224>
obtained from the curve s
the coordinate
transformation
by
<5/(s)
s = X(t).Hence,if a < to < b and c < so < d, then for a sufficiently small
e > 0 we have

on a

=

d(t)

Notice

s =

that

of t

function

Let ,4

be

the

-

of

correspondence
a closed set, so are T

e ^
of

function

t^

A

S.

and

number

a finite

and

: 6(5)\342\202\254
^}, then
Jordan

are

5GS

t \342\202\254
T and

between

t0

f, since

^ 0.
accumulation points of

= {s
{t : y(0 \342\202\254
^} and S
[c, rf]. Since both y and (5

*S C

-

t0

+ s.

(6.41)

X(t) is

a real analytic

with A'(0

+ e]

\302\243,
t0

set of

it consists

compact,
T =

a monotone

X(t) is

on [t0

|d| if

\342\202\254
|y| H

y(X(t))

If

t

\302\243
T,

arcs,

\\y\\

D

\\d\\.

Since

\\y\\ n

\\d\\

is

of isolated points. Putting
of course T C [a, Z>] and
there exists a one-to-one

given by y(t) =
a < t < b and c

(5(5\.")

Since

< s=

A(/)

^4 is
<

d

interior point of T and s an interior point of S by (6.41).Hence,
= c or
t < b, is a boundary point of T, then A(f)
A(f) = d. If
t = td. Therefore,
then we write t = tc\\ if X(t) = d, we write
T
two boundary
points in {a, b).

then f is an

if
X{i)

a

ty

=

has at

<

c,
most

(i) The case that

points tc and td in (a, 6). We
td
tc being treated similarly. Then
=
[tc, td] or T [a, tc] U [td, b\\ Hence \\y\\ n |<5|
of a finite number of isolated points
an analytic
and
two

has

T

assume tc < td, the

either T =
consists

either

Jordan

arc {y(t)

:

(ii)

tc

boundary

case

^

t ^

<

td} or

of

two

analytic

(iii)

Jordan

arcs

274 Riemann surfaces

Denoting
T =

[f*,

that

points and
(iii) The case

\\y\\ n

an

analytic

that

T

consists

|\302\243|

no

has

tc or t^ in (a, b).
point
we
T = [a, f*] or
have
f*,
of a finite number of isolated

arc

Jordan

points on

boundary

= |y|.

[a, &],hance|y|n|<5|

If both y and d
considerationsthat

by

point

boundary
Hence

b\\.

only one boundary

T has

that

case

The

(ii)

are analytic
either

Jordan curves, then
=

|y|

it is

(a, b). Then
from the

clear

consists of a

|<5|or|y|n|<5|

=

T

above

number

finite

of points.

if and only if for
in
line
U
connectingthese
polygonal
it is proved that
an open
surface
set U of a Riemann
K is connected
points,
if and only if for each pair of points in U there existsa piecewiseanalytic
in U connecting
curve
those points.
a ^ t ^ b, be a smooth
curve
on the Riemann
Now, let y : t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),

Just as one provesthat
in U
each pair of points

surface

an

set U G

open

is

A

connected

exists a

there

7\302\243.
Letting

zj(y(t))

local

the

denote

= xj(t) +
coordinate of y(t)

=

Yj(t)

iyj(t)
G

Uj,

we have

= rjk(yk(t))
Yj(J)

if y(t)

G

Uj

n

transformation.

iy* :

where

[/*,

rXO

Since tj*(z*)

to

t

yields

*My*(/M(0-

= a^z*) + ifijk(zk),
=

x)(0

the coordinate

denotes

r^(z^)

with respect

sides

both

Differentiating

=

=
z* \342\200\224>
zy

~
\302\253y^W0

we

have

Pjky'k{t\\

=

a-jk

ajk(yk(t)l

1

=
j
jtf(') = fijtxiit) + ajky'k(t)9
Pjk
PJk(yk(t)).
Next we want to define the integral of a continuous 1-formcp

a region

D G TZ

+

<Pj\\(Zj)dXj

on each DnUj^
means

which

(Pk(zk)-

a curve

along

rfty

(py2

0.

We

substitution

that

Hence we

y satisfying

for

y(0

have

<py(z/)

yby

on DO Uj C\\Uk^0,
the expressionfor q>j(zj) yields

= <p*(z*)

of (6.30) in

obtain

=

G C/y,

function of t

Put

G D.

= <p(Zj)
CPj{Zj)

=

(pji(yj(t))x'j(t)+ (Pj2(Yj(t))y'j(t)
Putting
by comparing (6.42) and (6.30).
P(y(0)

\\y |

on

defined

+
VjiiYjitWM
the above equation

definedon [a, b].Therefore

=

+ <pk2(Yk(t))y'k(t)

(pkx(yk(t))x'k(t)

(6.43)

<Pj2(Yk(t))y'j(t)

shows that
we

define

(p(y(t))

is

a continuous

the integral

of

cp

along

63

Differential

forms on a Riemann

275

surface

b

ia

Jt

side of

The right-hand

zk

\342\200\224>\342\200\224

Zj

(6.44)

<p(Y(t))dt.

(6.43) is invariant
we can

Therefore

Tjk(zk).

transformation

a coordinate

under

omit the

subscriptj

and

write

(6.43)

as

(p(y(t))
which

by (6.44)

= (pi(Y(t))x'(t)

+

<p2(Y(t))y'(t)

+

cp2(y(t))y'(t))dt.

becomes
Cb

ia

Jt

Since the

(<Pi(y(t))x'(t)

forms

differential

q)j\\ dxj

+

q>j2

(6.45)
dyj

and

o)j\\2 dxj

A

dyj

are

the
transformations we sometimessuppress
and
dx
If
we
do
so
it
A
should
a>\\2
dy
cp2
subscript
dy.
be kept
local
a)\\2 depend on the choice of the
q>2 and
<p\\9
=
coordinate
in the
zj. For example, the coefficient f(z)
fj(z) occurring
1-form
a
is
which
is
function
holomorphic
holomorphic
f(z)dz
=
into
transformed
under the coordinate transformation
fk(z)
z'jk(z)fj(z)
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
a
and
not
Zk
simply holomorphicfunction.
Tjk(zk)
Zj
Let
u by a continuously differentiable function
on the domain
defined
we
have
n \302\243/,
0
DC 11. On each\302\243>
^

under

invariant

coordinate

j and write
in mind that

q>\\ dx

+

Hence
du(y(t)) = ^x'j(t)
and

=

^m

|

u(y(t%

therefore

f
This

+

is

du =

u(y(b))

of formula

an extension

an arbitrary

(6.6)

(6.46)
that

is

valid

for the

complex plane to

surface.

Riemann

c.

- u(y(a)).

Locally finite

lfz(p) isa

open coverings

defined on a region
end
of Section6.2b,
11, then,
\342\200\224>
on
is a singleU. If zq(p)
can be used as a local coordinate
z : p
z(p)
if
on a region U(q) containing q and
defined
valued holomorphicfunction
= 0, then
\342\200\224>
is called a local coordinate with
center
q. In
z^(/?)
zq : p
zq(p)
=
If
0
this case zq(Uq) is a regionin the complex
plane containing
zq(q). for
^
>
r
0 the closed disk {z G C : \\z\\
some
r} is contained in zq(U(q)), then

U of a Riemann

single-valued

surface

holomorphic

function

as explained at the

Riemann

276

surfaces

: \\zq(p)\\
called a coordinate disk with
= {p

Ur{q)n

is

coordinate
Z2,

of z7,
is a

r}
q and

center

r on

radius

needs
to
compact subset of 11.It hardly
disk Ur(q) depends on the choice of the local
on K,
...,
z/, ...} is a systemof localcoordinates
a
and
coordinate
6 TZ
neighborhood such that q
Uj
~
=
zj(P) *j(q)
Zq(p)

is a

[Ur(q)]

{zi,

<

q

coordinate

local

center

with

7\302\243.
Obviously,

said

be

the

that

zq. If

coordinate

Uj is the domain
e UJ9 then

q.

U an open covering of 2 such
a
neighborhood U(P) of P such
possible
that
then
U D C/(P) ^ 0 for
Zi
Z{ is called a
finitely
only
many U \342\202\254
I
t
if
is
that
is
a
obvious
Z(
locallyfinite open covering.
locally finite open
subset of 2, then
there
of 2 and AT is a compact
are only finitely
covering
that
H
K
0.
such
U
U
\342\202\254
Ti
many
^

if 2 is a
P e 2 it

In general,
that
for each

and

space

to find

is

each

Let

6.8.

Theorem

Hausdorff

q G

be
7\302\243

a local

given

coordinate z9 with

disk Ur(q)(q).It is possibleto selecta
infinite number of coordinatedisks:

and

a coordinate

Uj =

Zi =

that

such

<

0

Ur{j){qj\\

: j = 1,
{Uj\342\226\240

2, 3,

j = 1, 2, 3,

^ r(qj%

r(j)

...} is a

finite

locally

center

q

or countably

finite

...,
of

covering

open

TZ.

If K is compact,then
and
coordinatedisks UR^q){q)

Proof:

TZ is

that

assume

to prove

coordinates

on

Wj( Wj) in

=

Wj be

let

and

1Z

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

C

{wi, w2,

of Section 6.3a,

beginning
W7

this, let

there

7\302\243.
Therefore,

C

Bn

...,

can

B\\9

Wj,

...} be a

consider

exists

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242.

C \302\243M+1C
[5\342\200\236]

the domain of

we

sets

two conditions:

following

(i) each [Bn]is compact,
Bx C \\B{\\ CB2C
(ii)
[B2] C
order

So we may

of open

number

infinite

countably

the

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
i Bn,
satisfying

In

number of

by a finite
is obviously true.

covered

be

theorem

not compact.

(1) 7i is the union of a
Bi>

7\302\243
can

the

As

wy.

at the

explained

Wj as a region

each

for each

system of local

& sequence

Wj
CO

Ajx

cAj2C'-CAJmC'~C

Wj9

=

\\J(Ajm)

WJ9

m=\\

of compact

only

it

is

sets
true

Ayi,

that

Aj2,

Ajm C

...

(here

(Ajm+\\)

(Ajm) denotes
but

for

each

the
m,

of

interior
Ajm

C

(AJn)

Ajm).

holds

Not

if

Differential forms on a Riemann

63

large enough. Hencewe

m is

n >

mn <

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

<

m2

C (Ay2)

i4yi

have

Ay\342\200\236,

C

Ay2

C

=

Wj

C

Ajn

subsets of K (i.e. if zy
then z7 and z* representthe same point

Tjk(zk)

Bn =

an(^

U^Li(^y\302\253)

C

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

C

\\Ajmn+l)

\342\200\242
- \342\200\242

C

(Aj3)

C

Ajmn

Ajn as

the

Considering
=

zy-

C

mi <

numbers

natural

pick

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

C

Ajm2

we

by

again

Ajmn

can

that

such

(Ajm2) C

Ajmx C
Denoting

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

277

surface

C

(^+1)

\342\202\254 and
^y\342\200\236

z^

1Z) and

of

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
.

and

\342\202\254
A^

putting

(J(Ay\342\200\236)

have

we

-

=

[*\302\273]

(J
j^n

(J[(^\342\200\236)]

j^n

Hence the sequenceof open
and

(ii).

=

(2) Put tf,
is compact.
AT\342\200\236

AJn

=

K2

[B2]9

Bn we have

=

-B2,...,Kn

U

Bn+l.

=

Kn

the above conditions(i)

satisfies

{Bn}

|J~=i

[B3]

...

K2 U

K\\U

C

C

(J(^\342\200\236+1)

j^n
of

sets

= (J~=i
Wj

Since

C

Ajn

= U.
(J~=1 *\342\200\236
-*\342\200\236,....

[Bn+X]

Each

[Bn+\\]9 hence

00

(6.47)

n=(JKn.
\302\253=i

Since

D

Bn

we have

(ii),

[5\342\200\236_i]
by

A^i

be

can

covered

2, ..., 7(1)of

by a finite

Ur(j)(qj\\

with

q e

UR(q)(q)

K1CU1UU2U---U

Since

K2ClZ
KJ)

ur{j)(qj\\

disks

Ur(q)(q)

and
\342\202\254
K2

a way that U^q){q)
Similarly, it is possible
disks Uj = Ur{j){qj)
dU+ 2, ...,y(/i):
7(/i-l)
in such

Kn

C

l/fc-D+i

0 <

r(#),

Cll-

of

7*00

r(#) ^ R(q),for

\302\243//=

coordinate
9 chosen

each

[B\\].

to cover

Kn

with

0 <
[\302\243\342\200\236_,],

U

number

finite

1, 7(1)+ -,...,

= 7(1) +
r(wj)> J
q

7=1,

R(qj),

K\\:

covered by a

be

can

K2

[B\\]9

with

=

r(j)

Um.

\342\200\224

=

2,3,4.

number Uj =

disks

coordinate

=

*

tfnCft-[\302\243\342\200\236-!],

U

C/y(\342\200\236-i)+2

finite

a

r(j)

of coordinate

number

^ R(qj)9

j = j(n
-

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U \302\243/,(\342\200\236)
C ft

- 1)

+

1,

[\302\243\342\200\236_,].

(6.48)

Since

ft = IJ^Li

coordinatedisks

all [C/y]
coordinate

determined

Kn, the collectionZ{=

2, 3,

...} of

: ft = (J
is not compact,U consistsof

this way

are compact and ft
disks. Hence j(n)

:

{\302\243//

= 1,
7

is an opencoveringofft

infinitely

\342\200\224>
if
00

n

\342\200\224>
00.

Replacing

\302\253
by

y

^/-

Since
many

\302\253
+

1 in

Riemann surfaces

278

(6.48) we seethat
picking

m >

C
[5\342\200\236]

[Bm]9

7

Uj

n such
hence

Since 72, =

> j(n).

Z{ is

are at most7(72)

a locally finite

Uj D [5W]

0 for
some Bn. This Bn is

sets

that

\342\202\254
Zi such

Uj

of TZ.

covering

open

j9

= 0 and

=

n [Bn]

\302\243/,

to

TZ belongs
\342\202\254

9

q and there

of

If

is a

Zi

a compact

U eZ{

each

Bn,

\\J^=X

+ 1)<

1). If j(n

j{n +

^j^

j(n)

Partition of unity

d.
K

for

1)

fl5\342\200\236^0. Hence

and

0

thatj(m) ^ j < j{m+ we have
= 0.
Therefore,
[// n [\302\243\342\200\236]

an openneighborhood
C/y

=

D [Bn]

surface
locally finite open covering of the Riemann
subset of TZ, then there are only finitely many open

TZ

sets

K ^ 0. Hence, if 7\302\243
is compact,
Z{ consists of a
=
R
then
7?
If
not
sets.
is
open
compact,
IJ^Li Kn by
of
are
hence
at
a countably
most
Zi consists
(6.47), where all Kn
compact,
infinite number of open sets.In both cases we can write
finite

such

that

number

of

U D

^ = {C/,:y =

If

u

\342\200\224

is a

u(p)

^ 0 is

u(p)

on

function

set of

of the

closure

the

TZ,

called the support of u:
u =

supp

The

l,2,3, ...}.

of a

support

ell:

[{p

u(p)

1-form cp

=

7^

points p

such

that

0}].

cp{p) or a

2-form

=

a>

a>(/?) on

7\302\243
is

defined

similarly:

suppcp = [{p e1Z
suppco = [{peTZ:

covering of
=

Pj(p)

Zi =

Let

6.7.

Definition

A

TZ.

defined on

TZ

(ii)

^

pt(p)

the

is

cp(p)

^0}]9

w{p) ^ 0}].

{Uj : j

collection

following conditions

(i)

:

called

= 1,2, 3,...} a
: j = 1, 2, 3, ...}
be

{pj
a partition

of

of

locally
C00

functions
to U

subordinated

unity

finite

open
p7-

if the

are satisfied:

0 for

all p

TZ and
\342\202\254

C

supppy-

Uj\\

equality

(6-49)

l=X>X/0
y

is valid.

If pyC/?)

7- 0, then /? e

Uj. SinceZ{= {[/,}is

for all 7 except finitely
many
on the right-hand side of

pGTZ.

at each

point p

(6.49)

to

reduces

e

a

TZ.

locally

Hence

finite

finite,

the

pj(p)

= 0

infinite

sum

sum at each

point

6.3 Differential
formsona
existsa

For each

6.9.

Theorem

of

partition

Proof: (1) We
coordinate

6.8.

