Analysis
ISBN
9787115178404
ISBN
9787115178404/O1
Complex
published
by
Analysis,
Cambridge
first
University
This reprint edition for
with
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the
Syndicate of the
\302\251
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(ISBN
University
Press and
in
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of China
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People's
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Kunihiko
is published
Cambridge,
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Kodaira,
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by
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POSTS & TELECOMPRESS2008.
mainland
and may not be bought
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Kong
SAR,
Preface
This book
aims to give a clear explanation
classical
of
theory
of analytic
functions of one complex
is,
functions;
theory
of function
variable.In modern treatments
theory it is customary to call a
if
its
exists.
function
derivative
to the old
However, we return
holomorphic
if its derivative
exists and is
definition, calling a function
holomorphic
this
is
more
natural
since
we
believe
a
continuous,
approach.
to function
The first difficulty
one encounters
in writing
an introduction
the
Theorem
is
involved
in
and
theory
topology
Cauchy's
Cauchy's integral
of the
book we prove the
in a
formula. In the first chapter
latter
from
result
we
deduce
the
and
that
basic
case,
topologically
simple
propertiesof
In the second chapter we prove
functions.
the general
holomorphic
I have tried to replace
formula.
version of Cauchy's Theorem and integral
of holomorphic
the
that
the necessarytopological
considerations
This
considerations.
out to
turned
way
with
elementary
be longer than
I expected,
original Japanese threevolume edition I had
intention
Chapter 5 was completed.My original
analytic
manyvalued
algebraic function,
as
surface
its generalization.
Now,
with
and
surfaces
Riemann
Similarly,for
the
function
theory
of
of curved surfaces is
The Concept
book:
content of Weyl's
on
Riemann
Surfaces,
but
original policy of replacing
the
of the
appearance
link
between
theory is restored.
Riemann surfaces, with
the topology
Functions
the
the
to present classical
Riemann surface of an
concept of a Riemann
was
in particular
the
functions,
to introduce
the general
and
Japanese edition in a single volume,
the
2 before
Volume
end
to
geometric
so that in
the
complete
the theory
assumption
of
that
the
was to introduce the
plan
Riemann
Surfaces. Part II:
of
been counter to the
would
have
known,
that
topological
approach
with
elementary
geometrical considerations. Thus, in Chapter 7, I have tried to illuminate
Riesurfaces
characteristics of compact Riemann
by using
topological
7 became
mann's mapping theorem. Consequently,
Chapter
longer than
to
the
RiemannRoch
8
is
limited
was
so
covering
Chapter
planned,
theorem
analytic
and Abel's
functions
theorem, which are the most basictheoremsregarding
Riemann surfaces.
on compact
Contents
1
1.1
a. The complex
c.
1.2
1.3
2
1
plane
of a complexvariable
functions
Holomorphic
Functions
5
9
15
series
Power
a.
Series whose terms
b.
Power series
15
functions
are
16
24
Integrals
Curves
25
b. Integrals
30
a.
1.4
1
functions
Holomorphic
b.
1
functions
Holomorphic
c.
Cauchy's
d.
Power
integral
series
formula
Limits
c.
The Mean
d.
Isolated
e.
Entire
Cauchy's
43
expansions
Properties of holomorphic
a. wthorder derivatives
b.
of sequences
Value
47
functions
47
of holomorphic functions
and the maximum
Theorem
49
principle
51
52
singularities
58
functions
60
Theorem
2.1 Piecewisesmooth
35
for circles
60
curves
a.
Smooth Jordan curves
b.
Boundaries
of bounded
60
closed regions
65
Contents
2.2
Cellular
a.
74
decomposition
74
Calls
b. Cellulardecomposition
2.3
80
101
Theorem
Cauchy's
a.
Cauchy's
Theorem
101
b.
Cauchy's
integral formula
104
106
c. Residues
d.
2.4
of definite
Evaluation
and
Differentiability
109
integrals
113
homology
Conformal mappings
117
3.1
Conformal
117
3.2
The Riemann sphere
3
3.3
4
4.1
mappings
132
a.
The
b.
Holomorphic functions
Riemann
132
sphere
with
c.
Local
d.
Homogeneous coordinates
Linear
singularity at oo
Linear
b.
Cross ratio
c.
Elementary
139
139
transformations
fractional
142
148
conformal mappings
153
continuation
Analytic
Analytic
138
transformations
fractional
a.
153
continuation
a.
Analytic
continuation
b.
Analytic
continuation
153
by expansion
Analytic
continuation
along
4.3
Analytic
continuation
by integrals
4.4 Cauchy'sTheorem
Riemann's
135
137
coordinates
4.2
5
an isolated
curves
(continued)
Mapping Theorem
5.1
Riemann's
5.2
Correspondence of boundaries
5.3
The principle
Mapping
Theorem
of reflection
in power
series
157
160
180
190
200
200
214
224
Contents
a.
The
224
of reflection
principle
b. Modular functions
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
c.
Picard's
d.
The
7.1
247
a.
Differential forms
247
b.
Line
249
c.
Harmonic forms
d.
Harmonic
integrals
257
258
functions
Riemann surfaces
260
a.
Hausdorff
spaces
260
b.
Definition
of Riemann surfaces
263
on a
forms
Differential
a.
Differential
b.
Line integrals
finite
Locally
268
268
272
open
d.
Partition
Green's Theorem
Dirichlet's
Riemann surface
forms
e.
275
coverings
278
of unity
284
294
Principle
Inner product and norm
294
b.
Dirichlet's
299
c.
Analytic
Principle
Planar
314
functions
of Riemann surfaces
The structure
Planar Riemann surfaces
b.
Simply
Multiply
connected
Compact Riemann
a.
b.
c.
Riemann
connected
319
surfaces
regions
340
surfaces
Homology
of compact
groups
329
333
Cohomology groups
Structure
319
319
surfaces
Riemann
a.
c.
7.2
241
247
forms
Differential
a.
7
formula
SchwarzChristofTel
Riemann surfaces
c.
6.4
233
241
Theorem
Riemann
surfaces
340
344
360
Contents
4
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
of
differentials
Abelian
a.
b.
on a
functions
Analytic
closed Riemann
first
the
Harmonic 1formsof the
Abelian
of the
differentials
Abelian
a.
Meromorphic
b.
Abelian
The RiemannRoch
8.4
Abel's
of the
Theorem
a.
Existence Theorem
b.
Abel's
Problems
Index
third
379
kind
379
second and
Theorem
The RiemannRoch
Theorem
379
kind
second and
a. ExistenceTheorem
b.
376
kind
functions
differentials
376
376
kind
first
of the first
differential
surface
third
kind
380
381
3 81
Theorem
382
389
389
391
394
1
Holomorphic functions
1.1
The complex
a.
An
i = y/\342\200\224
1, is
two
functions
Holomorphic
plane
x +
z =
expression
a complex
called
iy,
complex numbers z = x + iy
z + w = (x + u) + i{y+ v),
= (x z \342\200\224w
u) + i(y  v)9
zw
=
(xii
\342\200\224
yv)
where
x and
y are
real numbers
number. The sum, difference,
+1 (xi;
and
w = u + iv
and
product
and
of
are defined by
+ jra)
z + w, z \342\200\224
zw as
These expressionsare obtainedby first evaluating
w, and
\342\200\224
i2 by
i and
then replacing
1. Therefore,
polynomials in the \"variable\"
as
the
and
defined
above
addition,
subtraction,
satisfy
multiplication
associative, commutative, and distributivelaws.
As
the real number
line is represented by R. The plane R2 is the
usual,
x
R
If
R, that is, the collection of all pairs (x,y) of real numbers.
product
one identifies the point (x,y) of the plane R2 with
the
number
complex
z = x + iy, then
R2 is called the complex plane. The complex
is
plane
represented
The
C.
by
absolute
For two
value
\\z\\
of
the
complex numbers z =
\\zw\\
=
J{xu)2
number
complex
x+
iy
and
z=
w = u
x + iy
is
defined
by
+ iv
+ (yv)2
is the distancebetweenthe pointsz and w in the plane C. In particular,z  is
the point z and the origin 0.
the
distance
between
number z = x + iy by the vector Oz from 0
If one represents
the complex
of z and  z  = ^/(x2
to z, then (x, y) are the coordinates
+ y2) is the length of
Oz.Therefore,if zx and z2 are complex numbers, and w = zx + z2 is their
sum, then the vector Ow is equal to the sum of 0zt and 0z2 (Fig. 1.1):
0w =
0z1 +
0z2.
2 Holomorphic
functions
id=zx+z2
l.l
Fig.
complex number z = x + iy,
The conjugate of z is representedby z:
For any
z =
x
calls
one
x
the
\342\200\224iy
conjugate
of z.
\342\200\224
iy.
axis
imaginary
.
\342\200\242
z =
x+iy
0
real
axis
\342\200\242
z \342\200\224
x\342\200\224iy
Fig. 1.2
Furthermore, x is calledthe raz/ parr of z = x + iy,
Re z,
by
imaginary part. The real part ofz is represented
by Im z:
Re z = x =
R x
line
The
xR
z
2
'
Imz
'y
\342\200\224
=
by points in
axis.
is
called
the
part
iXf)
2
{0} in the complex planeis calledthe real axis and the line {0}
imaginary axis. The conjugate z ofz and z are represented
the complexplane,that
are
symmetric
Obviously
I =
z+
z
>>
the imaginary
the
called
is
zf
and
z,
w=zlvv,
\342\200\242
=
w
z
\342\200\242
w.
z \342\200\224
w=z
\342\200\224
w,
with
regard
to the real
1.1
3
Holomorphicfunctions
Moreover
\\z\\2 =
=
\\Z\\2
= Z'Z.
+ y2
X2
Hence
=
= zwzw
\\zw\\2
zzww =
=
zwzw
z2w2,
and therefore
=
\\zw\\
(1.1)
\\z\\\\w\\.
If z
z/z2
^ 0, then \\z\\ > 0 and z \342\200\242
=
t
he
collection
Therefore,
1/z
z/z2.
the
called
of complex
field
For z^Owe
have
=
if z
1. So
of all
^ 0, then
complex
z has
an inverse
numbers C is a field,
numbers.
=
(w/z)z
=
(w/z)z
vv,
therefore
= w/z.
(w/z)
as
and
Since similar rules holdfor addition,subtraction,
multiplication,
we saw above, it is now clear that if a complexnumber w is arrived
at by a
finite number of additions,subtractions,
and
divisions
multiplications,
number
of complex
numbers zl9 z2,.. ., zw, then
by
applied to a finite
z
in
the
same
the
same
orderto
one
arrives
operations
applying
t, z2,. zn
C into
C given by z \342\231\246
z is an
at w. Therefore, the correspondence from
..,
isomorphism.
For two
arbitrary complexnumbers,
z + w^z + w.
z ^
Re
Using
Proof:
z we
we
have
wz
+ ww
z2+
H*l2
the
From
^
z1z3
where zl9z2, z3
From
In
the
\\z\\
g
same
+ w2 = (z+
+ 2zw
(1.2) the
inequality
triangle
2zw
+ w2
w)2.
inequality
z1z2Hz2z3,
of the
complex plane, follows
< z \342\200\224w.
z
w + w, we conclude z \342\200\224w
\342\200\224
Hence
\\z\\ ^
w \342\200\224z.
w
way it is proved that
are
points
arbitrary
once.
(1.3)
Repeated application of (1.1)and
*1+z2+
at
\342\200\224
IMMI^zw.
1*1*2*3
inequality
(1.2)
w2 = (z + w)(z + w) = zz + zw +
= z2 + 2Re(zw)+ M2 ^
z +
the following
have
1*1
1*2
\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242
+zj^*il
yields
(1.2)
=
I
I 1*3
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**!
I
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240
+ z2+
l*J,
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+z\342\200\236.
4
junctions
Holomorphic
Therefore
+ a2z2+
+ axz
\\ao
\342\200\242
\342\200\242\342\200\242
^ fl0l
+ 0nzn
+ l*il
complex plane C can be identified
to
subsets
definitions and theoremspertaining
Since the
subsets
For
C.
of
one says
example,
numbers convergesto w,
point w,
\342\200\224
=
lim zn
n* oo
if
1.1
and
number
a natural
exists
that
We have

w ^

\\zn
n0(e) and
n >
if
\\\\z\342\200\236\\
w by (1.3),
lim,,.^ zn =
can conclude
w.
the
series
*_
\302\243
zi+z2+
w\342\200\236
The
converges.
x zn
sequence
complex
=
the
too
converges
lim,,^
zn
= w we
{zn}
complex
sequence
and we have
n* oo
oo
infinite
if
from
= lim zj.
lim zj
n*
> n0(e).
m
therefore
Hence
converges, then the sequence {\\zn\\}
if
sequence{zn}converges
The complex
criterion).
every real number e > 0, there
\342\200\224
zm\\<E
\\z\342\200\236
converge
points convergesto the
{zn} of
(Cauchy's
only
The
sequence
0.
vv
if for
n0(e) such
the real plane R2,
also apply to
{zn} of complex
with
of U2
the
that
sequence
M2
is, if
that
Theorem
the
if
+ I^l
W
= zx
+ z2 +
of
{ww}
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
zn +
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
is said
to
sums
partial
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**
complex
number
w
=
seriesand we write
lim,.^
is
wn
the sum
called
of the
00
w=
If
the
=
\302\243z
does
sequence
\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\226\240
+z\342\200\236+
zi+z2+
{w\342\200\236}
not
converge,
then the
is called
series \302\243^\302\260=
t zn
divergent.
Putting
an
=
\\zi \\ + \\z2 +
=
KwJ
Zr= i
\\z*
I
^
* = m+l
Cauchy's
Applying
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
we
+ z\342\200\236,
converges.
lZkl
=
<
n
*\342\200\236*\302\273..
km+1
criterion
In this
\302\243
for m
have
we conclude
case,
\302\243^1x
that
zn is called
*=
\302\243
i zn
absolutely
converges
if
convergent.
1.1 Holomorphic functions 5
If
ls
i z\302\273 absolutely
Zr=
00
I
I
Since
I
lim
I*.
11=1
=
wm
lim
lim
wj^
m*oo
absolutely
convergent
co =
are
\302\243,
X!
Iznl
=
\302\243k.1
either converges or diverges to + oo, Y*7=iz\302\273 *s
< + oo. If w = \302\243^\302\260=
if and only if \302\243^\302\260=
x zj
x Z and
J]\"5Bl zj
]T^L x
then
convergent,
I
both
then
convergent,
absolutely
rZ2C2f23Cii22C2i2iC3+ \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242(1.4)
Proof:
Putting
=
ICll +
*J
*\342\200\236
have
we
=
In\302\260\302\260=1
aw
l*.ll
I
t
zn
n= 1
+
IC3+
K2I
ICJ.
lzJ
In\302\260\302\260i
Xn\302\260\302\260i
hand sideof (1.4)is absolutely
n=l
IC2I
that
so
and
convergent
I feCi+^iC2+
t
' +l*ll ICJ
the series of the right' '
n= 1
n=l
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240+riC.;
m
z.
I
\302\243
fe. Functions
I ICJ
n=l
n=l
of a
I
ff\342\200\236o.
m*
00.
=\302\253
n=l
complexvariable
of C, i.e.,D isa pointsetin the complex plane. A
in D assigns
function / defined
to each element of D exactly
one
complex
D is called the domain
For
<o
number.
number
the
\302\243eD
off
complex
of / at C We write
assigned to C by / is called the value
Let
D be
a subset
a>=/(0.
If S is a
where
subset
of
\302\243eS,is written
D, then
the collection
of all complex numbers /(C),
as/(S)
/(S){/(0:CeS}.
The set f(D) of all
Writing
f(z)
instead
values
of
co = /(C) is called the range of /
calls z a variable
one
and
a function of a
/
/(z)
z denotes
an
complexvariable.Just as for functions of a real variable,
in
of
a
has
to
be
element
other
for
which
D, or,
words, symbol
C
C
arbitrary
substituted. Accordingto generalcustom,we will use the same letter z to
w = /(z),
we call w a function
of z.
denote pointsof D. Putting
An
U of the complex plane is said to be connected
if U is not
subset
open
the union of two nonempty,
subsets
that
have
no
in
open
points common.
An
U is connected if and only
if each
subset
open
pair of points z, w of U can
in U.
be connected by an arc lying
6
functions
Holomorphic
A
connected
In this book we
closed
propertiesof
y
tends to c, if
as z
and
of D,
point
the
y is
of
limit
0 satisfying
>
(1.5)
as
written
is
regionsor on
ifO< zc <6(e).
<e
/(z)y
This
a point setin C,can accumulation
We say that f(z) convergesto y or that
for every
real e > 0 there existsa real5(e)
D be
number.
a complex
f(z)
defined
Let
the closure
a domain);
(or
by discussing limits, continuity, and other
on arbitrary
sets DcC.
start
functions,
1.1.
Definition
mainly
we
is calleda region
(or a c/osed domain).
region
consider
functions defined on
closed
will
but
regions,
of C
subset
open
of a regionis calleda
=
lim/(z)
y
Z+C
or
z
\342\226\272as
/(z)
y
is not
Since/(z)
assumption
defined if z$D,
c is
that
\342\226\272
c.
point of D is necessary
possibility that there are no points z satisfying
The proof of the following result is
result
corresponding
The function
for real
and
z eD
this
Combining
to
z tends
as
y
Theorem
variable
1.2
there existsa real6(e)
to c
if and
criterion
>
be a
for
if
only
c the
,
the
all
for
complex
sequences,
complex
to c
if and only
0 such
tends
of
function
accumulation
the
point
if for
every
complex
of D. Then
real
e>0
that
if 0 <
be a complexfunction
to D.
to
and let c bean
if z
/(z)/(w)<\302\243
belongs
Let/(z)
criterion).
onflcC
f(z) convergesto somevalue
Let f(z)
5{e).
criterion for functions.
{Cauchy's
z defined
with Cauchy's
theorem
at Cauchy's
z \342\200\224
c\\ <
similar to the proof of
complex sequences {zn},znsD and zn^ c, converging
sequence {f(zn)} convergesto y.
we arrive
the
exclude
to
0 <
(1.5).The
functions.
converges
f(z)
that zeD in
to assume
have
we
an accumulation
zc<
defined
on
6(e)
and
D
c C,
0<wc<
and assumethat
6(e).
c
If
(1.6)
lim/(z)=/(c),
then/(z) is said to be
continuous
at
c.
1.1
It follows
every real e >
0 there existsa
if
/(z)/(c)<s
(If c is
isolated
an
at
x + iy
The real
real
x and y
variables
=
a+
which case
can
we
ifc,
/(z) is
only z
certainly
real and an
into a
split /(z)
lim
(x.y)

is continuous
imaginary
part v(x, y)
then/is
function.
The
x +
iy
of
y)
 vfe fe)2
equivalent to
=
u(a,
lim
b\\
 (a, *>)
v(x,
y) =
v(a, b).
f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x9 y) of the complex variable
at c = a + ife if and only if its real part u(x,y) and its
are continuous at (a,b)
functions
as
of the
two real
y.
the complex
DcC,
as real functions
From
+ Mx,
fe)2
(x, y)
z = x + iy
variablesx and
y)
Im/(z).
be considered
can
\"(a,
=
v(z)
where z = x + iy.
fc)
function
the
Therefore,
w(x,
(a.
Re/(z),
part
VI u(x, y)
(1.6) is
that
conclude
z =
c =
and
part and the imaginary
I/W/WI
If
6 the
small
sufficiently
<5(e) is c, in
+ /i;(z), n(z) =
= u(z)
/(z)
we
then for
of D,
point
part
imaginary
two
such that
> 0
S(e)
c.)
z=
Putting
real
\\zc\\<6(e).
c <
satisfying zeD and z \342\200\224
continuous
that/(z) is continuousat c if and
the definition
from
once
at
if for
only
1
functions
Holomorphic
is continuousat all points
function f(z)
called a continuous
function
/(z) =
if and
is continuous
its
domain
z or simply a continuous
of
the complex variable
y)
of
function
y) + fo(x,
m(x,
of
only if its realpart m(x,
part v(x, y) are continuous functions of the
two
real
y) and
variables
its imaginary
x and
y.
Just as for functionsof a real variable,
limits
of complex functions satisfy
z
the following rules:let /(z) and g(z) be functions of a complex variable
onDcC
of D. If both/(z) and
and let c be an accumulation
defined
point
>
z
c
linear
to
a
limit
as
the
combination
then
+ a2f(z\\
g(z)converge
atf(z)
\342\200\242
a limit
to
where at and a2 are constantsand the product/(z)
g(z)
converge
and these limits
satisfy
lim
z+c
+ a2g(z))
(aj(z)
lim/(z)gr(z)
z*c
If
moreover
limzc
=
lim
ax
z*c
f(z)
= lim/(z)
z*c
g(z) # 0,
then
+ a2
lim
z*c
g{z\\
lim g(z).
z*c
the
quotient
f(z)/g(z)
converges
8 Holomorphic
if
c and
z *
functions
the
satisfies
limit
,im/(z)
f(r\\
zc g(z)
lim g(z)
z+c
are continuous functions of z, then
are
a1f(z) + a2g(z) and the product f(z)g(z)
then
the
forall
0
zeD,
If, moreover, g(z) ^
quotient
and g(z)
if f(z)
Hence
combination
functions.
continuous function
also a
Continuity
rule as real functions
D cz C,
if
gr(w)
then
/(D) c \302\243,
if c is an arbitrary
=
functions
C. According
point
= o k
12.
Definition
on
on
z defined
of
function
defined
w
c:
\302\243
C
if
and
of z on D. For,
is a continuousfunction
lim z^cf(z) =/(c) and limw^/(c)gr(vv)
0 there
/(z)/(w)
< e
every
13.
A
if zw <
Proof:
/(z)
> 0, such that
z \342\200\224
w <5,zeD,
for each natural
an e
whenever
wn
<
I*.\"J
^
  