Theorem

in

as

subordinated to it.

case where Z4

the

consider

Putting

=

We define

the disk U), e >
=

Uej

If e

3=

:

= {p

U^iqj)

<

\\zj(p)\\

{Uj} of 11there

= {Uj} consists of
=

zj(p)

simplify the notation, we have
Uj

279

surface

Zi =

covering

open

1 = YljPj(P)

unity

first

disks,

locally finite

Riemann

zq.(p)

to

in order

r(j)}.

0,

by:

{p:\\zj(p)\\2<r(j)2-e}.
we

then

r(j)2,

=

put

Uej

Since Uj

0.

=

U\302\253>o^}

we

have,

by

(6.48),

*n C

\"5-

U

[J

\302\243>0/(fl-l)<;^\302\253)

Kn is

since

Hence,

compact, we have

for

some

e >

0,

Kn-l)<j*\302\243j(n)

each

for

Hence,

j

it

is

possible

to find

a sufficiently

small e(j) >

0

such

that

C

Kn

(J

</*\">,

f(/i-l)<M/(ii)

(6.47),

so, by

CO

=

K=\\jKn

We define a

C00

function

\\Jur.
hj(s)

hj(s) =1
0 < hj(s) < 1
hj(s)

=

0

for

of the

real variable 5 as follows:

s *\302\243
rQ)2

-

-

</),

e(j) <

for

r(j)2

for

s^r(j?-e(jy2.

s < r(j)2-

e{j)/2,
(6.50)

Now,

hj(x2

+ y2)

is a

C00function

of

x and

7, hence

\342\200\236.f^_JM*/Q0l2), />\342\202\254\302\243/,-,
pen-Uj,
W-\\o,

is a

C\302\260\302\260
function

=

\302\2737y(p)

on

1, hence
\302\243*//>)

>i.

ft

with supply

=

[ufn/2] C Uj. if p \342\202\254
ufA,

then

280

Riemann

surfaces

Since YljVjip) *s

by (6.50).

a finite

actually

sum,

is

it

a

of p.

C\302\260\302\260
function

Hence

defines a

Therefore, {py
Zi=

subordinated to

...}

2, 3,

that

a

constitutes

= 1-

C/y and

C

supppy

J2jpj(p)
of unity

partition

{Uj}.

(2) For the
arbitrary

= 1,

: y

1Z such

on

C\302\260\302\260
function

general case, let W

finite

locally

finitely many

disk UR(g)(q)

open
with

Wm

that

such

\342\200\224

\342\200\224

: m

{Wm

2, 3,

1,

...} be an

then
there
exists only
covering of 1Z. If q G 7\302\243,
it
is
to
a
hence
select
coordinate
G
f^m,
q
possible
if q G Wm then
C fFm. Applying Theorem
U^q){q)

6.8 to the collection of coordinatedisks U^q)(q)
obtained
in this way, we
=
=
obtain a locally finite open covering
with
of
11
Zi
{Uj}
Uj
C/r(y)(<7y)
and 0 < r(j) ^ /?(#/). Let m(j) representa choiceof m such
that
#y G
Since
we
have
Now
C
let
be
a
C
PFm.
C/y
W^j).
C/y
{py}
U^qj)(qj)
=
of unity
subordinated
to Ti
above
and put
partition
{C/y}as obtained
Om(p)=

pJ^'

^2
m(j)=m

om{p) is a
is closed,

om=
supppy

U rn{j)=m

on

C\302\260\302\260
function

7\302\243
and

supppy C Uj and
closed. Hence

^ 0

om(p)
Z{=

for all

p ell.

The

hence

is locally finite,

{Uj}

set

p7 is also

supp

=

SUppOm

SUpppy C

(J

(J

C

C/y

JFm.

m(j)=m

mij)\342\200\224m

Further:

m

m

is a partition
Next we want to

so {a ^}
using

the idea

of

define

the

of a partition

assume

Zi =

that

all

{Uj} of 11is locally
a>(zy)

on each

C/y,

we

=

integral

of

unity.

cok\\2(zk)

by (6.34).

Hence

[Uj]
finite.

=

on each

C/y

{z\\, z2,

Let

such

region,

If Uj fl

are

(Oji2(zj)dXj A

have

to W = {FFm}.
of a continuous 2-form

subordinated

unity

of local coordinatesof 7\302\243,C/y a
domain of zy, while
H = \\JjUj.
further

j

m(j)=m

that

[C/y]

0,

U^

compact

...,

and

that

Writing
dyj9
D

\\Tjk(zk)\\2a)ji2(zj)

zj
J7* 7-

=

0,

Xj

+

iyj9

zy,

over

co

be a

...}

in the

is contained

then
the

Zj

=
open

K,

system

rjk{zk).

We

covering

63 Differentialformsona Riemann
=

\\<\302\273k\\2(Zk)\\

281

surface

\\Tjk(zk)\\2\\a)jl2(Zj)\\,

so
=

\\o)\\(zj)

A dyj

\\a)Jl2(Zj)\\dxj

continuous 2-form on 72. Let {pj} be a
to Zi = {\302\243/,}. Since JZyPy = 1, we have
subordinated

defines a

Each pycy
on 72

t/y.

^ =

equal

to zero

the region Uj in the z7

5^

(6.51)

Pj<\302\273j\\2(zj)dxjdyj

have put pja)jX2{zj) = pj(zj)a)jl2(zj), pj(zj) = p7(p)
and
is compact,
the sum on the right-hand side of (6.51)is finite.

we

where

defined on

a 2-form

as

py-cw

is identically

unity

define

we

plane,

Considering

on 72 which

2-form

a continuous

is

\342\200\224

of

partition

z7(p). If 72.
TZ is not compact,

this sum is

convergence. To do this

we

Since all terms on the right-hand
convergesor divergesto -foo.

are

side

=
If

its

\\co\\:

(6.52)

dyj.

Pj\\a)jn(zj)\\dxj

Jm-eJ

of

the integral

consider

to ascertain

have

we

and

infinite

z,

the series

nonnegative,

either

Since

*ss
Pj0)ji2(zj)dxjdyj\\

\\JUj

on the
<
+oo and
\\n\\(o\\
series

the

CONs

f
\\in

If

Obviously

f
in

I

=

\\n\\(o\\

is

\302\247na>

system

in the

contained

of 72

covering

On

linear

system

Wn

we

say

of

value

the

that

\302\247na)

is

not

determined.

in a).
the

of

value

of local

To see this, let {w\\9
Wn

domain of

wn

be

...} be another
is
[Wn] compactand is
open
{Wn} is a locally finite
w2,

...,

wn,

such that

regions
and

above is independent of
the open covering {Uj} and

defined

as

\302\247na)

coordinates,

and let {on} bea partition

put

if

absolutely

converges

(6.53)

of unity {p7}.
of local coordinates,

partition

(6.51)

|fl,|.

showthat

the choice of the

pj\\coj{2(zj)\\dxjdyj

right-hand side of

we shall

+oo

We have to
the

J Uj

\\

=

W
of

unity

subordinated

to W.

Riemann

282

surfaces

a)(wn) =
to verify

We have

that

\" =

f
ill

first

If

hence

compact,

of

Uj

pjOn

(6.55)

(6.51) we have
Pj0n<Dj\\2(Zj)dXjdyj.

equal to 0, then supppjOn C Uj D
is covered by finitely many connected

transformation

coordinate

The

Wn.

=

(On\\2(wn)

Since

Wn

is

components

=
: ww \342\200\224\342\226\272
zj
Tjn(wn)

Tjn

and
biholomorphic on each component

by (6.34).

by

ona)nX2(wn)dundvn.

T2

identically

supp

n

is also given

(6.54)

j iuj

not

is

pjOn

in (6.51)

ivn.

iwn

=

OnCO

as defined

+

un

\302\260n<\302\273>

(6.55). By

prove

wn =

JK

n

in

J^co

Yl f

in on(o=\\
We

A dvn,

(onX2{wn)dun

is

\\Tjn(wn)\\2(Ojl2(Zj)
=

yj)/d(un9

d(xj,

|rj\342\200\236(w\342\200\236)|2

dyj

PjOncOj\\2(zj)dxj

=
i\\Vn

iUj

=

vn\\

we

PjOncoji2(zj)

get

J' J

dun

dvn

0(UmVn)

PjOncojn(zj)\\Tjn(wn)\\2dundvn
iwn

I.
Since

number
of sets Uj such that
there are only a finite
for
0.
some
we
have
if y > h.
Hence,
//,
^
Uj DWn^0
= 1 on PT\342\200\236
=
0 if y > h. Hence
and
Pj(p)

is compact,

[Wn]
n [Wn]

Uj

Therefore,

Y^j=\\PAp)
ona) =

proving

If
2,
shall

Y]

=

PjOn(oni2(wn)dundvn

ono)ni2(wn)dundvn,

(6.55).

is
7\302\243

...,

PjOn(oni2(wn)dundvn.
n

obviously

(6.54)

prove

E
j^i

by (6.52),

f
in

pjH

=

]CHl=ia\302\253

assuming
=

there exists for

is a

&

then

compact,

and
#\302\273}

f
in

that

I\\(o\\

each

finite

1 by

J^|a>|

<

<

covering.

(6.54). If K
+oo.

Since

such

that

+oo

e >

0 an

h

W

= {Wn

:

n

=

1,

is not compact,we

63
oo

pM<8-

Hence, by (6.51) and

(6.53):

h r
\302\273

w by

pj

an(*

IC\342\204\242-:!0^
I

oo

p

E

I^m^

f

we

oc

\"-EI/HH

Replacing

283

surface

f

]C

If

forms on a Riemann

Differential

/\302\273

E

L/H*

<\302\243.

l/>i

that

observing

f

^

^h\302\273

Eff\302\273H

get
m

w

f

<\302\243.

If
Since

j

*S A.

there is an

is compact,

\\Jj=l[Uj]

Therefore

m.

>

n

PyO0\302\243r=ia\302\273(/\302\273)

m

=

that

such

# 0
if 1

n
W\342\200\236

Uj=i[^y]
=

Pj(P)T,\342\204\242=ianip)

Py(p)

if
*\302\243

Therefore
m

nh

p

I

pf

^-E

E

w\302\260

hence

and

f
II 7i

In Section
=

I

(6.54).

proving

co

in

~j

6.3b we
A

a>i2(z)dx

dy9

\\Do)\\idxdy.We

have

definition

Let

(6.51).

already defined
z =

x +

to

iy9

verify

the

integral

over

a

that

this

of a

region
be

A

JDa; =

as

is consistent with

definition

:j= 1,2, 3,...}

Zi = {Uj

continuous 2-form

\302\243)
c

a

locally

finite

open

D consistingof disks Uj C D, and {p7} be a partition
of unity
subordinated
to Zi = {Uj}. Then the integral of co over D according
to
definition (6.51) is given by
covering of

00

Therefore

p

*> =

J/)

assuming JD|a>|
unions

to show that

it suffices

j^l JD

<

of rectangles

U~=i(^\302\253)

+oo.

Selecting

and satisfy

we have by

\342\200\224

A

(6-56)

PjV

y\\\\

A\\

a sequence
c

A2 C

the original

{^4^}of sets Am
C Am c ..., Am

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

definition

of

the

integral,

which
C

are
and
\302\243>

Riemann surfaces

284

-

co

\\\\

co by

Replacing

co ^

and

$^y=1Pytt>

i\302\273
I
/l

JD\\

-

j=x

I

p

I

JD

-\342\226\272
0

\\co\\

\\\\co\\

/w

-\342\226\272
oo.

(6.57)

that

observing
A

/\302\273

JD

j=i

we get

InJDj=l
ZY =

Since
y

>

If

i\302\273 AZ

h

|

JAm j=]

{\302\243//}

is

A(/w) for some

JD
/w

^

I

JAm\\

for each

finite,

locally

f

I

I

j=l

have

we

sufficiently large h(m).Hence

=

Ylj^xPj0*

Therefore
-

f

I

f

=

UjDAm

w on

0 if
^m-

f

I/z(m)

hence

and

by (6.57)

\\\\

to

\342\200\224

/J
y^J^

|Jd

\342\200\224>
0

PyG)

/W \342\200\224\342\226\272
oo,

I

(6.56).

proving

Green s

e.

Theorem

Let C bea

1Z,y
and
with

center

smooth
Jordan curve on the Riemann surface
piecewise
0 ^ t ^ 1, y(0) = y(l), a parameterrepresentationof C
=
be a local coordinate
#
y(a) with 0 < a < 1. let zq : /? \342\200\224>
z^p)
center
and
consider
the
coordinate
disk
q
U^q){q)as a disk with
0 and radius R(q) in the zq plane.
The map
: t

-^ y(t),

= rew0 <6<2ji
0
/?(#) defines a circle with center
= Ar(6)

kr\\0-^zq
0

with

<

r ^

UR(q){q).Assuming
the

v

<

circle

a < u,

continuous

functions

two regions:

that R(q) > 0 has been taken
beginning
from the first part of the proof of Theorem 5.5
and Ar(fi) = y(v\\
C in two points Xr(p) \342\200\224
y{u)
the

from

we know

small,

sufficiently
that

Xr intersects

a <
of

j3

<

r, 0

a +

r contained in

and radius

2jv9

^ r

U+ = {rew : 0 <

and

that

a =

a(r) and ft

^ R(q).henceC divides

r<

[/- = {rew :0<r<

=

disk

the

R(q\\

a(r)

<6<

fi(r)}9

R{q\\

/3(r)

<6<

a(r)

are

/3(r)

U^q)(q)

+ 2jv},

into

63 Differentialformsona Riemann

- C = U+ U

Ur{q)(q)

Since

Xr

left,

For

q

exists

the left of C and

each

C a
\302\243

Ar(a) from

C in

intersects

C/+ is

is to

C/~

left to
the

C//^) such that
[UR(q)(q)]
finite open covering of TZ

disk

a locally

D C

to

right

each

for

and

7- 0. By Theorem6.8,there
form

Uj = UriJ),

U={Uj:j=l,2,3,...},

0 < r{j)

from

above

defined

the

of

(6.58)

C.

of

right

0.
in lr(b)

and

right

pick a disk C//^) as

tjGCwe

U~ =

C/+ H

IT,

285

surface

*\302\243

If

0, then

UjHC^

C and
\342\202\254
?,\342\200\242

Uj-

c

=

u

u+

mapping, right

with

left

and

transformation.

if Uj

Hence,

=0

[/^0,f/+n[/i

and

Uj into

t7+

(on

the

c/j = 0.

t/+ n

t/j,

transformation

coordinate

the

C divides

by (6.58)

(on the right):

left) and Uj

Since

/?(<?,).

z*

=
\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242
z;

r^(z/t)

is a

conformal

this
respect to C do not change under
n Uk n C / 0 then
0, t/J n
[/tn[/^
n l/J
0.
J7J

Putting

t/+(Q

I/(0=|J^.

=

(J

[/-(C)=(J^

t/y+,

9,ec

?,ec

9/ec

(6.60)
\302\243/(C)

is

a

C and

containing

region

C

divides

U(C)

into

two

regions

U+(C) and t/-(C):

t/(C) - C =

U

(7+(C)

\302\243/~(C),

t/+(C)

=

fl t/~(C)

0.

(6.61)

The set t/+(Q is to
assume that
D = ([\302\243>]).

is

C
If

D n

the

open

set

left

of

U+{C)

V

C and

U~(C) is to the

right

of

C.

We

of a compact closedregion
where
[D]
then U+{C) C A for since C does not
\342\200\224
=
is an open set, hence the
U+(C)
[D]
is the union of the two disjoint
open sets V and

boundary
*7+(C) # 0,

pass through U+(C),
connected

the

Riemann

286

surfaces

C/+(C) D D9

V =

hence

implies C/\"(C)C D.

assuming

C C C/(C)C [\302\243>],contradicting
C A i.e. if D is to the
U+(Q
C =

again

that

of

left

D

is

implies

\302\243

Therefore,

TZ

if qj

[D]

U = {Uj} is
0.

UjCiD^
<7/

\302\243
W]

=

elZ

\342\200\224

[D],

CUD.