<nj<
z defined
on
on D
a C. If
that
zeD
and
weD
D.
on a
bounded, closedset
on D.
there
uniformly continuous on D. Then
>
8 it is not true that
each
/(z)\342\200\224
/(w)
weD. Hence there existcomplexnumbers
is not
for
and
e
number n, satisfying
*.eD,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
of the
\342\226\240,
^ c
/(0/K)
w\342\200\236\342\202\254D,
Since D is bounded,there existsa
<
and
defined
function/(z)
continuous
that
Assume
of
0 such
S(e)
continuous
continuous
is uniformly
zn and
continuous function
exists a real <5(e) >
is said to be uniformly
Theorem
C
of z.
be a
Let/(z)
e >
real
then/(z)
<n2
of
=o
are continuous functions
exists
continuous
the same
obeys
g(/(z)) = g(f(c)).
z are obviously continuous functions of z defined
on
z and
offinite products
of z and z,
to the above, linear combinations
*
D cz
is
f(z)/g(z)
polynomialsin z and z:
that is
for
g(f(z))
D, then
of
functions
complex
function
a continuous
composite
continuous
hence lim^c
g(f(c));
The
the
two
is a
If f(z)
do:
is
linear
z.
of
composite of
of the
the
subsequence
complex
sequence
zn ,
.
.,
z\342\200\2362,.
zn.,.
(17)
. ,
nx
{zn}, which converges.
1.1 Holomorphic
9
functions
lim
Putting
jf
_ n
zn. =
c we concludefrom
e D
znj
and the
fact that D is closed
ceD.
that
From
\342\200\224
as
>0
Unw\342\200\236.<
j*
oo
rij
we
lim
that
conclude
we have
lim
= lim
/K.)
00
j\302\273
and
this
c.
co
j*
contradicts
= lim^^
j^^w^
Holomorphic
is
functions.
such
of
continuous.
of
the
corresponding
let p be a positive
of a
real
z
complex
for
definition
to D and
pneighborhood of z:
variable
complex
coefficient
differential
the
form as the
Let z be a pointbelonging
that the
is uniformly
regionand/(z) a function
the same
exactly
is continuous,
/
Since
functions
defined on D. The definition
function
= 0.
=/(c)
/(zWy)
(1.7). Hence/(z)
Let DcCbea
2^
real
number
l/p(z)={C:Cz<p}
D
Fig.
f^p
1.3
D. Now, the expression(f(z + h)
complex variable h, 0 < \\h\\ < p. If
is contained in
exists, the function/(z) is said to bedifferentiable
at z and denoted
of/(z)
differential
coefficient
mHmf{t
+
hl'm
\342\200\224f(z))/h is
at
z. This
a function
of the
limit is called the
by/'(z):
(1.8)
10
Holomorphicfunctions
If f(z)
is differentiable
at all points z of D,then/(z)
is called
a differentiable
is
z
on
a
function
of
D.
defined
This
function
case,/'(z)
function of z. In this
f (z) is called the derivative
from/(z) is called
the process by
as in the case
and
of/(z)
which/'(z) is obtained
of a
of a function
or
dw/dz df(z)/dz.Similarly,
a function
oc(h) such that limfc^0 a(h) = <x(0) = 0 is called an infinitesimal
the
e(h)
product
e(h)a(h) of the two infinitesimals
Representing
as
<x(h) by 0(h), (1.8) can be rewritten
Just
differentiation.
variable the
derivative of w
Therefore,if/(z) is
+ 0(h).
differentiable,
+ h)
lim h^0f(z
then
and
(1.9)
In
other
=f(z).
are continuous.
functions
differentiable
real
f(z) is denoted by
+ h)f{z)=f'(z)h
f(z
words,
=
Putting
w
=
fi
= Ax
= f(x
/(z)
+iy) =
iv(x, y)
y) +
u(x9
and
= p+
and/'(z)
+
= (p +1<?)(Ax
Splitting this into its real and
+ /Ay)
4 iAv
Ah
+ O(fi).
=
u(x +
Ax,y +
Ay)u(x,y) = pAxqAy
Av
=
v(x +
Ax9y +
Ay)v(x,y) = qAx
we get
parts,
imaginary
Au
+ (Ay)2),
+ 0(y/(Ax)2
+ (Ay)2).
+ pAy+0(v/(Ax)2
From this we conclude,if /(z) = w(x, y)
function
of z, then w(x, y) and i;(x,y) as functions
y) is
+ iv(x,
of the
a
differentiable
real variables x and y
and
differentiable
are
=
+ /i) /(z)
=/(z
iq, then (1.9)becomes
+ iAi;
Am
Aw
iAy9
M*> y)
=
vy(x,
y)
=
P,
\"\342\200\236(*,>>)
\"
M*.
y) =
\302\253\342\226\240
Hence,
(110)
\302\253,(**)\302\253i>,(x, j*
As a direct
(1.10)arecalledthe CauchyRiemann
equations.
we note
consequence of the CauchyRiemann
equations
y).
(1.11)
/'(*) = ux(x9 y) + ivx(x, y) = vy(x,
y)iuy(x,
=
=
z
of
function
x
defined
be
a
+
ly
Conversely, let/(z)
w(x,
y) + ii;(x, y)
on the region DcC,
such that its real part w(x, y) and its imaginary
part
x
variables
and
are
of
the
real
differentiable
functions
y satisfying
v(x, y)
the CauchyRiemann equations (1.10).
The equations
Putting
p
=
M*>
y) = vy(x,
yl
q= 
Mx'
y)
=
M*\302\273y)
1.1
functions
Holomorphic
11
we have
Au
=
pAx qAy
At;
=
9 Ax
+
+ O (J(Ax)2
+ O
pAy
+ (Ay)2),
(N/(Ax)2 + (Ay)2).
Evaluating f{z + h)\342\200\224f(z) for
/(z + fc)/(z) = Att +
fi =
Ax +
iAt; =
(p +
we
iAy
ig)(Ax
get
+ 0(fi).
+ iAy)
Hence
= p + iq.
and/'(z)
i.e.,/(z) is differentiable
Summingup, the function/(z)= u(x, y) +
z =
x +
only if w(x,
and
y
Just
y)
and
v(x,
satisfying the CauchyRiemann equations (1.10).
as for functions
of a real variable,we have: If/(z)
is a function of the
complexvariable
at
iv(x, y) of the complexvariable
DcCisa
of z if and
differentiable
function
region
x
y) are differentiable functions of the real variables
on the
iy defined
each
constant.For,
=
putting/(z)
by
identically,
region DcC
D and such that/'(z) = 0
of
point
on a
z defined
(1.11).
m(x,
Therefore,
for
such that/(z)is differentiable
each
point
z of
y) + iv(x, y), we have ux(x, y)
m(x, y) is a constantfunction
D, then/(z)
=
uy(x, y)
=
of
x and
Similarly, i;(x, y) is seento be constant.
is
0
y.
on
be a function of the complexvariable
z, defined
Let/(z)
DcC. If /(z) is a differentiable
function
of z, such that the
is called
a holomorphic function of z
derivative/'(z) is continuous,then/(z)
13.
Definition
the domain
or, briefly,
holomorphic.
Remark:
but in this
a function is
Usually,
book we have adopted
called holomorphicif it
the
above
definition.
is
differentiable,
This is a traditional
manifolds,
definition, but since in modern theoriesof, for example,
that
a
differentiable
functions
role
functions
than
continuously
play greater
In Section
are only differentiable, this older definition seemsmorenatural.
2.4 we will show
that the derivative
of a complex
of a differentiable function
variable is always continuous, so that
our
definition
of a holomorphic
function is equivalent
with
the usual
one.
The following
1.4.
Theorem
z =
x +
iy,
defined
A
theorem follows
function/(z)
on a
domain
immediately
from
(1.11).
w(x, y) + iv(x, y) of the complexvariable
D cz C,is holomorphic
ifand only if its real
=
12 Holomorphic
part
real variables
functions
of the
equations
(1.10).
Example 1.1. SinceMm
of z.
function
holomorphic
putting
=
h
Ax 4i
z +
If
+ h)
h.+ 0[{z
__
h
\342\200\224
z^/h
=
differentiable
the
satisfying
y,
z is not
are continuously
CauchyRiemann
= l,z
Mm h^0h/h
a holomorphicfunction
is a
of
z. For,
have
we
Ay,
h
x and
However,
\342\200\224
z
fi
__
h
part v(x, y)
its imaginary
and
y)
w(x,
functions
Ax
+1 Ay
Ax
\342\200\224
i
Ay
Ay = 0, then
z + hz
fc
t.
= f.lim  =
hm
/i0
and
\"
if Ax =
lim
lim
Ax
\342\200\224
=
1,
Ax*()AX
fc0\"
0, then
z + fcz
h
/io
the
Therefore,
f.
limit
Since Definition
= lim h+oh
fi
lim/,_0
= lim /Ay
h*o
l(z +
(1.8)of the
\342\200\224\342\200\224
= \342\200\224
1.
*Ay
h) \342\200\224
z]/h
differential
not
does
exist.
is formally
coefficient
the same as
real function, the rulesof
combination,
product, or quotient of differentiable
of a complex variable are exactly the sameas for functions
of a
functions
real variable. Explicitly, if/(z) and g(z)arebothdifferentiable
of
functions
then
the linear
the complex
variable z, defined on a certain
domain,
are
combination alf(z) + a2g(z),where
and
and the
constants,
a\302\261
a2
their
derivatives
are
are
and
differentiable
given by:
product f(z)g(z)
that
of
coefficient
differential
the
differentiation of
a
of a
linear
^(alf(z)
+
a2g{z))
=
a1ff(z)
+ a2gf(z);
^ (f(z)g(z))=f'(z)g(z)+f(z)g'(z).
^ 0 for all points of that
If, moreover,
g(z)
is
is
differentiable
and its derivative
f(z)/g(z)
The proofsarealso
similar
the
proofs
(1.13)
then
domain,
given
the
quotient
by
(LM)
g(zf
dz{g(z))give
(1.12)
for the
to
the
real case, but
for completeness's sake we
derivatives of productand
quotient.
Since/(z)
and
1.1
g(z)are
13
functions
by (1.9)
h)=f(z)+f'(z)h + 0(h),
h) = g(z) + g'(z)h+ 0(h).
f(z +
+
g(z
have
we
differentiable,
Holomorphic
Hence
f(z +
= (f'(z)g(z)+f{z)g'(z))h
+ h)f(z)g(z)
h)g(z
+ 0(h).
and therefore
+
u_f(z
lim
1
1
g(z + h)
=/ (z)g(*)+f(z)g (4
r
and (1A3)
is difFerentiable
f(z)g(z)
Thus,
+ h)f(z)g(z)
h)g(z
g(z)
+ g'(z)h
(g(z)
0,
then
+ 0{h)
+ 0(h)}g(zy
g'{z)h
=
holds. If, moreover,g(z)^
Hence
+
*\342\204\242fi\\ff(z
fi)
1
(
\\
If/(z)
the
holds
and
have
t*
\342\200\242
rule.
holomorphic,
the
0, then
theorem.
functions/(z)
complex
areholomorphic,
then
As
is difFerentiableand
hence
then/' (z) and g\\z)arecontinuous,
a
re
and
continuous
too.
moreover,
If,
(1.12)
(1.13)
side of (1.14)is continuoustoo.Therefore,
we
righthand
are
Theorem 7.5. If the
plane
the product
that/(z)/^(z)
sides of
the following
a2 constants,
g(z) t* 0 on
we conclude
l/^(z),
by using
g(z)
righthand
g (z)
is given by
0W2'
Since/(z)/^(z) =/(z)
(1.14)
derivative
its
and
g*(z)
=
&Uw/
that
g'w
^(z)2'
3(2)/
l/g(z) is difFerentiable
and therefore
d
i \\=
i
limi/
linear
their
and product
that
domain,
defined on a domain,
axf(z) + a2g{z\\with at and
and g(z\\
combination
f(z)g(z) are also holomorphic.
then
the quotient
in Example
1.1, the function z, definedon the
it follows
C, is a holomorphicfunction of z.Therefore
shown
1.5 that the
p(z)
moreover,
If,
f(z)/g{z) is holomorphictoo.
whole
from
complex
Theorem
polynomialp(z) of z,
=
a0^aiz^a2z2^
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+a\342\200\236zn,
a09ax,.
. .,
aneC
14
functions
Holomorphic
is holomorphicon C. Moreover,
p(z)
when
\342\200\224\342\200\224,
planeC
Let be
of
roots
the
a natural
n
is
=
^zn
dz
the
Therefore,
obtained
by omitting
from the
d
= zn1+z
\342\200\224
z\"\"1
complex
\302\253
az
that
nzn\\
derivative
p(z) = fl0rfl1Z
is given
polynomials.
\302\253
az
proved
easily
expression
the algebraic equation q(z) = 0.
number. Using induction on n and
\342\200\224(zzn1)
az
rational
q(z) are
domain,
d
d
\342\200\224
z\" =
it
and
p(z)
is holomorphicon the
the
of the
+ fl2Z2+
polynomial
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
ranz\"
by
p'(z) = at
+2a2z+
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+nanzn~K
then the function obtained
subset of the domainofa function/(z),
called
domain
to
Dis
the
restriction
the
from/(z) by restricting
of/(z)
of/(z)
to D and denoted by^>(z)or (f\\ D) (z). Hence,^(z)
is a function definedon D
=
and if/D (z) is continuous,then
byfD
(z)
/(z) for each z e D.If D is a domain,
is called
continuous
on D; if fD(z) is holomorphic
is called
f(z)
then/(z)
is
D.
sd
of
on
if
some
Generally,
holomorphic
property
functions/(z) and if
has
is
s/
on D.
said to have the property
s/,
then/(z)
fD(z)
If D is a closeddomain,then the differential
of fD(z) is not
coefficient
to
definedon the points of the boundary of D. Therefore,it is meaningless
if we say that /(z) is
we
mean
say that f(z) is holomorphic on D. What
o
n
the
D
is
closed
is
domain
that/(z)
holomorphic
holomorphicon some
If D
domain
is a
D.
containing
Theorem
1.6.
Let f(z)
domain D a C
on
the
9(f(z))
domain
is a
let
and
E
<=
C,
be a holomorphicfunction
be
g(w)
such
that
a holomorphic
f(D)
c E. Then the
holomorphic function of z defined
0(/(*)) is given
^(/W)
on
z defined
of
function of
composite
D and
w,
on the
defined
function
the derivative
of
by
= ^(/W)//(4
(l 15)
1.2 Powerseries 15
(1.9) we
to
According
Proof:
have
+
f{z + h)f{z)f{z)h
+ k)  g(w) = g'(w)k
g(w
where
0(fc) = e(fc)fcwith
Substituting w
0(fc),
= e(0)
e(k)
fc
+
=f(z
= 0.
h)\342\200\224f(z),
we
= (9'(f(z)) + \302\243(/'(z)/,
+ /i))0(/(z))
0(/(z
+
limfc^0
and
=/(z)
0{h\\
get
+ 0(/i)).
+ 0(/i)))(/'(z)/,
Hence
Therefore, g(f(z)) is differentiateand (115) holds. Since
of w, g'(f(z))
is a continuous function
of z.
continuousfunction
a continuousfunction
of z, the product
g'(f(z))f (z)is a continuous
of z, so that g{f(z)) is a holomorphic
of z.
function
Since/'
a
(z) is
function
series
Power
1.2
g'{w) is
a. Series whose
are
terms
functions
the
terms
f(z\\
{fn(z)} be a sequence of functions,
.
.
of
are
functions
of
which
the
variable
...,
z, all
f2(z)9.
,fn(z\\
complex
of that
If this
on the same domain, and let D be a subset
domain.
defined
for
then
we
each
of
that
say
sequence converges
point D,
{fn(z)} converges
= lim,..^ fn(z) is defined on D.
on D. In that case, a function/(z)
Let
If
1.4.
Definition
each
for
e>
0, there existsa
if
>
number
natural
n0(E)
such that
\\fn
(z)
/(z)
I
< e
then the sequence
offunctions
Similarly,
if the
n
{fn
(z)}
for all
is said
If the function sequence{sm(z)}
on D,
convergent
the
of
series
partial
zeD9
to converge uniformly
series Y^=\\f*(z)> wh\302\260se
converges for each point zeD, then
onD.
uniformly
n0 (e)
terms
*=
\302\243
sums
are
(z)
x j\302\243
to/(z).
functions
is said
sm(z) =
then the series Y*\342\204\242=if*(z)
of z,
to converge
is
\302\243\342\204\242=
4 j\302\243(z)
*s
^^
to **
uniformly convergent on D.Further,if the series ]T *= x \\fn(z)  is convergent
on D, then the series\302\243*= 1Jt(z) is said to be absolutely convergenton D.In
on D. If the series
*s c\302\260nvergent
this
case,
obviously
X^= i U*^ I
Y*7=if\302\273 (z)
said
to be
on D, then the series XiT_i
uniformly
L\302\243(z) is
converges
uniformly absolutely
5W(Z)5(Z)
convergent.From
=
= m+l
n
= mI1
16
functions
Holomorphic
we conclude that
if
1 /\302\273(z)
XT=
then XT= 1^ (z) *s uniformly
If there exists a convergent
*s unif\302\260rmly>
on D,
convergent
absolutely
on D.
convergent
series
^vith
^n
XT=i
terms
positive
An
that
such
^
/n(z)
then
1.7.
(1) If the sequence{f\342\200\236(z)}converges
=
f(z)
(2) If
on D.
functions
on D,
then its
on D,
then its sum
limit
on D.
uniformly
converges
\302\243^\302\260=
xf\342\200\236(z)
on D.
*s continuous
ZT=
uniformly
is continuous
limn_+00^(z)
series
the
on D.
absolutely
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
.. ,fn{z),\342\200\242
be continuous
(z),.
(z),^
Let/j
. . , for all zeD,
3, .
1, 2,
uniformly
converges
\302\243^\302\260=
1fn(z)
Theorem
n =
An,
i^\302\273(2)
of(1),it suffices to prove (1). Let c
Since (2) isa directconsequence
of
D
and
let
at c.
us
prove that /(z) is continuous
arbitrary
point
there exists a natural number n, such that
Choose a real, positive
e, then
Proof:
be an
Since
fn(z)
at
continuous
is
points zeD.
c, there exists a real, positive
for all
< e
f(z)\\
\\fn(z)\342\200\224
if ZC
/n(z)/n(c)<\302\243
5(e)
that
such
<<$(\302\243).
From
we
+ /n(z)/n(c)
^ /(z)/n(z)
/(z)/(c)
+ JG(c)/(c)
conclude
if
/(z)/(c)<36
<<5(e).
zc
Therefore,/(z) is continuousat c.
b.
series
Power
A series
of the
form
=
a0 +
GO
an(zc)n
\302\243
is calleda power
complex
series
analysis.
00
X aH*,
0
n=
with
center
at
center
wirfi
c. Power
section we
In this
= a0 + alz + a2z2
the origin
+
+an(zc)n
series play a fundamental
consider
+anzn
role
...
in
series,
power
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+
0.
c, all
By replacing z by z \342\200\224
power serieswith center
the power series\302\243
\"^
+ a2(zc)2 +
ax(zc)
c as
anzn
results
well. We
obtained
will
want to find
to converge.
be
seen
a sufficient
Suppose that
to be
valid for
condition
anzn
\302\243^\302\260=
converges
for
a certain
for
existsa positive,
real
For
lim
case,
= 0,
\342\200\236_*
^ anzn
hence there
natural numbers n.
for all
we have
M
an
such
that
that
such
M
M
^
\\anzn\\
z. In
number
complex
17
series
Power
1.2
IzllflJ^M1'\",
while lim^^ M1/B=
1.
Therefore
(1.16)
zlimsupa\342\200\2361/n^l.
If 0
aj1/n < + oo,we
< limsup,,^^
put
1
r =
limsupan1/n
oo
n*
we
and
from
obtain
(1.16) the inequality
1*1<r.
(1.17)
If limsupn^00flJ1/B=hoo, we
< + by (1.16), therefore
limsupn_00aj1/n
then
= 0,
\\z\\
that is,
r = + oo.In this
The number r
case
and divergesif \\z\\
=
\\an\\1/n
+ oo,
then we put
satisfied.
following property.
k such
number
if z
absolutely
converges
anzn
]T\302\256=
0
< r, we choosea real
If z
Proof:
series
then
z>0,
\\an\\l,n = 0,
limsup^^^
way has the
this
in
power
> r.
If
is trivially
(1.17)
defined
The
1.8.
Theorem
(1.17) is valid.
0. If
if limsup^^
oo
then
r =
put
that
\\z\\
< k
< r.
<r
Then
 > = limsupaj1/n.
K
Y
there
Therefore,
n
> n0,
such
Since
i.e.,
\\an\\Kn
n* oo
exists a
<
natural number
1 for
n
>
n0
n0. Therefore,
such
<
\\a\342\200\236\\1/n
that
there exists
1/k
for
a constantM,
that
\\z\\ <
k, we
have
Mk
n
Therefore,
n0
= 0
the series ]T
\\
*
\302\256=
0 anzn
part of the theoremfollows
from
K
/
converges
(1.17).
absolutely
if
\\z\\
< r.
The second
18
functions
Holomorphic
The number r is calledthe radius
of the power series
of convergence
=
=
0and 1/0 + oo,the radius of convergence is
+ oo
Puttin81/
Y^=
o a^nin
all
cases
given
by
(U9)
^limsup^KI1'\"
CauchyHadamard formula.For0 < r < + oo the circle
of the power
Cr with center 0 and radius r is called the circleof convergence
to
series
Theorem
the
series
1.8,
According
power
^^0cinzn.
X^=0a\342\200\236zn
if z belongs to the interior of the circle
of convergence
absolutely
converges
of convergence.
and diverges if z belongs to the exteriorof the circle
(1.19) is called the
iy
\\
ir
r
T
J
v:
1.4
Fig.
If z
is a
point of Cr,then
interiorof
Cr
denoted
is
]T^\302\260=
0 anzn
can be
convergent or
divergent.The
by l/r(0)
(1.20)
l/r(0) = {z:z<r}.
=
If r + oo, the circle of convergenceis not defined,
but
we put l/+oo(0)
= C and considerCasthe interior
of the circle of convergence. By doing so,
the
series
is absolutely convergent in the interior of the
power
\302\243
JL 0 a^n
for all radii of convergence
of convergence
such
that
circle
0 < r ^ + oo.
Theorem
1.9.
Let
\302\243^L
r, such that 0<r<^+oo.
is
]T^\302\260= a\342\200\236znuniformly
circle
a^n
be a
power series
with
If p is a real number
convergent
absolutely
radius
such
on the
of convergence
that
0 <
interior Up(0)
p < r,
of
the
0 and radius p.
with center
Proof. Choose real k,
M such
existsa
a
constant
\\an\\p\302\273<M{plK)\\
such
that
that p
<k <r. Accordingto (1.18),there
absolutely
the sum/(z) = ]T^0
true for each p
of z on the interiorUr(0)
function
continuous
conclude
< r, we
that
of
the
=
f(z)
Y,7=oa\"z\"
by
on Up(0).
continuous
also
is
anzn
< p
0
with
functions of z on l/p(0),
continuous
anzn are
terms
all
+\302\260\302\260
oo,thesum\302\243na)=()aJp',<
z < p, we concludethat
on Up(0) = {z: z < p}.
z with
all
for
\\an\\pn
uniformly
Since
1.7(2),
^
\\anzn\\
converges
< +
= Mk/(kp)
SinceXT=oM(P/*)\"
From
19
series
Power
1.2
Theorem
Since this is
a
is
X^\302\260=o0\342\200\236zn
of convergence.
circle
Theorem 1.10. Let \302\243*= awz\" be a power series with radius of convergence
=
r such that 0 < r ^ + oo.Then/(z)
function
is a holomorphic
\302\243*=0 anzn
of
of z on the interiorUr(0) of the circle of convergence and the derivative
is
of
differentiation
\"termwise
f(z)
given by
\302\243^=0awzn\":
00
=
f(z)
+ 2a2z
=aY
nanzn~l
\302\243
H=l
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
+ 3>asZ2+ \342\200\242
+ w^z\"\"1}
(121)
The radius
of the
of convergence
First we prove that
Proof:
the
radius
equals r.
sides
both
Differentiating
m
*m+
\\
series
power
of the
is also
\302\243\"=1 nanzn~l
of convergence
r.
of ^=1naflzn\"1
equality
1
yields
\302\243
n.1
_
\"
A1\"
Since
In order
z with
mfm =
lim^.^^
z
to prove that
< t.
0
0=7?
for 0 < <
t
Therefore,
\342\226\240
1, we find
*
\302\243\"=
t wa\342\200\236z\"converges
Next we choose a realk
(1.18)thereexistsa constant
Using (1.22)
mfm+1
ltm+ljrf
M,
such
such
absolutely
that
\\z\\ <
if  z\\
k <
that
we get
nanz\"
\302\243T\302\253i
1
converges
absolutely
for
\\z\\
< r.
<
r, we fix
r. According
a
to
20
Holomorphic
functions
From
n
\"kz\"1!
+ z f
f= 0 anz\"^<.0l
n=l
if
we conclude that Y,7=o a^n convergesabsolutely
J]\302\256=
y nanzn~l
the
of
of \302\243^\302\260=1
radius
Therefore,
absolutely.
convergence
nanznl
the sum Y^=\\nanznXls a continuousfunction
Next we prove that/(z) = ^\342\204\242=0anzn *s differentiable
Hence,
/'
k
= an
pn(w)
that
see that
^
aj
(1.22)
w
= fln(w\"\"1+wB\"2z +
\342\200\224
z
pn(w) is a continuous function
A//*\", then
the series
WZ
uniformly
converges
of
Therefore/(z) is a
Since,as we
l/r(0),
we
wB'3z2+
w. Let
M be
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+zn~l)
a constantsuch
+z\"i)<mV\"i/k\".
on the righthand side of
\342\200\236=!
proved
conclude
w
for
w
differentiable
above,
that/(z)
w <
p, i.e.,
for
absolutely
function of
continuous
numbers p and
have
we
Therefore,
that
Putting
iPw(w)gki(wrihiwr2zi+...
By
and
wz
~x
as a function of w.
Ur(0).
w\"z\"
\302\243
wz
we
z on
of
r.
equals
on Ur(0)
r and choose real
\\z \\ <
(z) = Zr= o nanzn~l Fixz such that
such
that \\z\\ < p < k < r. Consider, for w < p,
/(w)/(z)
converges
\302\243\"=
1
is a
<
function
of
nanzn\"*
is a
holomorphic
p and hence its
z on
is
sum
a
Ur(0) and
continuous function
of z on
function of z on Ur{0).
Since
the circle of convergence of J]\"= nan^w~*
equals
Theorem 1.10to concludethat/'(z) isa holomorphic
function
r, we
of
can apply
z on
l/r(0)
Power series 21
1.2
and
=
/\"(*)
f>(nlKz\"2.
n
the radius
Since
= 2
of convergenceof this
also holomorphicon
t/r(z),
the
we find
/(m)(z) =
z
\342\200\224
in
c
power series
Let Zr=o
that 0 < r ^ + oo.
X^=o0,,(2\"~c)n>
^
fln(z\"\"c)n
Then
\\z
c\\>
For 0 < r ^
+ oo,
Ur(c)
=
of convergence.
CTls
radius
r, such
of convergence
for
convergent
absolutely
r. The
and radius r is calledthe
{z:
of convergence
circle
\342\200\224
c\\ <
\\z
to the
following results.
series with
~~
results
above
the
radius of convergence is given
If
0 < r < + oo,then the circle
(1.19).
\342\200\224
formula,
CauchyHadamard
,/(m)(z),.
by
(nm+l)a\342\200\236znm.
*c
8et
a Power
]T^\302\260=
0 fln(z
for
and divergent
center c
f\"\"{z\\
an\302\243*
applying
\302\243\"=0fl,,2\"
we
...
is represented
that/(m)(z)
Z n(nl)(n2)
z by
Replacing
and
Ur(0)
on
.. are all
often difFerentiable
is infinitely
that/(z)
derivatives
higherorder
holomorphicon
< r
is
equals r, /\"(z)
and
Ur(0)
in this way,
that
again
n(nl)(*2)*nz\"3.
\302\243
= 3
\302\253
/w(z)=
Continuing
series
power
r} is
called the
\342\200\224
c\\
\\z
the
by
with
of Zr=oa^z\"\"c^*
interior of the circle
Consequently,
sum of
The
1.11.
Theorem
the power series
00
/(*)=
an(zcr
I
= 0
\302\253
is a
= a0 + a^zc)
function of z on
holomorphic
the
+ a2(zc)2
+
interior
is infinitely
often
convergence.Thefunction/(z)
the derivatives/'(z),/\"(z),.
are
all
.. ,/(m)(z),...
derivative
mth
is obtained
of/(z)
Ur(c)
of
\342\200\242.
the circle
differentiable
holomorphic
by differentiating
of
on Ur(c)and
The
on Ur(c).
\"\"
c)\"
a\342\200\236(z
X^\302\260=0
termwise
m times:
/(m)(z) =
n
and
the radius
fm\\c)
m
of convergenceof this powerseriesisalsor.
z =
Substituting
f= n(\302\253l)(n2).(\302\253mhlK(zcrm
=
c in
m\\am.
the above
expression,we
find
(1.23)
22
functions
Holomorphic
original powerseriescan
Therefore, the
oo
oo f(n)
an(zcr=
I
m=
j;
as
written
be
ic\\
\342\200\224r
(zcr
series on the righthandsideiscalledthe
The power
series
Taylor
off(z)
with
center c.
Now let/(x) bea
real
be represented
its
by
co
f(n)(c\\
power seriesobtainedfrom
variablez convergesabsolutely
and
radius r in the
real analytic
variable
z by the real variable
analytic
function
expansion
e*
=
The
1 +
Taylor
series
the
interior
in
\342\202\254
and
sinz =
then the
function
we have
by/,
i.e., by
x,
the
replacing
complex
to the real axis.A
restricting/(z)
function e*9or
exponential
the
of
radius
w**k
whole
of
the
exp x, has
a Taylor
equal to
variable z,
convergence
complex
complex
C.
plane
sinefunction,
z
z3
3!
+
z5
z1
5!
7!
\342\200\224
 \342\200\224
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
+(!)'
v
'
z2n+l
I*
(2n +
l)!'
and the complexcosine
function,
z2
COSZ=12!
are also
holomorphic
Since
log(l
+
on
z4
z2n
z6
4!6!+\"+(1)nW+'
C.
+ x) has the Taylor
real
be extendedto a holomorphicfunction.
z
z2
z3
zn
+
TT+2!
3!++^+''
on
is holomorphic
The complex
+oo,
a holomorphic
function is obtainedby
Therefore, the exponentialfunction
+
^
by replacing x by the complex
c
Ur{c) of a circlewith center
f(n)(c\\
J]r=ix\"/n'
e=1
satisfies0 < r
represents
also
function
can always
1.2.
Example
this
this
co
original
of convergence r
complex plane
of z on Ur(c).Denoting
The
series
\302\243'\342\200\224I2(jcc)r.
its radius
that
Assuming
interior
the
from
Taylor
+
=/<*)
/<*)
of
defined on someinterval
of that interval and let/(x)
with center c:
of x,
function
analytic
R. Let c be a point
real line
the
expansion
log(l
+x)
=
(iy,~lxn/n
\302\243\302\256=1
+oo.
a
circle
+ (!)' ,il
y
complex variable z on
of the
function
as an obvious consequence
of the
eiz = cosz + isinz.
=
\\eie\\
z =
z^
and angle6.
0 can be represented
real
the
and
Using (1.4) and
w\"
_
=
\302\2430ri \302\2430ri
amplitude)
(or
the vector
\342\204\242 \342\204\242
zn
center 0
between the segmentOz
argument
z by
vector Oz
C with
as
\\z\\eie,
the angle
calls 6 the
number
plane
complex
number
complex
6 is
by
given
1.5
Fig.
where
formula
= eiez
rotation of the
Every
the transformation
1. Hence,
z+z'
is a
following
cos0 + isin0
eie =
that
the
above,
6
real
for
particular
so
the interiorof the
Ux (0).
We note
In
23
complex extension,
z3
+
Zy
holomorphic
unit
z2
=
10g(l+z)
is
1, the
of convergence
radius
with
series
Power
1.2
^,
Oz, then
of z.
the argumentof z
the binomial theorem,we
zn~lw
(zn
+
+
(h1)!1!
i[z\"+(\">\"\"'\"+(2)z\"\"v+
=
the
real axis.
positive
is the
angle
(z + H>)\"
have
zn~2w2
(*2)!2!
One
represents the complex
axis.
\302\2430\\ri
\"
and
If one
+ '
\"
'
ww\\
+
ri)
H
between
the
24
functions
Holomorphic
So we
have proved
= e*+w.
ezew
(1.24)
the product of two
is given by
z2exp(i02)
Therefore
=
z2
=
zxz2
is equal to the
this
At
sum
+
b9
z =
of those numbers.
some remarks concerningcoordinate
plane. The complex number x = x + iy is called the
the arguments
of
z of
point
aw + b
the socalled
z > w
The origin
real
axis of
the complex
=
two
z and
coordinates
b
a
a
equals
w, related
with
each
point z.
other
.
system
of coordinates
and
the new systemof coordinates
of coordinates
of the
coordinate
coordinate transformation
z
of the new
plane C. Givena linearexpression
variable
w, the value of w
complex
a ^ 0, of the
can be thought ofasa new
The point z has now
through
product of two complexnumbers
of the
argument
b constants,
a and
satisfying
the
complex
coordinateof the
aw
and
we insert
point,
the
transformationsof
numbers
complex
l^ltalrapMOi+Gi)]
we seethat
From this
zt = z1exp(i01)
the
argument
the anglea between
the
real axis of the old system
is b and
the
of a.
Fig. 1.6
1.3
Integrals
In
an(z
\342\200\224is
c)n
convergence.
defined
on a
seen that the sum/(z) = Xr=o
z
of
a holomorphic
function
in the interior of the circle of
function,
Conversely, it is possible to representa holomorphic
c of
certain region, in some neighborhoodof an arbitrary
point
the
previous
section
we have
1.3
that
the sum
as
region
of a
25
Integrals
power series,i.e.,
00
=
f(z)
if z \342\200\224
c  < r for some r > 0.
an(z ~CT
Z
\302\253=o
Curves
a.
a complexvalued
Consider
of the real line R.
The
If for each t in the interiorof the
y(r +
lim
y
(r),
interval
on some
defined
are obvious.
definitions
following
function
Ar)y(f)
interval
= 0
At0
then
each
If for
t
in
Af0
y(t) is
then
At
called a differentiablefunction
of
increment of r.)
If
called
The function
(f)
and
continuouslydifferentiable,
the closedinterval
point
=
y(r)
moves
y
(t)
its imaginary
and so on.
c
Fig. 1.7
part Im y
Let y (t) be
/ = [a, 6]. If t
in the complex
\302\273\302\273
t
a function
of class
is continuous,
{y(0:a^t^fe}.
a
its derivative
differentiable or
continuously
part Re y
and
differentiate
is
y(t)
limit
vjLtMzm
iim
/(.)=
exists,
a continuous function
of t.
the interior
of the interval the
is called
y(t)
moves
At represents
t. (Here,
y'(f) is continuous,then
of
class
are
both
a continuous
from
a to
is
y(f)
C1.
C1 and soon if
(r)
an
and
only
if its
real
continuous,
function defined on
b over the
plane C, describinga
\"curve\"
real axis,the
C
=
y(J)
26
Holomorphic functions
/ =
[a, fe]
continuous
A
1.5.
Definition
the
into
complex
interval
closed
the
map y: t \342\200\224>y(t)from
numbers is called an arc or curve
the
in
complex
point y(a) is calledthe initial point and the point y(b) the final
of
curve. If y(0 is continuously differentiateon /, y is called a
the
point
C1. If, moreover, y'(f) ^ 0
of class
continuously differentiable curve or a curve
for all tely then y is called a smooth arc. Points belongingto the subset
C = y(I) = {y(f): a ^ t ^ fe} are
said to be points on y.
plane. The
(Formally speaking,there is no
a
between
difference
\"map\"
a
and
seems
\"function,\"
convey the idea of a curve.)
\"map\"
of C, then a curvey: t * y (t), a ^ t ^ fe, such that
If a and ft are two points
=
=
said
a
and
is
to connect a and /}.
y(a)
y(b) ft
If D is a regionin C, [D] its closure, cleD and /}\302\243[D], then all curves
\342\200\224
D of D, that is, for somes
the boundary
[D]
connecting a and ft intersect
\342\200\224
D. To see this, let S be the subsetof /
a < s < b we have y (s) e [D]
with
of
and let s be the supremumof S.
all
t
such
that
y (t) $ [D]
points
consisting
Supposey(s)\302\243[D], then by the continuity of y there exists an e > 0 such
if t > 5 \342\200\224
that
e. This
is a contradiction and therefore y(s)e [D].
y(t)\302\243[D]
> 0 such that y(f)\302\243D for
t < s + e.
Supposey(s)\302\243D9 then there exists an \302\243
to better
but
This is a contradictionand
if it
Hence,
y(s)\302\243D.
to connectthe pointsa and
boundary of D, then either a and
is possible
the
intersecting
therefore
C with
ft of
/? both
belong
a curve y not
to D or to
the complement of [D].
In
c+
hoc, and
Definition
In
subset y(/) ofC,because
also characteristic
to b is
direction on the curve
yt
0e/
two curves
and
(I)
and
yt
y2(/)
case
this
y, rather
a map
we write
than as
a
a
the
way the point y(t) moves when t movesfrom
of a certain curve.Forexample,
if we represent
the
corresponding with
Fig. 1.8) are
y2 (see
are the
= [0,27i].
In
as
=
curves y:0+y(0)
encounters
than r, since 0 representsan angle.
1.5 we have defined a curve
6 rather
the
frequently
ceC,0<r<
where
rew,
one
analysis
complex
t by
increasing
arrows
although
different,
the
\302\273\342\200\242
then
point
sets
same.
given, we also have in mind the point set C = y (/)
made concrete by sayingthat points
to C = y (/) are on
belonging
of a certain region D is
the
y. For example, if we say that
boundary
formed by the curve y, we mean that the boundary of D is the point set
Of course,if
this is
and
C =
y(J).
If y: t
we
y is
a curve
have
called
If y
\342\226\272
y (t),
such
t
^
y(t), that
y(s)^
a Jordan
is
a ^
b, is
a curve
is, if y
is a
such that
onetoone
a^s <t ^b
map from / into C, then y is
for
all s, t
with
arc.
that
y(a) = y(b)
then
y
is called
a closed
curve and if y
is such
1.3
r2(b)
1.8
Fig.
<t
all s, t with a^s
called a Jordan curve.
that for
y is
72(a)
7i(b)
W
27
Integrals
<
fe
have
we
y (s)
^ y(0> while y(a) =
y(b),
then
7(b)=7{a)
curve
Jordan
1.9
Fig.
There are
the
y,
curve,
together
with
carriedby
but
there
not \"curvelike'5
at all, such as a
=
is a triangle,
y(/), of which
corresponding
point set, C
In
his
all of its interior
the
idea
of
a
curve is only
case,
points.
and not by the point set.This curveis not a Jordanarc
map
examples of curves,which
the
are
also
unintuitive
are
Jordan arcs.
\342\200\242
7(0
C
7(o)
Fig. 1.10
7(b)
28 Holomorphicfunctions
Jordan arcsof
curves. Let
class
a
y:
y(t\\
be such that
t0e[.a,b]
y(t)
\302\243
t
^ fc, be a
y'(f0) #
that are worthy
of
let
as
y(f)
+ 0(tt0)
side
righthand
l:t+l(t) =
properties
Jordan arc of class C1 and
0. Writing
= y(t0)+y'(to)(tt0)
the linearpart of the
have
however,
C1,
t >
a line
defines
through y(r0):
+ y'(t0)(tt0)
y(t0)
to the curve
is calledthe tangent
The vector 0y'(to) is
y at y(t0).
If we agree to call the
vector
to the curve y at y(t0).
called the tangent
t
the
with increasing
direction of the tangent
positive
corresponding
of the
6
direction
between
the
it
is
clear
the
that
direction,
positive
angle
of the real axis is just the argument of
direction
tangent and the positive
This line /
/Co):
=
y'(to)
\\Y(to)\\eie.
iy
/&
7(a)__
^HO
0
17^
Fig.
X
1.11
= 0> then the tangent
can exhibit a number of different
at y(t0)
If /(*o)
y:
Example 13. Consider
of
y(/)
class
=
C1.
7{b)
In
this
t >
is not defined.If y'(t0)
in
behaviors
y (t)
= f3,
case y'(0) = 0, but
\342\200\224
1
the vicinity
= 0,
curves
of y(t0).
1. This is a Jordanarc
is not a singularpoint on
^ t g
y(0)
= 0
y(r) = t2
+ it3,
[l,l].
Example I A.
Jordan arcof
Consider
class
C1
y:
t >
y'(0) =
and
singular point (a socalled
cusp)
of
0. In this
y(/).
\342\200\224
1
^ t ^
1. This
case the point y(0)
= 0
is a
is a
1.3
1.12
Fig.
Consider
1.5.
Example
and y(0)
= 0. Now, y'(0)
=
on
defined
y
= 0 and
+0y(0/'
lim,^
Since limf+oy'(0= 0, y(t)
function of t on / = [0,1]. For s,t
= s3 < t3 =
y(r ), hencey: t * y(t), 0 ^
to
0, y(t)
\"spirals
is a singularpoint
often\"
infinitely
of
by y(t)
[0,1]
0<r<l.
tends
29
Integrals
a
is
^ s
0
r
1 is
around
if
t3e2ni,t
y'(t) =
r(3f

continuously
with
^
=
<
r
^
a Jordan
0 and
is
it
0 <
f
g
1
2ni)e2ni,t for
differentiable
have
1 we
\\y(s)\\
arc of classC1.Iff
clear that y(0) = 0
y(I).
Fig. 1.13
If y:t
for all
y: t > y
all
t
there
and
a
re/, so
(f),
a ^
y'(a)
t
^ t ^
f\302\243
fe,
= y'(fc)
r \342\200\224>
y(f) and
= y
(r0)
a
that
be two
would
If y:
z0
> y(t),
=
A(s0),
ft,
is a
Jordan
smooth
is defined
tangent
y is
satisfying
is called a
arc, then by definition y'(f)
at each point. A Jordan
continuously differentiable, y'(f) #
curve.
Jordan
(If y'(a) # y'(fc),
smooth
different tangents at the point y{a)
A: s
then
*
the
A(s)
are
angle
two
smooth
0 between
Jordan
=
# 0
curve
0 for
then
y(b).)
curves intersecting in
the tangent to y
at
y(f0)
and the
30
Holomorphicfunctions
tangent to
X
at
If 6
Fig.
1.14
fe.
Integrals
of r, the definite
=
if
Generally,
m7r
integral J
w(f) +
*
fc(t), a
the angle
y are said
r
^
fe,
is a
function
continuous
by
(1.25)
v(t)dt.
continuous functions,
are constants, the following
(c1M)
^
defined
<\302\243(*)dris
u(t)dt + i
are both
lftf>(f)and^(0
is called
argument of A'(s0)/y'(f0)
m
the
X and
then
curves
integer
some
for
=
<t>(t)
4>(t)dt=
and c2
is, the
that
A(s0),
between A and y.
to touch at z0.
4>(0dr+ c2
+ ca.>(r))<fcc1
Ja
and
if Cj
holds.
formula
Jfl
definedon [a,fe]
*(\302\273)*\342\200\242
(1.26)
Ja
By (1.25) we have
Proof:
Ja
Putting
(Clif>(t)
+ C2ilf(t))dt=
J a
Ci<l>(t)dt+\\
cx =
p and
p + ia, where
cx4>(t) = pu(t)(jv(t) + i(ou(t)
<r
are
real
Ja
C2lj,(t)dt.
numbers,
we have
+ pv(t)).
Hence
rrt
cx4>{t)dt
J a
u(t)dta\\
= (p + i<T)l
v(t)dt
+ i(j\\
Ja
Ja
U(t)dt
rb
rt
rb
= p
+ i\\
V(t)dt\\
u(t)dt +
ip\\
Ja
v(t)dt
1.3
that
31
Integrals
is,
=
P%cx+W
Ja
to derive
We want
r
r mt)\\dt.
I
defines 0
Ja
e'ie(f>(t)dt=
J
Ja
and since Re(e~ie<l>(t))
^
P 4>Wt\\
The
= P
is also
rule
chain
differentiable
continuously
1.12.
and let y(t)
be
ew<l)(t)dt.
J
^
true
trivially
if this
have
+ i\\
\\e~ie4>(t)\\ =
Ja
\\4>(t)\\
conclude
we
^ P
Re(eie<t>(t))dt
lm(e'ie<t>(t))dt
\\<f>(t)\\dt.
true for the composition of a complexvalued
t and
function
a holomory(t) of a real variable
z:
holomorphic function
defined
on
a region
differentiable function defined on an interval
then
the
re/,
compositefunctionf(y(t))isa continuously
function
of t and the chain rule is valid:
a continuously
D
/.
for all
If y(t)eD
differentiable
(1.28)
jtf(y(t))=f(y(t))y'(t).
Proof:
(1.27) is
0; however
Re(e\302\2734>{t))dt
be a
Let/(z)
then
\\ba4>(i)dt,
Ja
of a complexvariable
phic function/(z)
Theorem
4>(i)dt=
Ja
I
only if \\ba4>(t)dt
integral is zero.) By (1.25)we
(This
(i.27)
of the complexnumber
= eie
4>(t)dt\\
J
Ja
formula
Ja
J
the argument
6 be
Let
(1.26).
proves
another useful
^
wo*!
Ja
4>{t)du
\\b
Ja
other term.This
for the
Similarly
cx
Let
y
(r +
At
be
an
At) y{t)
increment
=
y'(t)At
of *, then
+ O(Af).
By (1.9)
/(z + fc)f(z)=f'(z)HO(fi).
32 Holomorphicfunctions
z =
Substituting
y(t) and
h
=
y(r + At)
\342\200\224
y(t)
the last
in
f(y(t + At))f(y(t))=f'(y(t))yf(t)At
expression, we get
+ 0(At).
of r,
a continuous
function
(1.28).Since/'(y(t))y'(t)is obviously
differentiable
function.
is
a
f(y{t))
continuously
Let y: t*y{t\\ a g t ^ fc, be a curve in C and let D be a region
in C. If
c
D
D.
t
e
we
is
and
we
for
all
that
in
write
y
y
y(t)eD
Let/(z) be a
[a, b],
say
D. A holomorphic function F (z),defined
on
continuousfunction
on a region
=
D.
of
D and satisfying
a
on
is
called
If,
primitive
F(z)
function
/(z),
/(z)
for example,/(z) is given
by
This proves
n=
0
where the power serieson the right converges
< r ^ + oo, then, by Theorem 1.11,
on
Ur(c) for
some r
with
0
n
= 0\"+l
primitive function of /(z)
(z) is a primitive function
curve of class C1 in D, we have
is a
on
If F
Ur(c).
on
of/(z)
D and
if y: t
\342\226\272
y (r),
a ^
r
^
fe,
is a
(1.28)
by
jtF(y(t))=f(y(t))y'(t).
Writing
F(y(t)) =
~ U(t)
both
Integrating
U(t) + iV(t)y
formula
get
ijtV(t) =f(y(t) )/(r).
+
from
sides
a to
F(y (b))F(y(a)) =
This
we
suggests
b, we get
(1.29)
['f{y(t))y'(t)dt.
the following
definition.
Definition 1.6. Let y: r > y (f), a ^ r ^ 6, be a curve of classC1onD and let
of z on D. The integral
f(z) be a continuous function
\\J(y (t))y' (t)dt is called
the integral off(z) along y and denoted
by J f(z)dz. Thus
f/(z)dz=
The
curve
y is
called
[f(yit))y'(t)dt.
the path
of integration
of
this
integral.
13
33
Integrals
a=Y(a)
1.15
Fig.
F(z) off(z) existsonD,
primitive function
If a
of/(z) along y
the
equals
by (1.29),
then,
the integral
values of F(z) at a = y(a)
of the
difference
and
= y(b):
P
1
y(a) and /?
a and
on
ft
If
is
f(z)
the value
case,
y(b) and is
=
an
obvious
constants,
of (1.27).
consequence
Similarly, if f(z)
the
and g(z)areboth
following
is a direct consequenceof (1.28).
An
of
integral
follows.
points.
\302\243\"=
1f(Ck)
tj
[tki9
i5[A]
For each
k
y
\342\200\224
zk_
+ c2
f(z)dz
we
=
pick
D and
if cx and
c2 are
m
intervals
partition
by
(1.32)
9(z)dz.
C1 can
class
details