[Uj]

is
[\302\243)]

Therefore,

we have

[\302\243/,-]

UjD

a continuous 2-form on

w be

{pj : 7 = 1,2, 3,...}

be

a

^ 0 if

of

partition

closed

the

and

w

+

if

only

if 1

e C
qj\342\226\240

^ h

^ j

1. Under

(6.62)

and

[D]

region

subordinated to

unity

with

Uj

if qj \342\202\254
C, hence:
Uj
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U Um.
UM U

D=

[[/,]

open covering

many

0 if 7 ^

=

n [D]

and

and

D

e

q}r

finitely

that
Uj n [D]
we may assume that

D=UJUUJU---UUJU
Let

only

= 0, hence

n C

and the

compact

are

there

md gj-eD is h+l^j^m
these circumstances

[Uj]
C D if

observe

further

We

Since

finite,

locally

C D,

that C

C

qj

[Uj]CD or [Uj]CTZ-[D].
C

C

have

we

\342\200\224

U(C)

occur

cannot

D

^ 0

D D

U~(Q

\302\243/\"(C) C

d[D].

= Ur(j)(qj)C UR{qj)9

\342\200\224

that

is the boundary of [\302\243>].If
is
called
the boundary of the
C
C,
to the right of C, then
we replace
C

fact

the

closed region[D] : C = d[D],If

by C\"1 so that
Since Uj

and

C Z)

U+(C)

since,

simultaneously

we can prove

0. Similarly

But,

D [D] = 0 for / > /w, hence
covering
{ Uj} of 11.Then
Uj
>
m. Hence 1 = ^2J=iPj(p) on [D]and
identically on [D] for j

Zi =

the

/?,(/?)

let

open

= 0

so

m

Now

think of

D as a Riemannsurfaceitselfand

JD

j=\\*V

as defined in

JD

Section 6.3d above.Sincesupp

^ = ^A
j=\\

Ju+

Pj(o+

pj

Uj we

have
(663)

^'^

\302\243

explained

of [Uj]
boundary Xj \342\200\224
d[Uj]
in the zy-plane.The boundary

C

j=h+xJUj

at the end of Section6.3d,we
as
integrals over the regions Uj and
lv pjco
As

consider

is the
of

circle

[Uj]

with

is a

can
Uj
center

consider
of

the
0

J^

pj(o and

zy-plane.
and radius

Jordan curve

The
r(j)

consistingof

6.3 Differential

a Riemann

on

forms

surface

287

=
the piecewise smooth Jordan arc Cj = CC\\[Uj\\
and
the
arc
Aj\"
= Cj*A*. The integral
of the continuous
2-form pjco
XjD [D] : d[Uj]
over the closed region[C/t]can be defined as

=

[D]

we define

the

Then, by

[\302\243/+]

U

U UM

[C/+]

(6.65)

U---UUm

[D] as:

(6.63):

a)

is

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

U

of a> over

integral

=\\

i[D]

If a>

we have

by (6.62)

Since,

C6-64)

Pi0*'

Pj\302\260>=

J

Deo.
2-form on

a continuous

-

Tl

(6.67)

[D] =

[/\" U

K and JtiM <

- \342\200\242
\342\200\242

U~h U

U

+oo,

then

U

Um+X

Um+2

U

\342\200\242
- -

,

hence

Jll-[D]

j=lJU7

J2*rn+l

Since
+

PjO)

for each y

=

\\

1, 2,

PjCO

...,

co =

A,

=

(o

a> +

of
be

D consists of a
smooth Jordan curves.

the region

Theorem

6.10

surface

TZ

<p

=

f
J[D]

dq>,

let

and

disjoint piecewise
1-form on D9
differentiable

mutually

[
JC

finite

Theorem).

(Greens

a Riemann

the equality

obtain

we

from (6.66) and the definition
The above result can easily

on

PjO)

(6.68)

integral
extended
number

(6.51).
to the
of

case

mutually

boundary

disjoint

of

piecewise

be a compact, closedregion
of a finite number
consist
d[D]

Let [D]
C =

smooth Jordan curves.If cp
then

C =

the

that

d[D].

is

a continuously

of

Riemann

288

surfaces

We prove the theorem

Proof:

piecewise
Let Zi = {Uj: j
to Zl. Since,by
have

Therefore

\342\200\242
- \342\200\242
U

=

PjV

U

U UM

[C/+]

identically on

the

hence

TZ

^ j'

1

with

Uj.

Hence

=

d(pjcp)

f

(6.69)

^ m. Since suppp7 C
we have, for 1 ^ j ^ h

f

J[U+]

=

d(Pj<p) =

f

JC

}[U)]

is valid

Therefore (6.69)

J[Uj]

Since obviously

arbitrary

partition

7?, \342\200\224
Uy>A+i

7
of

=

1, 2,

unity
t^y]

Ja;
=

=

Pj<P-

\\cPj<P

and since

0. Therefore

=

Xj

=

Ay-

n

Py</>

0.

that (6.69) also holdsin this
smooth Jordan curves, let Zi =

conclude

and [UJ] D

\302\260Penset

=

Jd[Uj]

finite

locally

subordinated
*s an

and applying

^ h.
have
we
m,

^(Py<P)

piecewise

...,//

z7-plane

^ j'

0,

be the

d(pj(p)

(6.70)

\342\200\224
we

\\cpj(p

= Ur(j)q(j)
Uj

qj e C for

1

=

^(Py<P)

+

Pj<P

\\cjPj<P

$ t+Pj<p

1 ^

h +

and

pj(p

p,(p.

for

Since [Uj] C D for

an

Jcj

have

[Uj], we
we have
d[[/,],
CD

the

in

=

Pj(p

Cj\342\226\240

f

both

get

Samp

=

Uj,

d(pj(p).

=

d(Pj<p)

J[t/|]

For

]C\"Li d(pj(p).

equality

Considering [Uj] as a closeddomain

J[D]

=

J[D]

jT{

Green's Theorem(Theorem6.2)we

A/

dcp

dipjcp)

f

\342\200\224

J[D]

[D] and

Um

J[D]

all j

Since

subordinated

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U

[D]9

J[D)

to show that

f
JC

vanish on

U

j^\\JC

it suffices

for

of unity

a partition

be

(p = ^2J=iPj(p

JC

holds

= 1,2,3,...}

(6.65)

= [t/+]

[D]

Hence

2, 3,

1,

and let {pj : j

by (6.59)

we

=

The proof of the general caseis similar.
the locally finite open covering
be
...}
given

curve.

Jordan

smooth

d[D] is just one

C =

that

case

the

for

to

open
C =

covering

0 for

j'^
Z4. Since Z4 is

an\302\243^

given
h

+

locally

case.

{Uj}9

by (6.59), let
1. Let {p,} be a
finite,

V =

63

on a

forms

Differential

Riemann surface 289

h

(J Uj.
7=1
= 0 for y ^ A + 1, hence

CcVc

If p

=

U(C)

V then
\342\202\254

py(/?)

Pc(P) = 5^Py(P)
7=1

is

PcU?;-

\342\200\224
C and
C\302\260\302\260
on 7\302\243

class

of

on

and

on
TZ
C\302\260\302\260

supp dp

Q D

dcp

c

\342\200\224

F.

If

U C,

C/+(C)

p\302\243

F. Therefore,

C
\302\243 C/+(C)

with

supp

a 1-form

is

rfp\302\243

p

is a

while
of

continuously

= 0, then

(6.71)

Since by assumption
A(p + pjdcp = dpj A </>,

as follows.

this

=

d(pj<p)

we

C. Putting

</p+A(p.

f <p= f
derive

U

(\302\243/+(C)

differentiable 1-formon 1Z

We

of

^[/+(C)UC,

\\0,

pJ is a function
p+(^) = l identically
class

the neighborhoodV

to 1 on

equal

identically

^Py

by (6.70)

have,

dpjA<p=\\ JC pj<p9

J[U+]

l^j^h,

Hence:

dPc

J[Ut(C)]
l[t//(0]
since

=

Let

Riemann

surface

H.

yh
=
and EjLiPyOO

d<p =

be

(p

If supp

{\302\243//}

supp

Z{.
q>

Since
=

on

supp

0 for

y*

a

continuously

cp

is

compact,

differentiable

[tf+(01.

while

(6.71).

1-form on the

then

0.

Proof: Let Ti =
neighborhoodsUj of
to

(p,

this

6.11.

[

\\

JC

PcOO
1 on C. SincesuprfpjC U+(C), proves

Theorem

in

=

<p

C [C/+(Q]

[C/+]

Y2j=iPj(P)

A

>

(p

be

and
7\302\243,
is

let

compact,

w, hence

covering by coordinate
partition of unity subordinated
{/?/}
D
there
exists an m such that
Uj
= 0 for
>
m.
Therefore
j

a locally

py<p

finite open

be a

290

Riemann

surfaces

7=1

so, by

Green's Theorem

Jn

j=l

(Theorem6.1)

Jn

j^i

Jd[Uj]

Let y : t \342\200\224>
a ^ t ^ b, be a piecewisesmoothcurve on 11and
let
y(t),
closed
1-form
on
differentiable
7\302\243.
We
want
closed continuously

(p

be a

consider

to

\302\247y(p.

point on y such that there exists s with 51 ^ r and a ^ s ^ 6
= y(t), then it is called
such
a multiple point. If y is a closed
that
y(s)
=
and
its
base
curve,
y(b)
point y(a)
y(f) = y(a). If y has no multiple
If p = y(f) is a multiple
curve.
points, then y is a Jordan arc or a Jordan
point, then there exist only finitely many s with y(s) = p. This follows
If

y(t)

is a

because if there were infinitely
y(sn)
n\\

P,

there

ri2 <

\342\200\242
- - <

=
<

c =

lim/_-00

number is

be

\342\200\242
of
rij<\342\200\242\342\200\242,

snj9 we have

assumptionthat
their

would

a
the

y(snj) =

there

y(c).

smooth.

y is piecewise
finite

different

many

are

only

convergent
bounded
Hence

3, ..., with
subsequence {sn}9

sn9 n =

1, 2,

sequence
{sn}. Putting
=
0,
y'(c)
contradicting

the

and

if

So, if y has multiple
finitely many t such

points
that

y{i)

is

a

which we denote by
a ^ t\\ <
t\\9 t2, ...,
tu
multiple
point,
\342\200\242
< ti ^ b. Hence, for
each
exists at least one tk, k 7- 1,
t2 <
f,-, there
=
<
with
all
tk, satisfying y(tk) = y{tt\\
pairs th tk, tt
y(tk)
y{tt). Among
\342\200\224
let
and let us put a\\ \342\200\224
tk
tt is smallest
tj9 th denote the pair such that
tj
and
Since
if
b\\ \342\200\224
t^
obviously
y(a\\) = y(b\\) and
7- y(s)
y(t)
\342\200\224\342\226\272
^
^
^ / < s ^ Z?i,
the
curve
is a piecewise
a\\
Ci : /
\302\253i '
b\\9
y(f),

6.3

curve. The curve

Jordan

smooth

forms on a Riemann

Differential

smooth curve connectingy(a) and
parameter representation
a piecewise

y, is

from

Yi-t

YW)

where we have

similar

In a
and

<p

(p=\\

\\

b\\

+

a\\.

q>.

Jyi

<P+\\

JCi

JC2

<P+\\

<P-

Jy2

this procedure, if y(a) ^
smooth Jordan
piecewise

a

<p=\\

\\

Jy

JC{

If y(a)

= y(b\\

at all

and we have

d +

C2 +

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

C2

+

left with

we are

remainder

no

JCV
have:

we

4.4)

Cv +

+

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

(p.

(p.

(p+-+\\

notation of 1-chains(seeSection
y =

have

Jyv

of steps

number

JC2

we

and

q>+\\

\\
JCV

JC2

(p+\\

JCi

arc yv

of steps we

number

a finite

after

y(b),

+\342\200\242+

(p

q>+\\

after a finite

<p=\\

\\
Jy

In the

y\\

the remainder by y2, we have
<P=

Repeating

Jordan curve C2 from

smooth

a piecewise

removing

Jy

at

+

jC\\

way,

denoting

arrive

b

have

We obviously

Jy

c\\ =

put

\342\200\224

C\\

by the

given

y(b),

ax^t^cu

_\302\253,,+*,),

\\y(,

of removing

result

is the

which

y\\9

291

surface

yV9

respectively:

=

y

If y has
so

somewhat,

it becomes

finite

cn

=

twice

i

In

this

n(b

y =

obviously
some

a +

y\\

\342\200\224

a)/m,

\342\200\242

y2

continuously
<P

way

=

the

of

yn : t

curve

1, 2,

of

\\Yn(p

Therefore

Uj.

\342\200\224>

y{t\\

By

Theorem

differentiable function

-

finitely

= {Uj} be a

cn-\\

..., m, belongsto one
7/w-

y\302\253

Uj(n)(Y(Cn))
value

n =

let Zi

disks Uj of 1Z.Since \\y\\

number

finite

y

at most

with

be done,

can

this

be covered by a
m such that each

\"transform\"

first

smoothcurve y

by coordinate

covering

open

we

points,

multiple

a piecewise

to find an

possible
with

Cv.

points. To see how

it can

compact,

+

many

infinitely

that

many multiple
locally

+

CX

Uj

on

6.3,

each

is
is

it

t ^

^

cn

while

t//(n)\302\273

cp

=

rfwy

for

Uj. Hence

Uxn)(Y(Cn-l)).
is

determined

by the

end points

y(cn-\\)

292

Riemann

surfaces

Therefore the value
if we replace
of
does
not change
\302\247yn(p
smooth
Jordan
which
connects
and y(cn)
arc
by
y(cn-\\)
yn
arbitrary
yn
=
in Um : Jy\342\200\236(/> \\yncp. Now select Jordan arcs yu y2, ..., y\342\200\236,
... ,ym
\342\200\242
in this order such that yn intersects
in
at
most
finitely
yi
y2
9n-\\
and

ofyn.

y(cn)
an

and put

points

many

smoothcurve with
and

9
at

\342\200\224

9 m- Now, y

9n

9\\'9i

most

finitely

many multiple

is a piecewise

points connectingy(a)

and

y(b)

cp=

Jy

Jy

<p.

Removing from y piecewise smoothJordan curves C\\, C2, C3, ... in the
smooth Jordan arc yv
way described above, we are left with a piecewise
and
i.e.
connecting
y(b\\
y(a)

9= d
if y(a)

=

So

have

we

If y is a
differentiate

Jordan curves
Jy
C

JC(p

=

J^

+

Cv +

(6.72)

yV9

a closed

is also

curve and we have

(6.73)

proved:

continuously

Let

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

= y(6),then y
Cv.
C2+--+

Cl +

6.12.

Theorem

C2

If y(a)

7^ y(b).
9

+

C\\9

C2,

(p=\\JCi

...,

piecewise smooth closedcurve on 7\302\243,if cp is a
smooth
1-form on 1Z and if the piecewise
Cv are determined by (6.73),then
(p.

(P+.+

<p+\\
JC2

JCV

a piecewise smooth
a
dcp by (6.71) and the JpJ
dp+
be

with
closed 1-formofclassC\302\260\302\260
compact

Jordan curve on 11,
occurring

support.

Hence

in this equality
putting

then

is a

6.3

|y =

+

+ dp

rfp+

+

on a

forms

Differential

Riemann surface 293

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

+

f

Jd^cv

the following theorem:

we obtain

1-form

a closed

exists

cp

If

the

cp is

1-form

Proof:
y :

Let

= 0
Jy(p
on 1Z.

exact

Let

jtq

be

i.e. if

cp

=

du for

=

0 where

that

some continuously
y is an arbitrary

piecewise smooth closedcurves

point of 71. For an
be
*> a piecewisesmooth

y

on

71, then

p G

point

arbitrary

curve

piecewise

closed 1-form on

differentiable

a continuously

a fixed

t ^

and put

u(p) =

be

cp

for all

\342\200\224\342\226\272
fl ^
y(0,

f

exact,

71, (6.46), \\ycp
curve on 71. Conversely

6.14.

Theorem

such

support

closed 1-form definedon 71.

differentiable,

u on

closed

If
7\302\243.

class

there

(6.74)

a continuously

is

differentiable
function

smooth

of
\302\243y

with
C\302\260\302\260
compact

\302\243yA(p

M
where

piecewise smoothJordan curve on 71,then

is a

If y

6.13.

Theorem

cp

is

let
7\302\243,

po and

connecting

p

p.
Jy
jy

The

function

becauseif
yx

u(p)

y\\

is

a closed

\342\200\242is

y-1

<P

-

curve, hence by the

I

not

on

choice

the

connecting po

<P

=\\

Jpo

Therefore

du(p)

=

Cdrollary 1. If cp

p,

then

<p

=

0.

Jyry1

CP

Clj

=

This is so

and

assumption

Therefore we may write u(p) = JT cp. In order to prove
restrict our attention to the coordinatedisk Uj, with
center
=
the
write
we
can
where
Theorem
6.3
cp
By
duj,
Uj
on UJ9 hence, by (6.6):
differentiable
function
continuously
u(p)

of y.