.,
tm}.
The
interval
m, by these m +1
1,2,...,
the maximal length of the
=
tk], fc
we denote
[ffc_ t,
and
f
be obtained as a limit
of this procedure are as
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> **. *n fo
f2\302\273
&] such that a = t0
of
x). The
m +1 points f0, f lt,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
< rm = fcand we put A = {tQy tl9t29.
is divided into
We call A a
intervals
(zk
a curve
choose
We
<t1<t2<
[a, fe]
along
$yf(z)dz
sums
finite
on
continuous
formula:
(clf(z) + c2g(z))dz= c1(
[
(1.31)
1/(7(0)11/(01*
ll/Hsf
is
(1.30)
of Jy/(z)dz dependsonly on the points
independent of the choiceofcurve connecting
if y is a closed curve, then $yf(z)dz = 0.
D. In particular,
continuous
on D, the following inequality:
this
in
Therefore,
a =
/(z)dz = F(/?)F(a).
\302\243[A]:
max(rkrfc_1).
tk 6
[tk_l9tk] and putting
C*
=
y(Tk)andzk
= ^(r^) we find
34
functions
Holomorphic
a finite sequence
which
of points on y
ordered
are
a
determines
finite
to increasing values
according
of r. This sequence
sum:
m
*A=
/(Ck)(z**kl)\302\243
*= 1
Now, the integral $Yf(z)dz
take all possible partitions
J. y
For,
f(z)dzUm
continuous
function
A
[a,
fc] and
let
these sumsaA,
\302\243[A] tend
to
where
r, that
(133)
on the closedinterval
[a, fc], it is a uniformly
>
a 5(e) > 0 such
e
thereexists
0,
is, for each
that
andf,5G>,fc].
iffs<*M
\\f(y(t))~f(y(s))\\<e
Since
f f(z)dz= \\*mt)y/(t)dt=
*Ja
\302\243
J
y
\\'k
l Jt*_,
f(y(t))y'(t)dt,
and since from
we have
h
'*
/(Ck)(zkzk_1)=
f
=
/<\302\253/\302\253*
f
f(y(Tk))y'(t)dt,
we deduce
f f(z)dz
\302\243/(CJ(zkzk_1)=
we
0:
* = 1
is defined
of
of
of all
limit
Z/\302\253;*)0*z*i>
*5[A]0
sinoe/(y(r))
the
equals
J
f
h
(f{y(t))f(y(rk)))y'(t)dt.
1.3 Integrals
If
35
is a partition
such that 5[A] < 5(e),then
for
all re[rk.l9
tk] we
have tT* < 5(e).Hence\\f(y(t))f(y(xk))\\
< e. Using (1.31) we have
A
U
/\302\253& I/(\302\253fe*ki)
If
I
If*
m
r
(/(y(r))/(y(tk)))/(t)A
tk
l/(y(0)/(y(tJk))lyf\302\253&
III
_i
This
The parameter t of the
Z
\302\253
/<r)*.
to be absent from the sums
y (*) seems
on the righthand sideof(1.33).
This
is not
y: t
curve
i ) occurring
~~\"z* 
(z*
>
order of the pointsz0,\302\243l9
\342\200\242
\342\226\240>
z%, \302\2432>
z2> \342\200\242
zki>
C*> z*,   \342\200\242>
which is determined by the parametrization,is essential.
true,
since the
zm_1?
Cw, z,*,
c.
/*fj
=
al/WIA
(1.33).
proves
Z IT1/(W
/\342\200\242
f
*
formula
integral
Cauchyfs
for
circles
C and let r be such
plane
=
0 < r < hoo, then the interior Ur(c)
{z:\\zc\\< of the circle with
center c and radiusr is called disk with center c and radius r. Theclosure
Let c
be a
of
point
that
complex
r}
[l/r(c)]=
the
c\\
{z:\\z
r} is
^
Letf(z) bea holomorphic
Ur(c)
a disk
called the
function
with center
closeddisk
on
the region
c and radius r, 0 < r <
the
Under these circumstances
following
with
+
theorem
oo,
center
c and
radius r.
D, c a point of D,and
c D.
satisfying
[l/r(c)]
holds.
Theorem 1.13. Let y: 6 \302\273y(6) = c + rew, 0 ^ 0 ^ 2n, be the circle
center c and radius r. If w is a point of Ur(c), then the value/(w) is given
f(w)
=
\302\261,
Z)
Fig.
1.17
^dz.
f
2m J
y
zw
with
by
(1.34)
v
36
Holomorphicfunctions
Formula (1.34)is a special
case
of Cauchy's
will prove in Section2.3.
w = c in (1.34) and using y(0)c
Putting
=
and
reie
which we
formula,
integral
y'(6)
= rfe*
we get
Hence
/(c) = ^rV(c
(1.35) shows that
Formula
c is
a point
of a
circle
It is
+
(1.35)
r^)d\302\273.
the value/(c)
equal to the averageof the
c. Therefore,
center
with
of a holomorphicfunction/(z)
+ re*e)
values/(c
taken on
(1.35) is calledthe Mean Value
to prove the Mean Value Theoremdirectly.
also easy
1
at
the points
Theorem.
Putting
C2n
271 Jo
we have
/(c)
Mr)
If r
0, \\f(c +
\342\226\272
+
=
other
(^
(f(c +
 tends
reie) \342\200\224/(c)
/i(r)/(c)
In
^
rj\302\253)f(c))de.
to 0
uniformly
with
and so
r +0.
+ r^)f(c)\\de^09
^(2*\\f{c
to 6
respect
words,
lim
r +0
/i(r)=/(c).
Therefore, in order to prove
(1.35)
it is
constant, independent of r, for sufficiently
Applying the chain rule, (1.28),
gives
2f(c
to prove
sufficient
values
small
that
/i(r)
is a
of r.
+ rJ*)<P9
+ nP)=f{c
^fic + r^f'ic
+ re^rie\".
Hence
A/(c
+ re\")
=
I l/(c + r\302\243?\302\273), r
Since, by assumption,
> 0.
/(z) is holomorphic,/'
(z)
(1.36)
is
continuous,
hence
1.3
df(c + reie)/dr=/'
6 and
be
r. Therefore,
found
by
=
2nTr*r)
/i(r)is a differentiable
ir J
o
SO
that
proves
The
vital
of
part
derivatives
partial
Now
=
yt: 0>yc(O)
27uJye
the
to
+ eew,
w
radius e satisfying
zw
I [/(c + re2\"')
=
+ reu>)de
f{c
+ rt*)d6
Trf(C
\\0

n(r) is independent of r.
this proof is (1.36), which gives a
to r and
of/(c + re**) with respect
return
we
+ re)d6 =
Tr\\0f(C
integral
/(c +
r)] = 0.
relation
the
between
6.
formula
6 ^ 2n, representa circle
0 ^
2ihJ0
of the
proof
0 < e <r
variables
two
derivative can
the integral sign\":
\"under
differentiating
~
This
)eie is a continuousfunction of the
of r and its
function
+ re*
(c
37
Integrals
with
Let
(1.34).
center
w and
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
From
\\w
c\\.
2tt
y\302\243(0)w'\302\243l'
J0
we get
lim

\302\243027ri
zw
^
+ eel8)d0
V(w
I
\302\243.027t
l/2w Jo2*/(w +
course,
(Of
= lim
^dz
I
J7e
eje)dO =/(w) by
the
\342\200\242
f
2m J y
We
7o:
* *
for
all
To (0
t e
y
2m
J
Theorem,
prove
2*U.
y
but
(1J7)
w
z \342\200\224
lemma.
be a
Let/(z)
and
f
w
z \342\200\224
need a
first
1.1.
Lemma
\302\273
i\302\273*
Value
Mean
not need that result in the present proof.)
to
Therefore, in order to prove (1.34)it suffices
we do
=/(w).
J0
i:
t >
y x
holomorphic
(r),
a ^
[a, b], the segmentsLt
t ^
fc,
connecting
be
function on a regionD and let
closed
curves of class C1 in D.If,
y0 (t)
and
y x
(f),
represented
by
Lt^{(ls)y0{t)^syl(tYO^s^l}
are in D, then
=
f /M<fc
[
(1.38)
/(z)dz
holds.
Proof:
Putting
ys(t) =
(1 s)y0(tHsyl{t%
a^t^b
38 Holomorphic
functions
each
for
the ys(t)
se[0,1],
Since y0
c D.
ys(t)eLt
are continuously
such
differentiable,
curves, y0(a) =
closed
yx are
and
y0(b)
and
that
yt (a)
for all s. (Thecurves
ys: t \342\226\272
ys (t)9 a S t ^ b, are
a family of closed curves in D. If s movesfrom 0 to 1the curve y0 is gradually
\"transformed\" via the curves ys into the curve y%.) It suffices to prove that
is independent
of s, and to prove this it is sufficient
to prove
that
SyM(z)dz
=
y
hence
i (ft),
y5
(a)
=
ys (b)
Fig. 1.18
Putting
Ht, 5) = y.(r) =
we see that
T(t9 5) is a function
rectangle K =
derivativeson
(1s)y0(t)+
{(r,s):a^
t
the
of
^
fc,0 ^
s^
variables
1}with
X:
rr(t,s)
= (l5)y0(t)
rs(r, 5)
=
rrs(t, 5) =
+ 5y'1(r),
y1(0yo(r),
r* ft s) = yi
(t)

y'0(t).
si 1
1
K
a
0
Fig.
1.19
I>
(1.39)
(t)
syt
two
f
t
continuous
and
5 defined
partial
on the
13
For fixed s, T(r, s)
and the derivative
Tt
(a, s) and (b, s).Similarly,
is a
function of t
points
ya(t) =
t, the
fixing
(t,0) and (t, 1). The
on
defined
derivative
sameis
for
true
interval [a,
the closed
function is also defined
(r, 5) of this
at
the
and
at
the
s). From
rrt(r,
have
),a(\302\253)we
= r(a,s).
r(M)
b]
end points
T, (t, s) is alsodefined
rfs(r,s)
39
Integrals
(1.40)
Since
f f(z)dz= fV(y.W)y;w*=
in
to
order
To do this,
Mean Value
Since
= 0.
establish
a relation
will
s, which will
to
prove
between the partial derivatives
with
similar role as (1.36) in the proof of the
a
play
suffices
Theorem.
T(r, s)
is continuously
alsocontinuously
differentiablewith
with
differentiable
is
derivative
/(z)<fe is independentof s, it
/(r(r,5))rf(r,s)dr
we
to t and
regard
that J
prove
[V(r(t,s))rf(t,s)dt,
given
regard
to s, /(T(r,
s)) is
Theorem 1.12,and the
regard
to s, by
by
\302\243/(r(r,5))=/'(r(r,s))rs(r,s).
Therefore
= r (nr.r,
ys (/(or,)
we
where
have
T for
written
(i.4i)
+/(nr,s,
T(r, s). Writing
+ iV{t9s)
f(r(t9s))rt(t9s)=U(t,s)
side of (1.41) is a continuousfunction
and observing that the righthand
of t and s defined on K, we concludethat
Us (r, s) and Fa (f, s) are
continuous
on
K.
\"Differentiating
\302\261
J*/(r
On the
under
(ff
S))rf
the integral sign\" yields
(r, 5)dr
=
[b
other hand
~(/(r)rj
=/'(nrfrs+/(r)rs,.
A(/(r(r,
5))Tf
(r,
5))dL
40 Holomorphic
functions
Hence
ft s))
s))rt
(/(Tft
\302\243
=
jt (f{T(Us))Ts
ft
(1.42)
5))
and therefore
r
vw*
5))r'(r's))dt=r
Ys
i(/(n''5))rjt's))^
s))r.(6,
=/(r(b,
and
s))r.(o,
/<r(a,
s),
finally
T(fc,
5)
s) by (1.40),hence Ts(fe,
= T(a,
sideof (1.43)
Proof of Theorem
2711
By Theorem
\342\200\224
{w}.
The
which
zero,
equals
\342\200\224
W
2711 J
1.5,/(z)/(z
\342\200\224
Z
circles
w) is
Thus, the righthand
(1.38).
the equality (1.37):
W
Z \342\200\224
y
function of z on the region
a holomorphic
in D \342\200\224
{w} and
\342\200\224
y (6) is in D {w} for
connectingye (6) and
betweena point (1\342\200\224
s)yc(0)
(1.43)
5).
T5(a, s).
to prove
y are both
yE and
=
s)
proves
It suffices
1.13:
J y
s))r.(o,
=/(T(fc, s))Ts(fc,s) /(!>,
f /(*)&
^
D
S)
+ sy(0),
all 0.
the line segment Le
This is becausethedistanced
s ^ 1, on Lfl
0 ^
vv satisfies
and
Fig. 1.20
d =
(1 s)y\302\243(0)
Equality (1.37)is now
+ sy(0)w
a
direct
= (srse
^
sr
=
s(r
+ \302\243)e*s(wc)
\342\200\224
consequence
sefe
\342\200\224\342\200\224
sw
c
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
vv
c
e) +
of Lemma
e ^
e.
1.1.
13 Integrals 41
If
a
the
^ t ^
y0 of
curve
then
by
1.1 is definedby
0, hence f f(z)dz
where c is a constant,
Lemma
y0 (t)
= c,
=
= 0.
This gives
y0(r)
corollary to Lemma1.1.
the following
region D,y:t+y(f), a ^ f
a closed curve of classC1in D, and c a point in D. If all segments
connecting
in
D
then
a
t
are
c and
^ ^ b,
y{t),
f /(z)dz =
In
the
1.1 we
did not usethe
r(t,s). We used the existenceand
rf(r,s), Ts(r,s), and rts(t,s) = rst(t9s)
= r>,S).
r(M
Therefore,let
(r,
r(t,
s)
values
taking
rrs (*>5)
=
Tsf
of
and
equality
D.
the
a
the
that
asserting
map T:
b, 0 g s ^ 1},
a continuous
exists
the partial derivatives
are continuous and let
and
derivatives
partial
(1.40)
rectangle K = {(t,s):
to this map T(f,s)
as above
reasoning
defined on
and
exist
(\302\243,
s)
b,
(1.39) for
formula
explicit
continuity
there
that
assume
us
s) defined on the
in D such that
\342\226\272
^
0.
of Lemma
proof
on the
be holomorphic
Let/(z)
Corollary.
t ^
^
(f,
Tt
us
same
the
apply
holomorphic
s) and
Ts (t,
s),
function/(z)
Putting
=
ys(t)
ys: t>ys(t)9 a ^ r ^
did not assumethat
necessarily closed.
Up to equality
above
Now
s >
curve
equality
C1 in Z) for each te[0,1].
=
s) T(a, 5)holds,the curves
of class
T (b,
Since we
ys are
not
f(z)dz =f{r{b,s))rs(b,s)f(r(a,s))rs{a,s)
proof
can
be repeated
without any changes.
defining
ty (s)
ty:
is a
b
the
se[0,l]
(1.43)
^
the
for
r(t,s)
ty (s),
= T(r, 5)
0
s
\302\243
^
1, is
for all t e [0, b]
a curve of classC1in
D
all re
for
[a, b]
and
I /(z)dz= JofV(r(r,5))rs(r,s)d5.
J,y
Integrating
both sides
of the equality with
regard
to
s from
0 to
1 and
42 Holomorphic
functions
last
the
using
f f(z)dz = f
f f(z)dz
Jy0
Jyi
So,
we
have
f(z)dz f
\342\226\272
Let/(z) be a holomorphic
T(r,
s) be
the
on
function
map definedon the
values in D, such that
a continuous
0 ^ s <\302\243
fl^t^fe,
1} taking
rt(t9s\\ rs(r,s), and rfs(r,s) = r^t.s)
Putting ys: t + ys{t) = T(t, s),a^t^b,
^ 1,
f(z)dz
J\302\253y
J\302\273y
proved:
Theorem 1.14.
T: (r,5)
we get
equality,
exist
and
are
fy:
s +
and
K =
rectangle
the
D and let
a region
{(r, s):
derivatives
partial
on K.
continuous
ty(s) = T(s, f),
0^ s
equality
f
f /(z)dz
/(z)dz
=
[ /(z)&
f
(1.44)
f(z)dz
is valid.
Fig. 1.21
in
Theorem 1.14 is a special
case
Section 2.3. The vital part of
^
Actually,
equations,
x + iy.
of
the proof
s))rt (r, 5)) =
(/(T(r,
this
equality
(1.10). To see
Since Tx = 1 and
Uy+ivy
=
=
I^x
of Theorem
jt (f(T(t,
s))ra(t,
which
will
1.14is equality
be
proved
(1.42):
s)).
generalization of the CauchyRiemann
this, replace t and s by x and y and put T(x, y)
is a
Ty
=
1, (1.42)
/(X+I>)=l_/(X+I>).
Writing/(x + iy)
Theorem,
Cauchy's
u + iv,
+ ^xX
we get
becomes
=
Integrals 43
13
the
which
from
equations,
CauchyRiemann
directly.
sidesof the
By integrating both
over the rectangle K,
\\\\k ^v(r(rf
vy and
uy
=
\342\200\224
follow
vx9
equations
CauchyRiemann
generalized
s))Fr
s))rs(r's))drds'
^(/(r(r>
(r's))dtds=If
Cauchy's Theorem(1.44).
we arrive at
d.
series
Power
Let f(z\\
expansions
f(z\\ f2(z\\
.. . 9fn(z)9...
be
a region D and let y:
defined on
=
ux
sequenceof
a ^ r
t \342\226\272
y (t),
^
fc,
of
functions
continuous
a curve
be
in D.
z
If the
functions
\\f\342\200\236(y(t))f(Y(t))\\
tends
{fn(z)}
Z1
on [a, fe]
to 0
uniformly
functions
n
if
uniformly
converges
\302\273
oo,
to f(z)
we say that the sequence of
on y. Similarly,if the sequence
fn(y(t))f(7(t))
n=
on [a, fe] as m \342\226\272
oo, we say that the series \302\243^\302\260=
t fn(z)
If
to
on
for
series
all
of
the
converges
uniformly
y.
f(z)
points y(t)
y
to /(y(t)) and if Zn\302\260\302\260=1
/n(y(r))
converges
Er\302\253ii&W) converges
on
on y. This
uniformly
[a, 6], then Z\"=1J(i(z) converges uniformly
to/(z)
follows from
tends
to 0
uniformly
Z
n=
If Zr= i
Z
J[(y(0)/(y\302\253)
1
ft
conver8es
uniformly
absolutely
on y.
^W)I
!\342\200\242\302\243
converge
uniformly
Theorem
1.15.
Let
be
y
a curve
(1) If the sequence
/(*) on y.
f
Jy
(2) If
f(z) on
J y
lim
/(z)dz=
the
of
f
noojy
series
of
n= 1 J
y
Z
n
on [a,
of class
functions
= m +1
lJC(rW)l
6], then \302\243~=^
(z) is said to
C1.
{fn(z)}
converges
uniformly
to
converges
uniformly
to
Jt(z)rfz
functions
y,
^
J\302\243(y\302\253)
= iri+ 1
Z\"\342\200\236lt/i(z)
44
functions
Holomorphic
The second part follows
Proof:
assumption, there existsa sequence
(0)1 <e\342\200\236{ora^t^band lim,,^ en =
Using (1.31) we have
(1). By
prove
/(?
f
I
f
f\342\200\236(z)dz
1
f(z)dz
=
1
f*
part, so it
the first
from
directly
satisfying:
{en}
to
suffices
\\f\342\200\236(y(t))
0.
ifn(y(t))f(y(t)W(t)dt
\\Uy(t))f(y(t))\\\\y'(t)\\dt
*j>
nKX>.
(t)\\dt>0,
^e\342\200\236\302\243l/
Hence
lim f
H\302\27300
J
c and
center
f(z)dz.
y
C and let ceD. We
radius r. First let us
r for
of
value
maximum
f
J
a region in
D be
Let
=
fn(z)dz
y
to consider
want
which t/r(c)
c=
D,
disks
C. Then
D #
that
assume
is, there
that
with
(c)
Ur
there existsa
exists an r(c)
satisfying
[l/r(c)(c)]<jtD.
yc)cfl,
0
1.22
Fig.
Let r(c)
(Proof:
r<
r(c)9
that
then
denote the supremumofallvalues
Ur(c)
[Ur(C){c)]c/iD.
wls w2,.
convergent
limit of
.
c D, hence
If r>r(c),
., wn,. ..
subsequence
such
t/Hc)(c)
{wn^},
w.
r for
which
c D.
Ur<r{c)Ur(c)
nx <
Since
m2
and
<
D is
< r(c)+
wnc
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
open,
exist
=
lim^^
D.If
prove
points
1/n. Select a
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
and
\342\200\242,
<nj<
w
Ur (c) c
Next we
then Ur(c)cfcD,hence there
wn\302\243 D
that
this subsequenceby
=
denote
wn.
the
D and
\302\243
13
since wc = lim^^u^cl
r(c) = + oo.In this case, t/r(c)(c)
holds
on D
is holomorphic
Uf(z)
with
replace
to
regard
w by
^ r,
we
and if r
<
the circle
z and z by
( in (1.34),we
l
f /(C)^
f(z) =
2ri
I
be a point of D.Then
/(z)=
/(z)
can
may
( = r
^ 6^
(1.34)
27r.
If
we
(L45)
on a
function
in a
0
...
+ a2(zc)2f
region D,
and let c
power series
on Ur(c)(c).
The coefficients
assume
an
2ni}yrZz
are
without
loss
Hence
/(C) _
\302\243
/(O^
(1.46)
by
,147)
of generality
By
(1.45)
c =
that
0.
Let
we have
C
?=re*
C
given
0<r<r(*
( is a point of the circle yr,
> z, and thereforez/( <
Fig. 1.23
..,
+fln(zc)\"+
choose r suchthat: z < r < r(0).
zet/r(O)(0) and
Since
Cauchy's
+ re1*, 0
get
be expanded
*\"Sil\302\253^*
m
formula
then
= c
\302\243an(z<T
n=
which converges
We
(0)
C, we put
zet/'(c)
C^tdC'
= a0ffl1(zc)
Proo/:
r(c\\
Let/(z) be a holomorphic
Theorem 1.16.
C = D.)
= l/ + 00(c) =
yr: 0 > yr
D =
If
[Ur{c)(c)].
45
Integrals
we
1.
So
can
we
write
can
( = yr(0) =
write
re1*,
hence
46
Holomorphicfunctions
The continuous
Denoting
function
of 6
\\f(y(9))\\
maximum
this
by
f(0zn
n
Therefore the series\302\243\"=0
y,
and
= (1/2th)
aH
Putting
/W
=
/^dC=
an =
coefficients
The
uniformly on the circle
)z\" converges
(/\"({)/C\"+x
we arrive
J\" IT (/(0/C\"+1)#
^f
rz
^r\"*1
1.15(2), we have
by Theorem
thus,
[0, 2n].
\342\200\224
<+\302\253>\342\200\242
Z3TTr=
^M^TT>
r\"+1'
+ l
a maximum on
assumes
M, we have
at
(1.48)
\302\243a\342\200\236z\302\273.
(l/2ni)
f
are
(/(0/Cn+1)^C
independent
of the
choice of r, becausewe can select r and 5 such that 0 < r < r(0) and
0 < s < r(0). Since/(C)/Cn+1is holomorphicon the
region
{0}
t/r(0)(0)and the segments connecting yr(0)
and
are
in
this
ys(0)
clearly
region, we
have
by
1.1
Lemma
i
Since
z
0 anzn
\302\243^\302\260_
/(C)
r
is an
for
convergenceof
converges
Corollary,
if for
only
< r(0).
\\z\\
Y*\342\204\242=oa*zn
on
absolutely
A function
r
no
Ar
the power series
r(0),
Hence, by Theorem 1. 8, the radiusof
'ess ^an
r(^) Therefore, Y^=oa^n
point satisfying
arbitrary
converges
i
Ar
not
*s
\\z\\
<
t/r(0)(0).
if and
f(z) defined on a regionD is holomorphic
cDon
there existsa neighborhood
Ue(c)
which/(z)
=
can be expanded in an absolutely
series,/(z)
convergent
power
Y,\342\204\242=o
an
\342\200\224
on
is arbitrarily
often
on c). If/(z) is holomorphic
D9f{z)
c)n (e depends
(z
difFerentiable on D and the derivatives
/' (z),/\" (z),. . . ,/lm,(z),... are all
each ceD
on
holomorphic
Proof:
A
D.
The result
complex
function,/(z),
power series/(z) =
is called
functions
from
defined
on a
\342\200\224
\302\243\"=0an(z
c)n on a
Theorems
region D, that
neighborhood
1.16 and
1.11.
in a
be expanded
of each point c ofD
can
function (or a complexanalytic
function
from
a real analytic
function). By the
and vice versa.
are holomorphic
an analytic
to distinguish it
analytic
follows directly
if it
is necessary
above corollary,
1.4 Properties ofholomorphic
functions
1.4
a.
.
fundamental
expansion of f(z). In this
from
directly
Cauchy's integralformula
section
(1.34)
and
Let y(t) and \\fr{t) be complexvalued
defined on the integral / = [a,6].
1.2.
is given by
Differentiating
z yields
to
regard
with
righthand sideof (1.49)
(1.50), so we actually prove that the order of
\\z\\ >
on the
be interchanged.
have
obviously
d
1\\=
fl
is a positiverealnumber,
p and w > p. Actually,
z \342\200\224w\\ww
z~w\\w\"
(l\\=
dz\\zn)
*\"/
!\342\204\242z*vVw\"
If p
the
convergence
JJ
wz\"
wz\"
z\"+1\"
limit is uniform
of this
1
_1
z\"
z\"
n
w2
w2zn
l
w\"z'
Hence
111
Iw\"
Since
\"
=
zn
I
derivative
(1.50)
the integrand
can
1
r
its
(y{t)*r^dt.
integration
If z ^ 0, we
and
*0
g'(z)= n(b
and
differentiation
functions
continuous
of z defined on C \342\200\224
y(I)
function
holomorphic
Proof:
integral
fact
formulas
(y(t)z)\"
\302\253\302\253j;
is a
find
n
number
natural
each
For
to deduce this
want
we
well.
as
derivatives
mth
Lemma
of
properties
derivatives
mthorder
power series
for the
the
study
to Theorem 1.16, a holomorphic
function
corollary
differentiate
and the derivatives
often
/'(z),
arbitrarily
. ,/(m)(z),...
the
are all homomorphic. This was
proved
using
is
f\"(z),.
will
the
By
f(z)
functions
of holomorphic
Properties
In this section we
holomorphic functions.
Al
zw
I
1
Y Tr^r k
I k=x
v^zn
I
I
^\"\" lzw
pn+l'
for
48
Holomorphicfunctions
we get
1
1/1
\342\200\224
n
\\
I
,
,
n2
(1.51)
(^^J^^IH^T.
and put 2p =
FixzeCy(Z),
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
z
h\\>p
\342\200\224z
\342\200\224fi
in
y(0
all
for
Replacing z by y(i?)z and
< p.
fi
p >Oand
then
minfl\302\243f^y(t)z,
\\y(t)
w
by
we get
(1.51)
1/
with
h
\302\273(Q
\\
\302\273(0
(y(0*r/
*V(y(0**r
n\302\273(t)
Ljfcln2,.,.,
r
(y\302\253^r+l
p\"+2
(1.27)
hence, using
th:*m*w>*
Therefore
lim
+ h)g(z)
g(z
replaces
hence
is
g(z)
on C \342\200\224
y (/).
defined on the
Let
y
(0
interval
and
[a,
dt*
is given by (1.50). If one
one
(1.49),
gets (1.50),so that g'(z) is
is
Therefore,
g'(z)
certainly continuousand
n
and
#'(z)
1 in
+
on C
holomorphic
1.17.
Theorem
n by
^TT
T~77x
on C \342\200\224
y(J)
and
n^(f)
by
^(t)
differentiable
also
n
~J.
is differentiable
i.e., g(z)
n)
C\"
=
1
\342\200\224y(/).
ip (t)
be complexvalued
continuous functions
6].
The function
=
/(z)=fJ\302\243U
f
is a
often
fim)
function
holomorphic
of
z on
the region
C \342\200\224
y(I).f(z)
is arbitrarily
on C \342\200\224
all its derivatives f'(z),f\"(z),...,
and
y(I)
\342\200\224
on C y(I). The mth derivative is given by
holomorphic
differentiable
are
(z),...
/<\">(z)
=
(1.52)
(y(t)zy
m\\j*77J^L\342\200\224dL
and
1.1, f(z) is holomorphicon C\342\200\224
y(I)
f'(z)
=
the
same
z?~\\dt. Therefore, by
lemma,/'(z)is
f t> W/(y(0
= 2!
is
by the same lemma,/'(z)
holomorphic
and/\"(z)
Again
J* O (r)/(y(r) z)3]dr.
=
3!
and
so
on.
holomorphic and/\"\302\260'(z)
J* [>(t)/(y(t)z)4]<fe,
Proof:
By Lemma
Let/(z)bea
Ur(c),0< < +
holomorphic
r
oo, be
function
a disk such that
a region PcC
c D and
[l/r(c)]
on
and let ceD. Let
let yrbe defined
by
1.4
y/0>
for
have
=
yr(d)
^
27i.
all its
Ur(c) and
is an
Ur{c)
f\"(z\\ . .
1.17, f(z) is
derivatives
So we
..
f'(z),f\"(z),.
arbitrary
is arbitrarily
derivatives
/'(z),
that/(z)
proved
its
all
we have
have
proved.
1.18.
Theorem
... are holomorphic.
,f(m)(z\\
that
on
differentiable
often
arbitrarily
disk in D, we have
on D and
. ,f{m)(z),... are holomorphic.
(1.52)
By
(1.45) we
formula
yM2
2.iiJo
differentiable
often
integral
Cauchy's
By
**
2nijyrCz
by Theorem
Therefore,
on
rew, 0 <; 0
49
zeUr(c)
JU
Since
c +
functions
of holomorphic
Properties
The mth
derivative of f(z) is given
by
Ur(c).
1.17 the integral Jyr[/(0/(Cz)m+1M on the righthand
of (1.53) is also a holomorphic function
of
z on
D \342\200\224
side
[l/r(c)].
This function
is identically equal to 0 by the corollary
to Lemma 1.1, since
function of \302\243
on D \342\200\224
all segments
is a holomorphic
z)m+i
/(C)/(C\342\200\224
{z} and
\342\200\224
of
D
c
the
in
and
are
connecting
points yr
{z}.
By Theorem
Limits
fe.
on
a region
f(z) =
subsets
the
limn^00/l(z)
sequences
of
{^.
D, converging
/<*>(z) =
and
of holomorphicfunctions
a
be
functions
sequenceof holomorphic
(z)}
of sequences
Let
1.19.
Theorem
is
uniformly
holomorphic
Km.
(*),
co/\302\243\">
{/J,m) (z)}
on
on D
m =
all
subsets
compact
and its
1, 2,
mth
derivative
defined
of D. Then
is given
by
3, . . . ,
converge uniformly to/(m) (z) on all compact
D.
Let Ur (c), 0<r<+oobean
arbitrary disk such that [Ur (c)]
Proof:
on [t/r(c)],
cD.
Since, by assumption,
uniformly
{/\342\200\236(z)}converges
of z on [t/r (c)]. Let yr be the
function
/(z) = lim,,^/,. (z) is continuous
a
50
Holomorphicfunctions
circle
radius r, then, by
c and
center
with
the integralformula
we have
(1.45),
zeUAc)'\342\200\242W.MJS*
Since {/\342\200\236(0} converges
uniformly
to/(Q/(C\342\200\224z)
converges uniformly
Theorem
1.15, (1)
nooJyrC
Z
on [l/r(c)],
to f(Q
fixed z e Ur
yr for a
on