C

h

Jyi

p,

smooth curve

piecewise

CP

CP
\\

depends only on

another

q>+\\

Jqj

duj(p)
is

C<lj

duj=\\

cp

J

+

uj(p)

-

that

du

=

cp, we

qj.
is

a twice

uj(qj).

po

= cp.

a continuously

differentiable

closed 1-form such that

Riemann

294

surfaces

smooth Jordan

all piecewise

\342\200\224
0 for

\\ccp

curves C on

then

ft,

is

cp

exact

on ft.
closed
1-form
Corollary 2. A continuouslydifferentiable
=
is exact if and only if \\n% A cp
0 for all continuously

forms

a compact

with
\302\243

cp

on ft

defined

1-

differentiable

support.

Proof:

(1) If

=

cp

A cp
\302\243

we have by

compact,
\302\243A<p

f

then

du,

=

-[

=

= \342\200\224
rfw A \302\243
rf(w\302\243). Since

\342\200\224

\302\253)=-0.

then
(2) if converselyJ^^f A cp = 0 for all \302\243,
all piecewise smooth closed curves
y

Hence cp

is

of

a region

analytic

a Riemann surfacein its

D is

Since

Jy(p
on ft

=

=

Cx +

Cx +

A

=

cp

0 for

by Theorem 6.13.

then

Deft,

curve y : f
own

right,

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242

Cv +

+

it

is

y(f),

we can

to

possible

^

\342\200\224\342\226\272
a

consideredas a curvein D to obtain
y

J^

exact.

If p and 9 are arbitrary
points
connect p and 9 by a piecewise
D.

is

suppw\302\243

Theorem 6.11:

t ^

in

ft,

apply (6.72) to y

yv

smooth Jordan arc connectingp = y{a) and
yv
\342\200\242
=
q
y{b) in D. Furthermore, when constructing y \342\200\224
yx%yi
fn
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
it is possible
to pick analytic
Jordan
arcs
ym
yn connecting
y{cn-x)
and y(cn). Hencewe have proved the following useful result:
a piecewise

is

where

q are two points of a regionDeft, then
Jordan arc in D.
and
analytic
p
q by a piecewise

p and

If

6.15.

Theorem

possible

to connect

6.4

Dirichlet'sPrinciple

a.

Inner

Let q0
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272

z^/?)

z(p)

=

{/? : |z(/?)|

morphic
Since

z/R

product

norm

be a fixed point of a Riemann
be a local coordinate with

< R} a coordinatedisk.By
defined

function,

: p

and

\342\200\224\342\226\272
is

z(p)/R

on

also

is

it

a region

a local

surface
center

qo

definition,

containing the

coordinate

with

ft

and

and

C/o =

z(/?)

is a

closed disk
center

let z

: /?

\302\243//?(<7o)

biholo[C/o].

90, we may

beginning that C/o is the unit disk {p : \\z(p)\\ < 1}. Let
defined
on a region containing [U] from
S(z) be a holomorphicfunction
the point
of
which
a
smoothJordanarc
C C/o has been deleted. We
qo
\\a\\
assume from the

write

6.4 Dirichlefs Principle 295
=

S(z)

3> +

sake, we will

For simplicity's
been

has

deleted

from the

1-form

on

harmonic

(p =
on

C/o

JO +

\342\200\224

|or|.

prove that
as rfO if

(In

there

-

W

qo even

the point
of

definition

same

the

Uo such

on

We

S(z).

as

singularity

though

qo

call

a

cp

d\302\256 if

there

that

on

defined

</> is not
general,
a harmonic
exists

1-form

</>

on

\\o\\.)

In

with
7\302\243

the

we will

section

this

same

singularity

on d[UQ].

(6.75)

consider

example,

=

S(z)

with

x + iy.

<j90

constant

To give a typical

region of

1Z\342\200\224
\\o\\

z =

y),

\\o\\ include

let

1-form <po

a harmonic

exists

O = $(*,

i'V,

- + z.

z

Since

j;)

tp(*?

*2 +

0 if

=

j>2

=

1, i.e.

W satisfies

condition (6.75).Let {z0,z2,

system of local coordinateson TZ, Zi = {Uo, U\\,
such
locally finite open covering, where each Uj is a region,

Z2,

...}

be a

Ui,

that

...}

a

[UJ] is

and
disk
C/o is a unit
compact and contained in the domain of zy, while
= 0 for
\342\200\224\342\226\272
^
I
let
:
and
the
Zk
j
represent
r^
[Uj] D\\o\\
t>(z*)
A 1-form
K and a 2-form co on 1Z can be
coordinate transformations.
q> on
=
written
as
A rfy respectively.
cp{zj)
q)j\\(zj)dxj + q>j2(zj)dyjand a>\\2(z)dx
For a continuous 2-form a> on K, \\nco is defined by:
=

<*>

jJUj

is a partition

where {pj}
[/* we have

<*>k\\l{Zk)

by

(6.34)

=

=

o>

M

Suppressing
the

\\

a)

index

in

subordinated

unity

XoU\342\200\224

{Uj}.

On

a region

/ ^d(?cj1yj)

2_

0)j\\2{Zj)

d(xk, yk)

hence

Vj

=\\

of

|f/*(Z*)l

and (3.5),

ill

dyj

PjCOjn(zj)dxj

\302\243

Jn

iuk

pyft>iti2

j we

write

a)\\2(z)dxdy.

^

rfVit

=

iuk

o)kU(zk)dxk

dyk.

(6.76)

296 Riemann surfaces
inner

The

1-formscp

continuous, real

of two

product

1Z is

\\p on

and

defined

by
=

V)k

(<P,

A *V>.

<P

Since

*ip =

cp A

+

dx

(cp\\

\342\200\224

A

dy)

(p2

\\p\\

dy)

A dy

+ <P2ip2)dx

(<PiVi

+

<*c
(\342\200\224V>2

then

call

We

=

Vk

(<P>

(<PiVi +

=

\\\\<p\\\\n

f

in

The integral on the
If it

+oo.

towards

<

defined

^

11V11

inner

\342\202\254
TZ, the

ft

<p] +

<

\\\\(p\\\\n-

we

V>2

the

that

For a region

1-forms

continuous

two

in

occurring

integral

is determined.

(cp, ip)ii

of

and

cp

xp

by considering D as a
write (cp, ip) and \\\\cp\\\\ instead
of
defined

are

ofcp

\\\\<p\\\\d

on

+

+ Vi

implies

(cp, ip)D

product

either converges or diverges

is ^ 0. Since

that

and

Riemann surface.Fromnow
{cp,

cp\\

+00

and the norm

on D

by

equality

its value

absolutely

(6.77) converges

D

of this

side

right

P2V2I

and

+00

denoted

cp,

(<P2i+<Pi)dxdy.

converges,

2|piVi +
IMIft

of

cp)n the ho/th

y/(cp,

(6.77)

(pi^i)dxdy.

will

ip)n and ||9>||ft respectively.

Since

+ VO2

(cpx

\\\\cp\\\\

that

<
{cp,

and

+00
xp)

is

+ (cpi

+

+ 00

HvH

implies

in cp and ip,

linear

(cp, xp)

=

||A(p +

//^ll2

(V,

^

V2)2

that

2(cp] +
\\\\cp

+

\\\\Xcp\\\\

cp\\

<

+00.

0 for

X

ip\\\\

=

+ ip\\

e

+

xp\\)

It is
R and

easy to

verify

that

</>).

Hence

= $.<P +
=

for

real

arbitrary

X and

X2\\\\cp\\\\2

^<P
^V\302\273

\\\\Xcp

equality is a positive-definitequadratic
Hence its discriminant (cp, ip)2 \342\200\224
MPIMI2
\\(<P.

V)l

*

\\\\<P\\\\

IIVll-

+

+ 2Mv,V>)

//. Since

this

+ M)

+ //VII2
form

^2f
^ 0

the

in the

ls nonpositive,

right-hand

variables
i.e.

A

side

of.

and

//.

Dirichlet's

6.4

Hence ||<^-H

=

V^H2

ll^>ll2 -H 2C<^>,

V^) H-

||V^I|2 ^

297

Principle

Cll<^ll

H~ IIV^II)2

V>|| +

||Vll ie-

and

therefore

+

\\w+n*\\w\\\\

Replacing
^

\\\\cp

\342\200\224
\\p\\m

cp

by

cp

-

xp we

the

Hence

ui
get ||<p|| ^

\\\\cp

-

IMI -

(6.78)

IIHI-WI^HV-Vll

holds.

Let 5(z) =

O+

be

iSff

where

some

is

<po

+

JO

on TZ

defined

|<x|,

then

exists,

\\a\\9

cpo

=

\342\200\224

d$>

cp

G. we

on

1-form

/r = [C/o].

can

which

|cr|

to

be extended

denote this extension

also

+ (\\W\\\\n-K)2.

\\\\cp0\\\\2K

\342\200\224

a

\342\200\224

C/o

a region

on

defined

the collection of all

We denote

on

by:

\\\\cp\\\\<p

=

\\\\cp\\\\l

to find

possible

1-form on t/o- Put
G D K from

differentiable

continuously

defined

|a|

is

it

such that,

(6.79)

is a harmonicfunction
has been deleted, if such a cp
a continuouslydifferentiable
<p0. We

\342\200\224

1Z

on

<p0

Since O

by

to see if

We want

given.

continuously differentiable 1-formcp
=
cp

IIVll

inequality

satisfying

1-forms

differentiable

continuously

cp

(6.79) and

condition

(i) dcp = 0
(ii)

by

If
\302\243<d.

\342\200\224
0 on

d\\cpo)

d(<P

on C/o, because

= 0

dcpo

\342\200\224

C/o

\342\200\224

\\o\\.

For

on C/o

continuous

dcpo

is

cp,

xp ^

*s

V)o

\302\243<j>,
(</>,

by

Op, V)*

=

+

Vok

(<Po,

\342\200\224

((p, ^Oo

Obviously,

Lemma

+oo

then
\302\243<d,
cp \342\202\254

and dcpo =
defined

<

\\\\cp\\\\<p

(V>

VOt^-a:-

(</>,

(P)o>-

6.1.

(1) If (p, ^
then A(p
ll*<P +

(2) if

cp,

and
\342\202\254
\302\243<i>

A and

G

and
\302\243<i>

+

/^

A*V||*

=

^ are

cp

\342\200\224

differentiable 1-formon

xp

be

can

X +

extended

7\302\243.
Denoting

this

fi =

1,

(6.80)

+ Mf*<P> VOo-

+ f^2\\M\\l

&\\W\\\\l

then
\302\243<*>>
xp \342\202\254

real numbers satisfying

to a continuously

1-form

by

cp

\342\200\224

xp,

we

have

Ik

-

Vll2

-

IMll

-

2(<p,

V)o

+

HVlll-

(6-81)

Riemann surfaces

298

Proof:

(1)

/u

1Z\342\200\224
\\a\\. Finally
+

on C/0 -

+ ip0

on

differentiable

i.e.

+ /^Vo,

^<Po

+ /uip

Xcp

/uip) = 0 on

d{Xq> +

that

\\o\\,

Since

C/o.

that

+

+ /uip G

Xcp

+

+ (P<P

Wo\\\\2k

<

M>\\\\n-K)2

+cx)

\302\243<*>\342\200\242

further

Since

||A(p0

=

+M>o\\\\2K

(2) Since

+ /^2||V;o||^,

+ 2A/i((p0, Vok

>*2|MIk

=

+ /*V>lk-*)2

+ 2X/*(<p9

X2(\\\\(p\\\\k-k)2

xp)n-K

also true.

(6.80) is

=

cp

\342\200\224
=

ip

<p

continuously

d<S>

since

= UM

/itpWl

we conclude

(||A(p

=

rfO + cp0, ip

have Xcp + /i^ = ^^ +
condition (6.79). It is obvious

satisfies

\\\\Xcp

=

<p

^o are

cpo and
= 1, we

where

A+

have

we

(6.79)

By

d$> +

\342\200\224

</>o

= JO

+

\342\200\224

is

Vo

ip can

on

Vo

C/o

\342\200\224

|oJ,

have

we

differentiable

continuously

to a continuously

be extended

\342\200\224

extention coincides

1Z. This

on

differentiable
1-form

ip

while

ipo,

cpo

on C/o.Hence (p

and

cpo

with

\342\200\224

cpo

ipo

on

K,

hence
\"

IIV

If

Lemma 6.2.
that

such

11r] 11

+

IIV

Since cp
differentiable on

\\\\<P

C/o,

= d$>
+

drj

\\\\q>0

+

cp

17

=

that

cp

+ drj G

n |a

=

0, then

I

(<Po,<fyk

Since S(z) =
has been

IMIo +

+ drj

+ dt/Wl

we conclude
supp

(p +

then
G \302\243<*>,

ip

drj G

function on

TZ

\302\243<*>\342\200\242
If,
moreover,

2(<P,

+

cpo

+

<fy)

+

drj

(6.82)

\\\\dti\\\\2.

and

</>o

is

+ ^*7

condition (6.79).

satisfies

continuously

Since obviously

\342\200\224
0 and

+ drj)

If

=

<fy||*

Proof:
d(cp

differentiable

then

77 D |ct I =0,

supp

VIDk-*

continuously

and if

+00

-

(||V

(6.81).

a twice

is

77

<

Vo\\\\2K +

\\\\<Po

proving

(6.68),

by

~

=

V>H2

O+

=

(<P

-

drj\\\\2K

+ (||p

+

<

drj\\\\n-K)2

+00

\302\243<j>.

rfO,

<fyk

=

(<P,

drj)K

-

(JO,

rf^)*.

K from
deleted, the Cauchy-Riemannequationstell us that
*P

is

holomorphic

on a

region G D

which

|cr|

Dirichlet's

64
d\302\256=

Wx dx

+

=

dy

Wy

-\302\256y

+

dx

\302\256xdy

=

299

Principle
*rfO.

Hence

(JO, drj)K=\\

JK

drj/\\*d\302\256=\\

JK

drjAdW=\\

z = ew, 0 ^ 0 ^ 2jt, be a parameter
Let 6 \342\200\224\342\226\272
representation
circle dK. Since by conditon (6.75) 4> == constant
dW/dd = 0, hence by Green's Theorem (Theorem 6.1)

Jo

jok

Jk

d{r]dW),

JK

unit

the

of

on

we have

dK

\302\253^

therefore

and

Hence

=

drf)K

(cpo,

= 0.

rf^

(JO,

(<P, drj)K

=
dti\\\\%

+

\\W

(6.83)

=

\\\\q>o

+

and so
+

dri\\\\2K

\\\\<p0\\\\2K

+ 2(<p,

(\\\\<p

+

dtiWn-tf

dr])K +

+ 2(<p,

(\\\\(p\\\\n-K)2

drj)n-K

+ (||^lk-*)2

=

\\\\cp\\\\l+2(cp9drj)+\\\\drj\\\\2,

(6.82).

proving

Dirichlet's

b.

Principle

Let r] be a twice continuously
satisfying

<

\\\\dr]\\\\

is defined.For fixed
rj

k =

of

e.

C\302\256,hence

all norms

||V +

defined

on

7\302\243

||^ + d^Ho

^||<d, where

+ dri\\\\q>.
inf||^
v

value
of the norms
||V + ^7llo> i.e. there
function
on 7\302\243,
such
differentiable
continuously
77^,defined
=
=
<
k. cp
is a harmonic 1+00 and \\\\ip + ^||o
\\p + drjoo
H^ooll
on Tl with the same singularity as dip.
will
of
this result in this section. Selecting a sequence {?/\342\200\236}
prove
functions
with
such
differentiable
<+00
r]n
continuously
\\\\drjn\\\\

In

fact,

the

k is

minimum

a twice

exists

that
form
We

twice

that lim^oollV
(Pn
and

rp let

ip + drj

as above:

function

is a

function

differentiable

then
If V \342\202\254
\302\243<d,
k be the infimum

+oo.

we

Dirichlet's

theorem.

=

+

drjn\\\\

V + drjn,

obviously
Principle

have
is

=

k, we put

dn =
lim^oo
contained

(5W

- *2

\\/|MI*
=

0. An

in the

important

proof of the

(6.84)
part of the proofof
following

existence

300

Riemann

surfaces

Theorem 6.16. Thereexistsa
- <p\\\\ =0.
lim^oollp,,
Let us

Proof:

first

the

prove

cp G C<&

1-form

such

that

inequality

(6.85)

\\\\(Pm-(Pn\\\\^dm-dn.