(0/(C
{/\342\200\236
*)}
by
Therefore,
(c).
Z
JyrC
Hence
1
=
1=
/(Z)=lim/B(Z)
/(0
f
^
f^dC,,r
\342\200\224r
2mJytz
on f/r
is holomorphic
Therefore/(z)
disk in D, we
an arbitrary
Next, by
see
that/(z)
zet/r(0).
\"\302\243'
7
(c) by Theorem 1.17and since
on D.
is holomorphic
is
Ur (c)
(1.53)
f(m) (2)
/\342\226\240
(0/(0
_ f(m) (z)smmL[
dc
on yn there exists a sequence
Since {fn{Q} converges uniformly
to/(C)
= 0 and
< \302\253\302\273
for
all \302\243eyr
such
that
linw
e\342\200\236
I/,(0/(01
{En}
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
z
that
we
have
such
\\z
c\\ ^
r/z,
yr (0)
Choosing
z\\ ^
r/2. Using
y;(0) =
r\302\253ew,weget,by(1.31),
/<\302\253>(z)/<\302\253>(z)<^
(z) j (z>l =
/.
compact
of
set
shown above,{/(nm)
Since
by a finite
be covered
can
.K
to /(m) (z) on
uniformly
Corollary.
Let
a region
J]
*_
x
K.
fn
D, converging
f(z) = ZTifn(z)ls
on
the
and
subset
of
Let us
series
X^=1/nm)(z)
disk
(c)]. Let
(c)]
[l/r
X be a
c Z).As
to/(m) (z) on all disks [l/r/2(c)].
all
compact
(z)}
converges
defined
subsets
its mth derivative
D and
m=
/(\"\342\200\242>(z)= \302\243/\302\253(*),
\302\273=i
[[/r/2
of holomorphicfunctions
on
uniformly
holomorphic
on
a closed
number of thesedisks,{/(nm)
a series
(z) be
ym
(z)
uniformly
converges
(z)}
<m!2m
=
27rJoMe)_zr\302\253
converges
uniformly to f{m)
D and choose for each ceK
{/J,m) (z)}
i.e.,
+1
e\"rd0
P\"
on
of D. Then
is given
by
1,2,3,...
converges
uniformly
on each compact
D.
apply this corollaryto the
power series
with
radius
of
case
convergence
of power
r, 0
series. Let
x an
\302\243
^\302\260=
< r ^ + oo.All
terms
zn be
a
anzn
1.4
are
functions 51
of holomorphic
Properties
zn converges
Ur (0) and \302\243^\302\260=
uniformly on all
x an
<
r
Theorem
1.9.
F
or
each
subset
K of D
p
by
compact
c
is possible
to find a p < r such that
K
it
Up(0), hence ]T^=1 flnz\"
on
K.
our
z\"
Therefore,
by
converges
uniformly
corollary,the sum Y^=\\an
=
is holomorphic
on D Ur (0) and its mth derivative/(m) (z)is given by
=/(z)
disksUp
D =
on
holomorphic
0 <
(0) for
00
/(\342\200\242\302\273)(Z)=
\302\243n(\302\253l)(w2)...(\302\253m+l)a(,z\"m.
1.11,using
given another proof of Theorem
1.19.
If Z.T=i fn (z) *s a series of holomorphic functions defined
subsets of D, then
on all compact
and converging uniformly
Thus,
we have
the
corollary
to Theorem
on
a region
D
/^(z)
is
\302\243\"=x
also uniformly convergent on all compactsubsets of D by the above
corollary. However, uniform convergenceof XT=i/n(z) on D doesnot
D. For example,
uniform
convergence of \302\243^\302\260_
necessarily
imply
t /JIm) (z) on
=
zn+ V(w + 1) n converges
on U1 (0)
uniformly
{z:z < 1}(because
t
\302\243^\302\260=
=
=
but
l)n
l/(n+
Xr.i [1/n l/(n+ 1)] 1) Xn\"= i *\". obtained by
iKt
is not uniformly
twice,
differentiating the above seriesterm by term
on
convergent
V\\
(0).
The Mean
We
have
direct consequenceof Cauchy's
is a
Theorem 1.20
on
Value Theorem and the
already seen in Section 1.3cthat
c.
a region
(Mean Value Theorem).
ceD and r are such
By taking absolutevalues
l/(c) ^
obtain
we
+
2~ Jj/(c
Theorem
D, the
Proof
We
have
let /(z)
1.21
function
\\f(z)\\
Let us assumethat/(z)
to show
principle).
assumes
that/(z)
holomorphic
c D, then
function
(L54>
reWHde
be a
(maximum
Theorem
the inequality
holomorphic function
considerthe realvaluedfunction \\f(z)\\ of
Next,
[l/r(c)]
Value
(1.34).
is a
If f(z)
that
principle
Mean
the
formula
integral
D and
maximum
no
a region
on
defined
z, also
Unless /(z) is a
maximum
on D.
assumes
a maximum
is a constant function
on
to
D. We want
on D.
constant function
value M,
D. Choose
on
at, say,z =
c.
r, such that
52 Holomorphicfunctions
[Vr (c)] c: D.Then,
^
(1.54),
by
M ~ i/(c)i=a
IT(M~i/(c+rei6)])de
is a continuous function
0 satisfying
of
M\342\200\224
=
Af /(c
0. Choosee > 0 such
+ r\302\243*)^ 0, we conclude that
+ r^)
/(c
=
c
c
reie
for
all
then
M
with
that
0 < r < e, i.e.,
+
+
D,
r^)
\\f(c
(c)]
[t/\302\243
=
=
=
/(z) M on t/\302\243(c).Put P {zeD:/(z)
Af}. If c e V, then there exists an
e>
\342\200\224
Af
Since
0 such that
V9
If M = 0,
=
u (x,
are
we
=
+ Wy
these
Combining
ny
i;x>
w2 +
+ v2)
= 0,
+
= 0.
(u2
i\342\200\224
dx
= i
~~ (W2
with
the
assume M
v2 = /(z)2
l^2)
region,
> 0. Writing/(z)
= M2 on D,
\"
=
0,
0 and
point of the
is
D
be
u
+
a
iv has
bounded
boundary
of
However,since/(z)isa nonconstant
hence c e [D]\342\200\224
D.
Isolated
wx
=
vy and
= 0.
uy
vy
and
uy
Hence
a constant.
and let
region
on D.Then
f(z) be
assumes
\\f(z)\\
and
defined
a maximum
is notconstant.Since[D]iscompact
assumes
a maximum
holomorphic
function,
at a
and
point ce[D].
we have
c^D,
singularities
Let D bea region,ceD and
r (c)
the number
defined in Section 1.3d
a D if D ^ C and
as the maximumrealnumber
satisfying
Ur{c) (c)
D = C.Let yr: 6 + yr (6) = c + re10,0^ 0 < 2n,as usual represent
c and radius r. In this section we consider
functions
with
center
holomorphic
ry)
hence
D.
We may assume that/(z)
continuous
on [D], \\f(z)\\
d.
to be
and holomorphic
on [D]
continuous
Proof:
/(z) =
+
=/(x
equations,
CauchyRiemann
is
conclude
we
\"unknowns\"
get a system of equations with
=
= u2 + i;2 = M2 >
we
conclude
J\"\"!
vy
Corollary. Let
\\f{z)\\
closed.
zeD.
other hand, since\\f(z)\\
Since D is a
\342\200\224we
Since
ux = vx
at a
is also
for all
have
we
On the
is open.
V
so we
finished,
y) + w (x, y\\
MK3.
V
= M
\\f(z)\\
i.e.,
nux + wx
=
of z,
function
D =
V, hence
a
UE(c)
a continuous
that
+ rel6)
/(c
on D \342\200\224
{c}.
as
+ oo if
the circle
that
are
1A
I
/()=
which
are given by
The
series
power
*=\"_
\302\243
\342\200\224
^ aw (z
absolutely on
to converge
said
(U6)
0<r<r<*
\"\342\226\240\"Httt^*
is
{c}
on Ur{c)(c)\342\200\224
{c}.
absolutely
coefficients
Remark:
\342\200\224
(1.55)
\302\253.(*<*\342\226\240,
\342\200\224
oo
n=
converges
Its
holomorphic on the regionD
power series
in a
be expanded
can
that is
A function/(z)
1.22.
Theorem
53
functions
of holomorphic
Properties
c)n,
i.e.,
\342\200\224
{c}
[/r(c)(c)
the
if
series
X^i
c
an(zc)n and X.T=i aJ(z c)n both converge absolutely for 0 < z \342\200\224
\342\200\224
< r(c). A power series of the form
a Laurent
c)n is called
aw (z
\342\200\236
Y,!\342\204\242\342\200\224
series.
Proof:
point
w
We
loss of generality
<
r(0) and real numbers
w
without
assume
may
0 <
that
such
Let
<r<r(0).
0<\302\243<w
0 < 6 < 2n
represent
ye:
c =
\302\243
and
and
0. Choose
r such
a
that
= reie,
yr: 6>yr(0)
0 and
center
with
circles
the
= eeie
0>y\302\243(0)
that
radii e and, r
respectively.
Putting
9 (z)
g (z)
is a
=
z \342\200\224
w
holomorphic
D
on
function
expandedin an absolutely
of w:
,
Theorem 1.16,/(z) can be
series in some neighborhood
\342\200\224
w}. By
{0,
power
converging
+
f{z)=f{w) + bl{zw) + b2{zw)2
\342\200\242
.
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+bn(zw)n+
Therefore
9 (z)
Therefore,
gf
=f{Z) ^/(W)
z \342\200\224
w
(z)
we
J
g(z)dz
bx
be defined
can
holomorphicfunction
whole of D{0}.
Therefore,
=
some
on
can
apply
=
b2 (z
+
at z
w
w)
in
neighborhood
Lemma
g{z)dz,
=

1.1:
f
such
...
+ &w(zw)\"1
a way that g
of
w
and
+
...
(z) becomes a
therefore
on the
54
Holomorphic
that
is,
functions
f/W^f/WZW^
z~w
Jr.
the
Applying
while
corollary to
by the
1
/(z) =
first
the
For
Since
C/z =
the
get
get
z yields
(L58)
2^JVrC^dC2^Jn^i\"C
the righthand sidewe
term of
in
second
the
have
term is a
by
(1.48)
point of
have
we
yc,
1, hence
1
1
~
_
z (1C/z)
Cz
C
Bf0
therefore
/(0
with
w by
C and
1
and
we
2n.JVf zw
\302\243
occurring
<
e/\\z\\
we
(1.57)
2m)yzw
Replacingz by
1,
Lemma 1.1:
these results with
Combining
the function/(z) =
= 0.
dz
1ytzw
(1.34) to
formula
integral
(L57)
z~w
h,
the
absolutely
Hence,
=_
\302\243
\302\2437X0
on the
series
power
on yt.
The seriesX
T= 1
a 
S a,
.,
n
1 /z\"+
*
on the
\342\200\236
am
Ia\342\200\236z+
w=0
I^=
n=0
Z
If.
/(OC
for
righthand sideconverges
Hence, by (1.58)
/(*)\302\253
uniformly
1.15(2)
by Theorem
1 f /(0
righthand side converging
00
I
aBz'
z
 >
e.
1.4
Since
a
is
Cn/(0
connecting
segments
y\302\243(0)and
are
yr(0)
in
on D{0}and
\302\243>{0},
from
conclude
we
all
since
1.1
Lemma
=
[ cnodt:
f
\342\200\224
1
n \342\200\224
by
Replacing
for all
write
of (
function
holomorphic
functions 55
of holomorphic
Properties
c/\302\253.
n in
the expression for a_w_x, we see that
we
can
indices
of the choice of the radius
It is clearfromLemma1.1that an is independent
r, 0 < r < r(0), of the path of integration yr. This proves that for all z with
0 <
\\z\\
<
the series
r(0)
/(z) =
The
^*=0
which
anzn,
\302\243 anz\\
\342\200\224
oo
which
for 0
\\z\\
<
for
\\z\\
>
of two
composed
for
absolutely
converges
<
is
\302\243^= _aDanzn
absolutely
converges
absolutely
and that
anzn converges
n=
series
power
_ m
]T \302\256_
\\z\\
<
0. Therefore,
r(0)
and
\302\243*= _
power series,
\302\243*=x
^ awzw
a_n(l/z)n,
converges
r(0).
iscalled the Laurent
series on the righthand sideof (1.55)
expansion
of/(z) about c. The point c is calledan isolated
singular
point of
of
the
with
and
the
Laurent
/(z)
expansion
negative exponents:
part
The
Laurent
is called the
We
principalpart of/(z) at c.
the
distinguish
following
Case (1): Thereis no principal
<
part.
In
this
case we
have for 0 <
z
\342\200\224c
r(c),
f(z)
By
three cases:
defining
= a0
f(c)
+ al{zc) + a2{zc)2+
= a0,
In
we make
/(z) into a
function
which
is
also
removable singularity of f(z).
case,
holomorphic
from the start making/(z)
removes
removable
one
singularities
Usually,
which is holomorphic on the whole of D.
into
a function
a
on D. A point ceD such that/(c) = 0iscalled
be holomorphic
Let/(z)
around
the zero c:
zero of f(z). Consider the Taylor expansion off(z)
... +0\342\200\236(zc)n+ ....
+ fl2(z~c)2+
f(z) = fl0 + fll(zc)
at c.
this
c is
called a
56
Holomorphicfunctions
=/(c) = 0, and it is possible
. . are also equal to 0. If all
Then a0
a2,.
au
0, the
to
equal
that some
of the other coefficients
coefficients
.. are
an,..
a2,...,
ax,
is identically equal to 0 in
function/(z)
of c
a neighborhood
(and, in fact, in D. SeeTheorem
3.1).Let us assume that not all coefficients
are equalto 0 and that am is the first coefficient which isnot equalto 0.Then
=
f(z)
In this
case,
f(z) =
function
the
on
g(z)
f{z) =
have
=
the
of
multiplicity
zero
c. Writing
(1.59)
flffi
+
(z
that
proved
Therefore,
are no
there
g(z) ^ 0 on
a
holomorphic
small
sufficiently
< \\zc\\ < e.
for 0
0
*
c)mg(z)
is
+ flm+2(z~c)2+
flffl+1(zc)
= am ^ 0.
g(c)
c, hence
U\302\243(c)of
neighborhood
We
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242),am*0.
(zcrg{z)
and
Ur{c)(c)
or the
the order
is called
m
+ am+2(zc)2 +
+ am+A*c)
{zcy*(am
other zeros in
a
(1.60)
small
sufficiently
zero c is \"isolated.\"
function.
The
of a zero of a holomorphic
a
of zeros of a function/(z) in a certain region,
If one countsthe number
neighborhood
of
zero
Case
for
(2):
0 <
m is
order
\\z
counted
The principal part
c\\
r(c) we have
has only
a
number
finite
of terms,
that
is,
\342\200\224
<
In this caseciscalled
defined
times.
m
a pole
m of the function/(z).Thefunction
of order
g(z),
by
g(z) =
(zc)m/(z) =
is holomorphicon
sufficiently
Ur{c)(c)
and
small neighborhood
...
+ fl_m+1(zc)hflrn+2(zc)2+
a_m
g(c)
= a_m
of c.
U\342\202\254(c)
^ 0.
Therefore, g(z)^
0
on
(L61)
/(z)=^hr9{z)
we conclude
lim/(z)l =
In
this
h(z) =
Putting
TTTF=+0\302\260
we write/(c)
case,
JL
f(z)
a
From
l/\302\253g(z)we
= (zcrh(z)
= oo.We
have
will
return
to the
meaning of
oo
later.
1.4 Propertiesof
57
functions
holomorphic
is holomorphic on Ue(c)and h(z) ^ 0 for ze Ve(c). Therefore,
the
a
of
of
is
zero
of
c
the
mth
of
order
the
mthorder
f(z)
l//(z).
pole
of l/f(z) is a pole
Conversely, it is easy to prove that a zero of the mth order
of the mth order of f(z).
and h(z)
The principal part is an
Case (3):
of f(z).
singularity
that
series,
is, a_w
numbers n. In this case, c is calledan
As the following theorem shows,the behavior
is very
of an essential singularity
complicated.
natural
many
infinitely
infinite
the neighborhood
# 0
for
essential
of/(z)
in
of
1.23 (Weierstrass's Theorem). Let c bean essential
singularity
of
f(z) and let w be a complex number. It is possibleto find a sequence
{z\342\200\236}
=
c
w.
It
is
t
o
to
such
that
also
find
_ ^/(zj
limn
possible
converging
points
Theorem
a sequence
We first prove
Proof:
that
to
converging
{z\342\200\236}
f(z)
By assumption
<5.
singularity.
0<zc
that
on
bounded
is
c such that
lim,,^
=
\\f(zn)\\
+ oo.
if c is an isolated
singularity of/(z), such
some neighborhood of c, c is a removable
there exist d > 0 and M such that /(z) g M for
to (1.56)
According
\302\253.jbJV*'/KW
hence,
r <
<
0
for
5
=
\\a^^^[2\\yMcrlMWM\\d6
r can
Since
removable
the
/(zj
above,
= 0, that is, c isa
arbitrarily small,we conclude
a_n
If there does not exist a sequence{zn}convergingto
of c. By
+ oo,/(z) is bounded on someneighborhood
be made
singularity.
c such that
Mr\\
>
c would be a removable
the
contradicting
singularity
assumption.
If there
there
exist
does not exista sequence{z\342\200\236}
converging
e and S such that
positive
/(z)
\342\200\224w^e
for
g(z)
Putting g(z) = l/(/(z) \342\200\224w),
0(z) ^
1/fi,
hence
c is
0 <\\zc\\
is
a removable
holomorphic
to c
such that/(zw) ~>w,
<5.
for 0
< z \342\200\224
c <
singularity of g(z),so that
\342\200\224
=
c\\ < S. Ug(c) ^ 0,/(z)
we
S and
may
w + l/^(z)
is holomorphicfor \\z
<
the
is also holomorphic for z \342\200\224
5, contradicting
c\\
assumption. If c is an
zero of g(z\\ c is an mthorder poleof/(z), alsocontradicting
the
mthorder
assume
that g(z)
assumption.
58
functions
Holomorphic
Example 1.6. If we
by
define/(z)
/w_^_i+i+^+^I+....
0 is an essential singularity
then/(z) is holomorphicon C \342\200\224
off(z).
{0} and
=
w t* 0 be a complex number.Putting
Let
q
we10, where 0 is a real
number, we have w = exp(logw + /0 + 2wri) for all natural numbers n.
= 0 and
+ f0 + 2ran), we see that
Putting zn = l/(logw
limn_00
zn
= w for all
= w. (In this case, we actually
lim
have/(zw)
zn. We will
w_00/(zfl)
return
to this phenomenon
later.)
e. Entirefunctions
A function
entire
is an
If/(z)
function.
can be
holomorphic
in
expanded
on the whole complexplane Cis calledan
entire function, then, by Theorem 1.16,/(z)
series
a power
f(z) = a0 + alz + a2z2
which
the
+anzn+
on the
absolutely
converges
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
whole complexplanceC.We
distinguish
three cases:
following
(l)/(z) = a0,
(2)
=
/(z)
a0 +
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
aiz+
am*0,m^l,
+amzm,
CO
(3)
f(z)
=
The first case
In
the
second
0 for
^
a\342\200\236
anzn
\302\243
n=
0
is a
case/(z)
J,
,
polynomial of degreem.
From
K2I
\\<h\\\\
Kil
exists
there
that
^J,
jpj
l/WI^W^Kl\342\200\224
an r0
> 0
such that
(1.62)
ifz>r0,
/(2)>!M^
that is, \\f(z)\\ \342\226\272
+ 00 if
In the third case,/(z)
\\z\\
such
sequence
also possibleto
that
{zw}
find
+00.
a
00.
\342\226\272
+
is calleda transcendental
entire
function.
If/(z)
is a
a complex number, there existsa
= +00
and limn_>00/(zw)= w. It is
lim\342\200\236_i>00zri
= +00 and
sequence
{zn} such that lim,..^ zj
transcendental entire function
Km^l/lzJI
n.
is trivial.
,.MI^.
we conclude
many
infinitely
To
and
w is
prove this,
0 is an
on C \342\200\224
holomorphic
{0} and
can apply
1.23 to g(Q.
Theorem
put g(Q=/(l/C). Then
g(Q
essential singularity of g(Q,so that
is
we
1.4 Propertiesofholomorphic
59
functions
1.24
Theorem
(Liouville's
Theorem).
entire
bounded
A
is a
function
constant function.
Proof: If/(z) isa
occur,
that
entire
bounded
(2) and
cases
function,
is, f{z)
The fundamental theorem of algebra,saying
\342\200\242
\342\200\242 =
form amzm + am_ xzm~ l + \342\200\242
+ a0
0, am # 0,
root, can be
+ amlzm~l
/(z) =
deduced
amzm
function.
By
we
(1.62)
the assumption
It is alsopossible
to deduce
Mean
+ a0
# 0 for
Value
Theorem
f(0)
Using
(1.62)
(1.35)
f(z)
is not
of the
equation
is an
l//(z)
by
Liouville's
a constant
f(z) =
Suppose
1, has at
m
entire
+
amzm
Theorem,
function.
zm_1
am\342\200\236l
4
function and by the
we have
2ni}0 /(re*)
letting
'
r tend
to +00
we
arrive
at
from
of Algebra
Theorem
Fundamental
the
all z e C. Then
and
that
Theorem.
Value
the
an
that
least one
^
theorem
from
Liouville's
as follows. Suppose
\342\200\242 has
no
then
+ \342\200\242
zeros,
+a0
l//(z) is an entire
have  l//(z) < 2/aJrJJ for \\z\\ > r0, hence l//(z) is a
boundedfunction. Therefore,l//(z) is a constant
contradicting
(3) above cannot
= a0.
a contradiction
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
Mean
2
Theorem
Cauchy's
2.1
curves
smooth
Piecewise
Smooth Jordan
a.
curves
1.3,
According to Definition 1.5 of Section
\342\226\272 from
t
closed
interval
into
the
the complex
y:
[a, b]
y (t)
curve. In this section
we will first investigate to what
determined
by its image
onetoone
continuously
Lemma 2.1.
J = [a,
If r <
Proof:
<
<\302\243(s)
the
by
<j>(r)
<
s<
<f>(r) < </>(r),
and
t
a
exists
there
then
cj>(t)9
t
map
map
<f>(t)
</>(r)
<
is
y
is a
# 0.
such
that
y'(t)
from
/ =
[a, b]
same
the
way,
then
s <
that
such
w,
</>(s) <
u
<
contradicting the fact
value theorem,
intermediate
In the
one.
continuous
and
the
extent
arc, that is, if y(t)
Jordan
smooth
differentiable function of
onetoone
A
is a
map
C is called a
plane
onto
monotone.
is
/}]
y(I) if y
continuous
a
4>(r) < (j>(t) <
assumption
Because
if
(j>{u) =
<\302\243(r)
<f>(t).
t and
that
(f>
is oneto
a
to
leads
<f>{s)
contradiction.
case 4>(a)
First consider the
<
$(b), hence
The case
Let
A: t
that
such
<
<\302\243(s)
<f>{a)
>
^
<\302\243(0
</>(b)
* A(t), ief
A( J) = y{I)
<
If a
<f>(b).
i.e.,
<\302\243(b),
is
<j>
= [a,/?],and
y: t
<
t
b, then
^
</>(a)^
</>(s)
monotone.
to the
reduced
= C. Sincek and
by assigning to each t e
is
^ s
previous case by
putting
Jordanarcs,
* y(t), r e / = [a, b], be
y are both onetoone, a
function
</>
g J with y(t) = A(t). This
This is because according to Lemma2.1it suffices
function <j> is monotone.
continuous
to show
at some point
that 4> is continuous. Assume that
<p is not
s. Thenthereexistsan e > 0 such that for each 5 > 0thereexistsat leastone
be defined
can
t'
point
*i.*2.*3.
Tn
=
such
that
rf
\342\200\224
s<<5
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
such
that
there
<\302\243(*\302\253)>
exists
and
\342\200\224
<
I the
value t
\342\200\224
 <\302\243(\302\243')
<MS)I
rn
s
1/n
a subsequence
and
^
\302\243Hence
<\302\243(f,.)Xs)
nx
{t\342\200\236.},
<n2<
there
^ e.
\342\200\224

<nj<
exist
Putting
\342\200\224
,
convergingto a
linVo,
tn.
=
and y{tn.)
= s
X(a) =
=
y(s)
a =
Putting
= lim
that
j+ cc
The Jordan arcs
k((f>(t)\\ where </> is a continuous
from X by a change
y is obtained
If
A(t)
a
is
</>
continuous
both smooth Jordan
function of t with <\302\243'(r)# 0.
this, let
To see
connected by the formula
and monotone function. One cansay
of variable t = <f>(t).
y are
and
A
differentiable
We
Since
therefore
are
k
and
y
=
that
a\\
of t.
function
y(t)
^ e.
\342\200\224
t
we have
Hence
onetoone.
is
X
=
A(tbj)
have
we
<f>(s),
= X{o),
y(s)
and
A(t\342\200\236.)
lim y(tttj)
oo
j \302\273
fact
the
contradicting
t.
say,
limit,
61
smooth curves
Piecewise
2.1
of
increment
an
be
At
arcs,
and
t
a
is
<f>(t)
At =
put
continuously
<\302\243
(t +
At)
\342\200\224
<f> (t).
have
Ar)y(f) =
y(r +
k(x+ At)
Sincek(t) = y
we arrive
A(t) =

(A'(t) +
At) =
A(t +
and
(r)
lim
+ e(Ar))Af,
(y'(r)
ex
y
At0
lim
(At))At,
(r +
e(Ar) =
= 0.
et (At)
Ar0
At + 0 if Af
Ar),
0,
0,
/T(t) *
and
> 0
at
At
\342\200\224
=
lim
is
<f>(t)
W +
Afo^
Af^0At
Hence
y'(t) +
\302\243(AQ
y'(0
\342\200\224\342\200\224
\342\200\224\342\200\224
=
77\342\200\242
lim
function
a differentiable
A(t)
\302\243i(At)
of
t
</>'(r) is
and
given by
y'(t)
,21)
\342\204\242m
Since
t =
</>(r)
t,
while
is
a
obviously
<t>\\t) #
We can say that the
smooth Jordan arcA: t
if
and
t
(2.1) is
respectively,
of r, while k'{x)and y'(f) are
<f>'(t) is a continuous function of
0.
smooth
arc y: t > y (r) is obtained from the
a change of variable
t = </> (f), where
<f>(t) is
and monotone function
of tt with
^ 0.
<f>'{t)
Jordan
> A(t) by
differentiable
a continuously
Formula
function
continuous
of t
functions
continuous
nothing but
the
chain
rule
t = </>(*).
y'(0 = AW(t),
If 4>(t) is a monotone increasing
we
function,
=
is
monotone
we
have
0
decreasing,
<f>{a)
be a continuous function
defined
Let/(z)
smooth
Jordan
curve such that
y
(/) is contained
for this change
of variable
(2.2)
have
<f>{a)
/? and
on
= a
</> (b)
a region
and
</> (b)
=
/?,
= a.
and let
be
a
in that region. We want
to
y
62 Cauchy's Theorem
of a
influence
the
investigate
change of variableson the
of
value
f
We
f(z)dz.
two cases:
distinguish
Case 1. If 0 (t)
monotone
is
= 
=
'f(X(<l>{tm'(<l>(t))dt
/(A\302\253>(0))A'(tf>(0)<fr
/(A(T))A'(T)dt=
Ja
we have
increasing,
J a
a
J
f(y(t))y'(t)dt
therefore
and
/(z)dz = f f(z)dz.
j
is monotone
If $(0
2.
Case
=
J[V(A(T))A'(T)dr
decreasing,we
have

fV(yW)y'(0A=
fV(y(0)y'(0*
J a
J b
a
and
(2.3)
therefore
(2.4)
J f(z)dz=[f(z)dz.
Therefore,f{z)dz
=
J
the
and
increasing
direction of increasing
the Jordan arcs y
and
increasing
^f(z)dz,
sign
t the
and
if
X have
opposite
determined
We can
assign an
the
orientation
could assign an orientationto
unambiguously
<f>
is
orientation
by
the
+ sign
the
where
\302\261
\342\200\224
holds if
<f>
is monotone
If we call the
decreasing.
Jordan arc y, we can say that
same orientation if 0(f) is monotone
monotone
of the
if
<f>(t)
set
point
C together
orientation to C in
the
If we
monotone
decreasing.
C = y(J), J
f{z)dz would be
is
with
its
orientation.
way. On
following
the interval /
order is transferredto C by a onetoone
that
is, if t < s, and z = y (t) and w = y(s), then
by <,
map
z < w. The order < determines a linear order on C.If we call this linear
is determined
order on C the orientation of C, J f(z)dz
by C
unambiguously
there is defined
together
an
order
<. This
denoted
y and
with
its
We summarize
orientation.
the above in the followingnew
definition
of a
Jordan
arc.
Definition 2.1. Let y: t + y(t) be a onetoone and continuousmap from
set y(I) a linear
/ = [a, fe]into the complexplaneC.Onthe point
the interval
set C
if t < s then y{t) <y(s). This linearly
ordered
order < is defined
by:
= y (I) is called a Jordan arc, the map y is called a parameter representation of
C and
y'(t)
t*
r
is
0
for
called
re/,
a parameter.
If y(r) is
then C is calleda smooth
differentiable
continuously
Jordan
arc.
and
63
smooth curves
Piecewise
2.1
A(t), a ^ t ^ /},is a parameter
then an arbitrary parameterrepresentation
> y(f), a ^ t ^ fc, of C has the form y(r) = A(<\302\243),
a ^ t ^ fc, where
y: t
0 is a
continuous and monotone increasing
If C is a smooth Jordan arc,
function.
differentiable
and 4>'{t)> 0.In particular,taking
then
4>(t) is continuously
\342\200\224
= a +
at
a
we
arrive
<t>(t)
parameter representationy: t > y(r) with
(/? a)t
domain [0,1].
defined
on a region which contains the
If/(z) is a continuousfunction,
above
the
By
if
results,
k\\
smooth Jordan arc C,then
y: t
seen
y (r),
(2.5)
value of this integralisindependent
that the
already
by:
ofC.We
some parameterrepresentation
^b,is
a ^t
\342\226\272
is defined
jcf{z)dz
= f /(z)& = I bf(y(t))y'(t)dt
f /(z)&
where
x >
arc C,
Jordan
the
of
representation
of
the choice
have
of the
to
< given
parameter representation. Using
possible
which
does
not use any parameter
give a definition of \\cf{z)dz
initial
and the terminal
representation. Let
us call a = y(a) and /? = y(b)
the
all
zsC
For
we have a <z </?. Let A
points of C, respectively.
=
of
a
set
.
.
be
finite
, zm}
points on C suchthat
{z0, zl5 z2,.
c*
=
and let <5 [A]
Zfc1 < C* <
<z2<
= maxk
zk \342\200\224
zk_ x
The
**\342\200\242
integral
Let y:
t
+
f5<6
(For,
and
t
^
a <5(e) >
there exists
suppose
=
for
n
1, 2, 3,.
sn
that
y is
tk
maxk zk
and
rk
  
\342\200\224
lim
This proves
as
fe,
be
a parameter
representation
of C. For
0 satisfying:
(2.7)
such
true, then there are tn
\342\200\224
l/n and rn
\\y(tn)
y{sn)\\
sn\\ ^ e.
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
\342\200\242,
}, nt < n2 <
{s\342\200\236
rtj <
is not
this
\342\200\224
that
s  ^ e and
11\342\200\224
y
<
(t)
= y
(s), contradicting
the
onetoone.)
a = t0<tx <
=
that
C such
(2.5) can be obtained
(2.6)
an e > 0for which
..
Define
as defined in
ify(f)y(5)<<5(\302\243).
Choose subsequences {tn } and
to t and s, respectively. Then
converging
fact
= p
I/(C*)(z*zki).
a ^
y{t),
exists
is
k= 1
c5[A]0
eache > 0 there
it
for each k a point \302\243k
on
. Choose
$cf{z)dz
lim
f{z)dz=
Proo/:
 \342\200\242
<zmx<zm
z0<zi
1)C
on C
order
the
zk_
x
by
<tm_t
 > 0, by
y(tk) =
zk
and
= Tk,
respectively.
and maxfcfkffc_1*()
2.7. Hence we have,
1.33,
by
<tm
_
X/(Ck)(zk~zk.1)=
[
= 1
Jy
(2.6).
y(Ck)
= b
f(z)dz.
if
Then
<5[A]
64
Theorem
Cauchy's
Therefore (2.6)couldbe taken
curve obtainedby reversing
the
\342\200\224
the same
C have
on
then
z <w,
representation
underlying point
is denoted by
of C
orientation
sets,
if z
but
The Jordan
of $cf(z)dz.
definition
the
as
and w are
\342\200\224C.C
and
points of C with
have
If y: t\342\226\272
a ^ t ^ fe, is a parameter
y(f),
\342\200\224
=
of C, then k s \342\226\272
fe
+
A(s)
y (a
s), a ^ s ^ fc, is a parameter
C (if s increases
of \342\200\224
from atobj = a + b \342\200\224
s decreases
from
\342\200\224
w <;z.
we
C
representation
b to a). If C is smooth,we
have,
(2.4),
by
(i8)
I/(z)=~L/(z)dz\"
a
We have given
this definition too
about \"a
C we
talk about
if we
2.1,
strictly. We
arc
Jordan
continuousmap
y
(/).
called
is also
\\C\\
The
the
point
a Jordan
on
an orientation
defining
arc. Let C =
set {y (f): t
/ = [a,
y(/),
a2>>ami>a<ai<ai<
= [a,
intervals
/x
al],...,
.,
y(/fc),..
=
let
&\302\273
/m
This is
y(/J.
(0*.
te I}
re/.
y(t\\
m
Jordan
=
\342\200\224
1
the
m
the
interval
[ami,
/ into
6]. Then
Ci = y(Ix),...,
arcs
al9
points
m
the
Ck
denoted by
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\226\240
C = CX+C2+\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
(2.9)
+Cm.
+Ck+
Jordan arcs Cfc are all smooth, the Jordan arc C is calledpiecewise
C is piecewise smooth if y(t) is continuously
differentiate
Thus
If the
smooth.
with
Cm
y: t >
representation
< am1< divide
=
/k K_i, aj,. . . ,
into
point set {y
will be
Jordan arc and
6], be a
' ' '
Jordan arc C is also divided
=
is
If C
just the
is not
denoted by  C . Sometimes
case
C is the Jordan arc obtained by
smooth, \\C\\ is called a smooth Jordan
e I}
arc. In that
\\C\\.
talk
have in mind the onetoone
actual Jordan arc. Furthermore, if
te
C =
Hence
convention: If we
arc according to Definition
y\" we
arc
/, is a Jordan arc then y (/)
y:
but rather the Jordan arc C with
parameter
t \342\226\272
y (f),
to
adhere
not
following
a Jordan
mind
define
to
used
the
adopt
have in
Jordan
\"a
arc, but we will
of Jordan
definition
new
y'{t) ^Oon
each Ik.
Ha)
2.1
Fig.
If/(z)
C4
is a continuous
is defined
function
defined
on a
region containing
C, jcf(z)dz
by
f
Jc
f(z)dz
= f
Jc,
/(z)&+
. +
. \342\200\242
f f(z)dz+
I
Jc2
Jcm
/(z)dz.
(2.10)
65
curves
smooth
Piecewise
2.1
a
Since the + in (2.9) indicates
commutative
the sum
operation,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242 is
of
the
of
order
+
Cm
Ct+C2+
independent
Cx,C2,..., Cm. The
curve C obtained by piecing togetherCx,C2,.. . , Cm in that order is
Jordan
represented as
C = C,C2
we use
= <VC2
this
If
=
Q
(111)
Cm,
we write C\"1 instead of
notation,
Cm, then
C1 =C~l
\342\200\224
C.
C2l Cf1,
C
If
and
C
C1uC2uuCm.
of the arcs Ch occurring in the
The parameter representations
of the
representations (2.9)
or (2.11) of C can be chosenindependent
parameter
C.
For
we
can
of
choose
example,
representation
representations
of course satisfy
1, for
Ck. These representations
7k: t*y*(0i 0 ^ r \302\261i
7k(1)
=
representations
yk: t
we have
2,
fc=l,
y*+i(0)i
\302\273
the parameter
parameter
of arcs Ckare given,we
^bk,
ak^*t
y* (r),
if
Conversely
...,m\342\200\2241.
put
lk
=
bk
\342\200\224
and
ak
representation
m
=
y(t)
with C
==
for
t Y ij)
+
yja
Cm.
Ck
C2
Cx
h
ij*t*i.
*X
is a Jordan curve,we have y(a) = y{b) and
t\302\273y(r),
therefore it is not possible to transfer the order < on / to the point set y (/).
two intervals
at
least
However, if we split / into
It \342\200\224
[a, ax ],...,
Ik
=
=
Im
[flfct,
ak],...,
[ami, fc], it is possible to define a linear order
< on eachpoint set y(/fc) using the order < on eachIk.The Jordan arc
If y:
te/
C =
C1C2..Q
in
obtained
this
Ci = y(/i),. ..,
Jordan
=
Ck
way
=
y(/k),.
(2.12)
Cm
by
.
piecing
., Cm =
curve and is denoted
{y(t):tel}9
is called
= [a,6],
together
y(/J
in
that
the
order
Jordan arcs
is
called
a
by
Using the notation \\C\\
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
have C = \\CX \\ u C2u
Also, y
uCm.
=
the
all Ck
of
Jordan
curveC
If
y (/).
representation
C = y(J).
we obviously
a parameter
occurring in (2.12)are smooth,C is calleda piecewise
smooth
Jordan
curve.
Boundaries of boundedclosedregions
a region and let D be the interiorof [D],that is, the region
\342\200\224
consisting of all interior points of [D].If [D] D = \\C\\ for some Jordan
curve C, we say that C is the boundary of [D].
b.
Let
D be
66
Theorem
's
Cauchy
Fig. 2.2
Let the
D of
boundary [D] \342\200\224
[D]
be a
piecewise smooth Jordan curve
representation
y: t \302\273y(f),
Of
course, we have
y(Ik)
[aki9ak'].
/fc
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
=
=
< a^.j
< ak <
< am
fr.
a
We
want
to study the
a0 < ax <
relation betweenD and the orientationof
order
to do this, choose a
C =
fe/
Ct*C2
= [a,
Ck
\342\200\242
\342\200\242 with
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
mCm
fc], and Ck =
parameter
=
with
= O,...,
C.In
we have akx <c<ak
m. Since
c^ak9
pointy(c)eC,c^0kfor/c
our
of
and y'(c) ^ 0. In orderto facilitate
for some k9 hence y(c)eCk
study
=
w
u + iv with
the neighborhood of y(c) we introducea new coordinate
origin
at y(c) in
C by
z = y(c)+ y'(c)w.
Fig.
(2.13)
2.3
Putting
y(t) =
y(c)hy'(c)(p(t)+ /a(0),
\342\226\272
iv =
p{t) +
io(t) is
coordinate
w.
t
We have
(2.14)
the parameterrepresentationof
p(c) = o(c)= 0 and
differentiating
both
sides
C
in
the
of (2.14)
new
with
2.1
regard to
t
and
t =
substituting
c we
Piecewise
smooth
curves
67
get
y'(c) = y'(c)(p'(c)+/a'(c)),
c'(c) =
0. Sincep'(t) and a'(r) are continuous in a
is a monotone
p'(f) > 0. Therefore
p(t)
=
t
increasing function and the inverse function
x(u) of u = p(t) is a
on a
function
continuously differentiate monotoneincreasing
=
=
neighborhood
of u
0. Since c
the change
of variable t = x(u) to
t(0),by applying
w = p(f) + ia(t) we arrive
at the parameter
the parameter representationt \342\226\272
hence
=
p'(c)
1 and
neighborhood of
t
= c,
we have
representation
u
\342\226\272
w =
u +
^ (a) =
i^(w),
ff(*(w))
neighborhood of the origin w = 0. Here, \\j/(u) is a
function of u, ^(0) = <t(c) = 0 and ^'(0)
differentiable
continuously
= c7'(c)t'(0)= 0.Therefore,
< e if  u \\ < \302\243.
if \342\202\254
we have  $(u)\\
is small
enough,
<
Let
U = {w:w = u + ii;, u < \302\243,
be
the
with
center
0,
i;
rectangle
2e}
=
width 2e, and height 4z. Choosee so small
CnU
that
CnUk and
of
Q,
on a
valid
= {w:w= u
Cnl/
C
divides
1/ into
l/(+)
=
+ iV(w),
two regions
{w:w
l/(+) and l/(_):
= ii4it?,
U{~} = {w:w=
iv
u
+ it?,
u < e, ^(w)
M
f
lie
UM
\302\243/<>
lie
Fig.
2.4
w<\302\243}.
<\302\243, 2e
< v
< 2e},
< v <
ij/{u)}.
68
Theorem
Cauchy's
If we remove
D and
sets
open
is also divided
U
+
is
the
from
\\C\\
C
[D],
two
into
no
have
sets Ui+)
disjoint
of these
one
connected,
t/(+) c: D or Ui+)
l/McC[D] will
n D and U +
sets has to be the
similarly for
one of the
and
cC[D]
hold.
plane, the remainder consistsof two
points in common.* Therefore, U(+)
complex
that
Therefore,
n (C
 [D]). Since
set,
empty
i.e., either
or
U^cD
\302\243/<>either
following possibilities
will
occur:
l/(~)c:C[D],
l/(+)cD,
(i)
l/( + )c_C[D].
(ii) l/(>c:D,
c D and l/(_) c
(If l/(+)
If
Hence, all points of Cn U will
D is the interior of [D].
the
that
fact
contradicting
points
C  [D] and U(\"> c C  [D], then U c C D, contradicting
the
c
[/(+>
D,
then
c [D].
U
of [D],
interior
be
that all points of CnU are boundary
points
If one looks at U moving
the curve C in the
along
fact
of
to increasingvalues oft, one sees U(+) on one's left and
In case (i) the regionU(+) to the right of C will be in D,
region l/(_) to the left of C will be in D.
Now we return to the originalcoordinatesystem
w =
u
defined
iv was
+
D.)
direction corresponding
on one's
U(_)
right.
while in case (ii)
z.
Remember
the
that
by
z = y(c)+ y'(c)(u+ iv).
a continuouslydifferentiateand monotone
increasing
=
=
and
of u and t(0) = c, we see, putting t( \342\200\224
function
r(e)
e)
c2, that
q
>
u
from
the open
interval
t(h) is a onetoone map
cx <c
<c2 and that t:
\342\200\224 onto
we
have
definition
of
interval
the
By
\\j/(u)
open
(cl9c2)( \302\243,\302\243)
t =
Since
t(w) is
y(0 =
Y{c){u+ hHu)\\
y{c) +
\\l/(u)
= <7(t).
Hence
z = y(c)+ /(c)(ii + fo)
= y(0
+ iy(c)(^^(u)).
Putting
1/
we
=
v
\342\200\224
\\l/(u)
=
v
\342\200\224
G(t)
get
z =
y(f)
+
ry'(c)i/
and
V =
{z:z =
y(0
+ iY(cfo,
cx <
r
< c2,
ij +
Cnl/ = {y(t):c1<t<c2},
*
This
assumes
the
validity
of the
Jordan Curve
Theorem.
a(t) < 2e},
2.1 Piecewise smoothcurves
=
t/(+>
{y(t)+ iy'(c)ri:cx < t
2ec(t)<ri<0}.
< c2,
<t < c2 implies
That cl
2eo(t)<
2eo(t)>e9
the fact that
from
follows
0<r] <2ea(t)},
{y(r)fiV(c>/:c1<f<c2,
l/(> =
\302\243
e if \\u\\
^(u) <
< e.
into
of the neighborhoodU ofy(c)
of C can be shown
by introducing
The division
a part
which intersects CnU. Let y(t0\\
CnU
let
and
* k{s), \342\200\224
1 ^ s
angle between X and
k: s
ct
to the
left of C and
a smooth
to the right
part
69
<t0<
c2, be an arbitrary
a smooth Jordan curve
5\302\243
1, be
a
Jordan arc,
point of
with
A(0)
is
If the
C, that is the argument 6 ofX(0)/y'(t0),
y(*o )\342\200\242
that
0 and
between
n, then there exists a S > 0 such
A(s)e l/(+) if 0 < s < S
<
if
0
<
5
<
s
<
s
the
<5
U(\">
if
that
and
0, is,
point
A(s) is to the left
X(s)e
S < s < 0,the point X(s) is to the right of C. A proof follows.
of C and if
=
Fig. 2.5
For A(s)eU we put
=
A(5)
Since
t =
h
=
u(s)
t(s) = t(m(s))
differentiate
functions
(2.15)
and
and i; =
of 5
substituting
m
/(c){u + iv) =
and i; = v(s) are
y(c) +
1/(5)
=
y(t) +
continuously differentiate functions,
v(s)
with t(0) = t0 and
5 = 0 yields
= f(h)'(0) +
(215)
i/(c)if.
\342\200\224
\\l/(u(s))
rj(0)
= 0.
are
t/(cW(0).
Hence
y'Co)
/(to)
= /lei(
with
A
=
X'(0)
V(t0)
continuously
Differentiating both
>0.
sidesof
70 Cauchy's Theorem
the
Taking
(2.14) we get
that
Similarly,
> A(s),
if A: s
general,
A(0) = y(t), a<t
and
C at A(0) =
C transversely at
at
= y(t)
A(0)
we
get
+ io'{t0))
<
n
by
5>0
from
1
y(r)
A(0)
right
p'(r0)>0.
we
assumption,
that
such
y(t)
0 if
t]{s) >
+ iy'(c)i/(s)et/(+).
^ 1, is a smoothJordanarcintersecting
such that the angle 0,0 < 0 < 2rc, between
0 #
0^0,
satisfies
= y(r).
with
^ s
\342\200\224
<b,t^ak,
C in
A
y'(c)(p'(t0)
= 0, i.e.,
Remember that
A(s) =
i/(0)
<
<
0.
<5
s
A(s)Gt/(~) for
0<s<<5.
In
=
y'(t0)
> 0. Since 0 < 9
Re(y'(c)/y'(r0))
i/'(0) > 0. Therefore there exists a
Therefore,
conclude
sides of the above equality
= Re(/(c)//(ro))^(O).
^sin0
From
of both
parts
imaginary
to left
if
then
7t,
book, we
In this
0
< 9
will
< n and
A is
said
to intersect
say
that
A crosses
from
left
to
right
C
if
<2n.
n<9
Let
be
A
exists 6
a
arc crossing C from
0 such that A(s)e Dfor 0 <
a Jordan
>
right
s<
<5,
at A(0) = y(t). If there
we say that D is on the left
\342\200\224
S < s < 0,
X(s) e D for
to left
then
of C at the point y(t);
if there
exists a 5 > 0 such that
then we say that D is on the right of C at the point y(t). The value of
5 is dependent on A, but D being on the left or right
of C at y(f) is
=
independentof
of A. (To see this, put c
the choice
r, let U be the neighborhood
of y(c) defined
above. There are two
and
(1) l/(+)cD
possibilities:
[/<> c C[D] or (2) l/(> <= D and t/(+) c C[D]. In the first case,
c D for 0 < s < S and in the second case A(s)el/(_) c D for
A(s)el/(+)
\342\200\224
S < s < 0 by the above.)IfDison the
of C at one point y(r0), t0^ ak9
left
of C, then D is on the left
t
of all points
^
y (r),
akt of C. Similarly,if D is on the
of all points
right of C at one point y(t0),
right
t0 ^ ak, of C, then Dis on the
y(f),
ofC
t\302\261aj9
this, choose c with ak _ j < c < ak and let [/ be the neighborhood
c as defined above. Let us assumethat
D is on the left of C at y(c),
1/(+) c D. If A is a Jordan
curve crossing C from
to left at A(0) =
right
To see
Cn
(7,
Cj
<
t <
c2, then,
as
shown
above,
there
exists
a
<5
>
0 such
of
i.e.,
y{t)e
that
D is on the left of Cat all pointsy (r)
X(s)e 1/(+>c Dfor0 < s < 5.Therefore,
< t < c2.Let Lbethesetofallf
withct
elR,^^ < t < ak, such that D is on
the left of C at y(r). If ceL,
then the open interval (cx,c2\\ cx < c < c2, is
contained in L, that is, it is an open subset of R. Similarly,let R be the set of
all t e R, ak_ j < t < ak such that D is on the right of C at y{t), R is also an
\342\200\224and
is
RnL
0
(ak_t,ak)
open subset of R. Since (ak_ 1,afc) = Lu/?,
or R = {akl9ak). If L
L = (akl9ak)
either
connected, we have
=
(ak_!, ak), i.e., if D is on the left of Ck at all points y(r), ak_ x < t < ak, then
2.1 Piecewisesmoothcurves
is on the left
on the right of Ck.
that D
we say
Next we
will
prove
on the
D is
that
if/? =
Similarly,
ofQ.
e sufficiently small and
Choose
center
y(ak) and radius e, such that
Ck if it
of
left
is on
A: s > A(s)
a circle
draw
{aki,ak)9 we say
A intersects
Ck + x
at
the
left
71
that
of
D is
Ck+1.
y(ak) + eeis with
one point A(a),
exactly
=
exactly
point A(/?), cc< ft <cc + 2n9 and does not intersect
Cfc
C at exactly two points
., Cm, that is A intersects
Cl9..., Cfc_l5 Cfc+2,..
and
A
at
The
crosses
from
circle
to left
A(a)
A(a)
(we will
A(/?).
Ck+1
right
D is at the left of Ck+l9
we
have
prove this below). Since by assumption
<
e
D
for
<
a
a.
A
5
close
to
intersects
values
Since
the
of
s,
k(s)
/J, sufficiently
C of D at A (a) and A (/J), we conclude that
for all 5 with
boundary
k(s)eD
< p and that A crosses
from
D is on
left
at
a<s
to
Therefore,
Ck
right
A(/J).
hence Z> is on the left of Ck.
the left of Ck at X(p)eCk9
one
at
Fig.
We
2.6
to prove that A intersects
from right to left at A(a).
= 0,
ak = 0. Let y:t+y(t)9
A crosses
assume
Ck+1
y(flk)
representation of
arc
Jordan
the
continuously differentiate
=
To
Cfc+1
of
function
1/(0)1
ak+
x
] if we
t on
we
is a
[0, ak+1]
y(t)l
f*
Ulil=
t
+0
lim
f*
+0
define
^(01
that
\\y(t)\\ is
a
and
(2.16)
=
yt
(0)
y'(0)
=
we conclude
y'(0).
Hence
Hm
continuously
show
>o.
+o
(^ly(')l)
=
Put yx(t) y(t)/t. From lim^+0 y(t)A
continuouson [0,
(i.e., y(t)
y(0) = 0). First
t and
of
function
differentiate
exactly one point and that
we may
our notation,
simplify
be
a
te[0,
parameter
ak+1],
Ck+1 at
now want
= ^(0)1 =
1/(0)1,
that y^f)
is
72
Theorem
Cauchy's
y(f) is differentiable
by (2.16). On (0, ak+1 ],
that is,
>
\\y(t)\\2
=
0, \\y(t)\\
d
t =
at
\\y(t)\\2
hence
hence
small
sufficiently
monotone
= 1/(0)1
ify(r)
fc,
we
increasing
have
d\\y(t)\\/dt
function
for
0 ^
> 0
f
^
if
k.
that
0 such
>
yields
right
[0, ak+1 ].
on
is a
y(OI
on the
expression
217! (r)
r* +0
By (2.7) there exists a 5(k)
O^t^k
the
in
yi(0/(0+yi(0/(0
Mm
continuous
is
</y(r)/<ft
=
Therefore, taking a
fc,
while
2y(()
lim
r y(t)l
t* + 0 \302\253*
^
is given
coefficient
,../Al_y(0y,(f)+y(f)y;(0
Substitution of ry^t) for y(r)
t
the differential
is continuously differentiable. Since
y/(\\y(t)\\2) is also continuously differentiable,
A,?WI\"
0^
0 and
= y(t)y(t)
<<5(fc).
e < y(k)\\.If y (01 = e, then 0 < f g fc.
If r increases
from 0 till k, then  y (r)  increases from y(0) until
 y (k) , so there
=
t
<
is exactly
t ^ ak+ x) such that y(t)
one
e. We have proved that the
(0
circle
k s * A(s) = eels intersects
at
one point:
exactly
Cfc+1
> 0
an e
Take
y(0
eeIflf
S(k) and
e <
f
0.
>
the angle between Cfc+1
6 be
Let
=
such that
A at
and
this
point,
then
w
/(0
/(o
From:
=
A'(a)
= iy(r)
ieeia
.7i (0
ityt
(t)
we
get
Vi(t)
/(0
/(0
If e * 0, then
=
for sufficiently
small
e,
k
crosses
the
circle
for
and
Therefore,
3n/4.
between,
example,n/4
Ck at exactly
Ck+l from right to left at A(a) = y(r). The fact that A intersects
one point A(/?) and crosses Ck from left to right at that point is proved in the
same way.
of the fact that D is on the left of Ck if D is on the
the
This finishes
proof
D
is on the left of Cm, then D is on the left of Cm_ x,
if
of Ck +!. Therefore,
left
= C1C2>. . ., Cmat
all points
Cm_2,. . . , C2Xi> i.e.,D ison the left of C
t
of
Catall
D
is
on
the
^
fact
that
ak, if D is
y (0,
points
right
y ((), r ^ flfc The
on the right of Cm is proved similarly.
r > 0,
hence:
yt
(0/y'(0
> 1 Therefore,
0 will be
If D is on the
on
the
left
(right)
left
(right)
of C.
of C
at all points y
(0,
t ^
a*, then
D is said to be
smooth curves 73
2.1 Piecewise
above
The
Remark:
is based
proof
on local considerations.However
piecewise Jordan curveC may be, in a sufficiently
asshown
y (t) e C, the form of Cis simple,
the diagrams
above. The proof is nothing but
confirmation
the
by
by
fact. It is often said that
calculation of an intuitively
clear
Jordan's
Theorem,
the
that a Jordan curve C divides
stating
complex
plane in two parts, the
interiorand the exteriorofC,isintuitively
but this is only based on the
clear,
circles
and
as
convex
cases
with
analogy
simple
polygons. In fact this
of a
form
the
complicated
of eachpoint
small neighborhood
theorem
is far
Till
now we
Jordan
curve
from
clear.
intuitively
have assumed
C,
that
i.e.,
the
that
=
\\C\\
\342\200\224
In
this
D.
[D]
is a piecewisesmooth
sense, the Jordan curve
of [D]
boundary
\342\200\224
C and
C are different
a boundary of [D].However,
C and if
of \342\200\224
Jordan curves, and if Dis on the left of C, then D is on the right
\342\200\224
D is on the right of C, then
D is on the left of
C. We now
define the
smooth
of
as
an
the
closed
bounded,
oriented,
region
boundary
piecewise
Jordan curve as follows.
\342\200\224
=
is also
C~1
C
=
that
\\C\\
[D],
and denoted
we have
piecewisesmoothJordancurve
of C, then C is calledthe boundary
If C is an oriented,
 D and D is on the left
2.2.
Definition
[D]
3[D] =
by d [D].
If C  = [D]
and
D
D is
on the
right
of
C, then
the
of [Z)]
same
C.
we have
now,
of
\342\200\224
the
boundary
only considered the case
smooth
but
Jordan
one
exactly
piecewise
can be applied to a domain[D],
considerations
boundary
Till
such
that
consists of
curve,
whose
of mutually
Let Cl5 C2,. . ., Cv,.
a finite number
piecewise
disjoint
Cn be
. .,
smooth
of
consists
curves.
Jordan
piecewise smooth Jordan curves
such that
[D]D
= IQMC^Iu
and such that
Definition
2.3.
uCvu
If
D is
right
or
left
of
on the
is
called
the
on the
all
= C
= CX+C2+
left of
Cv,
boundary
0[D]:
d{U]
C,nCv
uCJ,
D is eitheron the
C = Cx+C2+ \" \342\200\242
+Cn
by
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+C\342\200\236.
v =
=
0,
A
*
v,
each Cv.
1,
2,...,
n, then
of [D] and denoted
74
Theorem
Cauchy's
=
If LD1D
\\CV\\,
\\Jv=l
I
3[/>]=
=
QnCv
0,
A
*
v, then
\302\261CV.
v=l
The
sign of
Example
yr:
Cv is +
= reie,
boundary d[D] of D
0e/ =
is
left
the smooth
Consider
2.1.
0+yr(0)
if D ison the
given
2tt].
[O,
of Cv
and
\342\200\224
if D
Jordan curve Cr =
If
Z>
=
{z:
the right of Cv.
is on
yr(I)
e<\\z\\<R}
defined
by
then the
by
dlDl=CRCe.
Fig. 2.7
2.2
Cellular decomposition
a.
Cdfe
the
s) be a continuousmap from
rectangle
^ fc, 0 ^ s ^ 1} into the complexplaneC, such that the
are
Tf (t, 5), Ts (t9 s), and Trs (t, s) = T^ (t, 5) existand
Under certain conditions to be specifiedlater,the image
continuous.
r(K)
want
to give a few examplesof cells.
of K under T is calleda cell.
We
first
Let
T:
(r, s)>r(f,
K = {(r, s): a ^ t
derivatives
partial
Fig.
2.8
Cellular
2.2
Example 2.2. K = {(r,s):0 < e
The cell T(X) is the closeddomain
t g
^
/?, 0
g 5 ^ n} and
5)
T(r,
= te*.
2.9.
in Fig.
sketched
75
decomposition
Fig. 2.9
Example 2.3. K =
r(r,
where
<f>(t)
s)
and
on [a, b] and
<J>(b)_^
^(b).
possibility
=
f
{(f,s):a ^
+ (1
^(r)
satisfying
This gives
is sketched
t
^
 s) i<\302\243
(0 +
are
fe,
0
^ s
^ 1} and
si> (0,
continuously
differentiable
functions, defined
< r < fc. We have <j>(a) ^ ^(a)
0(f)
with
four possibilities: the cell corresponding
in Figure 2.10 (ad).
< ^(f)
if a
and
each
iy . 1 (b)
TO
1
0
iy i *
a
b
X
iy i > (d)
(C)
TO
y
>
y=<pto
1
a
0
Fig.
Example
(l+e~ins).
b
X
0
.3
'jC
\302\243
2.10
2.4.
K = {(t, s): Ogtgl,
0 g s g 1}
and
T(t,
s)
= {t\\)
76 Cauchy's Theorem
Thecell
is the
segment[2, 0]
T(K)
and
0
^ t
<i 1} of K on the
and
semicircle,
in Fig.
sketched
is
enclosed by a semicircleand the line
2.11. T maps the side {(f, 0):
the side {(0, s):0 ^ s ^ 1}on the
domain
closed
[2,0],
segment
the remaining
two sides
onto the origin0.
iyl
r(K)
2.11
Fig.
introduce the following notations:E = {(t,s):a < t < b,
=
of K and Lx = {(f, 0: a^t^b},
0 < s < 1}is the interior
L2
{(&, 5):
0 ^ s ^ 1},L3= {(*, l:a ^ t ^ fc},and L4 = {(a,s):0^ s ^ 1}are its sides.
in C and K = [\302\243]is its closure.
is a region
Of course, \302\243
Now
let us
S ..
U
1
E
u
ci
0
Fig.
u
I\342\226\240> t
U
2.12
to examine the propertiesof the map T
2.3
under
the assumptionthat <j>(b) = ^(fc). From
Example
T(t, s) = t + (1  s) icf> (t) + si\\j/ (0
We now want
we get
T, fc s) = 1+ (1r.(r,s)
s)#'
= i(*(r)*(*)).
(t)
+
\302\253y(0,
as defined
in
(2.17)
2.2 Cellular decomposition 11
r(Lt) isa
t+
arc,
Jordan arc with parameter
and r(L4) isjust onepoint
bethe setwe getby
one on
K\"
is
Let
a + i<\302\243
(a).
closed
a bounded,
region,
t * T(fc
representation
X\"
r(L3)
1+ (t), a^t
<t< 0 ^
i^
b9
+a
where
=
C\\
Jordan
the
\342\200\224
t,
interior
its
T(\302\243) is
1), a
^
r
^
and its
define a
now
boundary a
= r(L3),
rfLjJandC^
arc T(L3) by the
= T(L3).
b9 we
get C3
cell as follows.
is called
If r satisfies the followingconditions
T{K)
(l)(4),
ceM:
a
or
more
cell,
briefly,
T(K) is a closed domain,F(E) is its interior,i.e.,the set of all
is a piecewise
of T(K)
interior points of T(K) and the boundary
smooth Jordan curve.
Each
is either a point or a smoothJordanarc.
T(LK)
If K\" is the set obtained from K by
those
sides LK such
omitting
and we
is
onetoone
that r(LK) is a point,the map T: K\" \342\226\272
r(K\")
have for all points (t9 s)eK\":
24.
Definition
a smooth
(1)
(2)
{3)
(2.18)
Imrs(r,5)rf(t,5)>0.
(4) For
is a
fixed s the function
constant.
rs(f,
=^ 0
5)
The boundary
curve
^b9
s ^ 1}
is oneto
2.13
Fig.
We
(b)9
T(r, 1) =
= {(r, s):a
L4 from
L2 and
taking
piecewisesmoothJordancurve Cx C3,
i.e., 3r(X) = C = Cx C3. Redefining
parameter
b + icf>
t >
representation
t + T(t9 0) =
is a smooth
representation
parameter
X, then T: X\" + r(jK\")
and
for each point (r, s)eK\" we have
by (2.17)
= *l*(t)<Ht)> 0.
Ts(r, s)r,(t,5)
Im
T(K)
with
just one point
a^t^b,r(L2)is
(t),
i(f>
Jordan
smooth
by
C
condition
\\c\\
=
r(/c)
T(t9
s) oft
satisfies Tt (t9
Similarly, for fixed t9
or is a constant.
=
(1)
the
function
s)
a ^ t ^ fc, or
s) of 5 satisfies
# 0,
T(t,
cell T(X) is a piecewise
smoothJordan
and we have
of a
dT(K)
r(\302\243)
=
irjLji
u r(L2)
u r<L3) u
r(L4).
78
Theorem
Cauchy's
T (Lk\\k = 1,2,3,4,isby condition
Jordanarc. If Ck is a smooth Jordan arc,
are given by:
representations
Each
Ck =
Q.rrfo
the
Since
or a smooth
parameter
(4)
\" ~
0<s<l,
s),
of each
orientation
the orientations for
(219)
O^s^ 1.
C4:sr(a, 15),
define
a point
condition
flg^fc,
0),
C2:sr(fc,
(2) either
by
T(Lk) is not
each Ck
=
implied by
T(Lfc)
using
condition
(2), we
the above
parameter
representations,i.e.,
C = dr(K)=
C2
Cx
C3
C4.
(2.20)
If Cl9C2,C3, and C4 are all Jordan arcs, then C1C2C3C4 is the Jordan
curve
obtained
together Cl9 C2, C3, and C4 in that order. If
by piecing
and
there
are one or more points, then Ci*C2*C3*C4.
C4
among Ct,C29C3,
is the Jordancurve
obtained
Cl9C2,C39
among
are Jordan
points,
then
by piecing
and C4.
=
arcs, then C1*C2*C3*C4
= Cx
Ci'C2'C3*C4
only the Jordan arcsfrom
together
If, for example,C2 is a point
CY
'C^C^
and
and
Ci9C3,
if C2
and C4
and C3
are
C4.
C21u C31u C41, it is sufficient to establish the
if Ck is a Jordan arc its orientation
of C,
that
fact
agreeswith the orientation
ce
on
left
of
Choose
and
is
the
curve
that
consider
the
i.e.,
(a, b)
Ck.
T(\302\243)
(3) and (4), cy is a smooth
cy: s * cy (s) = T(c, s), 0 ^ s ^ 1.By conditions
then
the angle
between cy and Cx at
Jordan arc. If Cx is a Jordanarc,
=
6 of cy'(0)/rr(c,
0), is equal to the
T(c, 0), i.e.,the argument
cy(0)
Proof:
argument
Since\\C\\
 Ct
u
ITfeO)
=
=
of
rs
(c, o)
cyf
(0)/rf
(c, o)
\342\200\242
r,
(c, o)i2.
= T(c, s)er(\302\243)
cy (s)
By (2A8) we have sin 6 > 0, hence 0 < 0 < n. Since
Jordan
the
0 < s < 1, T(\302\243)is on the right of Cx. Similarly,considering
for
\342\200\224
=
s
from
the
obtained
0
arc k s * A(s)
^
1,
^
cy by reversing
s),
cy(l
A
and
C3 at T(c, 1) is
orientation, and observingthat the angle ^ between
equal to the argumentof Ts (c, 1) Tt (c, 1), we concludesin ^ > 0 by (2.18),
hence 0 < \\J/ < n. Therefore T(\302\243) is to the left of C3.
Next considery1/3:t*ylt3(t) = T(t, 1/3), a ^ t ^ fc. y1/3 is a smooth
at the
Jordan arc and the anglea> between
y t /3 and C4 (if C4 is not a point)
\342\200\224
sin
Therefore,
Tt (a, \302\243)
Ts (a, \302\243).
point T(a9 i) is equal to the argumentof
co > 0 by (2.18), i.e., 0 < co < n. Hence T(\302\243) is on the left of C4 since
2.2 Cellulardecomposition
79
1/3)
T(fl,
r(c.O)
Fig. 2.14
C2
e
(0
Vi/3
if
C2
is not
b. Similarly,oneproves
r <
a <
T(\302\243)for
T(E)
is on
the left of
a point.
To illustrate what
if some
happens
sketched in Fig. 2.15what
we have
that
of Example2.4.In this
C2
case,
the
= C3
of the
Cl,C2,C3, and C4
are
curves
cy and
for the cell
= 0
t
y
/3 look like
and C = dr{K)= Ct
points,
C4.
iy i k
Q
CO
2
Fig.
For
2.15
convenience we
a^r^fe,0^5^1},
transformed
{(t, s):
into
coordinates
started
with
0
Q
notational
rectangle
\\7l/3
the
t =
K'.
it is
but
a^t
<>b,
have
obvious
c^s^d}.
as the
defined
K
that we
could
An
arbitrary
have
rectangle {(t,
used
s):
an arbitrary
rectangle is
of
K' = {(r, 5):0 ^ t ^ 1,0^ s ^ 1}by the change
\342\200\224
=
have
well
as
we
so
s
c
could
a + (b \342\200\224
+ (d c)c9
just
a)x,
square
80
Theorem
Cauchy's
b. Cellulardecomposition
Let
is called
(1)
an
(2)
[Z>]
(3) If
closed region in
C and let D beits interior.
of
{Tx(Kx). . . Tx (Kx),...,
r\342\200\236
(*\342\200\236)}
of
if
decomposition [D]
of cells has no interior points in common.
pair
Jf =
A collection
2.5.
Definition
cells
be a
[D]
a cellular
arbitrary
=
and
TA(KA)
  \342\226\240
ur,(K,)u
(K2)u
T, (Kt)uT2
v, have
A #
TV(KV),
Example 2.5. Figure 2.16 shows
{x:0gx^
and so
on.
Fig.
2.1.
Theorem
finite number
[D] is
The
exactly
straight
Jordan
called
segment
{iy:
arc CAv.
cellularly
of
the
the segment
O^y^
1},
2.16
If the
of
region
boundary ofa boundedclosed
piecewise
disjoint,
mutually
smooth
[D]
Jordan
consists
of a
curves, then
decomposable.
is in three
smooth
on
parts.
first
We
Jordan
is based
straightforward,
line\"
is
[D]
the
Part (I) ofproof:
one
a smooth
a
cellular
decomposition
= r1(Kl)nr2(K2)
is
C12
example,
or
is
1},C31= r3(/C3)nr1(/<:1)
cellularly
proof
this
(2.21)
ur,(y
a nonempty intersection,then
n Tv (Kv) is either one point
(Ki)
T^
If such a cellulardecomposition
exists,
decomposable.
closed disk. In
  