For arbitrary

R satisfying
\342\202\254

A, ft

=

+

Xq>m

A + /i = 1, we have

^<p\342\200\236

V +

+ /^*)

d(Xtjm

hence
^

+ft(Pn\\\\

\\\\A(pm

^ =

A2K2

+ /U2K2.

+2X/UK2

by (6.80)

Therefore,

*2(ll<Pn.||*-

K2)

<Pn)*

+ 2lf*d<Pm,

~ K2) +

~
A\\\\(Pn\\\\l

K2) ^

0.

Hence,
~

\\(<Pm,

Vn)*

\\(<Pm,

<Pn)<&

*2\\2 ^

~ *2\\

(||Pm||*

i.e.
^

~K2\\

dm-dn-

Using (6.81) we have
~

\\\\cpm

(pn\\\\2

=
=

^
^

~
\\\\<Pm\\\\\\>

||<Pm||o

-K2
~

\\\\<Pm\\\\%

52m

+ 2dm

+ \\\\(pn\\\\%
<?\342\200\236)<!>

2(<pw,

- 2{((pm,(pn)<p

K2 +

<Pn)&

2\\(<Pm,

\342\200\242

d2n +

d2n

=

~

~

(dm +

K2) +

\\\\(pn\\\\\\>

*?\\ +

\\\\<Pn\\\\%

we prove

Next

rj

n \\a

\\

rj

C

=

(6.86)

0 and

(6.87)

C/0.

For arbitrary

by (6.82),

X

IR and
\342\202\254

assuming

i.e.
d2n

+ 2X(cpn,dri)

+

Therefore,

\\(cpn,drj)\\2^\\\\drj\\\\2'd2n,

proving

*?

that

1(^0,^)1^1!^!!-^
supp

~

<5\342\200\236)2,

\\((pn,drj)\\^\\\\dri\\\\-dn,

if

K2

(6.85).

proving

if supp

~

(6.86).

X2\\\\dr]\\\\2^0.

supp .7 D |a

|=0

we

have

If

C/o =

C

supp?7

Principle 301

Dirichlefs

6.4
K, then

hence
drj) +

+ 2A((pM0,

\\Wn\\\\l

^

l2\\\\dr]\\\\2

k2.

obtain (6.87) in a similarway.
such
existence of a cp \342\202\254
\302\243<j>
prove
there
to
show that
suffices

From this we

the

To

it

3,...

continuously

<P(j)\\\\u-

1-form

C/o

that

such

cpo

to verify
|cr |,

if C/y n

the required

~

\\\\<PU)

0,

\302\243/it
^

~

\\Wn

as n
Hence

-

||^(y)

Similarly, if

Uj

D

^

C/o

=

+ cpo coincide

d$>

and

</>(,-)

by putting

consider

can

=

cp

on

</>(7)

cp0

=

~

IIPn

=

<PH2

-

supp

\342\200\224
q>\\ dx

po

(Ik,

Since,for

=

A*(p

(p

(p

<Po\\\\k

to prove that

In order

and

-*

</>{k)\\\\uk

0,

on

coincide

+
+

<PU)\\\\Uj

UjDUk.

Uj D C/0, hence

on

<pwo

|1<P*0

~

<Polk

\"\342\226\272

0,

cp

rfO

7^1,

~
<P0\\\\2K

+

=

<p

1-form (p

d\302\256+

defined

K =

containing
~

(\\\\<Pn

cpo

on

on
TZ

C/o

-

\342\200\224

\\o\\.

to a continuously

extended

being

a region

on

\\\\<Pn0

as

C/o.

and

[C/o].Since

(pWlZ-K?

= [C/o],we have
H<Pn0

where

on

<po

<P{k)\\\\lJfiUk

~

cpw

on Uj D

Uj,

\342\200\224

differentiable 1-formdefined
and K

\\\\<Pn~

\\Wn

JO

|a|, we obtain a continuously differentiable
We

easy

\342\200\224\342\226\272
\302\253
oo.

Therefore,
Hence,

and

^ ||<Pn -

(PoWujHUo

cp

is

it

rfO +

\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo.

i.e.

0.

+

<P(j)\\\\uj

^
0,7 ^ 1, then <pn

-d<&-

\\\\(P{J)

as

=

<P(*)l|i//it/*

+

<Pn\\\\ujnUk

\\\\<PU)

^

=

1, then
~

^

<P(k)\\\\ujDUk

and

closed

\342\202\254
\302\243<&.)

cp

1, * ^

^

y

j =1,2,
such that

cp^

Uj, / ^ 1,

(p = cp^ on all

put

we obtain

\342\200\224

First,

lim^ooH^o

we

if

that

1-forms

0,

<p||

Uj and a continuously differentiable
\342\200\224
on C/o. (Because
<Po\\\\u0 =0

0 on

=

\342\200\224

\342\200\224 =

limw_^oo||<P/z
all
for

exist

closed

differentiable

liirin-KX)!!(/)\342\200\236

that

all

=

q>2

C C/o, we

dy

7,

E

=

cp\\\\n-k

|</>|2

arbitrary

f

pTxin-K

+

-=(/)?

have Xj^i/9/ = 1 on

- <p|k-*)2 =

\302\260>

\342\200\224

rfy,

is an

~>

(po\\\\u0

lim^od!^

\\(p\\2dx A
+

-

\\\\(pn0

PjWn

as

w -*

0, we

oo.

write

(p\\,

1-form. Since po +

IZj^iPj

~1

\342\200\224
7\302\243 .K and

-

cp\\2dxdy.

(6.88)

Riemann

302

surfaces
-

\\Wn

~

\\\\<Pn

-+ 0

<P(j)\\\\uj

as

n

-\342\226\272
oo

have

we

cp\\2dxdy =

\\cpn-

-

\\\\cpn

-\342\226\272

cpfy

0,

\342\200\224>
oo.

then

compact,
side

right-hand

^

(p\\2dxdy

JUj

as n
is
7\302\243

~

PjWn

JTl-K

If

=

<p\\\\uj

Zi =

of (6.88)

{\302\243//}

is a

finite

=

0.

an

is

open
and

sum

covering and the sum in the
we can conclude immediately

that

lim||(pw-(p||^-A:

n\342\200\224>oo

If

TZ is

not compact, then
~

y2
j^{

^

<Pn\\2dxdy

PjW\342\204\242

JTl-K

JTl-K

=

\\<pm-

(pn\\2dxdy

(\\\\<Pm-<Pn\\\\n-K)2

^\\\\<Pm-<Pn\\\\2^(dm+dn)2

~

\\<Pm

with

both sides of the

Hence, multiplying

by (6.85).

^

<P\\2

~

2\\<pm

over 11

an(* integrating

Ylj=\\Pj

\302\243

pj\\v\302\273

f

= 0 and

Since lim,,-^ 6n

(pn\\2 +

v\\2dxdy

-

2\\<pn
\342\200\224

we

K,

inequality
q>\\2

obtain
-

*2((5\342\204\242+dn)1+2
\302\243 n*\302\273

limw_oo||(pw

<p\\\\uj

=

0 we

^ur

have

*

f

]T

j=x Jn-K

Pj\\<pm-<p\\2dxdy^2d

m'

Therefore
CO

K-K)

(\\\\<Pm-<p\\\\

\\2

.89)
7=1

-

Therefore

lim

\\\\(pm
m\342\200\224KX)

-

\342\226\240

-

=

(p\\\\n-

=

0,

\342\226\240K

hence

0.

lim \\\\(pm
\342\226\240<P\\\\
m\342\200\224\342\226\272oo
In

order

and
TZ\342\200\224\\o\\

to prove
(ii)

|M|o

that

cp

< oo.

we
G \302\243<*>

have

Since on all

to prove
j ^ l,cp

\302\243//,

that

=

(i)
cp^j)

dcp
and

= 0
the

on
(p(7-)

Dirichlefs

6.4

1-forms, we have
dcp0 = 0, we have

are closed
on

and

C/o,

\\\\<P\\\\K-K ^

-

\\\\<P

d(dQ>

+

<Pmh-K

limn^ooWcpno

such

By

(6.85)

we

<Pn\\\\uj

~

\\\\<Pm0

and

< +00,

H^/ttHo

\\(<Pn,

0 and

^

||<Pm

^

~

u < +oo

the

defined on the unit

sequence {dn}

(i)
(ii)
for an
supp
cp

on

77 C

the

cp is

then

unit disk

we have

1,

d(rjcp)
since

C/0.

at the

origin in the

lemma

following

with

the z-plane.

U of

two conditions

following

with

to

respect

= 0:

||^||t/-(5M,
function

differentiable

continuously

with

rj

there exists

a continuously differentiable,closed1-form

U such that

\\\\<p\\\\u

cp

<

and lim^ooH^,,

+oo

been

has

established,

following way. For an arbitrary
a < 0, such
: |z| < 1 \342\200\224
a},

in the

determine W = {z
Green's Theorem (Theorem6.1)we

Therefore,

that

differentiable 1-forms cpn

0 and limw_oo6w

>

existence of such a

closed

the

to

disk

the
6n

twice

arbitrary

JU

C/o such

^ 5W+5W,
^

df/)u\\

\\(cpn,

Once the
that

with

-<pn\\\\u

\\\\(pm

[/,

that

Uj

c

center

with

disk

unit

of continuously

Lemma 6.3. If {cpn}satisfies
a real

to prove

<5W,

C

supprj

-(5W,

H^llt/o

Uj as

{(pn}

sequence

||

+

supply

\\\\drj\\\\urdn9

reduces

\\\\<Pn

on

cpo

j ^

<5W,

^ $m

<Pn\\\\u0

\\\\<Pm

zy-plane.HenceTheorem6.16
concerninga

+

^^m

(pn\\\\

~

^

^

dtj)Uo\\

consider

may

=

<Pn0\\\\u0

drj)Vj\\

\\(<Pno,

We

1-form

closed

+oo.

and (6.87):

(6.86)

by

cpo

(6.89):

have:

~

||<Pm

+

JO

continuously differentiable closed 1-forms
<Po\\\\u0
= 0 for
that lim^ooll^,,
j ^ 1.
(Pu)\\\\uj

\342\200\224

Uj

=

cp

\\o\\,

\\Wm\\\\n-K

there exists a continuouslydifferentiable;
on

\342\200\224

Uq

+ cpo) = 0. Henceby

< +oo, we have \\\\<p\\\\<& <
||</>oII a:
to prove our Theorem 6.16,it suffices

In this way, in order

<P(j)

on

0. Since

=

dcp

m +

and hence, sinceobviously

=

dcp

303

Principle

=

d(r]cp)

(p\\\\u

it follows

=

0.

rj with

supp

easily
rj C U,

supp

77 C

FF.

By

have

d(rjcp) =\\

J[W]

that

\342\200\224

rjcp

=

0

Jd[W]

= (drj

A

cp)

+ (rj

A dcp)

=

(cp

A **

^77) + (rj

dcp),

Riemann

304

surfaces

t]d(p =

\342\200\224\\
cp A**drj

Since

dcpn

=

have

0, we

=

*drj)u\\

\\(cp9

=

\342\200\224(cp,
*drj)u-

Ju

Ju

-

\\{cp

^

=

*drj)u

(cpn9

\342\200\224

\\vrj

= 0.

dcpn

Hence

cpn, *drj)u\\
n->oo.

\\\\<P-<Pn\\\\v\\\\*dTi\\\\u->09

Therefore

= 0.

rjd(p = ~{q>9*drj)u

L
W

Since
dcp

=

in order

suppty

~

=

<P\\\\2U

</>l|2 +

~

\\<Pn2

C U9 we

conclude

that

0,

functions
and

1-form

differentiable

to prove
q>2 on

and

q>\\

dy9

<Pl^)dx

it suffices

[/, such

that

cp

exist

there

that

for

all

we have:

{(pni}

-<P\\\\2dxdy-^09

\\<Pn\\

JU

=

||<Pn~ (p \\\\u

limw_oo

differentiable
continuously
function
sequences {cpn\\}

\\<Pn2-<P2\\2dxdy^0,

JU

\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo.

n

end, we

define

if,g)=\\
where /

~

(\\<Pn\\

Ju

to prove the existence of a continuously

that

To this

rj with

arbitrary

0. Since
\\\\<Pn

such

holds for

= 0

\\vr]d(p

f(z)g(z)dxdy,

Ju

= f(z) = f(x

continuously differentiable
(<Pn,

and

iy)

=

df]x)u

g =
with

function

(<Pn\\Vxx +

f
Ju

g(z) =

U = {z : \\z\\

defined on

functions

continuous

+

=

Il/H2

supp

\\f{z)\\2dxdy

g(x + iy)

are

1}. If rj is
t] C U, then

real-valued
a three

<

times

<Pn2Vxy)dxdy,

Ju

=

(<Pn, *drjy)u

Ju

(-(PnlVyy +

<Pn2Vxy)dxdy

hence

(cpnU Arj)

Since d(pn
\\(<pnU

and

=

=
Ju

09 we
Arj)\\

=

cpn\\{rjxx

have

(cpn9

=

+ Vxy)dxdy
=

*drjy)u

\\((pn,

drix)u\\

\\{cpn9

dfiy)u\\

^

(</>\342\200\236,
drjx)u

0. Therefore,

\\\\dYix\\\\u*dn9

similarly,

|((pn2,

Arj)\\

=

^

||^||t/

-<5\342\200\236.

-

(q)n, tdrjy^.

by condition

(ii),

Dirichlefs

6.4

Since
have,

=

\\\\dVx\\\\l

+
\\\\r,\342\200\236f

and

||^||2

=

\\\\dtiy\\?v

305

Principle

we

+ H^H2,

||^||2

putting

=

N(V)

+

+ IWI2

IW2

0V\302\253||2

that

Since

-

\\\\cpmX

condition

* N(rj)

AV)\\

\\toHl9

+

<pnl\\\\2

\342\200\242
(5\342\200\236,

-

\\\\<pml

=

(pn2\\\\2

tf fo)

^

Ai/)|

\\(cpn2,

-

Up*,

\342\200\242
6\342\200\236.

have

we

p\342\200\236||y,

by

(i)

~

||<Pml

<Pn\\

II

to prove

in order

Therefore,

dm +

^

$n,

~

\\\\<Pm2

Lemma 6.3 it

<Pn2\\\\

^m +

^

<3\342\200\236.

the following

to prove

suffices

lemma.
Lemma 6.4. If

with

real

=

lim^ocd,,

U such

on

defined

{fn}

sequence
{dn} of positive
the
of
continuous functions
0,
sequence
< +oo
satisfies the following
\\\\fn\\\\
some

to

respect

numbers satisfying

that

conditions:

+ dn9

\\\\fm-fm\\\\*dm

(0

(ii) If

rj

an arbitrary

is

three times

with

supp rj C U, then

\\{fn,

Aj/)|

^

there

such

that ll/H <

\342\200\242

-

to prove this lemma,we put
real numbers a and /3,
positive

=

f\\\\

P =
/? <

\\z\\2

function

+ HM2.

+ II^IP

^/ll^P

function /

differentiable

+to and lim^ooH/,,

In order
small

=

N(n)

6n,

a continuously

exists

then

N(rj)

continuously differentiable

on

defined

=

x2 +

a, let p{P)

y2. For sufficiently

be a

C\302\260\302\260
function

P such that:

if P ^

p(P) =1

0 ^ p(P)^ 1 if
p(P) = 0
we

Next,

rje(P)

for

77

determine
satisfying

j32

01
P^a2

^

if a2 P.
a three times continuously
=^

0 <

( r]E(P) is a third

polynomial

[ UP) = ^~P(P)logP
A

simple

which

calculation

defines rjE(P)

yields

function

differentiable

rj < /3 such that:
degree

the following

when 0 ^

P ^ e2:

U

0.

in P

if 0

^ P ^ e2

ife2^P.
expression

for

the

polynomial

of

306

Riemann

surfaces
1

Since

-

d1t]e(P)/dx2

= (

Ai/e(/0

Hence, for

+

^

^ J

+ 17K/O).

4(ft/e'(P)

=

^(P-\302\2432)2.

putting

O^P^e2,

At/\302\243(P),

\"M*
we conclude

P^e2,

that

is a

Ee(P)

^ 0.