assume
on the fact
a sufficiently
the boundary of [D] consistsof
is
C. The proof, which
basically
a smooth
that
Jordan curve is \"almosta
that
curve
small neighborhood
of each of its points.
2.2 Cellulardecomposition
81
ON .
C
N
Qs
)
u
[D]
&
Gl2^
Goi
Gn
G2>
goo
Gio
G20
fll
/?2
\\
R3
0
X
Fig.
2.17
Let
Qhk =
an
define
the
{x + iy:
M =
infinite
whole
kd + S}9
S,k6^y^
0,\302\261l,\302\2612,...,
of squares
number
with
sides
to 5
equal
> 0 and covering
C
plane
complex
+
hS\302\243x^hS
Kk
Then [D]
is coveredby
a finite
number
of closed
subsets [D] n
g^ ^ 0
fc,IE
If
this
is a
cellular decomposition,
adjustments as shown
in
Fig.
cellulardecomposition.
The
details
of this
adjustment
2.17
we are finished.
to change this
make
into
a
decomposition
If
it is
not, we
procedure are as follows.First,let Qhk
be
a
C in at least two points or is
of its sidesintersects
that has this sidein commonwith
be the square
Qhk
(h, k 1), (h + 1, k\\ or (h 1, k)) and let the rectangle
(i.e., (h\\ k!) = (h9 k +1),
u fifc.k.. Denote the rectangles obtainedin this way
R be defined
by R = \302\243>,,*
no interior
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
, RmIf
points in
P ^ 9. KP and /?9 have
by Rl9 R2,   . , Rp, \342\200\242
common and [I>] is coveredby the sets [D] n /?p, p = 1,2,..., m, and the
All [D]n/?p
are cells. Let
where gfcfc <jr \\JpRp.
[D]ngw,
remaining
C^] have interior points in common, then
4= Up ^p ** such that G** and
Qhk
one
If
all
or transverselyin exactly
not
at
C
intersects
a side of Qhk
point.
[D] n Qhk is not a cell, then one of the casessketchedin Fig. 2.19 must occur.
By dividing [D] n Qhk into two cells, as shown above, we obtain a cellular
square
such that one
tangent to C.Let Qwk.
82 Cauchy's
Theorem
2.18
Fig.
^L
A
Fig. 2.19
decomposition of [D]. The
obtained in this way.
cellular
shown
decomposition
above
was
decomposition definedin this way is
Let
really
y:t+y(t), 0 ^ r ^ l,bea parameter
decomposition.*
is a continuously differentiate
representation of C. By assumption,
y(t)
function
of r, such that y'(t) * 0 for t e [0,1],y (0) = y (1), and y(s) * y(t) for
0 ^ s < t < 1.In order to be able to treat the point y (0) = y(l) just as all
other pointsy(t), we extend y(f) to a function with period one defined on the
real line R by putting y (t) = y (t  /c),where t is an arbitrary real number such
now
We
proceed
to prove
that the
a cellular
that
k
^ t
<
fc
h 1,
k an
integer.
Splitting y(t) into its realand imaginary
we
part,
write
+ ii; = p(t) h ict(t), 0 ^ t ^ 1be an arbitrary
on C.
y(t) = \302\243
point
Since y' (x) # 0, at leastoneofp'(t)and <t'(t) is not equal to 0. Let usassume
p'(r) ^ 0;then \\C \\ can be represented by an equation y = <t>(x% where ^(x) is
Let C =
a continuously differentiable
If p'(r)
> 0, then p'(t) > 0
monotone
* This
a
fact is intuitively
verification
through
clear
t.
from the
calculation
of \302\243.
C, hence
p(t) is a
the inverse function
a neighborhood
of
neighborhood
of
function
increasing
x on
of
function
on a
Therefore
diagrams. Theproofthat
of this
intuitively
obvious
follows
fact.
x =
is nothing but
Cellular
2.2
t
monotone
is a continuously differentiable,
p~l(x)
=
a neighborhood
of \302\243
p(t).
By applying
=
on
t
=
x \302\273
z =
z =
x *
from
C In
both cases,
obtained
of
of
neighborhood
0
a 5 (e) >
the change of
< 0,
is
\\C\\
represented
then
(x))
t
=
p
representation
a continuously
neighborhood of <J,
of the Jordan curve
(x) is
the orientation on a neighborhood
by the equation y = (f>(x) on a
there existsfor
of x,
function
a continuous
e >
each
Since<!)(\302\243)
=
v/e
rj
(2.22)
ifx\302\243<c5(\302\243).
value theorem there exista
= </>(O
(/>(x)
+ </>'(^+
from
get
proved
1, such that
0(x^))(xa
(2.22)
if p'(t)
that
0 <
0, 0 <
^(x)ir^(f)(xf)^exf
(2.23)
ifx\302\243<<5(\302\243).
^ 0, then
be
can
\\C\\
the equation y =
neighborhood of C y(t) by
(2.23) is satisfied on this
neighborhood.
following. If the condition
=
we
Next,
that
and
4>{x)
on a
represented
want
inequality
to prove the
3p'(t)
\302\243
<7'(t)
then the
is satisfied,
occurring
in
Since
y'(t)
P(e) >
is a
the
be determined
continuous
and
neighborhood
the value of
of the point (
independent
function of t and since y'(t+
Therefore, for each e > 0, there
<e
^ 0 for
It is sufficient to
this
under
function
nondecreasing
5(e)
y(t).
1) =
y'(t\\
a
exists
(2.25)
iff5<j3(\302\243).
all r, there
existsa k > 0 such
that
(2.26)
y'(r)^8/c>0.
(For
=
that
l/W/(5)
Sincey'(t)
of
\"size\"
continuous.
uniformly
0 such
(2.24)
can
(2.23)
y'(t)
is
0
that
such
</>'(x)</>'(\302\243)<\302\243
have
\"l
on a
function
a parameter
C by reversing
By the intermediate
We
coordinate
\302\243.
<\302\243'(x)is
Since
p' (t)
\"*
a(p
<\302\243(x)
decreasing
x + i<\302\243(x)is
\342\200\224
C
=
i<\302\243(x),
monotone
differentiable,
and
x +
If
neighborhood of \302\243.
on a
function
increasing
we obtain the parameterrepresentation
to y(f)
p~l{x)
83
decomposition
prove that
assumption
of
rs
< 0(w)ifts
(2.24)
and
\302\243.
Hence
monotone nondecreasing function
=
a(e)
sup0<u^E P(u) isa monotone
a u with
0 < u ^ e such
there
exists
/?(e)
is a
<a(\302\243),soy'(f)y'(s)<
u^eif\\ts\\
(2.26) we get
10p'(t)2 ^ p'(t)2+ k'(t)2=
y'(t)2
^
64k2,
<a(\302\243).)From
of e.
that
84
Theorem
Cauchy's
hence
IP'MI > 2k,
that
or p'(r)
> 2k
p'(r)
is,
First,
us
let
assume
Hence,
of
function
(2.25)
if \\tx\\<P(K).
p(f) is a
t
> 2k. By
p'(r)
p'(r)>K
x =
< 2k.
continuously differentiable,
interval
the
on
(2.27)
\342\200\224
[t
~l
monotone
+ /J(k)],
/J(k),t
so its
increasing
inverse
function
monotone
of
function
p
(x) is a continuouslydifferentiable,
increasing
\342\200\224
=
x on the interval
[p(t
p(t + /?(k))]. Therefore, </>(x)
tr(p_1(x))
/?(k)),
is also continuously differentiable on [p(t \342\200\224
+
/J(k)),
p(r
/?(k)) ]. By (2.27)we
r =
have
and
similarly
that
the
[p(r
p(t
interval
\342\200\224
/?(k)),
domain
\342\200\224\342\200\224
p(t)
[{
[{
p(r
=
<\302\243'(*)
k/?(k)].
From
=
P_1W,
Pit)
t
p(r) =
is contained
k/?(k)]
From now
p'W
Kfi(K)
Since
k/J(k).
+
\302\243
k/?(k),
+
\302\243
kj}(k\\
>
/}(k))
\342\200\224
+ /J(k))].
\342\200\224
>
= rfi(K)p'(t)dt
+ )3(K))p(T)
p(T
on, we
regard
ff'(r)
ff'(T)
ff'W
ff'(T)
P'(0
p'(0
P'W
P'(T)]
k'(t)\302\253T'(T)
+ k'WI
P'(0
by (2.27)
Therefore,
hence,
p'Wp'W
K
by (2.25)
iftt<)5(K6/4).
</>'(X)0'(\302\243)<\302\243
Since
p'(t)P'(T)
and (2.24)
mx)<l>'(Z)\\\302\243\\y'(t)y'(x)\\;
dt/dx
= l/p'(0
=
\342\200\224rl i
I
f
Js
< 1/k by
dt^
dx
dx
(2.27)
have
we
\302\243x\302\253l
K
Hence
</>'(X)</>'(\302\243)!
<
\302\243
if
X\302\243
<
in
<f>(x) as a
we get
l*'M*'tf):S
<!;
KjS(K\302\243/4).
we
the
conclude
interval
function
with
Cellular
2,2
belongs to the domainof <f>(x)
Note that x
we have
5(e)^
\342\200\224
^
\302\243
Putting
*/?(*).
monotone nondecreasing
/3(e) is a
e since
all
for
*/?(*)
x
e. Therefore
of
function
since
85
decomposition
ifx\302\243<5(e),
</>'(*)0'(\302\243)l<\302\243
hence
ifx\302\243<5(e).
0(x)f0'(O(x{)^ex{
Putting e =
= <t'(t)/p'(t)
1 and using  <\302\243'(\302\243).
*(x)if<4x{
17(C) = {x +
(7(C) of
ijr. x\302\243
the points x + i<\302\243(x)eC
with
Since5(1)= k/?(ic/4),
2.24), we get
ifx\302\243<5(l).
a neighborhood
Defining
g 3 (by
we
( =
< 5(1),
+ irj
\302\243
yif
\302\2433(1)< x
by
< 45(1)}
<
+
\302\243
small k by (2.7)
for sufficiently
get
to [7(C).
belong
5(1)
C n [/ (0 = {x + i<f>(x): \302\2433(1) < x < { + 5(1)}.
The casep' (t) < 2k is treated similarly, the only difference beingthat
functions.
p(t) and p\"1 (x) are monotone decreasing
To
if condition
summarize,
now
(2.24),
3p'(t)^<t'(t),
is satisfied
+ irj
\302\243 \302\243
= y(t)
= p(r) +
hx(t)
of
C, then
+ 5(l)}.
^(x):^5(l)<x<^
is a continuously
of x
difFerentiable function
Here,
#(x)
\342\200\224
interval [\302\243
where
<!;+ k/?(ic)],
k/?(k:),
k/?(k) ^ 5(1),satisfying
=
Cn[/(0
{x +
l*Wi^(\302\253(x\302\253)^cx\302\253
U (C)is dividedby
inequalities
Let
x+
y >
\\C 
<f>(x)
and
x >
z
= x
a parameter
crosses
C
from
U+
can
be
+
i<f>
(2.29)
on
the closed
ifx\302\243<5(\302\243).
\"
and
U
defined
(\302\243)
(\302\243)
two subregions
y < 4>(x\\ respectively:
the
(2.30)
by the
the point z =
through
axis.
increasingfunction. Since
line
parallel to the imaginary
x = p(r) is a monotone
C and
If p'(t) > 2k,then
is
into
= [/ + (0ui/(0.
i/(0C
/x:y> /x(>>) = x + ry represent
i<\302\243(x)on
\\C\\
neighborhood U (C)by
on the
represented
=
a point
at
(x)
representation of C on 1/(0, we
= x +
right to left at lx(<f>(x))
see
that
i<\302\243(x).
the
Therefore,
line
lx
if
86
Theorem
Cauchy's
I
'y>
/
tx
0*(O
D
T
/\302\260
jt
\"T\"
'
s
1
+ tyH*)
IT(0
y
o
1^
Z<HI)
2.20
Fig.
[D].Ifp'(t)
t/\"(Q
<=
that
='x
2jc,thenx\302\273z
hence
C,
of
\342\200\224
<
C\342\200\224
representation
then x + iyeD,
+ 4S{l)
4>(x)<y<r]
c
X
\342\200\242 t f\\f
J7
\302\243>
and
+
+ i#(x)
(C) c
+
and
(QcD
is a parameter
l/
is,
C [D]. Similarly,
U~{Q
if
the
condition
(2.31)
3a'(T)^p'(T)
is satisfiedat
=
+ fy =
\302\243 \302\243
V(0 = {x+
iy:
y(t) and if we
x\302\243
<
put
yi;
45(1),
< 5(1)},
then
+ d{l)}.
\\C\\nV(Q=W{y) + iy:ri6{l)<y<t,
\\j/(y)
is a
continuously
interval [q
\342\200\224
k)8(k),
i; +
differentiable
k/J(k)] and
function of y
if ly^
W'OOfW.Hj'*)!.*^*)
If a
+
point xt
on
i>\342\200\236
C with
0 <
on
defined
< 5(e)
\302\2431
xx \342\200\224
and 0
<
(2.32)
the closed
(2.33)
5(e).
\\yt
\342\200\224
<
\302\273/
5(e) is
such that
yin
3e +
Xi\302\243
holds, then
3 <t'(t)
(2.34)
l
condition (2.24),3p'(t)^
we
\302\243
p'(t),
have
xt
l*i{*'(\302\2737)(j>i*)l\302\243fi}',if
by
(2.33),
that
Kif
is,
Vto)
<e.
=^(yt)
is
<t'(t),
satisfied.
by (2.32), hence
For,
assuming
2.2 Cellulardecomposition
87
Using
we sget
(2.34)
P'WI
=
3e+l
fiZl
W'(f)\302\243
\302\253*
=
\"\302\243
\342\200\224
1
3
if
Similarly,
(2.35)
3\302\243+l
holds, then we have
3<x'(t)
we
these
results
can
Using
of [D] canbeobtained
proof. First selecte
36 ^
<5,
as
A
Let us put
described
procedure
e <
cellular decomposition
in the beginning of this
1/3, next select8 > 0 such
complexplaneC with
described
that
an
infinite
of squares
number
Qhk
with
above.
three cases:
We consider
Case1:
the
0 <
with
that a
3(e)
and cover the
width
by
^ p'(r).
ascertain
easily
of Qhk
side
=
Qhk
intersects
C in at
Q00 to simplify
least two
points
or is
tangent
to C.
the notation. Let
L={x + iS:0^x^5}
represent
the
of Q00 that intersects
=
+ id = y(r) be one
\302\243 \302\243
side
and let
point of tangency.The rectangleR
to C
\302\25301
=
C in at least two
of
the
Q00 ug0i
^
J>^^
y^^{x)
Fig.
2.21
?
<!
*
or is
intersection
is given by
ICI
^^^~\\
^^Ziv^
0
of
points
points
tangent
or the
88
's Theorem
Cauchy
Assuming
that
equation x =
on
ij/(y)
=
at \302\243
y(x), C is given by the
in
(2.32). Hence L intersectsC transversely
holds
2; p'(t)
3<t'(t)
by
V(Q
exactly
point, contrary to the assumption. (Since35 g 5(e) ^ 5(1), we
= #(x)onl/(C)by
=>
have V(C) /?.)Therefore
\\C\\ is given by the equation y
one
(2.29).
have
we
(2.30)
By
ifx\302\243<5(e), (2.36)
\\<Hx)6<y(Z)(?ce)\\ge\\xi\\
that
C
on
is,
=
4 iS9
\302\243
neighborhood
{xhry: x
the curve C is betweenthe linesy
\342\200\224
<
\302\243
the
= ^(^/(^)5)(x
^
least
two points,
tt
*
as
\342\200\224^),
in Fig.
shown
= 5
)>5
5(6),
+
(#'(\302\243)
2.21. If
If
by
Hence,
(2.36)
^ 2exf
0(x)<5
 ^ 2e5
if
0
^ x
g 5,
therefore
0<
<\302\243(*)<
25
if0gx^5
g J.
Therefore,
nR
[D]
0\"
> 0,
p'(r)
assuming
= {x
+ i>:0 ^
we have
x g 5,
l.
[D]nR
y=y(x)
6~
Fig.
2.22
<0, we have
C
5
U + (Q e: D and
^
<\302\243(x)
2/5
If p'(x)
of
and
\302\243)
at
of intersection
we put one such other point
4 iS,
Ci = \302\243i
=
<
5
we
\302\243
5
have
and
5(e),
by
tf>(f i)
tf>'(\302\243)^
^ \302\243 ^
= 0. So, in both cases, we have
L is tangent to C at \302\243
then
0'(\302\243)
0'(\302\243)\302\243e.
since e
+ e)
(x 
L intersectsC in
Since
\302\243
(2.36).
<45(1)}
X
J ^
25}.
Cellular
2.2
In both
cases[D] n R
89
decomposition
.,
described in Example 2.3.Let Lx,L2,..
all sides from among the sidesof the squares
Lm represent
Qhk, h, k
= 0, \302\261
. ., which
intersect C in at least two points
or are tangent to
1, \302\261
2,.
C. For eachLp let Rp = Qhk u QWk. be the union of the two squares
Qhk and
sides.
We have shown that all [D] n
QhW which have Lp as oneof their
Rp
cells. If p ^ 9, then Rp and
are
i?q do not have interior points in common.
(For,supposeRp = R = ()00 ug01. If Rq has interior points in common
is contained
in /?.
one of the squares making up /?, say,
with
R, then
Q00
=
Hence L9 has to be a side of Q00,but all sides of Q00 except L Lp either do
in exactly
one point. Hence
not intersect C at all or intersectC transversely
cell as
is a
Lp,...,
Lq
= L=
Case 2:
before,
Rp and
4= UP
Qhk
we put
= g.)
p
i.e.,
Lp,
=
Qhk
Q00.
of Q00, we have
the interior
Q/,,j. has interior points in commonwith
If the boundary C of [D] doesnot pass
Q00
p. Goo =
and [D]
cz [D]
As
[D].
through
C
that C intersects
Goo
^ a
cell. If
from
(2.29)
passesthrough the interiorofQ00,we conclude
each side of
the boundary of Q00 in at least two points. Since Q00 <\302\243
\\JpRp,
in exactly
C transversely
Q00 either does not intersectC at all or intersects
at leasttwo sides of Q00 in one point each.
one point. ThereforeC intersects
We
cases:
two
distinguish
are parallel.
Let us assume that C
(a) C intersects two sidesof Qo0 which
the
the side on the imaginary axis at ir\\ = y(i), 0 ^ y\\ ^ <5, and
intersects
=
other side at fi
S + irjl, 0 ^ tji ^ 5. At iij we have 3p'(t) ^ <t'(t).
(For, sincee < 3, we have 3/(3e+
rj\\/5 ^ 3(3e + 1),holdsat the
by
(2.29),
irj.
The
\\C\\
side
intersects
C
f. Hence, the inequality (2.34)\\ijl
5 + ii^ # z>/ = y(t) of C.) Therefore,
point
is given by the equation y \342\200\224
1/ (/>/) of
<j>(x) in a neighborhood
ofQoo either does not intersect C at all or
{x:0^gx^<5}
in exactly one point. If C intersectsthis
side
transversely
in
transversely
{ <
<
\302\243,0
1) >
= 0
<5,then<\302\243(\302\243)
and
i^ =
0 and if </>'(\302\243)< 0, then
value theorem. This contradictsour assumption,
< 5. Similarly,
< S if 0 < x < <5, hence
<f> (x)
q = (f>(0)<
if p'(t)
[*>] n
lfp'(r)<0,
Goo
by
hence
> 0 then U +
(j>7)
c D
</>(x) >
and
=
{x +
iy:0 ^
x^
<5,
</>(x)
=
{x +
*y:0 ^
x^
<5,
0
cases [D] n
Q00
is
a cell
^
^y^S},
>>
^
as described in
0,then
the intermediate
then
[\302\273]rifioo
In both
< 0
<\302\243(\302\243)
</>'(\302\243)>
if0<x<<5.
0<<\302\243(x)<<5
Therefore
0. If
^
<\302\243'(\302\243)
*(*)}.
Example 2.3.
0 if 0
<x
90
Theorem
's
Cauchy
.
iy>
id
, c
J
Qm
[Din
?i
irL
s
0
X
2.23
Fig.
two adjacent sidesof Q00
the side {iy: 0 ^ y ^
intersects
C intersects
(b)
assume that C
side {x: 0 ^ x ^
a neighborhood
P (it/)
of
if/.
&
\302\243
{, 0 <
1/ (if/) of
Let
us
n goo
\302\243
^ $.
or
> 0,
= {* +
iy:
0
5} at
is
0
if/,
x = ^ (y)
<
r\\
in
5, and
^
and
0^x<f
=
us
the
in
<\302\243(x)
a neighborhood
by an equation
given
for
each. Let
point
by the equation y
is given
equation
\\C\\
< S
<J>(x)
\\C\\
by the
that
if p'(r)
Therefore,
[>]
if/
assume
0 <
then
<0,
<\302\243'(\302\243)
f < x
at
<5}
one
in
y=
<\302\243(*)<
#(x). If
for
0
we have
^ x
^
^
<5, <\302\243(*)
k
y ^
6, 0
\302\243
y
^ <5}.
iyi i
iS
iS
iri
irj
[D]n
0
X
*\\*
p'(T)>0
0
Qm\\
f\\<
5
*
r
Fig. 2.24
In this case[D] n g00isthe
union
of a
cell, as
{x+ iy:0^x^f,tf>(x)^y^<5},
and
a
rectangle,
{x +
iy:
\302\243^x
^ 5,
0 ^ y
^ 5}.
described in Example2.3,
91
2.2 Cellulardecomposition
Ifp'(T)<Othen
V: 0 x
is a cell as described Example
which
= {* +
n fioo
[0]
/?p and
cj: JJp
Qhk
case, [Z>]n
In this
intersects
with [D].
Qw. has no interiorpointsin common
or
consists
of
the
empty
only
points whereC
Since C intersects each sideofQhk in at most one
of Qhk.
ofat most two
point, [D] n Q^ consists
points, we can omit these sets [D] n Qhk
the equality
=
LDl
Hence, [D]
cells,no
C.
C =
Let
y,: t
let
and
Qhk
C2
changing
the validity
of
cover
we
[D]
Cm,
Cj
number of
piecewise smooth Jordan
with all Cj smooth Jordanarcs
is a
=
7j[l)
plane C with
is
covered
a
[D]
by
an
finite
have
= yi(0).
. . . , ym(l)
yi+1(0),
the complex
S. Then
number
infinite
of
of closed
number
0:
*
Qhk
into a finite
above
points in common.
of
y3(0),. . .,
width
with
subsets [D] n
without
has no isolated
ofCj.We
1, be a parameter representation
t ^
0 ^
ya(l) =
Just as in Part (I)
squares
Since [D]
procedure
boundary
\342\200\242
Cx
\342\226\272
y7 (r),
= y2(0),
7i(l)
The
the
interior
have
which
of
Part (II) of proof:
curve
points.
[J([DlnQhk).
is decomposedby
two
I* </>(*)},
Qfcik is either
sides
the
\302\243
y
2.3.
in
Case 3:
0
\302\243 \302\243
{,
LDl=[J(lDlnQhk).
arrive
this decomposition,
we
at a cellular decomposition, but
=
now the points 7/(0),j 1, . .., m, need special
Put
consideration.
=
=
=
=
=
=
...,
Ci yi(0) ym(l),
...,(\342\200\236
ym(0)
y^d)
y,(0)
y^d),
Cj
and pick squaresgfc fc such that Cj^Qhk ^et Qj ^ *c union
of the nine
=
squares Qv.k.. such'that
Qwk\"^Q^k\\^0 (i.e., h\" hjl9 hj, hj+l9
By adjusting
k\"
=
of
that
in
kji,
Qhk
Qj,
\\Jfml
=
. Next
is a
n2 squares
into
Qhkpq
with
width
its
center
which
5/n
with
coinciding
are not contained
(where
n
is
a natural
defined by
number)
QkkM
square of width 3<5,
we divide all squares Qhky
Qj
fcj+i).
fcj,
{x +
1)6/n ^xhS^
iy: (p
We have
n
Qhk
=
\\J
Qhkpq
P.\302\253=l
pd/n,
(ql)6/n
^ykSg,
qS/n}.
92
's Theorem
Cauchy
5\"
1^
\\
it
\302\243\342\226\240
^s+
2.25
Fig.
decomposition of [D]
and the
[D]= U ([l>]nGfcMf)u([D]nfi1)uu([D]neili).
h.k.p.q
[Jh.k.p.q
2.25
procedure
divide the squaresQhk
into a finite
c}: \\J}
illustrates
Q} into n2 smaller
to show that each
fact, at most three)
it suffices
n.) Therefore
large
the
a cellulardecomposition
by
n (2/ikp9)can be changed into
([^]
in Part (I). (Figure
described
number
(in
necessary to
it is
why
squares for somesufficiently
[D] n Q} can be decomposed
of cells,as illustrated
in
Fig.
2.26.*
Define /? (e), k, 6 (e) for
(I) for y
such that
that
(r),
p (e)
0^r<s^l9icisa
y}
6 (e)
1,2,...,
m,
as
were defined
they
function
is, p (e) is a monotonenondecreasing
=
> 0 and \\y) {t)
1, 2,. .. , m,
y) (s)\\ < ej
constant satisfying
v}(OI^8k>0,
and
=
(t)J
is defined
\\t
s\\ <
> 0,
p (e\\
)=l,2,...,m
by
0<e^4,
[kP(ke/A\\
=
if

in Part
e, e
of
5(\302\243)
\302\243>4.
W(k),
yj (t)
Splitting
For
C
=
^
into its
real and imaginary
define
+\302\273/we
part,
we write
1/(0 and
neighborhoods
y}
(t)
V(\302\243)as
=
in
p} (t)
Part
+ ia}(t).
(I) by
U{Q = {x+ iy.\\xZ\\<6{l),\\yr,\\<46(l)},
=
V{Q
*
This
{x +
is also
taking
segments.
iy.\\yti\\<8(l\\\\xZ\\<46(l)}.
intuitively
clear:
if C, _,
Qj sufficiently small the
and
C, are
both segments, the
parts of C,_, and
C, contained
is trivial. By
in Qi are almost
proof
2.2
Cellular
decomposition
93
(i)
Cj
\302\243
'(6)
QFig.
By
selecting
2.26
a sufficiently
and
(2.29)and (2.30)or (2.32)
small k, we may
(2.33)
are
O'
\342\200\2245(1)
\342\200\2248(1)
Fig.
2.27
valid
assume
that
for
in
\\Cj\\
similar
the
results to
neighborhood
94
Theorem
Cauchy's
U (0 or
the
of
K(C)
curve, we have
Jordan
=
+ ir\\
\302\243
adjust
these
pointr
to
=
example, if condition (2.24),3 \\p'j(t)\\
and
=
{_,
>
pj(0)
If
=
= {x+ i</>;
=
=
+ ,n,
\302\243 \302\243; \302\243,
^
and if p'}(i) > 0
is satisfied
ff}(t),
then
\302\243
<5(1),
t/ (0
\\Cj\\ n
y,{f) of C,. However, sinceCs is not a
results if \302\243
is close
to yi (0) or y} (1). For
+ <5
\302\243
(1)}.
(if 3 p}(0)\302\243
er}
becomes
result
this
(0)
yj
x<
^
(x):
(0) and
if
p}(0)>0)
V (Cj)
n
\\Cj\\
andifp}(0)<0,
3
<T
\342\200\242
(0)
^ p}
\\Cj\\
n K(Q
n
\\Cj\\
The
x
of
that