Ee{F)

of P such

1

z=

putting

(6.90)

re,e, we have

r

rfP =

r2, hence

=

P

r\302\243
r2jr
\302\243\302\243(P)cfctdp

2r

and

rfr

r\302\2432

=

i

differentiable function

continuously

Further,

\\E\302\243(P)dxdy=

because

=

%(/0

2

A^(P)

that

have

we

\302\253\302\243
P *\302\243
\302\243

0

Therefore,

4x2tj?(P) + 2^(^)>

=

E\302\243(P)rdrdB

JoJo

n\\

Jo

Ee(P)dP
2
\302\243

3 r2

=

eydp

=

6
^(P-e')

1.

0

We put

A/(P) = -L A(p(P)log
that

Note
0

/32, we have

P ^

^

in

contained

Let

W

M(P)

w =

by

=

T/6(Z,

W)

M(z,

w) =

as we

w

^(z,

w) and M(z, w)
G

W, then

-

write

will write

\\z\\

P ^
^

a}.

-

\342\200\242

8p'(P))
0. Since p(P) = 1

P ^

for

a2. Therefore,suppM(|z|2)
is
Obviously

(6.91)

0 and

center

radius

1

\342\200\224

a

and

let us

represent

put

W|2),

\302\243\302\243(z,
W)

=

~

\302\243\302\243(|z
W|2),

w|2).

/

functions

supp

of

0 for

^

log

M(P).

ii>. We

M(|z -

sometimes

the

+

T]E(\\Z

w we

If w

{z : /3

annulus

the

=

i

\342\200\242

^Ap(P)

C\302\260\302\260
function

A^(P) = EE(P)
C C/ be a disk with

points of W

Just

is a

M{P)

= -L

P)

for

/(z),

rj\302\243(z,w),

supressing

the variable

\302\243\302\243(z,
w) and

M\302\243(z,

w)

respectively.
t/\302\243(z,w)

C

U. Hence

by condition

(ii)

z, for
as

fixed

w),
?7\302\243(z,

6A Dirichlefs Principle 307
Arj\302\243(z9
|(/\342\200\236,

Since

=

rj\302\243(z,w)

=
7V(\302\243)

putting

^

w))|

\342\200\224
?7\302\243(|z
vv|2),

N(rj\302\243(z9

6n.
is not

w))

dependent

on w. Hence,

we have

w)),

N(rj\302\243(z,

-

w))

N(rj\302\243(z9

\\(fn,Ar]\302\243(z,w))\\^N(e)-6n.

Therefore, by (6.91)
-

w))
|(/w, \302\243\302\243(z,

(fn9 M(z,

^

w))\\

\342\200\242
<5\342\200\236.

N(e)

(6.92)

Putting
(E\302\243g)(w)

=

(g,

\302\243\302\243(z,
w))

=

E\302\243{z9w)g(z)dxdy

Ju

g =

where

g(z) is an

||g|| < +oo,
We

we

consider

ll^slk

<

a

as

(E\302\243g)(w)

Ee : g \342\200\224\342\226\272
E\302\243gan
integral
We will prove
call

on

function

continuous

arbitrary

of w defined

function

(Esg)(w)

and applying

Ju

Since,

v^*(z\302\273

w)

*

w)g(z)dxdy

VEe(z>

Schwarz's inequality we obtain

\\(EEgXw)\\2^

f Ee(z,w)dxdy\\
Ju

Ju

Ee(z, w)\\g(z)\\2dxdy.

(6.90):

by

Ju

=

E\302\243(z, w)dxdy

Ju

=

\342\200\224
w\\2)dxdy
E\302\243(\\z

1

we have:
l(\302\243fgXw)|2^

f

\302\243\302\243(z,
vv)|g(z)|2rf*rfy.

JU

since
E\302\243(z, w)du

we arrive

dv

^

E\302\243(\\w

-

z\\2)dy dv

^ 1,

at

f

JW

\\(E\302\243g)(w)\\2dudv^ f

JU

|g(z)|2rfxrf>;,

which proves(6.93).
We

put

(Mg)(w)

= (g,

W.

(6-93)

\\\\g\\l

=

on

operator.

as
(\302\243\302\243g)(w)

Writing

Hence,

U satisfying

M(z, w)) =

M(z,

vv)g(z)dx.iy;

Riemann

308

continuousfunction

is a

(Mg)(w)
be two

surfaces

arbitrary points in
-

\\(Mg)(w)

and M(P) is a
=

w)

M(z,

M(|z

-

w)

and

w\\

w,)|| ||g||

M(z,

satisfying
M(P)
continuous in z and

-

wi)||2

Af(z,

prove this, let w

= 0 if P ^

P

is uniformly

w|2)

-

||M(z, w)
of

C\302\260\302\260
function

||M(z,
is w

(MgXwOl ^

\342\200\224

W. To

w on

of
Since

W.

[

-

w)

\\M(z,

iu

M(z,

w. Therefore
-+

wx)\\2dxdy

a2,

0

\342\200\224\342\226\272

Furthermore,

wi.

|(Mg)(>v)|s\302\243||M(z,w)||||g||

6

and if w

then

W

*\302\243
\\\\M\\\\

\\(Mg)(w)\\

inequality we

By this
hence

on w. Putting

not dependent

w)\\\\ is

\\\\M(z,

-

\\(Mfm)(w)

U and M(z, w)

w) d

M(z,

supp

||M||

=

-

M(\\z

w)\\\\ we

\\\\M(z,

hence

w\\2),

have

weW.

\\\\g\\\\,

have

=

(6.94)
-

\\(Mfm)(w)

\\\\M\\\\(dm +

^

(Mfn)(w)\\

(Mfn)(w)\\

*\302\243

||M||

\\\\fm

-

fn\\\\,

dn)

by condition (i).

Since

on

uniformly

all

that

=

lim^-^ood^

on

function sequence

the other

and observing

that

f(w)

is

too

and

W

\\(Mf\342\200\236)(w)-f(w)\\ ^
On

conclude

in w, we

continuous

(Mfn)(w) converges

= limM_^00(A#w)(>v),

f(W)

Putting

are

(Mfn)(w)

continuous

0, the

W.

disk

the

we

||M||.(5m,

W.

(6.95)

hand, by (6.92)

\\(E\302\243fm)(w)-f(w)\\^N(e)-dm.

Hence

-

\\(E\302\243fm)(w)

|g(w)| ^ c, then

If, in general,

Wm-f\\\\w

=

||g||^

W.

we

$w\\g(w)\\2dudr

^ jzc2, hence

+ N{e))-dm.

y/5K\\\\M\\\\

and condition(i)

Since, by (6.93)
\\\\EEfn

*s

+ N(e))\342\200\242
dm,

^ (|| M||

f(w)\\

-

E\302\243fm\\\\w

^

\\\\fn

+ dm

-fm\\\\

^dn

+

6m
N(e))\342\200\242

we obtain
~
\\\\EJn

f\\\\w

Therefore, since \\\\mm

^

^{\\\\M\\\\

\342\200\224
\342\200\224>oo&m 0, we

+ 6m

+ 6n.

have

\\\\EEfn-f\\\\w^dn.

Because Ee(z, w)
is
/\342\200\236(z)

1

\342\200\224

a +

uniformly

/?}, the

^ 0,

EE

\342\200\224

continuous

function of w

0

if

\\z

^

\342\200\224

on for

w\\

e and

/^(z,

w) = 1, while

example the closed disk {z : \\z\\

^

Dirichlet's

6.4

(EEf\342\200\236)(w)

=

w)fn(z)dxdy

on

to fn(w)

uniformly

converges

\\E\302\243(z,

the continuous function / by
1 \342\200\224
0 < a < 1, there
a},

Designating
{w :

=

\342\200\224

for each

see that

we

fw,

are

<

\\w\\

disk

functions

continuous

fw

the inequality

W satisfying

on

fw(w)

if s \342\200\224>
Therefore
+0.

W

11=1,2,3,....

||/\342\200\236-/lk^<5\342\200\236,

W

309

Principle

\\\\fn-fw\\\\w*&n.

If

as

=

V

^

-/irllir

IL/V

i.e.

W C

that

such

is

V

{w :

<

\\w\\

a < 1,then:

y}, y <

+ ll/n

-/nlk

IL/V

-

1

^

-/Vlk

-*

26M

0,

\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo
\302\253

= fw(w) if w \342\202\254
W. Hence
there exists a continuous
which coincideswith fw in each W, while

/V(w)

on U

/

function

\\\\fn-f\\W*&n.
is independent
Since 6\342\200\236

of W

||/,-/||^(5w,

Since

<

suffices
{w :

\\w\\

it follows

+oo,

||/\342\200\236||

prove this

= IJ o<a<iW,
n= 1,2,3,....
and [/

immediately

(6.96)

that

In order

< oo.

||/||

to

disk
U, it
/ is continuously differentiable on the unit
is continuously differentiable on each W =
to show that
/
< 1 \342\200\224
<
<
1. Thereforewe fix W again, by (6.96) and
0
a
a},

(6.94) we

function

have
\\(Mf\342\200\236)(w)

-

^

{Mf)(w)\\

\\\\M\\\\

(Mf)(w) = limw_>00(A//'w)(w)
Umn-^ooiMfnXw) by the definition
Hence,

= (M/)(w)

f(w)

SinceM(P) is a
w

=

u +

+

iv)

w G

for

W.

we

also

while

Wy

f(w)

=

Therefore

off.

weW.

(6.97)

of P,
=

w) =

M(z,

-

M(\\z

w|2),

z =

p ^

a2, hencethe

x+

iy,

iv,
of A\", Y,

C\302\260\302\260
function

\342\200\242
d\342\200\236,

= (f9 M(z, w)),

C\302\260\302\260
function

M(x + iy, u

is a

have

we

U and

i;. /w(/?)

=

0 for

partial

derivative

fiu(Z9
is a

uniformly
we can

> 0
\302\243

^

d
\342\200\224M(x,

My,

iv) =

u +

continuous function of z and
> 0 such that
a 6(e)
find

|MM(z,

Let h

W) =

0 be

wi)

-

a real

Mu(z9

w)\\

number.By

^
the

e if

\\wx

Mean

w,

-

-

M\\\\z

for

w

w\\ <

Value

w\\2)

\342\200\242
2u

W. Hence
\342\202\254

for each

(6.98)

6(e).

Theorem

we have

310 Riemannsurfaces
h +

u +

M(z9

O<0<

hence,if

\342\200\224

iv)

u +

M(z,

iv) =

Mu(z,

+ 6h

u

+ to),

1,
w +

M(z9

^ 0 then

d(s) and h

h <

<
\342\200\224d(e)

\342\200\224

h)

w)

M(z9

-

<

Mu(z9 w)

y/jt89

and therefore

M(z, w

+

\342\200\224

h)

<

w)

Mu(z9

y/jTE.

by (6.97)

Hence,

\\f(w+h)-f(w)
this

Since

6(e)9

fu(u + to)
Since by

^

w|

w. Similarly,

u +

and

that

such

h

to u

respect

on W and the

iv)).

/(w) = /(w + to)
the partial

w. Therefore,

function

of

function

of u

and i; on

Theorem

6.17.

The

-

wx)

\\\\Mu{z9

ll/H

is clear

it
<5(\302\243),

v and

to

0

that

(6.98)

\342\200\224<

respect

e >

by

= (f9 Mu(z9

\\fu(wi)-fu(w)\\ ^
if |wi

y/jti JtS.

arbitrary

conclude

0, we

is given

derivative

for

holds

h

Mu{z9 w))

(f,

is partially differentiable with

+ iv)

is, f(u

partial

-

inequality

h <

<
\342\200\2246(e)

That

-

w)

M(z,

that /M(w) = (/,

derivative

=

fv(w)

= /(w

/(w)

to be

seen

is

Mu(z9

w)\\\\

AfM(z,

w))

^

H/ll

\342\200\242

vSEfi,

in

is continuous

partially differentiable with
(/, My(z, w)) a continuous

+ to) is a continuously

differentiable

W.

1-form

<p

e

in Theorem

\302\243<j>,
occurring

6.16, has the

following properties:

(i)

cp

=

ip +

on TZ such

function
(ii)

rjoo

is a

twice continuously

that ||</J7oo||<

differentiable

+\302\260\302\260>

= K,

|M|o

(iii) if

where

drj009

is

r]

supp^H

twice
\\o\\

=

on

differentiable

TZ9

such

that

\\\\drj\\\\

<

+oo,

0, then

(cp, drj) = 0,
(iv)

cp

is

a harmonic

1-form on

TZ

with

the

same

singularities

as d<&.

6A Dirichlet's Principle

311

Proof:
(i)

the

on

form

\342\200\224
to
a twice
cp
continuously
\\p
whole of 1Z. Denoting this 1-form

differentiable

extend

can

We

also

by

1-

\342\200\224
ip9 we

cp

have
-

\\\\cp

If

-

ip

an

is
\302\243

=

drjn\\\\

arbitrary
support

compact

=

(dVn,

*\302\243)

Jrc

-

\\\\cp

n

-\342\226\272

0,

(pn\\\\

-\342\226\272
oo.

differentiable closed 1-formwith
continuously
on 11, we have by Corollary2 to Theorem6.14
=

drjn A

**\302\243

= 0.

a drjn

Jn

Therefore
-

|(<p

=

v,

\342\200\224
\342\200\224

|(<p

*\302\247)|

*S)I

^i.,

v^

and hence

Therefore,by
form on

Since
I
I

n

For

on

\\Wn

d^oo

for some

as

Since
7\302\243.

cp

\342\200\224

is

ip

continuously differentiable

^

w>lk

-

exact differential

\\Wn

<p\\\\ii-k ^

-

<p\\\\

-+

0,

\342\200\224
^11\342\200\224^0

\\\\<pn

have

\342\200\224\342\226\272
we

00,

+ (IMk-*)2 =

= llvolli

real

an arbitrary

Since

cp

+

continuously
* cp) = 0

conclude

that

= 0 by
Jye^rf

support such

that

=

+ dirjoo
=

k2.

+

(iii).

rj

Since

we

have

2X(cp9

drj)

1-form

rjd *
TZ

with

6.11.
cp

=

\342\200\224

\\o |,

+ Xdrj\\\\^
^
+ X2\\\\drj\\\\2
\\\\cp

and supp

is compact

0. Since this
rj C

+ Xdr,\\\\%.

Xrj),

Theorem

* cp =
supp

\\\\cp

Hence,

0.

by

= k2.

Bm
H^Hi
n\342\200\224\342\226\272oo

by (6.82)

differentiable

d(v

(cp9 drj)

have

X2\\\\dti\\\\2

that supp

rj such

Selecting

we

X

dti) +
Xdrj = xp

+ 2X(cp,

\\n

^

IMk-*l

\\\\<p\\\\%

is a

ip

cp

r]^

-

^ Ikno

while by (ii) \\\\<p\\\\%
therefore, (cp, drj) =
(iv)

ip

\342\200\224

||p-Vll <+oo.

IMkl

-

Ik/ilk-/:

IMI*
(iii)

-

is an

\342\200\224

cp

7700 is twice

by (6.78)

\\Wm\\\\k

if

function

differentiable,

and H^ooll =

2,

Corollary

can represent

we

i.e.
7\302\243,

continuously

(ii)

same

the

differentiable

continuously

= o.

= fo>-V>*D

|Afo>-vO

I

6/(77

drj
\302\247n
\342\200\224

is true for
we conclude

A *(p,

drj

all

rj with
that

cp

hence

support,

compact

* q>)

=0,t]*

r}C\\\\o\\

Further,

^ k2,
0 and

A *(p =

we
compact
0 on

rf * <p =

Riemann surfaces

312

1Z\342\200\224
\\o\\.

cp is

Therefore,

Uq

\342\200\224

\\o\\9 where

such
d *

that

cpo

the same

This completesthe
determined

\\p because

by

for an

by (6.85)
Remark
twice

cp

arbitrary

Let us denoteby

1:

cp

continuously

cp

*rfO)

d * (po

=

\342\202\254
\302\243<&.

cp

\342\200\224

d&

cpo on

function on Uo
on

\342\200\224

Uo

\\o\\,

- \\o|,while
on C/o,and therefore
0 on Uo

0

1-form on

harmonic

</> is a

Principle.
=

<^7oo||

k: is

uniquely

+ drj.

on

of functions v

collection

the

T<&

differentiable

=

function

=

\342\200\224

satisfying ||V +

=

cp\\

So

since

as JO.

singularities

ip + dr]^
we have

\\o\\

\\o\\.

on C/o- Hence

of Dirichlet's

proof

=

=

is harmonic

\342\200\224

\342\200\224

harmonic

d(*cp
on C/o- Hence

is continuous

with
7\302\243

The 1-form

continuously
0. Since 4> is a

0, henced * cpo

1-form

on TZ

differentiable

is a

cpo

=

dcpo

d$> =

rf * cpo
the

other hand, dcp = 0
a harmonic 1-form on TZ

the

On

\342\200\224

\\o\\ and

TZ

are

that

the following two

satisfy

conditions:

(i)

=

v

O +

Vo

on

\342\200\224

C/o
on

i;o is

where

|o*|,

differentiable

function

\\\\dv0\\\\2K

+ (\\\\dv\\\\n-K)2<+\302\260o

a twice

continuously

C/o-

(ii)

For y 6

T\302\256,the

expression

the Dirichlet

is called

we obtain
Dirichlet's

from

the

Principle

integral of v.

above

If

Dirichlet's

v

then
\342\202\254
\302\243<*\302\273

D(y)

for 1-forms

Principle

There exists

a

Uo

^o\342\200\224

\\o\\9

||rfy||^,
the

hence

following

for functions:

Dirichlet s Principle
v G

=

function

u

This function w is harmonic
where
uo is a harmonic function

that

such

\342\202\254
T$>

on
on

TZ

\342\200\224

Uo.

\\o\\

D(u) ^
and

(Weyl,

D(v)

w = O

+

for
wo

all
on

1955)

can
be simplified
The above proof of Dirichlet's
Principle
by
A
method
of
1-form
(Weyl,
1940)
orthogonal
projection.
invoking Weyl's
=
tp2 are
\\p
rj)\\dx + ipidy is called Lebesguemeasurableif tp\\ and
x
the
localcoordinates
and
measurable
functions
of
us
y. Let
Lebesgue

Remark 2:

denote

Lebesgue measurable

of all

collection

H\302\256the

by

Principle 313

Dirichlet 's

6.4

1-formsxp

on

1Z,

satisfying

= IVolli

.Ml*

+oo,

is

=

Vo

V

the collection of

of orthogonal
projection
extended
from \302\243<j>to

method

the

By

consideration

+ (llVlk-*)2 <

Since

?|<j>.

\\\\(pm

- </*-

1-forms

under

\342\200\224
is
<pn\\\\\342\200\224>0

existence of an element cp e Jfy\302\256such
that limw_^oo||(p\342\200\236
immediately from the completenessof
is now
to show that
this
the Hilbert space pfo. The difficulty
cp is
be
Let
a
twice
differention
differentiable
Uq.
rj
continuously
continuously
(6.85), the
\342\200\224=
0 follows
cp\\\\

m

\342\200\224\342\226\272
\342\200\224\302\273
oo and
oo by
\302\253

able

with
7\302\243

on

function

((p, ^77) =

then

lim^oo

0

*drj) = 0 if

(cpo,

lemma,

following

(<p, *drj)

that

\342\200\224
0;
77 H \\o\\

supp

= lim^oo^,,,

*drj) =
((p0, drf) =

6.11. Similarly,
supp77 c C/o by (6.87). Hence, in order to
which now takes the place of our Lemma
6.4.
=

d(rj(pn)

\\n

and

(6.86)

by

such

support,

compact

0

Theorem

by

the

prove

Weyl 's Lemma

be

Let /

rj with

functions

continuously differentiable

then

< +oo. If for

= ^If^dxdy

/ is continuously

supp

on

differentiable

rj

C

the

defined on

function

measurable

Lebesgue

||/||2

satisfying

U,

a

all

U

times

three

we

disk

unit

have (/,

=

Arj)

0,

U.

Ee(z,

It suffices to prove that
is continuously differentiable on
/
\342\200\224
<
:
1
for
a
with
0 < a < 1. Let rjE(z9
w\\
arbitrary
{z
\\z\\
a}
If w \342\202\254
6.4.
W9
w) and M(z, w) be definedas in the proofof Lemma

then

supp

Proof:
=

W

C

?/\302\243(z,w)

Therefore,

w)) =

Arje(z,

(/,

0 by our assumption.

(6.91)

by

</,

hence
\302\243/,

\302\243^(z,

w))

-

(/\", M(z,

w)) =

0.

i.e.
=

(\302\243f/)(w)

Since \\{Mf)(wx)\342\202\254
W9 we

sequence

of

{/\342\200\236}

- /||

lim^ocll/,

-

\\\\EEfn

is a
Since /\342\200\236

uniformly

^

(M/)(w)|

(A/jf)(w) is a

have

- 0.
Mf\\\\F

if e

=

\\\\EBfn

function,

\342\200\224\342\226\272
0. Therefore

we
-

- M(z, w|| \342\200\242
for
||/||
of

on

functions

(6.93)

By

\\\\M(z9 Wl)

continuousfunction

continuous

continuous

to fn

w G FT.

(M/)(w),

w on

U such

fF. There
that

w9

lim^ood,,

have
EJ\\\\W

^ dn.

the function
\\\\fn

-

sequence{E\302\243fn}

Mf\\\\w ^ dn,

hence

wx

exists a

converges

=

314 Riemannsurfaces

11/as
i.e.

is

it

it

orthogonal

projection.

remembers

that

told

Weyl

the

that

method

of

the foreword

(See

on

differentiable

him:

\"Maybe
of orthogonal

it

is

I am

because

author

The

1955).

Weyl,

old-fashioned,

projection is not satisfactory.\"

In

have somethingto do with Weyl's
opinion
the \"crisis\" in mathematics, about which he wrote:
this might

author's

We

it for

had

have

hamper our daily

nearly
work,

considerable practical
directed my

fifty

yet I for

and
influence

one confessthat

my mathematical

on

I considered relatively
Weyl: Gesammelte Abhandlungen,

attitude

not seem to

it does

Outwardly

years.

to fields

interests

W.

a relatively simple proofof Dirichlet's
of
Weyl did not like the method

to give
that
seems

possible

However,

towards

Therefore, / is continuously

(6.97) holds.

Principle.

the

0,

A//|| w*ddn^

\\\\f\342\200\236

oo,

In this way

think

-

+

fn\\\\

\342\200\224\342\226\272

n

equality

but I

||/ -

*

*

Mf\\\\

it has

life:

\"safe

a

had

it

\"...

Band IKp. 279)
I first
to prove Dirichlet's Principleusing the method
of
planned
in this book. However, I did not like to have
the
to use
orthogonal projection
of
the
for
of
Dirichlet's
Lebesgue measurability only
concept
proof
Principle and therefore I rewroteit in such a way that I did not have to.
(Hermann

c.

Analytic

functions

of curves in a regionQ C A is based
be applied to a Riemann
only on continuity of mappingsand can therefore
surface
1Z without
idea
of a 1-chaincan be
the
any change. Similarly,
can
be
so that also the definition of homology
surfaces,
appliedto Riemann
used in the case of a Riemannsurfacewithout
any
change.
Let po \342\202\254
71 be a fixed point, p \342\202\254
71 an arbitrary
point, and y : t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),
0 ^ t ^ b, be a piecewise
in 71 connecting
and
Let
curve
smooth
cp
po
p.
be a continuously
differentiable
closed 1-form on 7Z and consider
cp.
Jy
Let Z4 = {Uj} be a locally
finite
covering
consisting of coordinate
open
diskUj,where Uj
disks Uj of7\302\243.
6.3, cp = duj on eachcoordinate
By Theorem
on Uj. Since
is a twice continuously differentiable function
by
\\y \\ is covered
to
partition
finitely many Uj GK it is possible
y into m curves
The

yn

: t -\342\226\272
yn{t\\

each yn
have

of homotopy

concept

tn-x

is contained

^

t ^

in one

=

f\342\200\236,0

disk

t0 <

tx

<

t2 <

: |y\342\200\236|
CZ
Uj(ny
\302\243//(\342\200\236)

tm =

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<

Putting

6,suchthat

pn =

y(tn\\

we

Dirichlet's

6.4
in

p

=

<p

\\

in

p

=
duJ'w
Yy11^?\")

YL\\

315

Principle

~~

um^Pn-\\))

m-\\

=

Obviously, pn =

component of
cn =

Ufa)

+

-U/miPo)

Ufa)

n

Ufa)

C\\

\302\243

y(tn)

\342\200\224

-

+ Uj(m)(p).

Vn denote the connected
= 0,
Since
pn.
dufa) \342\200\224
diifa+\\)
Let

Ufa+\\y

containing
on Vn. Therefore

Ufa+\\)

is constant

Ufa+i)

Uj{n+\\)(Pn))

$^(\302\253J(ii)(.P\302\273)

m-\\

1

=

cp

uj{m)(p)

-

+

w/(i)(/?o)

(6-99)

Ylc\"'

if y is not piecewise
The right-hand
side
of this equality is also meaningful
as the definition
of the integral
smooth. Therefore,(6.99)canbe considered
of cp along the arbitrary curve y connecting po and p. It is easy to verify
that the value of the right-hand side of (6.99)is independent
of the choice
of open covering Zi and
the
of y. Since the constants
partition
=
^
^
m
1
n
of
cn Ufa)(pn) Ufa+^ipn),
1, are independent
p\342\200\2369
of the integral does not changeif y is transformed
the value
\342\202\254
Vn,
Pn
in such a way that po = y(0) and p = y(b)
remain
fixed
and
continuously
each yn remains
within
Ufa). Hence we have proved

6.18

Thorem

able, closed
po

and

1-formon 1Z.If

p of 11,

that

y\\ are

and

y

consider

want to

disk

coordinate

u = u(p)
du = duj

be

differenti-

a continuously

connecting the points
on 7\302\243,
then

two curves

y\\ are homotopic

y and

Jy cp

as

a function

= ff cp is determined
[f cp. Since w(/?)
general
u(p) is a multi-valued function
one

cp

Jy
Jy

Jyt
ty\\
If we

such

Let

Theorem).

(Monodromy

[//,

then u(p)

of the

end point p

of

y,

we

write

by the homotopy class [y] of y, in
of p. If we limit the domain of p to

= Uj(p)+ a constant,

by

Hence,

(6.99).

is a twice continuously
differentiable
function
= cp. For the sake of simplicity, we will write

satisfying

\\,

If

TZ

is

simply

connected,

all curves

homotopic and hence u(p) =
Writing

ff

(p

is

connecting po
dependent

and

p

in

1Z are

only on p, not on

y.

Riemann

316

surfaces

u(p)
u

cp

=

u(p)

=

rfw.

Jpo

twice continuously differentiable function
a region Q C TZ as a Riemann
Considering
is a

right, we get the following

Corollary. If cp

then

Q,

region

twice continuously

Hence, if the 1-cycley
lq> =

is

as

represented

=

cp

such that

then

c_ 0,

y

\\ycp

=

u is

a

Theorem 6.18.

0 by

to 0, then

homologous

(6.100)

y~0.

0,

simply

du, where

function.

differentiable

a closed curve,

If y is

cp

be

can

in its own

to Q.

closed 1-form on a

differentiable

a continuously

is

connected

7\302\243
satisfying

surface

this result

by applying

corollary

on

Jy

are necessary in order to
=
the harmonic
+
C<& be
cp
ip
drj^ \342\202\254
\342\200\224
=
\342\200\224
*
d
6.16. Sincedcp
0 on 1Z
cp
\\o\\, both
above

The

section.

preparations

Let

u =

are
cp +

harmonic
/ * (p is a

each point q G
(p

v =

\\(p9

* cp

(not necessarily single-valued)functions

holomorphic 1-formon

+ i * (p =

f(p) =

+

cp

=

Therefore,(po

+

iv(p)

=

/ = u+

i.e.

on

cpo

i *

<Po

=

C/o

\342\200\224

|cr|,

is a

<p

i.e.

<p

(^ = </S(z) +

=

the local

\\o\\.

a neighborhood of

coordinate zq around

u(q) +

holomorphic,

iv(q)

but

not necessarily

\\a\\.

where

cpo

is

1-form on

a harmonic

holomorphic 1-formon C/o,

C/o.

hence

CZ(P)
<Po)

=

h0(z)dz

single-valued holomorphicfunction
+ i *

\342\200\224

\342\200\224

is a

ho(z)dz

(<Po + i *

=

a

is

iv

CP
Mp)

TZ

as

hq(zq)dz +

on 1Z

function

d$> +

i * (p
of

function

Jo

single-valuedanalytic
Now

|a|,

on

hq(zq)dzq

u(p)

holomorphic,

i.e. on

\342\200\224
7\302\243

can write (p +

1Z \342\200\224
|cr | we

where /^(z^) is a holomorphic
q. Hence

is

continue the preceding
1-form of Theorem

dO

+ i

dfo, we have

rfW

+

C/o. Since

on
<po

+

/ = S(z)

*

*

<Po

+ /0 + c0 on

C/o

-

|a|, where

c0

6.4 Dir[chiefs Principle 317

is

constant.

a

where /0 is holomorphic

c0 as fo,

/0 +

Rewriting

(70, we

on

have

f =
on

S(z) + f0

\342\200\224

[fo

\\a\\9

(6.101)

/ is an

i.e.

as S(z).
Let

6.19.

Theorem

analytic

S(z)

\342\200\224

and

iW

+

O

on

function

1-form mentionedin

be the harmonic

the same

11 with

ip e

C\302\256be

connectingpo

po G

Let

without

TZ\342\200\224
\\o\\

1Z

on

curve

let (p

and

given,

6.16.

Theorem

point and let y be a piecewisesmooth
and
an arbitrary
point p eTZ\342\200\224\\o\\

a fixed

be

singularities

|cr|.

intersecting

Putting

=

fip)

we see that
the

with

same

df=

f

=

<P

Now

(6.102)

i*<P)

in general

as S(z).

multi-valued,

function on K

If y is closed,then
(6.103)

f xp.

q>=

Jy

Jy

proved already that / = f(p) is an
the same singularities as S(z). Since cp =

on

function

analytic

we

ip + drjoo,

have

Jy Vcp

identically

C/o \342\200\224
|a|.

is

a

on

function

harmonic

Q\342\200\224
\\o0\\

to this

u =

L =

p0>

D
\302\243

+ r/oo
on

function

1Z

\342\200\224

\\o\\,

thus:

take d(pO) for V, the real part u =
= f(p) is a single-valuedharmonic function
If we

/

region

ip, then

single-valued harmonic

Corollary.

some

for

= 1
function
p with
Selecting a C\302\260\302\260
suppp C Q such that
p
\342\200\224
= d(pO),
we have xp0 = ip
d\302\256= 0 on
on i^ and putting
^
=
Hence
\302\243o- If
<p
d(p<I> + t/oo) is the harmonic form
V \302\243

corresponding

function

+

(<P

Jy

We have

^ = [f^o]-

is a

=\\

analytic,

singularities

Jy

Jy

is an

= f{p)

/

Ref

Proof:
11 with

+ i*Kp)

<P)

Re/

of the

analytic

onTZ\342\200\224 \\o\\.

That

is

rf(/TT(ff

s))dT(t, s))

d(f(T(t,

s))dT(t9

= 0.

From
it

is

obvious

Letting

K be

that

s))

=

a holomorphic

the rectangle

f'(T(t9

s))dT(t9

s)

A

dT(U

function f(z) of z satisfies

s) =
this

0
equation.

318

Riemann

surfaces

+ is

K={t

: a^ t^b,0^s^l}

Theorem6.2

yields

JK

the left-hand

and

member of this equality
0)dt +

0))r,(f,

f(T(t,

ia
f

=
f

f
Ja

l))Tt(t,

f(T(t,

1-form

f(z)dz+

f

(6.44).
0

can be

that

form. Since<&/w

differentiable

that

s))Ts(a,

f f(T(a,

s)ds

=

represented as 0

0 by

satisfying

exact
d(p

u

with

du

form.

called

statement

u a

continuously
A continuously

a closed

is valid

differential
form

exact

differentiable

too.

differentiable

on

the

c be an aritrary
of Q and choose
point
Then there exists a twice continuously
such that <p = du on the disk \302\243/r(c).
0. Let

C Q.

Ur(c)

function

=

(6.3), every continuously

=

d<p

Jay

differential
\342\200\224
0 is

Let the 1-form0 be continuously
that

f f(z)dz

f f(z)dz-

Jyl

Locally, the converseof this

Theorem 6.20.
region Q such
such

-

\\)dt

f(z)dz-

is calledan

differentiable 1-form 0

r > 0

s))rs(b, s)ds

[f(T(b,

J by

differentiable function

0 is closed.

equals

JO

JyO

A

0

JO

-

This yields

d{f(T(t9 s))dT(t, s)) =

s) = f

s))dT(t,

f(T(t,

f

JdK

7

structure

The

7.1

Planar*

surfaces

Riemann

Riemann

Planar

a.