\\4>i M
and for
<f>j
y,
respectively,
*lj
4>'j
(x)
that the
+
valid,
valid,
*,.*

for
U) < y
3
(2.40)
\302\273/;}\342\200\242
4>j
^1 ^ e (x
if
\302\243,)
+ S
tj\302\243x<
\302\243j
(e)
\342\200\224\302\243,
\\yt
\302\243x
+d(l),
\302\243l<xl<
<x}(0). If
is such that
the point xt + iy
the inequality,
<<5(1),
\342\200\224t]j\\
is
of
C},
rjl<y1<
qt
3e+ l
^ p}(0).
3a}(0)
=
For example,
+ 8(B).
iftij^y<r,j
3e+1
^
3p}(0)
< 6(1),
then
of Ch
C>
tyi (1) is the terminal
parameter
representation t \302\273y;_ j (1
and
p'j (0),
a} (0) in the aboveresults by
Since
(2.39)
(1)},
inequality (2.34)
yiij
is
<5
^ (y) are
have
xt +iyt
point
then
\302\243(1),xt
and
(x
(\302\243j)
*itj
is
,/, +
y <
*
ty
(y1j)\\\302\243e(y1j)
the
if
+^
{<My)+\302\253y:
is, we
WMtjWlj)
such
(2.38)
(y)
if/j
Hence,
\302\243
\302\243,}.
functions
continuouslydifferentiable
and
the
inequalities (2.30)
(2.33),
respectively, satisfying
functions
and
=
HQ
(2.37)
(1)},
{^x<{j+\302\253
o'j (0)> 0, then
(0) and
= {^0)
then
if <r}(0)<0,
and
(x):
i<f>j
= {x + i^(x): ^<5(1)< x
C,nU(Q
If
={x +
if 3 p}_t (1)^
C;_.  n
U
(Q
=
{x +
<7j_!
(1)
end point of
\342\200\224
0
t),
<\302\243
f ^
\342\200\224
Cj_
and
u
the
1, we
\342\200\224
p'j^l)
^ x <
#,_, (x): \302\243,
p}_
\342\200\224
arc
t (1),
< 0,
C^x
can replace
and
\342\200\224
er}_
C,,
t (1).
then
+ <5 (1)},
\302\243,
with
(2.41)
Cellular
2.2
and if 3 \\o'j.l(1)^
=
\\Cjx\\n V{Cj)
e <
Choose
35
and
\302\243
=
Qx
Let
i>: 0 ^
{iy. 0
^ y ^
and
3<5},
end point
terminal
=
L4
=
(0)
^
y
{x: 0
the
four
of Cm.
.
iy
have
3i5: 0^x^35},
beginning end
is the
ym(l)
35}be
^ x^
(2.42)
we
3<5}.
L2 = {x +
3(5},
^ + <5(1)}.
gx n [D].If d egn,
O^y^
0^x^35,
0, then
>/,^ y <
{^iQO+iy:
L1 = {3<5+
Qrl. The point d
(1) <
a).l
5(e) and consider
^
{x + iy:
and
(1)
\\p).x
95
decomposition
sides
L3
of the
point of Cx
=
square
and
the
/Cm
u
Zifi
/Cl
/
//
V
L3
Li
*L
Since 35
\302\243
x
2.28
Fig.
since
3
u
0
^ 5 (e) ^ 5 (1)we
we may
have
assume that k is
Qt
sufficiently
c U
(d). Since5 (1)= k$(ic/4)
small,
[/(d)
does
and
not intersect
= ({C^nQJv (\\Cm\\nQt).Hence,ifz,
C2,C3,... ^.^thatisJCInG!
and
be
can
z2 are two points in the interior of Ql9 but not on CX u CJ, that
connected
by a polygonal line in the interior o(Q1 not intersecting
Ct and
then
and
D
to
or
either
to
the
exterior
of
Cm,
zt
z2
belong
[D].
the boundary
Ci intersects
Lx u L2 u L3 u L4 of Qi We assume that Ci
intersects Lx and let 35 + iyj, 0 ^ y x ^ 35, be the point of intersection
ofCx
=
and
Since
we
have
Lv
d
d 4\"heQn,
^i'/i
35 ~d
hence
3p'x
Since Ct
25
<T
=
_
3
2<3fi+r
on U (d) by (2.37) or (2.38).
(0) ^ <t', (0) and CX is represented
intersects Lx we concludethat \\CX  is represented by (2.37), that is,
96 Cauchy's Theorem
Cx
is
by the
given
parameter representation
x * x + i(t>1
5(1),
(x),
{1^x<{,+
35,
then 0 <
on 17(d).
have
We
if
{jgx<
To see this let x2 be such that <t>x (x2)
L2 in the point x2 + 3i5,henceCx
+
y*^i(y)
on
Hence 35h^ =
^(d).
<t>i(\342\202\254i)
r}l we conclude
there
exists an
x3
x3
^ x2
with
(j>t (x3)
As shown by (2.43),Cx
Lx
u L2
Similarly,
u L3
u L4 of Qx
35,
^ < x2
has
the
parameter
+
i.e.,
iyu
that
fact
the
intersects
we
(2.43)
< 35,then
Cx
intersects
representation
^ CM =
35,^ <
yx
from the intermediatevalue theorem
= yt and d < x3 = x2 Hence^i
< 35, contradicting the
3S+ iyt.
35.
=
^{yx)
Since
=
<
(x)
^y<>7i+5(i)
>h
i>>
^
prove
35.
that
(yx)
=
= 35.
of Qi in exactly one point
intersects
the boundary
Cm
There
four
are
to
point.
possibilities
boundary
that
one
in exactly
\\^x (yx)
^
consider:
(1) Cm intersects
xx
Lv In this
+ i</>m(x),
case,
\302\243i
^x<d+5(l)
U (d). Ct and Cm have
on
no
parameter representation of \342\200\224
Cm
in
but
other
U
of
intersection
for
Hence,
(d)
d<\302\243m(x)x^
(x)
points
all x with d < x ^ 35 or </>! (x) > (j)m (x) for all x with d < x ^ 35. Let
axis
for
'*:y > '* (y) = * + iy be the line through x parallel to the imaginary
d < x <^ 35. The line lx crosses Cx from right to left at x + i<f>1 (x) and Cm
from left to right at x + i<f>m (x). Furthermore,
lx intersects C = d [D] in no
c
17
otherpoints on (Ci) Hence, since Qi U (d) we have, if </>m (x) < </>! (x),
is a
x +
ifO^^^0m(x),
i>e[7>]
x + iy\302\243[D]
if
4>m (x)
< y <
</>1
x +
if
</>!
(x)
^ y ^
35.
i>>e[D]
Hence [D] n Qi is decomposed
into
{x + iy.
{x + iy:
d ^
x ^ 35,0 ^
{^x^
{x + iy: 0 ^ x ^
That the third cell,which
35,
d,
is a
</>1
>>
three
^
(x)^^
(x),
cells:
</>m(x)},
35},
0 ^ y
^ 35}.
is contained in [D] follows from
rectangle,
the
with
the point x in D by
fact that a point z in the rectanglecanbeconnected
This
and
case
a polygonal line not intersecting
Cm.
Ct
correspondswith
Fig.
2.26(1).
Cellular
2.2
97
decomposition
iyf
j:
=
9,\302\253W
Did
? =
?.(*)
/
ccl
1
0
x + iy
x +
(2)
x2
intersects
Cm
then
\342\200\224is
\342\200\224is
^(Ci),
x
given by the
+ i<f>Jx\\
x
4>i(x)<
^ 35.
in
described
as
< 35
for ^ ^
iy. x2
^ xg
case corresponds
=
x^i
representsa
x=
y
representation
y < <*(l)
(2.44)
x <
(245)
8(1%
^ 35 and, by
x<
and
x2
into two
2.44,
<f>m
(x)
>
35 for
x2 <
x ^ 35.
cells:
^1^x^x2,<j>l{x)^y^<f>m(x)},
iy.
yVi
< x
is decomposed
[\302\243>]
nQ,
{x +
f,
L2 in the point x2 + 3i5,
parameter representation
^
\302\243t
for
(x)
<f>m
{x+
This
< y
(j>m{x)
by he parameter
given
Cm
^
\302\273h
also
Cm
#m (x)
Hence,
(x),
0, (x) or
Cm intersect
Let
L2.
On
\302\261S
35.
y+*l>m(y)+iy,
If
^ y <
<j>m
2.3.
Example
0^
if 0
iy\302\243[I>]
y<
(x) g
if fa
e [D]
[D]nQt = {x+1>:4^xg3^,^(x)g^i(x)}.
with Fig. 2.26 (2)and [Z)]n gj isa cell
corresponds
case
x
then
If</>,(x)<<Mx),
This
3<5
2.29
Fig.
Hence
*
6
line
A(y)
= H(x)
(x)\302\243yg,
35,4>x
to Fig. 2.26(3).
The
35}.
equation
3
l+3e
/ through
=
Zl +
= *1i +
Ci =
ti +
ii +
\302\273liSolving
e](yti1),
3
1+
3e (x\302\243,)
for
x and y
we get
98
Theorem
Cauchy's
Fig. 2.30
on
If there existsa point
C^, then
iy =
x +
^m (y) +
iy
with
tjt
< y ^
3\302\2535
and
x^X(y)
yf/i
l+3e'
*\302\243i
3
hence
^ lu^
pj\342\200\236
(1)
for
representation
(2.45)
(1) and
\342\200\224
Hence,
C\342\200\236.
there existsanother parameter
if a
parameter
representation
(2.45)does not
exist,
then
*m(y)<Hy)
In this
(2.46)
if
(2.47)
case
<t>v
For,
if\302\273/1<>'^3\302\243.
if
< n
(x)
< x
<{;,
<
(x)
+
\302\243j
S (e),
< x
\302\243,
\302\243
3.5.
then
\342\200\242tf'lKl); \302\243*,
since
and
>>i
=
<\302\243i
(35)
^ 3*5 we
have
= 2+e
^'l(W3T^+eT+e
We
(x)
<t>i
if
e <
assumed
{! < x g
Putting
x3
\302\243
rii
hence
\302\243,
+ (2
2 +
+ 2e)
2e <
(x
3/(1 + 3e)and
<
\302\243.)
we
conclude
\\i(x)
3*5.
= A (3<5)we
conclude from (2.46)and (2.47)that
[D]
n g,
can
2.2 Cellular decomposition 99
be
cells
three
into
decomposed
^ x^
{x + iy: x3
3(5,
0j
^ y ^
(x)
x3, fa (x)g y ^
3(5, ^
(y) ^ x ^
y \302\243
{x + iy: * \302\243
{x + iy:
case
This
^ x g
{i
corresponds
with
Fig.
(3) Cm intersects L3. On
2.26
t/(d)
3(5},
/i(x)},
A
(y)}.
(4).
arc
the
by the
is given
Cm
parameter
representation
x+x + i<M*),
and
[D]
0^x^\342\200\236
cells
is decomposed into two
n (2i
{x+ iy:O^x^^,0m(x)^y^3^},
+ iy: ^ ^ x ^
0! (x) ^ y ^ 3(5}
as shown in Fig. 2.26
3(5,
{x
(5).
(4)
L3. On
intersects
Cm
V(Ci) the arc
Cm
is
a parameter
by
given
representation
is
and [D] n d
{x +
cells
three
into
decomposed
iy.Zlgx\302\243369fa(x)gy\302\24336}9
{x + ^Oixi^i/^yiM},
{xHy:0 ^
as shown
in
^>h,
y
0 ^
x ^m(y)}
2.26 (6).
Fig.
Part (III) of
above
proof: Sinceall considerations
means
was
that
it
neighborhoods
of points
of C), the
of [D] consists of a finite
smooth Jordan curves.
Let
{TX(K):
now
k =
obtained above:
(which
small
sufficiently
same considerationsgo through
of mutually
number
boundary
Theorem2.1is
our attention to
to restrict
possible
local
were
disjoint
if the
piecewise
proved.
1, 2,. . . ,\\i\\
be
a cellular
[D] = rl(K)ur2(K)u...ur,(K)u...u
T,
=
=
K
E
0<s<
where
1,
{(t,s): 0^t^
{(r,s); 0<r<l,
1}.
from
be K's interior.It is
the above
proof that the cells
(2.48)
(K),
0<s<l}
Let
clear
point
or exactly
one point in commonwith
For all
squares or rectangles.
Q = CnrA(/C)
other
cells
the
TX(K)
boundary
as
of [D]
decomposition
that
C of
the intersection
have
no
[D] are
100 Cauchy's
Theorem
is
point,
^
n Tv (K\\ k
(K)
Tx
then
CAv
=
v,
Now,
neither
is
is a
n Tx (K)
if C
in
CAv
nor a
empty
rx(K)nTv(K)
an orientation to
assigning
left of CAv.
point,
\342\200\224
of
TX(E)
such
a
consists of Cx and at mostthree segments.
Tx (K)
If
the boundary 3rA(K) = YX(K)
arc and
a Jordan
set consisting of one
segment and
a way
such
is the empty
set
or
that
a set
CAv
is
defined
TA(\302\243)
is
on
consisting of
by
the
one
have
we
=
drx(K)
(2.49)
%CXv.
V
For
in Fig.
example,
ar5(/c)
Fig.
If Cx
= C
2.31, d T5
is given
(K)
= c54+ C59+ C57
+ C56
by
+ C53,
2.31
n rx (K) is a Jordan
drx(K)
=
arc,
we
cx+ZcXv.
have
(2.50)
v
For
example,
e r3(K)
= c3
+c34+c35+c36,
5 r4(/c) = c4
4
in Fig.
c48+c45+c43
2.31. Obviously
Cav
~~
\342\200\224
Cva
(2.51)
2.3 Cauchy's
Theorem 101
and
=
C
(2.52)
ZC,.
x
arc Cx is smooth
then Cx consists of two
Jordan
Each
smooth,
Cauchy's Theorem
2.3
In
its
and
C6 are smoothwhile
C4 and
2.31,
section
this
[D]
d [D]
boundary
interior
Fig.
2.32
a.
Cauchy's
2.2
f
bounded, closed regionin the complexplane
upon already
D is
the
Let
= 0,
k =
{rx(K):
on
holomorphic
If f(z)
Theorem).
(Cauchys
f(z)dz
is
C =
\302\243
a=i
f
/(z)dz=
is holomorphic on [D],then
(2.53)
dlDl
1,2,. .
.,
ft}
be
the
cellular
decomposition
of [D]
equality
f f(z)dz
(2.54)
Jc
Jar^(K)
from (2.49),
drx(K)
function/(z) is called
a region containing [D].
1.1c, a
Section
in
obtained in the proof of Theorem2.1.The
Since
Fig.
Theorem
f(z)
follows
in
smooth.
consists of piecewisesmoothJordancurves.
holomorphicon [D] if
Proof:
is a
is piecewise
C3
piecewise
of [D].
As agreed
Theorem
or piecewisesmooth.If Cx is
smooth Jordanarcs.Forexample,
=
(2.50), (2.51),and (2.52).
drx(K) = Cx+ \302\243vCAv
YjVCXv or
by
(2.49)
and
Theorem
Cauchy 's
102
(2.50),
have
we
f
f(z)dz
f
/\302\253&
=
f{z)dz
z\\
or
=
f
+
f[z)dz
Y\302\247(
f(z)dz.
Hence
\302\243
X=
segment
ZA
Zv
in common.
hence
(2.51),
by
/(Zjdz + Ssf
j;f
is extended
over all
f(z)dz.
pairs (rA(/Q,TV(X))
For each segmentCAv
=
CvA
we have
have
that
CvA
=
a
\342\200\224CXx
by (2.8)
[ f(z)dz
f(z)dz+
[
=
/(2)dz
sum
the
Here,
f
=
09
therefore
and
XI
X
Further,
JC;iv
= C by
X^Q
This
Jc
Jcx
(2.54).
proves
Therefore,
Lemma
(2.52), hence
/(z)rfz= f f(z)dz.
W
x
f(z)dz = 0.
f
v
If f(z)
2.2.
to
suffices
it
prove
$dr {K)f(z) dz
is holomorphic
= 0 for eachcellTX(K).
on the cell T(K),
then
= 0.
/(z)dz
(2.55)
1.3.
Proof. This lemma is a consequenceof Theorem1.14of Section
=
a ^ t ^ fe, 0 ^ 5 ^ 1. Let K
Let
{(t,s): a ^ t ^ b, 0 ^ s g 1} and
=
=
arcs ys: r \342\226\272
smooth
^(t,
s),
thereby
i? (5)
defining
7s (0
ys (t) and
Put
>
s
we
have
fy:
ty (s). By (1.44)
j
f(z)dz+
Jy0
j
J*y
f(z)dz
j
Jyi
/(z)dz
/(z)dz
j
J\302\253y
= 0.
(2.56)
= C1'C2'C3C49 whereeachC,,i = 1,2, 3,4, is a
assume
smooth Jordan arc or a single
First
that all C, are smooth
point.
Jordanarcs.By (2.19) parameter
are given by Ct: t > y0 (t)\302\273
representations
By
(2.20)
we have
dr(K)
2.3
(s),C3:t
C2 s>by
\342\200\224
a
y\\(b +
in
t
representations
+ a
\342\226\272
yx (b
\342\200\224
t), C4:
s for
and
t)
> y x
(t)
t
s in
1\342\200\224
 C3
for
s >
\342\200\224
fly
\342\200\224
(1
s).
fly(l
f
Substituting
\342\200\224
and s \342\226\272
ay (s)
103
Theorem
Cauchy's
obtain
s),
we
for
\342\200\224
C4.
So,
a +
for
fc
parameter
we get
from
(2.56)
+
[ f{z)dz+ [ f(z)dz
f f{z)dz+
and this
Cx is
2.3
of Cauchy's
[D], then
form
(Strong
on
Since
*
Lemma
that
the
on
a <
t
<
by 0
we
put
< 5
a sufficiently
(K) and
the
of
interior
[D],
it
K and let f{z)
rectangle
be
holomorphic on T(\302\243). Then
= 0.
T(Xe)
K =
{{t,s): a^t^b,
< 1}and T(E)is the
small
e, put
{(r, s):o + eg^
Ke =
Since
on
= 0.
er(K)
If
Proof:
the
cell T
/(z)dz
1
on
Theorem). If/(z) is holomorphic
valid for any continuous function
\\dTk[K)f(z)dz
Let E be
2.3.
continuous
(2.54) is
equality
show
suffices to
of mathematics
C = d[Dl
/(z)<fz = 0,
Ic
Proof.
Jyo/(z)dz
case.
this
applications.
continuous
and
is a constant,hence
A = 0. Hence(2.55)is alsovalid
in
is
the
most
beautiful
theorems
Theorem
among
Cauchy's
and has many
D
a point, then y0(t)
Vo (0
Jfl/(yo(0)
Theorem
points, the correspondingintegralsequal 0. If,
C, are
the
of
more
example,
=
= 0
/(z)dz
proves (2.55).
If oneor
for
[
c
fce,eg s
the
map:
T: (t,
s)
a+
aye:
byc:
s *
by Definition 2.4. For
1 e}.
^
\342\226\272
T
s
r(a
+ e,
s),
\342\226\272 \342\200\224
T(fe
e, s),
e ^
\302\243^tg>be,
e^f
s^
T(\302\243), Theorem
(r, 5). Hence,
^fce,
e ^ s ^ 1 e,
a +
1e),
y\\:t>T{t9
E={{t,s):
1},
of T(K)
arcs by
f0: t+r(t9e),
then
0\302\243s^
on
is holomorphic
T(\302\243)and/(z)
for the rectangleK\302\243
and
interior
1 \342\200\224
e,
1.14
is true
defining smooth
104
Theorem
Cauchy's
Fig. 2.33
we
have
f
f(z)dz+
[
Letting e tend
to + 0 in
(
lim
have
b.
2.4
continuous
/(w)
Proof.
e>
6e/
on T (K) by assumption,
and s on K. Hence
Let
/(r(r,
= (bf(r(t,0))r,(t,0)dt=
in the
seen
s)) Tf
(t, s)
is a
I f(z)dz.
proof of Lemma2.2,that
= 0
f(z)dz
follows from
and
(2.56). Consider, for example
f(r(t,e))rt(t,e)dt.
t
f(z)dz
already
f
Theorem
we obtain
equality,
'
f
of
function
continuous
We
Jaf
Jo+c
is continuous
f(z)
f f{z)dz= 0.
f f(z)dzhi*
this
f f(z)dz =
Jy'o
Since
f(z)dz
Jtf
Jy'o
equality (2.56).
formula
integral
Cauchy's
on D
(Cauchy's integral formula). If f(z) is holomorphic
weD
is given by
on [D], then the value of f(z) at a point
2m Jcz
l/\302\243(w)
0, contained
= [0,2rc],
in
represent
=
\342\200\224
{z:\\zD
C =
w
and
the
w <
let
circle
(2.57)
dlDl
e} be a disk with
Ct =
y\302\243
(/)
with center
with
w
and
center
w and
=
0 > y\302\243
y\302\243:
(6)
radius
e. The
radius
w ( eew,
boundary
2.3 Cauchy's Theorem
2.34
Fig.
of
the closed
=
\342\200\224
holomorphic on D \342\200\224
{w} and continuous
we can apply Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem
2.3)to
\342\200\224
closed region [D]
UE (w),
the
and
function
this
by
z is
w) of
therefore
{w};
is given
CC\302\243.
\342\200\224
function/(z)/(z
on [D]
\342\200\224
(w)
U\302\243
region [D]
5([Z)]l/\302\243(w))
The
105
IJcc,zw
hence
Jczvv
Since
y\302\243
(6)

w
Jc,zW
= eeie
27riJQz~w
and
y't
(0)
2t\302\253Jo
=
iee/e, we
get
2tt
y\302\243(0)w
J0
hence
2711
\302\2430
proving
Jc
Z
\342\200\224W
(2.57).
Formula
special case
Replacing
(2.57) is
called Cauchy's integralformula.
Formula
(1.34)
is a
of this result.
w
by
z and
z by
we
\302\243
get
2ni]ctz
Corollary.
If/(z) is holomorphicon Z)
and
continuous
on [D],
then the
106 Cauchy 's Theorem
derivative
mth
1,2,.. ., of f(z)
m =
f{m)(z\\
In
of/(z) at
an
integral
formula
d [D]
= Cr
isolated
this is
c.
If
'
>
(259)
(2.58) and Theorem1.17.
of the Laurent expansion
which
is nothing but Cauchy's
(1.58),
closed region [D] = {z:e
center
Cr and Ce are circles with
to (2.58) we have
for the
According
n
from
singularity
\342\200\224
where
C\302\243,
respectively.
and
we
1.4d
Section
given by
from
immediately
deduced
the existence
follows
result
The
D is
c = dm
/,m)(z)=^I(c^dc'
Proof.
on
f\302\256
f
'
jr
f
f\302\256
^
\\z\\
0 and
r}. (Indeed,
radius r and \302\243,
^
at
nothing but (1.58).)
Residues
the
an isolated
c is
point
holomorphic on a
neighborhood
removed,then/(z) can be
/(z)=
The coefficient
\302\243
n  oo
a.
of
x
in
expanded
a Laurent
i.e., if f(z) is
the point c has been
series (Theorem 1.22)
the residue
of/(z) at c and denoted
of/(z),
singularity
c from
of
which
an(zc)\\
(z
\342\200\224
c)\"l
is called
byResz_c[/(z)]:
Rcs,.c[/(z)]=
If
is
C\302\243
a circle
If c
c and radius e, where \302\243
is a
with center
positive number, we have
L
f(z) dz
by
=
sufficiently
small
(1.56)
= 2ni Res2=c
is a pole of the
(zcr/(z)
(2.60)
\302\253!
(2.61)
[/(z)].
mth
order
flm
+
of f(z)
we have
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
a_m+1(zc)+
+a1(zcT~1+
\342\226\240\342\200\242\342
hence
=
^l((zcr/W)
(ml)!fl_.+^ao(2c)+.
Therefore Res2=(.[/(z)]= a_i is given
Res2=c[/(z)]
=
\342\200\224Llim
\342\200\224
z+c
(m
lj!
by
^1
dz
((zc)y(z)).
(2.62)
2.3
In particular,if c isa poleof the
Resz .e
[/(z)] = lim

(z
Theorem 2.5 (ResidueTheorem).
on [Z>] \342\200\224
{cuc2*.
continuous
and
/(z) dz = lui
1c
Proo/:
put
Let
=
C\302\243
(c,)
5
on D
is holomorphic
the
with
isolated singularitiescuc2,. . . ,c,,...,cm
. . ,cm},
then
C =
[/(z)],
\302\243
[D]
[t/\302\243
(c,)].
(2.63)
c)f(z).
>i Res2^fj
be disks
U\302\243
(Cj)
we have
order,
If f(z)
number of
of a finite
exception
first
107
Theorem
Cauchy's
a [D].
with center c, and sufficiently
is a closed
t/\302\243
(cj)
(J7=!
8
\342\226\240
small
(2.64)
radius
e and
region and
.\302\243Cc
[[D]\" ,A ^^l=c
and
continuous
Furthermore, /(z) is holomorphicon D \342\200\224
y\"=
x [VE (Cj)~\\
on [D] \342\200\224 t Ue {c^. By Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem2.3)we get
(JJ=
^
f(z)dz = 0
I'CIjC.tc,)
hence
f
Therefore,
f(z)dz
\302\243f
/(z)\302\253fc.
(2.61)
by
I, c
=
f(z)dz = 2ni
= cT/(z)].
Res2
\302\243
j=i
on [D]and
Now, let /(z) be holomorphic
Under thesecircumstances,/(z)
has
at
Suppose
Proof:
f(z)
has an
most
a finite
#
0 for
zeC =
number of
5[D].
zeros in D.
Then the
Since/(z) is
point ce[D].
0, hence ceD. Since/(z) is
an e > 0 such that
# 0 for
/(z)
c is an accumulation point of
that
number
infinite
/(z)
of
zeros
in D.
collectionof zerosof/(z)has an accumulation
=
continuous on [D], we conclude/(c)
holomorphicon D, there exists
by
0<
the
\\z
\342\200\224
c\\ <
collection
e. This
of
contradicts the
zeros
(1.60)
fact
of f(z).
Theorem 2.6. Let cuc2,. . . ,ck be the zeros of/(z) in D and let mi
order of ci J = 1,2,... , k. If <f>(z) is an arbitrary holomorphic function
on [D], we have
be
the
of
z
108 Cauchy 's Theorem
f(z) =
where
g} (z)
r
(2.66)
(zCj)mJgj(z)9
is holomorphic
(z)
on which
a neighborhood
c, has
Each
Proof:
=
mj
and g}(z)
^
0 on that
Cjr>x9j w+(z 
(z 
Cir\302\273;
From
neighborhood.
w,
we have
/(z)9\"
and 3}(z)
Hence
c,
/' (z) 4> {z)/f{z)
equals mj(j){Cj)
\342\200\224
of
order
first
we have by
[ LQ<t>(z)dz=
/' (z) <f)
2ni
the residue
(if
{z)/f(z)
i
</>(Cj)
ofc,)
the
and
=
0
residue
holomorphic
theorem:
n
is
2.
a natural
D is
in
given by
,267)
sum
The
number)
is also
above
is a
we
{ci,c2,
\\rrij\\
=
of
the zeros
of f(z) in
if some
of the m, are negative
is a
c,
3.
If m,
integers.
D (where
=
\342\200\224
\\m}\\
pole of/(z) of the order \\mj\\.
have
If f(z) is holomorphicand not equal
\342\200\242
\342\200\242where
\342\200\242
,ck}9
c, e D is eithera zeroof orderm}
\342\200\224
then
(2.65) is valid without
change.
m; of/(z),
Corollary
\342\200\224
valid
integer, (2.66) tellsus that
negative
Therefore
of the nth powers
is given by
2m]cf(z)
jtri
The
at cj
on [D]
j>kIJf*Corollary
then
mj<t>(cj).
1. The number of zerosoff{z)
Corollary
selectedneighborhoodof cy
is holomorphic
on a neighborhood
is
Since /' (z) \342\200\242
by
(2.63).
0 (z)/f(z)
. . ,ck},
{ci,c2,.
on the
(z) is holomorphic
pole of
is a
\342\226\240
ft(zr\"
zc,
\342\200\242
<f> {z)/gj
to
zero
or
a pole
if N denotes the number of zerosoff(z)
In particular,
P =
number of poles of f(z) on D, then N \342\200\224
and
\302\243*=x nij
on
on [D]
of order
D and
hence
P the
2.3
d.
Evaluation
Cauchy's Theorem can beusedto evaluatecertaindefinite
functions of a real variable.*We give a few examples.
analytic
of
109
Theorem
integrals
definite
of
Cauchy's
integrals
Example 2.6
x
sin
r
standard exampletreatedin
D = {rew: e
7r;
the
then
=
3[D]
Since
e~ix)/2ix
we
on complex
books
most
led to
we are
analysis.
consider the function
eiz/z.
put
< r < /?,
< 6
0
the semicircle
be
CR
6 ^
\342\200\224
< n}.
2.35
Fig.
Let
\342\200\224.
2
Since (sinx)/x = (eix
0 < e < R
Choosing
0 ^
7i
=
x
is a
This
_
dx
6 >
representation
parameter
of the
boundary
closed region [D] is given
Rei69
by
+ [K,e]C\302\243.
0, K]+CR
on C \342\200\224
{0},
is holomorphic
eiz/z
with
we
have
by Cauchy's
Theorem
(Theorem 2.2)
Cr
J * x
x
Replacing
r
eix
\342\200\224
by
dzh
*
It
seems
of finding
known
Jrx
JcRz
\342\200\224
x
we
dx=\\
J
r
etx
\342\200\224dx\\
jz
=
\342\200\224dz
Jc z
0.
obtain
\342\200\224
JRX
re
eiz
\342\200\224
dx+
R
Je
that Cauchy first studied integrals
a uniform method of evaluating
at that time.
dx
\342\200\224dx=\\
X
functions with the purpose
number of real definite
integrals
of complex
a greater
Cauchy 's Theorem
110
hence
rr
re
eix
\342\200\224
dx
J\302\243
X
f
lim
ao
R
\342\200\224
dz =
JcR
0 + i
2
JCc
sin 6)
and dz = iReied6,we
have
eiRcos6RsinedO
i\\
*
\342\200\224dz.
e+0
(cos
eiz
f
lim
Z
= /teie =
Since z
dx.
*
*
to evaluate the limits
eiz
JCr
sjnx
\\
J
\342\200\224dz,
+
K
= 2i
X
J R
it suffices
Therefore,
r r
eix
\342\200\224
dx
+
Jo
hence
e12
f
I
dzg
\\JcRZ
f

Jo
eRsined6.
side of this inequality tends to 0 if
6 on the interval
oo. By replacing the variable 6 by n \342\200\224
[7c/2,7c] we
+
the righthand
that
show
will
We
R >
*
I
get
eRsindde= 2
sin 0/0
Since
and positive on [0,n/2],itsminimum
then sin 0 ^ //0, \\i
minimum
value,
is continuous
Let // denote this
also positive.
rn/2
f*/2
eRsmede^
Jo
r ^
lim
\342\200\224 =
R  + \302\253>
Jc*
z = ee,e
eet6
dz
= \342\200\224(lc^'^J^O,
fy
on CP
on
Ce we
dz
0.
have
e^ose^ismB)dQ
i\\
Jo
SinCC
+
k2l^kl
+ isin0)
e.\302\243(cosi9
lim
r
E+0 Jq
and
*,z
\342\200\224 =
dz
i
z
j.
+
r*
\\
Jo
therefore
f
+
c\302\260sinx
J
\342\200\224
Izl3
13y+
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
to 1 uniformly in
converges
I
\\z\\2
i2r
7r
*?\342\226\240
I dO
= in
=e2l0,
value
>
asz>0
6 if e > 0. Hence
is
0, and
as/?*+oo.
z
\342\200\224 =
Jq *
j
eRnedQ
Jo
Hence
Since
eR\342\204\242edO.
2.3
Theorem
Cauchy's
111
Example 2.7
cos (x2)dx=
Jo
These
are led to considerthe
e~1*2 we
= 4
(x2)dx
Fresners
called
are
integrals
sin
Jo
/.
V2
Since cos(x2) \342\200\224
i sin(x2)
integrals.
=
e~z*.
function
iy>
\\cR
[D]
/
1
4
0
=
[D]
represents
the
[D]
a
2.36
Fig.
of
R
J
re*:
Ogr^/?,O^0^i
closed
fanshaped
is given
shown in Fig.
region
2.36. The boundary
by
d[D] = [0,K] + CRL,
where
is given
CR
and L by the
Since e~z2
J 0
Since z =
parameter
is
holomorphic
rein,*9
= einl*
=
z2
/?\302\243?*,
dz =
Jo
R2 cos
20 +
dz ^
=
\302\243K2cos20
*\302\260P/2
2
Jo
RdQ
rr
=
ein/+
sin
iK2
=
L, we
on
dr
ein/4
e*2 dr
fn/4
I
^^
ir2 and
rr
dz
Jl
I f
=
z2
= 0.
e~z2dz
JL
JCR
e~z2
z =
Reie,
0^0
^ n/4,
parameter representation 0 \342\226\272
\342\226\272
r
r
/?.
reiw/4,0
^
!g
representation
on C, we have by Cauchy's Theorem
e~*2dx+ e~z2dz
p
Since
by the
K
Jo
and
20
fK/2
(cosr2
dz =
K2cos0
\302\243K2
i?
1
2
/?2/i
eR2sin6d6 <\342\200\242=
=
2/ty
have
 i sin
r2)dr.
iR^dO, we have
d0
\342\226\272
as
0,
/?>
+oo.
112
Cauchy 's Theorem
Since,
is
as
from
known
real analysis,
i sin r2)dr
(cosrz\342\200\224
=
e~*2
dx
=
e~x
dx
=
J0\302\260\302\260
\302\243
we have
y/n/2,
\342\200\224
'
2^2
and therefore
P + oo
cos(x2)dx
Jo
=
f+c
Jo
s\\n(x2)dx = j
/.
2.8
Example
cos x
, =
dx
n
\342\226\240
I
Let
i? >
1 and
[D] = {rew:O^r
^ R,0
\302\2436
^n}.
Fig. 2.37
Now, the
boundary of [D] is given
CR is given
of z
function
where
(z2 +
6 *Reie,
by the parameter representation
l)2
(zi)2(z +
on [D]
is holomorphic
by
\342\200\224
{/} and
S
Hence
by
& _WiF
the
residue
has a
pole of order two
d[
J=S3 & L(^o\"J=^\"'
theorem
\302\243n.The
i)2
at
is by (2.62)
.. d [(zi)2e\"~\\
0^0
e\"
(Theorem 2.5)
\"
e\"\302\273
i. The
residue at i
2A
=
Since z
\342\200\224
Rsind
piRcosO
(z2
\\(R2e2ie+
+ l)2
113
homology
have
Cp
'R we
on
Reie
and
Differentiability
i
pRsinO
l)2
^(R2!)2'
(K2l)2
Therefore
so
Jcc(x2 + l)
the
which
from
follows.
result
desired
Differentiability and homology
2.4
As
in connection
remarked
we
1.3 of
Definition
with
a holomor
a function
phic function, usually, in complexanalysis,
f(z) of a complex
z is called
on a region D if it is differentiate
variable
at each
holomorphic
of
In
we
will
that
D.
section
both
this
definitions
are
point
prove
equivalent,
the derivative/'
at each
i.e., that
(z) of a function/(z) differentiable
point of a
D
D.
is
continuouson
region
be differentiable
at each point of the region Z), and let
Let/(z)
=
K
< y,
a<x,b
{t + is:a g t ^ x, b S t S y}>
be a rectangle such that K a D, then we have
= 0.
f(z)dz
I
To
see
this,
put S(K)
S{K) =
will
prove
divide K
=
that
dz.
\\SKf{z)
['fit + ib)
We
(2.70)
dK
f(t
dt
['/(*
have
+ is) ids
f (a
iy)dt
+
S(K) =
+
We
(2?1)
+ is) ids.
0 by subdividingK into
smaller
rectangles.
First
into four congruent rectanglesK',K\", K'\", and K\"\", as shown in
it
of (2.71)
S(K\,") S{K'\,") and S(K\"\")in the form
writing
S(K'),
Fig. 2.38.By
is clear that
S{K) = S(K')+ S(K\")
Hence \\S(K)) ^ \\S(K')\\ +
least one rectangle, say,
\\S(K\\\")
K\"\\
+ S(K'\")
+ S(K\"\.
+ \\S(K'\\\")
among
+
\\S(K\"\\\.")
the rectangles
Therefore
there
K', K\", K'\", and
is at
K\"\"
114
's Theorem
Cauchy
isk
iy[
K\"
K\"\"
l
lj
\\\\
K\"
K'
\\\\\\
ib\\
2.38
Fig.
satisfying
We
Kt =
write
K'\" and next we
rectangles K\\, K'i, Ki\",and
and K'[\"thereis at
K'.'\".
one
least
subdivide
say, K'{ such
rectangle,
congruent
the rectangles K\\,
among
Again,
four
into
Kt
K'{, K'{',
that
S(/e,)l
^S(Jcv).
We write
K2 =
X','and X3, K4,...,
of rectangles
a sequence
obtain
K=>K1=>K2=>
and
defined
similarly.
So we
satisfying
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\200\242
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240
S S(KJ.
IS^,)!^
are
Km,
=>Km^>
Therefore
(2.72)
The length of the sideof Km parallel
the side parallel with the imaginary
=
isgivenby<5(Km)
=
{c}
have,
t Km.
f)\342\204\242=
(y
b)/2m
its diameter
and
that
of
S (Km)
Since,
exactly one
by
c
point
which
belongs
to all
Km:
assumption, f(z) is differentiate at c, we
(1.9),
by
+/' (c) (zc)+0(zc).
f(z) =f(c)
A
axis is
axis is (x \342\200\224
a)/2m9
\342\200\224
y[(x~a)2h(yfe)2]/2^hence5(Km)^0ifm>oo.
there exists
Therefore,
the real
with
direct
= 0.So
we
computation
based
on (2.71)
yields
have
S(/CJ=
f
f(z)dz=
f
0(zc)dz
jdK
(f(c)
+f
(c)) (z
 c)dz
2A
For each
e > 0, there
0(zc)
Choosing
115
homology
0 such that
(e) >
\302\243czc
ifzc<<5(e).
5 (Km)
< 5 (e) we have
that
such
m
a 5
exists
and
Differentiability
for
zeKm
\\zc\\\302\243S(Km)<d(e)9
hence
=ge\\zc\\gB6(Km).
\\0(zc)\\
Observingthat
of length (y 
two segments
=
S(*JI
segments of length
of two
consists
dKm
sd(K)l
ed(Km)l
0(zc)dz
 [
I
of
and
have
we
b)/2m,
(x \342\200\224
a)/2m
\302\273
\342\200\242\\2m
JdKm
/ =
where
2 (x
 a) + 2 (y