Let 1Z be a

surfaces

ofRiemann

surfaces
surface:

Riemann

by

a connected

1Z is

definition,

Hausdorffspace.
7.1.

\342\200\224
7\302\243 C is

either

one

Let Zi

Proof:

smooth Jordan curve
region or the disjointunion of two regions.

C be

Let

Theorem

=

a piecewise

-=

of (6.59).By

(6.61),

divides

into two regions

of

right

U(C)
C. If

\\JqjecUj

a connected

is

fF

is a region containing C and C
to
C/+(C), the left of C, and U~(C), to the
\342\200\224
PF
C, then
component of the open set TZ

=

U(C)

one boundary point, (becauseif W
as the disjoint union of the opensets W

has at least
written

of

connectedness

the

WD

at

empty.

C

C

Hence

W.

W D

Suppose

Tl -

[/

and

\302\243/+(C)

are

U~(C)

CW9WD

(3) c/-(C) cw9wn
In

case

*

(1),

\342\200\224
7\302\243 C =

The

author

benefiting

proved

then

ff is

and

C

[/-(O

D

then

11\342\200\224
W,

C
C/\"(Q

of

could

TZ

be

contradicting
W

are

on

C,

JF n C/\"(C)is not
W since C/+(C) C
^ 0, then C/\"(Q

W,

= 0,

c/+(Q = 0.
one region. In case (2),we

write

W+

for W

and

we have termed planar, this terminology
used schlichtartig, which
the fact that such surfaces can only exist in the plane, as will be

from

later.

C/+(Q

Similarly, if fT
only three possibilities:

(1) U+(Q C JV,
(2)

^ 0;

is connected.

there

[W],

boundary
points
of W D C/+(C) and

one

least

U+(Q

=

the

Since

TZ).

C/(C) ^ 0, hence

Then

1Z.

locally finite open covering

be the

UrU)(qj)

{\302\243//}, \302\243//

on

The structure

320
denote

exists. We

have

c = w+ u

w-9

Case (3) istreatedsimilarly.
1Z

If

say that

consists

If each piecewise
smooth

Definition 7.1.
two

into

then

regions,

7.2.

Theorem

A

1Z into

in (6.71)
so
while supppj
=

p\302\243

be a
A(l/2)

<

t

in 1Z

TZ

is called

to

prove

two regions.
is

p\302\243

C

class

of

\302\243/+(Q

Jordan

that

a piecewise

Let dp~\302\243be
There

\342\200\224

C

by

a smooth

closed curve.Since\\X\\

f
Jy

<*pj

of one

consists

C

l.lflZ\342\200\224

=
f

Jyi

1Z

is a

planar.

smooth Jordancurve C on 1Z
1-form of class C\302\260\302\260
used

closed

the

on
C\302\260\302\260
U+(C)
U C.

divides

on 1Z

curve

surface 1Z is

Riemann

1 identically
on (U+(C) UQPiV.
smooth Jordan arc crossingC at
=
if 0 ^ t <
9, A(0 G C/+(Q
^

0.

planar.

connected

simply

Proof: It suffices
divides

=

w~

n

w+

case,

hence

C = W+ U W~, we
disjoint open sets, i.e. 1Z \342\200\224
W+ and W~.
C divides 1Z into the two regions

curve

Jordan

the

= 0,

in this

of two

\342\200\224

C

C which,
component of 1Z\342\200\224

W n U+(Q

c W~,

U~(C)

-

n

connected

another

W

by

ofRiemann surfaces

and

on

continuous

neighborhood
Now, let X : t -\342\226\272
A(f),
V

q

from

left

of

\302\243/+(C)

C

to right,

such

0 ^

f

such

and A(0 G t/\"(C) if
then
we connectX(l) and
region,
1/2

U C,

that
^

1,

that

1/2
A(0)

A is then
a piecewise smooth
curve y, and y = y \\ \342\200\242
=
C V and dp^
0onF, we have:

</pJ

=

pJ(A(0))-pJ(A(l)).

Since A(0) G
we have pJ(A(l))

\302\243/+(C)

=

n

V, we

have

Riemann

Planar

7.1

=

p\302\243(A(0)

1 and

since A(1) G

U~(C),

0, hence:

(7.1)

f dp%=\\.

On the other hand,
Jy

=

0 (by

dp\302\243

since

1Z is

connected, we

simply

Theorem 6.18) and

so C doesdivide

complexplane C is simply
C divides
smoothJordancurve
piecewise
Since the

regionsis

other

the unbounded

into two

divides

C

exterior

of C.

We

All

now

want

regions

to prove

Hence a
One of those

planar.

The bounded region is calledthe
is
the
exteriorof C.
region

smooth

Jordan curve

on the

hence:

sphere are planar.

Riemann

the converse

are planar,

the

is planar.

it

connected,

C

of Corollary

2,

to)

equivalent
for

form

is, a

that

arbitrary,

schlichtartig

a region on the
i.e. not necessarily

the theorem

is known as the

Theorem.

set F G

A closed

0. Hence

is not.

Riemenn surface is (biholomorphically
Riemann sphere. This result is alsovalid
piecewise smooth,Jordan curves.In that

Jordan Curve

it is

~

two regions.

two regions.

into

Since the Riemann sphere S is also simply
Riemann
surface
Obviously, regions on a planar
Corollary 2.

y

TZ into

connected,
C

have

C in the complexplane
regions: one called the interior, and the other

A piecewise

1.

Corollary

the

bounded,

of C,

interior

321

surfaces

S is saidto be connected
if it

is

impossible

to find two

that F =

U F2. Denoting
F\\
disjoint, nonempty closedsets F\\ and F2 such
union
all
F
the
of
connected
closed
subsets
the point
by Fp
containing
of F. We call
p G F, Fp is also a connectedclosedsubset
Fp the connected
o
f
the
F
F
is
union
and
of
or infinitely
containing
component
p
finitely

disjoint connected componentsFp9 Fq, Fry
= O + iV =
a planar Riemann
surface,
S(z)
1/z + z,
function
d(p&) and consider the analytic

many mutually
Let 11 be
=
ip

/ =
(compare

f(p) = Kp)iv(p) =

Theorem

#0, i.e. z(<7o)

6.19).

Here, z

f\\cp
Jy

:p

+

1*

(7.2)

q>)
a local

\342\200\224\342\226\272
is

z(p)

and

coordinate around

/ has the same singularities as 5(z). Considering
of
function
the
local coordinatez = z(p),we write /(z), that
as
a
f(p)
on the coordinatedisk Uq with center go, we have
=

0 and

is

322 The structure ofRiemannsurfaces

f(z) = -z

z +

+

holomorphic on

fo(z)

/o(z),

(7.3)

C/o-

\342\200\224
f(z) is holomorphic on 1Z {qo} and has a pole of
qo. Hence (by the Corollary of Theorem6.19)u = Re/

the

single-valued

i; =

Thus

\342\200\224

1Z

on

function

{#o}-

a harmonic single-valuedfunction
v =

is single-valued

J*(p

showthat

*

Jc

qo. Since

through

pass

W+.
\342\202\254

<7o

JC

*

Since

<P

*w
rj

=

>

\\\\drj\\\\

=

6.17,

on

for this function,

7.3.

in

F

is

The

the

function

supp
\302\243

|a| = qo,

We

open

shape

F for

some

v=

77

dr] =

dp J;

J*(p is a harmonic

proved
\342\200\224

{qo}

a

with

is a

biholomorphic
mapping of
= 00. If 1Z is
compact,

Q is a boundedclosedset

constants

for arbitrary

= {p : Vo < v(p) < V\\}
of G near the pole qo off.

single-valued

+ iv is a holomorphic,
f
of
the first order at qo and
pole

theorem.

following

/(/?)
/:/?\342\200\224\342\226\272

that

hence

= u

that

= CU {00}while

prove

and

0

QcS
f{qo)
is not compact,then F = S either a point or consistsof connected

Proof: (1)
the

achieve

we
C\302\273
<7/ \302\243

D

[PT+]

segments parallel to the real axisof C.

set G

=

Uj

cp).

S. If 1Z

=

Q
C;

we have

a region

onto

then

TZ

on

qo

TZ,

= (cp, drj) =

have

We

function

TZ

on

Hence

(iii).

{qo}-

single-valued

Theorem

{\302\243/,},

pew~,

((P, dp^)

\342\200\224

1Z

if

t/y

C, p% = 1 identicallyon

Since in this case,

+00.

Theorem

function

= (dp%9

dp^A*<p

function
C\302\260\302\260

*<P

by

90 ^

TA

assume

may

(6.71),

\\i,

is a

rj(p)

open covering

=

C. Putting:

V of

neighborhood

JK

W+ U

=

[W+]

=\\

we

that

way

that

regions PT+ and

1Z into two

C, if necessary,

finite

locally

such a

by

hence,
p\302\243,

supp

^

the

of (6.59) in

Ur(j)(qj)

of

is also

6.14, Corollary 1, to
Jordan curves C that do not

divides

C

Imf

to prove

order

Theorem

smooth

piecewise

harmonic

is a

that

In

{qo}.

by

suffices,

orientation

Choosing

\342\200\224

TZ

on

1Zis planar,

W~. By changingthe
qo

it

\342\200\224
0 f\302\260r
all
<P

we prove

Next,

at

order

first

is

connected

Since

components,

Vo

and

in TZ. We

V\\(v0
first

which

are

<

the

V\\)

investigate

Planar

7.7

1 _ 1

+ zi

neighborhood of
around

coordinate

323

z

Ap)~f(z)-l+zMz)

in a

Riemann surfaces

#0

by

qo

(7.3),

possible to

it is

of z

instead

= z(/?). So

use 1//(/?) as a local

we

define

a

new

local

coordinate by

Then on a neighborhoodof 90we

closed

the

contains

>

* =

*/>)\342\200\242

of the

single-valued,holomorphicfunction
disk {z : \\z\\ ^ a}, a> 0, we redefine C/o

the range

that

Assuming

+ to(/0= ;

/(/>) = <P)

/ =

have

z(p)
as

C/0 =

to investigate the shape of G on C/o, we first
consider
we
consider
the
Uo
{z:
\\z\\
a} as a disk in the z-plane and
function w=u+iv=l/zon
the z-plane. The fractional
linear
z = 1/w
transformation w \342\200\224>
maps the line 0 = 00 of the extended
w-plane onto
0. Hence
To, which is a circleor a line of the extended z-plane through
{/? :

<

\\z(p)\\

a}.

In order
<

\342\200\224

u

1

\342\200\224>
z =
w

+

/#o

<
\342\200\22400

,

w <

+00,

If vo ^ 0, then u = 00
parametric representationof To \342\200\224
{0}.
\342\200\224
=
=
=
=
to z
and u
0 to z
hence
00 to z = (1 \342\200\224
0, u
corresponds
i/i;o
i)/2vo'9
\342\200\224
and
Its
center
is
the
To is the circle through
0, \342\200\224i/vo,
(1
point
i)/2vq.
on the imaginary
with respect
axis. Since 0 -< \342\200\224i/Vo
-< (1 \342\200\224
\342\200\224i/2vo
/)/2^o
to the natural orientation of To, the point z, starting from 0, moves along To
in the positive
direction if Vo > 0 and in the negative directionif Vq < 0 as
the parameter u increases
to +00.
If Vq = 0, then To coincides
from
\342\200\22400
real axis of the z-plane. The part of the curveon 1Zdefined
with
the
by the
=
in C/o is Io D C/o- Similarly,
Vo contained
T\\ is defined in
v(p)
equation
terms of V\\. If V\\ 7- 0, then T\\ is the circle through 0 with center
in
\342\200\224i/2v\\
=
the z-plane
and if V\\
0 then T\\ is the real axis. The part of the curve
in C/o is T\\ D C/o. Therefore
defined
the
by
equation v(p) = V\\ contained
between
G n C/o is the part of the disk C/o contained
To and T\\.
= x +
R > I/a.
we
have u = Re(l/z) =
Assume
that
z
Putting
iy,
^
\342\200\224R
the closed
defines
disk K with
+ y2), hence the inequality u
x/(x2
K
in
the
center
and
and
radius
c
C/o
qo
z-plane. Obviously,
\342\200\2241/27?
1/27?
is on the circumference of K. We put

is a

GR

=

G-K=

Now, let us assume that
connected.

There

is only

{p\\u(p) > -7?,

v0

<

v(p)

< vi}.

set G is not connected.Then Gr is not
open
one connected component of GR with qo as a

the

The structure ofRiemannsurfaces

324

U0

u=-R

exists a connectedcomponent W
of u and h(v) of v
g(u)

so there

boundary

point,

\\W\\<7o \302\243

Determine

of

C\302\260\302\260
functions

g(-R)

=

= g\"(-R)

= g\\-R)

Gr

such

that

satisfying:

o9

{ \\g(u)\\<UO<g'(u)<l,ifu^-R

and
-

r

0<

^

if v

0,

A(w)

=

A(U)

< 1,

1, |/?'(y)|

A0>) = 0,

I

*\302\243

Vo

if

v0

if

v 25 i>i

v <

<

vx

respectively and put
fg(\"(\342\226\240Kp))Wp)),

>7(/>)

to,

p$W.

r]{p) is a twice

Now r] =

easily seen as
11 \342\200\224
{qo},

pzw,

u

Since

is a

g(u)Kv)

u(p)

7?.

on

C\302\260\302\260
function

=

u(p)

boundary of

\342\200\224R
or
fT.

g(u(p))h(v(p))
y

\342\200\224

y(p)

\302\260f
Ptwe

_^

\342\200\224or

v(p)

V\\(p)

v0

Thus,

since

as a

function

470

of

of

the

Gr

boundary

boundary point of
= 0 on the
g(u)h(v)

\342\200\224
hence

v,

local

the

is a

on H.

coordinates

Considering
x = x(p) and

nave

(g(u)h(v)) =

g'(u)h(v)ux

d2

=

^-(g(M)A(U))

+

g'(\>\302\273(u)*%")

g(u)h'(v)vx,

+

+ g\"(u)h(V)UyUx

g(H)/l'(y)l>xy

+g'(u)h'(v)(uxvy
Further,

\342\200\224
Since
{#<)}\342\200\242

is continuous
\302\2737

[PT]>

^

v =

and

\342\200\224

point p of the connected componentW

Gr :

on K: this is
are
harmonic on
v(p)
function

differentiable

continuously

follows.

+

uyvx)

+

g{u)h\\v)vxvy

since

g(-R) = g'(-R)
h(v0)

=

h'(v0)

= g\"(-R)= 0,

= h\"(v0) -

0,

A(y0

=

h'(Vl)

= h\"(Vl) =

0,

Planar

7.1

Hence rj

of W.

boundary

Since supp

rj

C [ W\\

drj =

partial derivatives

order

second

and

first

the

is twice

q$

g'(u)h{v)q>+

= g'(u)h(v)

*drj

rj.

of g(u)h(v) vanish
differentiate

continuously

Supp
\302\243

Riemann surfaces 325

du

Further,

\342\200\224
<p and

dv

the

on

on 1Z.
= *<p, hence:

* q>,

g{u)h'{v)

g(u)h'(v)(p.
*q> \342\200\224

Therefore

\\\\drj\\\\2

Further,

=\\

iw

=

(cp] + cp\\)dx
of g(u) and h(v))9

A *(p

q>

definition

the

dVA*dri=\\

in

||^||2^2

Hence,

iw

*?.

+ g(u)2h'(v)2 < 2 (from
< +oo. Therefore
\\\\<p\\\\&

g'(u)2h(v)2

[W]
qo \302\243

and

= 0 while also

(cp, drj)

(iii),

\342\200\224
\\
cp

drj)

(cp,

A dy,

A

</>A*(p<+oo.

6.17

Thereom

by

+ g(ufh'{vf)q)

(g'(u)2h(vf

=

A *rf?7

g'(u)h(v)(p

A

*<p.

= 0, then
> 0 if u 7^ -/? and A(y) > 0 on FF, hence
if (<p, drj)
\342\200\224
=
=
=
R
0 identically
on
constant.
If u is constant,
FT, that is w
g'{u)
then v is also constant by the Cauchy-Riemann equations,hencef(p) is
on
this is a contradiction, we concludethat
G
constant
W. Since
is

Now

g'(u)

connected.

(2) The

open set
V\\ >

that

such

>

\302\243;(/?)

i;o}-

connected.

By

=

G+

: v(p)

{p

we have

I/a,

Similarly

it

is

V\\ by

replacing

Vo}

C

C/o,

is

it

is

for, selecting

connected,

hence

G+ =

clear

v\\

GU