b).
this inequality
Combining
with
we
(2.72)
get
\\S(K)\\^eS(K)l
is an arbitrary
and since e
F (x
F(x+
F(x + iy)
a function
Define
is
iy)
+ iy) =
By (2.70) we have
S(K)
Therefore F(x + iy)
\342\200\224
F(x
F(x
Writing
+
is
=
i\302\273
+ iy)
= 0,
iy
0.
by
f(a +
+ i
is) ds.
with respect
hence by
f{t +
F(x + iy)=
x +
=
\\S(K)\\
to x and
+ iy).
+ iy)=/(x
F(x
dt
differentiable
partially
\342\200\224
z =
of
/(r + iy)
we conclude
number,
positive
also
ib)dt
+
partially
i/(x +
i
(2.71)
f(x
+ is)ds.
differentiable
with
respect
to
y and
i\302\273.
= U{x, y) + i V(x,y),
f(x
+ iy)
= u(x, y) +
iv(x,y),
we
have
Vx (x,
y) =
yx (x, y)=
Therefore, U(x, y)
with
respect
a holomorphic
Vy
(x,
y)
= u (x,
U, (x,
y)
and
V(x,
= v
y) are
y),
(x, y).
continuously
differentiable functions
SoF(z) is
and y satisfying the CauchyRiemannequations.
function in the sense of Definition 1.3by Theorem
1.4, and
to x
Cauchy 's
116
Theorem
is also
Therefore,/(z)
by
(1.11).
by
the corollary
given
treatments of complexanalysis
it is
We
proved
Cauchy's Theorem by
to prove
Theorem (Theorems 2.2 and
to
decomposition
for
a cell
the
case
T(K) (Lemmas
[f(z)dz+
the
Writing
JV(r(r,
and
of cells,
2.2and 2.3)from
0)) r, (t,
We proved (1.44)under
sense of Definition
1.3, i.e.,
first
we
assume
reduce
subdividing
K\"\"
and
by
Cauchy's
cellular
only
Cauchy's
f/(z)<fc = 0.
f(T
(b,
s))
r5 (6,
we
get
s) ds
(lf{r(a9s))ra{a9s)ds
by S(r(#Q),
(1.44) can be written
as
(2.73)
the
assumption
that
the derivative/'
that/(z)
is holomorphic
in the
(z) existsand is continuous.
we
that/'
(z) exists, but is not necessarilycontinuous,
Theorem
to (2.73) and proceed from
there
by
the rectangle
observing
1.14:
in Theorem
Jay
equality in explicitform
fJ
Theorem
= 0.
S(r(K))
If
it
(1.44)
equality
(f{z)dz
0) dt +
expression
reducing
Jyi
side of this
this
first
first
customary
and by next deducingCauchy's
[V(nt, D)r,(r, da
representing
by
2.3),
\\f(z)dz
lefthand
method.
Goursat's
Jby
Jy0
subdivision was
by repeated
proof
ingenious
In modern
by Goursat.
(1.3)
1.16.
to Theorem
Remark: The above
in the senseof Definition
holomorphic
K into four congruent rectanglesK\\
K\",
K\"\\ and
that
s (r(X)) = s (r(X'))+s (n/c\ + s {r(K'\+s (r(/c\"\)
of rectangles,
It is possible
to prove (2.73)by repeated subdivision
just as we
=
in
that we did not adopt this approach
The
reason
proved S (K) 0 above.
it is more
natural to assume not
this book is, as already stated earlier,that
we really
existence
but also continuity of the derivative/' (z)and that
only
wanted
to use the continuity of/' (z) in the proof.
3
Conformal mappings
3.1
Conformal
mappings
on a region D a C.
be a holomorphicfunction
defined
of
which
are
the
denoted
the letter
z,
points
by
complex
plane,
of which are denoted by the
the zplane and the complexplane,the points
becomes a mapping,assigning
to
letter w, the wplane. The function/then
Let
Letus callthe
each
w =/(z)
to the
z belonging
point
region D of the zplanea point
the
same
wplane. The complexfunction/isofcourse
a
if
to
call
but
it
is
one
wants
/,
customary
/ mapping
aspects of/
geometric
If S isan arbitrary
of S
under/
If
of D,
subset
is an
W
arbitrary
of the
w =/(z)
thing
to
as the
mapping
the
emphasize
= {/(z): z e S}is calledthe image
then/(S)
subset of the wplane,the set ofall points
called the inverse image of W and denoted
=
/1(^:/1(^
{zeD:/(z)G^}.If/(D)n^=0,then/1(^)isalso
If W is an open set, so is its inverse
set.
the empty
image.
To prove this, select an arbitrary point c ef~l (W).
Since
a holomorphic
function is continuous, there existsfor eache > 0 a S (e) > 0 satisfying
such
zeD
W is
that/(z)g
ifzc<*(4
/(Z)/(C)<6
Since/(c)e
W if
/(z)e
Wis
ffand
zc
open,
identically
accumulation
we can find
< 6(e), i.e.,UdiE)(c)
Theorem 3.1. Let/(z)bea
not
to
equal
point
by
czf~l(W),
function
holomorphic
zero,
a (sufficiently small) e such that
(W) is open.
Hence/\"1
then
region D, which is
on the
the set of
zeros of /(z)
has
no
in D.
Proof: Let D0 be the set of all points zeD suchthat/(z)
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
= 0 and let
= \342\200\242
(z) =
Dx be the set ofall points
=/(m)
isnot equal to
at least one of/(z),/'(z), . . . ,/(m)(z),...
D = D0uD1,
DonD, = 0.
(z),.. .
Since/(z),/'
,/(m)
(z),...
are all
holomorphic
=/'
(z) =
zeD
such
/\" (z)
that
0, then
functions of z (by
118 Conformalmappings
the
(z)
then/(m)
is
D0
also
/(*)=
eneighborhood
is open.
UE(c)
we
consider the power seriesexpansion
prove this,
To
open.
some ceD,
Ue (c) c Dof
0 for
(c) ^
if/(m)
small
a Dl9
then
ceDx
have that
all z in a sufficiently
^ 0 for
c. Hence,if
1.16), we
Theorem
to
corollary
i.e., Dt
<Uzc)\"
\302\243
\302\253=o
is valid on a certain neighborhoodl/\302\243
(c) cDofc
from
Since
we
conclude
that
(Theorem 1.16).
=/(n)
(c)/n! by (1.23)
ceD0
an
c
that Ue (c)
D0.
/(z) is identically equal to zeroon Ue (c), hence
D = D0 or
have
either
SinceD is a region(a connected
we
set),
open
0
D = Dx. If D = D0,the function/(z)is identically
on
D.
Sincewe
to
equal
D = Dx. Therefore, if c e Disa zeroof
excludedthis possibility,
we conclude
then
there
exists a natural number m such
that
# 0.
am =/(m)(c)/m!
f(z),
around
which
ceD,
Hence, by
have
we
(1.60)
if0<
f(z)*0
for
some
sufficiently
if c
Now
zc<\302\243
small e
> 0, i.e.,/(z)has
is an accumulationpoint of the
alsoa zeroof/(z),
the
contradicting
no
of zeros
set
above.
and g(z) be holomorphicfunctions
=
(1) If/(z)
g(z)for all z from some nonempty
Let/(z)
Corollary.
then/(z) =
(2)
on Ue (c) than c.
of/(z) in D, then c is
zeros
other
possibility that
C
is the
the
subset
open
D.
region
U of
D,
ze\302\243>.
for all z on some curve
= ^(z)
If f(z)
all
for
gr(z)
on
C
(we exclude
cz D
the
curve), then/(z) = g{z)for all
constant
zeD.
=
flf(z)} has no
contain
cannot
Let/(z)be
a
/(z)
identically equal to g(z) on D, the set {zeD:f(z)
accumulation points in D. Therefore,
{zeD:f(z)= g(z)}
an open set U or a curve C.
is not
If/(z)
Proof:
some subregion
on a region DcC, then
function
U
of
D.
subregions
(Suppose/(z)= a for all z in
nonconstant
holomorphic,
is nonconstant
on all
U of D, then/(z) = a for
all
by the
zeD
Further, for all ceD at leastone of the coefficients
appearing in the power seriesexpansionof/(z) around
ax,
above corollary.)
a2,...,
an9...
c
00
is not
equal to
0. (If ax
=
a2 =
an =
\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
=
0, then/(z)
= a0 for all z in
3.1
some eneighborhood
/(c) = 0 a zero
of c.) Just as we called a point c such that
call a point c suchthat/(c) = a an apoint
of
c D
(c)
UE
we will
of/(z),
/(z). The apoints of/(z) are just the
3.1 that if/(z) is not identically
Theorem
set of apointsof/(z)has
mth
order
a,
called an
c is
zeros
to a
equal
Therefore, we have by
on the region D, then the
in D. If c is a zeroofthe
= a.
of/(z)
accumulation
no
\342\200\224
of/(z)
119
mappings
Conformal
points
apoint of/(z) of the
In this
order.
mth
c takes
the form
power seriesexpansionof/(z) around
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+ am+l(zc)m+l+
\342\200\242, am * 0.
/(z) = a + am(zc)m
case, the
on the region D. If c e D
function
Let/(z) be a holomorphic
is such that/' (c) # 0, then there is a neighborhood1/cDofc, such that
from
a onetoone
W = /(t/)
is a neighborhood of a = /(c)and/is
mapping
Theorem 3.2.
1/ onto
inverse
The
W.
of/to
restriction/^
holomorphic on D
Expanding
f(z)
f(z)a =
Thereforez = c isa
ax
some
assumes
a
around
+ a2
the
of
sufficiently
g(z)#0ona
/(z)a #0
for
a
(zc)
zero
c in
\342\200\224
(zc?
first
a power
+
order
this
minimum
/(z)a^i>0
wplane
Fig.
(3D
series, we get
=/'(c)
fll
,
off(z)
\342\200\224
small neighborhood
if 0 < zc ^
a,
hence,
* 0.
by (1.59),
3.1
by
/i, we
(3.2)
function
continuous
(c)]
with
have, by (3.2),
for zeC.
of c. Therefore
\302\243
small e > 0. The
sufficiently
minimum on the circleC = d\\UE
Denoting
 
the
= (zc)g(z\\
f{z)a
with
of
(w)
and
*=/.\302\273\342\200\242
^/^Wy^O.
Proof:
z =fjl
w =f(z)+
mapping/J\"1:
(7 is
center
/(z)
c and
\342\200\224
a\\
radius e.
120
mappings
Conformal
W =
Putting
{w: w
>0
/(z)w
we have
< //},
a\\
if
we ff.
and
zeC
Put
m(w)
= J_
2m
I
J c
J\302\245L
\"*
By Corollary 1 of Theorem
f(z)
\342\200\224
i.e., the
w,
of wpoints of/(z)
number
Since
a constant,
obviously
we conclude
on
WaC
Since
Ue(c).
we
\342\200\224f(c\\
of
function
a holomorphic
is
of zeros of
the number
equals
m(w)
2.6,
1.17 that m(w)
by Theorem
a holomorphic
function
know
weW.
dz,

w
W.
on
which only assumes integer values
an apoint of the first order of/(z)
UE(C) by (3.2). Therefore, m(a) =
= m(a) = 1.
m(w)
has no
and/(z)
1
Therefore, there existsexactly
is constant
m (w)
that
W.
The
is
c is
point
other ^points than
c on
hence
and
one
on
zeUE
point
(c) such that
/(z) =
w.
Putting
=
U =f~l(lV)nU\302\243(c)
a neighborhood of c and the point
by z =fjl
(w). Since w(w)
represented
1/ is
IT}
/(z)e
(ze[/\302\243(c):
zeUE (c)
= 1 we
Theorem 2.6
/<r\302\273*bl
Therefore,/J\"*
is
(w)
and
sides
is
it
of
that
j^fj1
Ov)
3.3.
Theorem
f
=
\342\200\242/*(*)
be a
Letf(z)
(c) =f\"
that
/: z > w
=/(z)
Proof:
Let
f(z)a
w
on
W by
Theorem
1.17
vv
1,
zel/,
=/(z),
follows at once.
(c) =
holomorphic
\342\200\242
 
=/(m\"L)
Let e be a positiverealnumber,
such
of
function
a holomorphic
both
/ maps U onetooneonto W. Differentiating
=
the equality/J^l (f{z)) z, we get, by the chain rule (1.15),
clear
from which (3A)
ofc
\"^
/Ip^
'\342\200\242,W5,JC
such that/(z) = w can be
have by Corollary 2 of
then
(c)
there
function on Dand ceD such
= 0,
exists
/*\"> (c)
* 0, m
a neighborhood
is a neighborhood of a =/(c) and the
W\342\200\224
mto1 mapping of 1/\342\200\224
{a}.
{c} onto
W =f{U)
is an
= am(zc)m
^
+ am
+ l(zc)m
+
1+
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242,
*\342\200\236
mi
=^^
that
2.
U czUe(c)
mapping
* 0,
3.1
a around
power seriesexpansionof/(z) \342\200\224
f(z)a = (zc)mg(z)
be the
and
/(z)a#0
of
\\i
{w:
given
by
for
< //},
a 
w(w) =
C =
circle
the
on
a\\
\342\200\224
w
w
W^ the
e
\342\200\224
\342\200\224:
the proof
as in
\302\243.
Just
\342\200\224
\\f(z)
W=
of c. Hence
ifO<zc^\302\243
small
a sufficiently
for
have by (1.59)
c. We
small neighborhood
sufficiently
g(z)^0ona
121
mappings
Conformal
of Theorem 3.2,the
is
3[l/\302\243(c)]
number
and
positive
of wpoints
minimum
putting
of/(z) in UE
is
(c)
dz,
2*nJc/(z)w
independent of w.
c is an apoint of the mth
point
hence is
The
otherapointsof/(z)
in
=
m(w)
So, for w g
chosensufficiently
first
f'(c) =
small
Owe have
m(a)
and
= m
by (3.2) there
are no
hence
weW.
that e has been
wpoints in UE (c). Assuming
and w ^ a, these m wpoints
are all wpoints of the
are m different wpoints of/(z) in UE (c). For, since
are m
W^ there
hence
order,
of/(z)
Therefore,
UE(c).
= m,
m(a)
order
there
(1.60).
by
if0<zc<e,
/'(z)*0
henceif z e Ue
(c)
and
=
/(z)
w
#
a, then
/' (z) ^ 0. Therefore,
putting
U=f1(W)nUe(c)^{zeUE(c):f(z)eW}
we see that
each we
U
c
is a
UE(c)
l
W\342\200\224
(w) consists
{d\\Jv
between U \342\200\224
and
{c}
on a
toone
is a
If/(z)
of
m
points.
such
that
Hence/is
Wand
f(U)=
an mto1
for
mapping
IV\342\200\224
{a}.
on D and the map/: z>w=f(z)
of
ceD, then/'(c)^ 0.
neighborhood
Uf(z)
Corollary.
of c
neighborhood
is holomorphic
function
holomorphic
of z on a regionD,then,
by
Theorems
is one
3.2
such
c e D a neighborhood
t/cDofc
there existsfor eachpoint
=
<= D
V
if
a
the
is
a
of
/(c).Therefore,
=/(l/)
point
neighborhood
which
is open,/(^)
<z/(D) is open too.A mapping
maps open sets onto
and 3.3,
that
W
open sets is calledan
We conclude:
Furthermore,/(D)
two disjoint
D=/1(^1)u/\"1(^2),
open
mapping.
mappings are open mappings.
region in the wplane. To seethis,
Holomorphic
is a
open subsets of /(D)
such
f~l(lVl)nfl(lV2)
that
f(D)
= 0,
let
Wx and
\342\200\224WxkjW2.
andr1^)
W2 be
Then
and
122 Conformal
mappings
both
are
f~l(W2)
open subsets
nonempty
of D, contradictingthe
D.
of
connectedness
^ 0 for
holomorphic function on the regionD such that/'(z)
= f(z). Let y: t > y(t\\ 0 ^ t <* 1, be
zeD and considerthe mapping/:
z>w
a smooth curve in Dand put k (t) = f(y (t)). By the chain rule (Theorem1.12),
is a continuously
difFerentiable function of t and since f'{y(t)) ^ 0 by
k(t)
we
have
assumption,
be a
Let/(z)
(3.3)
A/(0=//(y(0)/(0^0,
is a smooth curve in the wplane. Since
the
k{t)
image of the curve y: k =f(y).
\302\273
0 \302\243
r \302\243
Let yx: f \342\226\272
curves such that
1, be smooth
y2(r),
yx (r), y2: r
c = Vi(0)= 72(0).
We
defined
the angle 0 between yx and
y2 at c as the
k: t > w
Therefore,
=
A(f)
k is
curve
\342\200\224f(y(t)\\ the
argument of y'2(0)//i(0)>
ie>
y2(Q)
72(0)
/i(0)
y'i(0)
The mapping/: z * w
kx
r
=/(y1):
initial point
\342\226\272
kt (t)
a =/(c).
*i(0)
A'i
(0)
maps
=/(z)
and
By
the curves
A2 = /(y2):
yx
>
\302\243
A2(f),
and
0 ^
y2 onto
r
^
curves
common
smooth
1, with
(3.3)
= y'a(0)
y\\<P)
between the curveskx and k2 at a = ^ (0)= A2 (0) equals
is
the angle 6 between the curves yx and yi at c. We conclude that
if /(z)
curvesat
0
two
then
the
between
angle
and/' (z) ^ everywhere,
holomorphic
therefore
the angle
a point of intersectionis invariant
A
mapping
preserving
angles
under
the
of intersection
mapping/:
z>w
=/(z).
of
at points of intersection
3.1
called a
curves is
two
mapping also
of conformal
definition
Let/(z) be a continuousfunction
plane.
f(z) = f(x +
We assume that
of x and y.
curve
a
point
f(y(t))
Assuming that at
y
r
/(y):
f(y)
is
if
\302\273
w
=
=
uxp'(t)
is
initial
t
+ i(vxp(t)
+ uyG'(t)
ux{x, y) uy(x, y)
smooth
are
point
1, in the
^
we
an
called
mapping/is
pair of
arbitrary
+
(3.4)
vyGf(t)).
*0
curves
= y'(r)
ia'(r)
initial
at c if 3(m,
conformal
smooth curves y
Y
and
v)/d(x,
D
y2 in
^ 0, i.e.,thecurve
point
with
y) ^
called
If/(z)
holomorphic
f (z) =
ux
(x,
y) + ivx
(x,
>>)
=
vy (x,
from
deduce
y)
iwy
(x,
angle
c and if for
initial
common
equals
function of z, we
c, the
0 at
the angle
angle between/^) and/(y2) at a =f(c)
y2 at c. If/is conformal at each point ofits domain,/is
is a
Therefore,
a =/(y(0)).
point
common
with
c the
and
wplane with
get
betweenf{yx)and/(y2) at a =/(c) is welldefined.
The
ceD
y(0) =
c
v)
y2
x + iy.
differentiable
continuously
vx(x,y)vy(x,y)
+
^ 0 at t = 0 sincep'(r)
df(y{t))/dt
in a neighborhood of its initial
smooth
and
yt
z =
y\\
1, in D with
0 ^
/(y(0),
t ^
0 ^
(f),
part yields
z^xv
5(x,y)
have
more
region D in the z
on the
z defined
=/(c). Writing y{t) = p(f) + i<7(f),
= u(p(t\\c(t)) + iv(p(t\\c(t))
:f(y(t))
dtJ
we
the
that
somewhat
a
continuously differentiable functions
= /(z). The mapping/mapsthe
y) are
v(x,
and rememberingthat/(y(f))
d(\",
iv(x9
mapping/:
+z =
y:t
+
w(x, y)
and
the
smooth
the
iy)
u(x, y)
Consider
curve
smooth
=
of
and imaginary
real
its
into
Splitting/(z)
initial
makes sensein
situation.
general
onto
to show
we want
Next
mapping.
conformal
123
mappings
Conformal
point
between
yx
conformal.
equation
(1.11),
y\\
that
3(ii,
\302\273)
5(x,y)
Therefore,
ux{x,
y) uy(x9y)
vx(x,y)vy(x,y)
= LTMI2.
(3.5)
is holomorphic
on the region D in the zplaneand/' (z) ^ 0
the
then
zeD,
mapping z>w=/(z) is a conformal
mapping.
is a conformal mapping definedon the region
Conversely,
if/: z > w =/(z)
is holomorphic on D and/'(z) # 0 for zeD.
D, then/(z)
from
D. Choose e > 0 such that
To see this, let z be an arbitrary
point
=
z
and
0
r
+
tew,
^
^ e, for arbitrary real 0.
put
[V*(Z)]CD
ye(t)
if/(z)
for
124
mappings
Conformal
z and the angle betweeny0
initial
point
0.
Put
Then
equals
ke{t)=f(ye(t)).
k9\\ t > Ae(r), 0 ^ r ^ e, is a
smooth curve in the wplanewith initial point w =/(z) and A0 =/(y0)
and
and
conformal, the angle between
^e =/(ye) Since/is
A0
Xe, i.e., the
of X'0 (0) as a
the
argument of k'e (0)/Ao (0), is equal to 0. Writing
argument
ye is
Obviously
a smooth curve with
y0 at z
and
we have
=
eii6+\302\260)re(0)
By (3.4) we
(3.6)
\\X'e(0)\\>0.
have
0+
= ux cos
k'e (0)
= {ux +
cos 0 +
0 41(0,
sin
uy
it;x)cos 0 + {uy
+
ii^y )sin
sin
vy
0)
0 +fy
0 =fxcos
sin
0,
hence
=
We (0)

ify)eie +
(\302\243
w
(\302\243
+1*)*\"
by (3.6)
Therefore,
=
2A;(0).
(/,i/,)^\"l\" + (/, + ^\"2li\"1\"
is a real variable
real
takes
+ if,
in
of
respect
0 we
get
=
^W(O)
this
the righthand side only
and since
equality
we conclude
values,
fx
with
+ iX)\302\253\"2l0'fa
2i(/,
Since 0
sides
both
Differentiating
=
<K
hence
+ i(vx
uxvy
Since
z =
x + iy
is
an
+
Uy)
=
0.
of D, we
point
arbitrary
see that
satisfy the CauchyRiemannequationson D.Hence/(z)
is a holomorphic
function of z = x + iy on D by Theorem
by
such
Consider
3,1.
that
^ 2),
m
the function
holomorphic
. =/(D(0) = 0, /(m)(0)
= mzm ~l ^ 0 if z ^ 0.Tofind
is, to find all mth roots of w,
=
u (x,
v(x, y)
y) +
iv(x9
1.4 and/'(z)
y)
=0
(3.5).
Example
=
y) and
u{x,
=
. .
\\w\\eiw
we get
,
r=w1/m,
=
all
we
=
/\342\200\242\"\342\200\242
w
.1/*,
and
w
= zm (m
=/(z)
a natural number
on the zplane.Obviously,
if z^0
m! ^ 0, f(z) #0
zm =
z satisfying
put
w =
m0 =
\302\260> 2/C7C
a>
\342\200\236
.
0 = \342\200\224
+
m
m
w
 eico
+ 2/c7r,
/c
w
for
a certain
and
z =
an
integer.
f(0)
=/'(0)
and /'(z)
w #
0 that
rew. From rmeim0
Hence
Conformal mappings 125
3.1
Therefore
=
z
there are
that
conclude
We
p =
p*Vv1/'Va,/m,
Since/'(z) # 0 for z #
the
from
region
0,/:
m
different
z
\342\226\272
w =
zm
the
with
rays
initial
not conformal at 0.
and/is
more detail.
the
^
r
ray
vv
x =
Put
u =
(a2
the mapping/,
iy * w
+
circle
with
0 and
radius
=
m under
rew, 0
/\342\200\242\"\342\226\240
< +
= 2, /: z = x
center
r +
oo.
^ r < oo, of the
Hence the angle
\342\226\272
z =
=
center
r2
of
=
+
w
0 and
the
z2 in
it? =
radius r of
wplane
and the
te210.
zplane
Fig.
minus {0}).
point 0 is multipliedby
with
circle
(3.7)
roots z of w ^ 0, given by (3.7).
an mtoone conformalmapping
ray r
the
maps
= relme, 0
The mapping/maps the
the zplaneonto the
ray r + z = rew onto
1.
. . , m
1, 2,.
(i.e., the zplane minus {0})onto the
case m
the
examine
now
We
= 0,
(i.e., the wplane
The mapping/:z>w =
t > w
ray:
zplane onto
betweentwo
mth
zm is
{z:0<z<+oo}
{w:0<w<+oo}
region
/c
e2ni/m,
wplane
3.3
a
t*
0.
\342\200\224
and
v = 2xy, we get y =
x2 \342\200\224
y2
=
runs
the line x
a, which
parallel
u =
Since
Therefore
v2)/ya2.
r/2a
to
and
the
u. Similarly,/
imaginary axis in the zplane, is mapped onto the parabola
=
runs parallel to the real axisin the zplane,
b # 0, which
maps the line y
onto
the parabola
exceptat z = 0,
u
these
=
v2/4b2
two
\342\200\224
of
of
kinds
orthogonally.Furthermore,/maps
the
the
nonpositive
axis on the
part
{u: u ^
the
b2
0} of the
nonnegativepart {u:u
^
wplane.
parabolas
imaginary
axis
real axisof the
0} of
Since /
intersect
the real
of the
is conformal
each other
.zplane onto
wplane
axis of the
and
the real
wplane.
126
mappings
Conformal
iy\\
l
*
wplane
zplane
Fig. 3.4
Each of the equationsx2are
defines
constants,
x2
hyperbola
y2
hyperbola
ft
=
a ^
0 and
2xy =
onto
line
v = /?
of the
0, where
a and
/?
wplane.
wplane
3.5
In complex analysis an important roleis played
ontoanother
which map a certain regiononetoone
a
a conformal mapping which
region D onto
maps
a conformal
^
the
the
zplane
Fig.
j?
a hyperbola in the zplane.The mapping/maps
and
a ^ 0 onto the line u = a of
the
wplane
the
\342\200\224
=
2xy =
y2
mapping that
conformal
by
region.
From
a regionE will
maps D onetooneonto
\302\243.
mappings
now on,
always
be
3.1
(1) Iff: z>w =/(z)maps
the region\302\243
of the
wplane
conformally,
Theorem 3.4.
z =f~l(w)
w>
region
then the
D of the zplane onto
inverse mapping:/'1:
D conformally.
\302\243
onto
maps
the
127
mappings
Conformal
=
such a mapping / and if g: w \342\226\272
is a conformal
\302\243 g(w)
D
from
il
of
onto
the
the
the composite
then
mapping
region
\302\243plane,
=
is a conformal mapping from
D onto
\302\2431
mapping g of: z > \302\243 #(/(z))
(2) Given
(1) Since/(z)
Proof.
w >
mapping/\"l:
is holomorphic on D and/'(z) f
z =/\" ^w) is holomorphic
on \302\243
and
Theorem 3.2. Hence/\"1is a conformalmapping
functions
(2) By the chain rule for holomorphic
function g(f(z)) is holomorphic on D and
onto
onetoone
the
Therefore,
gof
mapping
z+\302\243
0on
D,
d/~
# 0 by
and D.
1.6)
(Theorem
=
g(f(z)),
inverse
1(w)/Av
E
between
the
which
maps
the
E
is conformal.
\302\2431,
two different
maps
holomorphic function on a regionD,which
if zu z2eD and zx # z2 then
(i.e.,
points of D onto different
points
univalent
on
D. If f:z>w
is
called
then
/(z)
=/(z) is a
f(zt) ^/(z2)),
D
conformal mapping which
the
of
onto
the
then,
maps
region
region \302\243,
the following
result.
course, D is univalent. Conversely,we have
If/(z)
is a
If /(z) is a univalent
Theorem 3.5.
then/: z > w
oneonD
by
mapping
which
assumption,/'(z)
maps
on some
defined
If w =/(z)
is a
inverse function
phic,
we
conclude
0 at
region is a
region D,
f(D)
all points
region. Since/is onetozeD, hence/isa conformal
is a
\302\243.
function
univalent
of a
univalent
holomorphic
function
function.
holomorphic
holomorphic function defined
on
a region,
such that its
holomorphic, then/(z) is called
the function
/(z), defined on the region D, is biholomor= 1:
from the equality/\"l(f{z))
z =f~l{w)
If
biholomorphic.
D onto
inverse
The
Corollary.
^
=
\302\243
that
on a
onto the region \302\243
=/(D).
D conformally
already shown
We have
Proof:
maps
=/(z)
function
holomorphic
^/\"1(w)/'(z)=l,
exists
and is
w=f(z).
128
mappings
Conformal
^ 0,
Therefore/'(z)
hence/:
maps D onto the region
conformalmappingwhich
z * w
=f(z)
is a
conformal
iff:
Conversely,
E=f(D).
mapping which
is a
z>w=f(z)
the region \302\243,
is
then/(z)
functions
are
3.4(1).
Biholomorphic
biholomorphic
obviously
univalent
and we have by the above corollarythat a univalent
holomorphic
function is biholomorphic.
The disk with center 0 and radius 1 in the complexplane is calledthe unit
disk.
disk
itself are of
Conformal
onto
that map the unit
mappings
fundamental importance.For aeC such that 0 < a < 1 we put a* = 1/a
= a/a2.The points a and a* are on the same ray with initial point 0 and
a* = l/a > 1.Put
maps
the
region
D onto
by Theorem
Fig.
3.6
The function/(z)
z = 1,then z/a
and therefore
that
/(z)
=
\\z\\
is,
{zeC:
1.21),
\\f(z)\\
is holomorphic on the zplanewith
= a*/z
hence the triangles zaO
the
and
exception
a*z0
1}.
1
If
are similar
Therefore, \\f(z)\\ = 1 for all points z on the unit circle
Hence by the maximum principle (corollary to Theorem
if \\z\\ < 1. This can also be verified
directly:
= 1.
<
of a*.
iMPi,?*''*
_
az) (1
(1 \342\200\224
lzzaa
(lza)(laz)
\342\200\224
az)
+ azaz_
(1 
a2)(1laz2
\\z\\2)
Conformal mappings 129
3.1
> 0 by assumption,
if
a2
/(z) < 1 if \\z\\ < 1. Conversely,
we
solve
/(z) < 1 then \\z\\ < 1. In order to find the inverse function
of/(z)
= w for some arbitrary w. From/(z) = w we get (1 \342\200\224
the equation/(z)
az) w
= z \342\200\224
= z \342\200\224
= w.
if (1 \342\200\224
a and,
1 \342\200\224
az ^ 0 and/(z)
a, then
az) w
conversely,
\342\200\224
1
as
and
a = 0, hence 0=1\342\200\224 az=l\342\200\224 aa
az = 0, then z \342\200\224
and
so a 2
(For if 1 \342\200\224
= 1, contradictingour assumption.)
in order
to solve the
Therefore,
= z \342\200\224
a.
az) w
equation/(z) = w it suffices to solve the linear equation (1\342\200\224
is equivalent to
This
equation
(1 +aw)z = w + a.
1 + aw ^ 0 the solutionof this
If
w
z =
~*
1 haw
our assumption.
0= 1+ aw
Therefore, the inverse function
w +
a =
0, hence
(w)= t1 +aw
, 
z=f
region {weC: w
< 1;
/(z)
disk
^
we
maps
= ^,
a onto
the unit
0,
3.6.
can
contradicting
is given by
\\z\\
<
z +w
{zeC.z^a*}
<
\\f(z)\\
disk
w
{weC:
disk {zeC:
=/>)
the
unit
be represented
/: z^
w
=^,
1 haw
conformal
All
z < 1} onto
{zeC:
a2,
1 if
\\z\\ <
\\z\\ <
{zed
1
=f{z)
onto the
and z < 1
1} onto
the
unit
of the function/(z)to the
< 1}.
1} 0:/(a)
(3.8)
The conformalmapping/
= 0. The inverse mapping
by
/i:w^z
Theorem
disk
unit
w =f(z)
z<l,
az
I \342\200\224
onto the
of / is given
onto
unit
the domain
Restricting
conformal
the
get
mapping
maps
of
\342\200\224
{\342\200\224
a*},/:
region
above,
the
therefore/maps
/:z.w=/(z)
which
the
{weC:w<l}.
former
1
minus
wplane
seen
As
\342\200\224a*}.
=
w#a*.
,
Since/\"x(w) is holomorphicon the
is a conformal mapping which
maps
if
by
+ a
~
= 0, then
If 1 + aw
is given
equation
=/(z)
=
mappings
disk
{weC:
w<l.
(3.9)
disk
map the unit
<
w
1} and the point a, a
which
< 1,
as
e10^^,
1 \342\200\224
az
OeM.
(3.10)
eiew is a rotation throughan angle 0, and therefore leaves
the unit disk unchanged.
Hence,
by the above result it is clear that the
which
the unit disk onto itself.
isa
conformal
mapping
maps
mapping (3.10)
The
mapping
w +
130 Conformalmappings
is an
converse
The
of the following lemma.
easy consequence
Sckwarz'sLemma.If/(z) isa holomorphic
{zeC:
<
\\z\\
z
for all
1
^
\\f(z)\\
with
\\z\\
<
1,
= 0,
(2)/(0)
(3.H)
\\f(z)\\\302\243\\*\\,
1.
^
l/'(0)
Unless
disk
the unit
1} satisfying:
(1)
then
on
defined
function
(3A2)
f(z) = cz,
constant
c a
with
satisfying
=
\\c\\
1,
we have
< 1.
l/'(0)
Proof.
By
Since a0
=
\\g{z)\\
[Ur(0)]
can
(1.16),/(z)
alz +
a0 +
=/(0) = 0 we
a2z2+
\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\200\242
,z
ff(z) =
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+a2z+
ax
+
+anzn\"1
(3.11) it suffices to prove that
(z) is holomorphicfor z < 1.To prove
of  g(z)\\ on the closeddisk
^ 1 for z < 1.Let M(r)bethe maximum
=
<
maximum
<
r
1.
the
0
principle
By
(corollary to
{z: z ^ r},
Itf
[t/r(0)]
such
that
1/r and
g(z)^l/r
<
of
circumference
!/W
=
Ml
M(r) ^
Hence
\\z\\
< 1.
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
+anzn
Theorem 1.21),there is a point z on the
= M (r).
\\g(z)\\
By condition (1)
If
into a power series
be expanded
have
= zg(z),
f(z)
and 0
(3.14)
Theorem
f(z)
(3.13)
if0<z<l,
\\f(z)\\<\\z\\
1, then
ifz\302\243r<l.
for some r
1/r
^
\\g(z)\\
#(z) ^ lim^^ol/r = 1,
satisfying
\\z\\
g
r <
1, therefore
(3.11).
Since /'(0)
hence
ifz<l.
0(Z)^1
Since f(z) = zg(z\\we
= S(O)we have /'(0)
The function
^
\\g(z)l
the
c
maximum
g
1 and
=
\\g(0)\\
<
\302\243
z if
<
\\c\\
\302\243
1,
=
1. So
Ux
<
{z: z < 1}and
unless
is
#(z) a constant, by
(0)
disk
unit
on
\\g(z)\\
proving
(3.12).
on the
Therefore
1 unless
z
1, proving
assume a maximum
principle.
\\g(z)\\
\\f(z)\\
is holomorphic
g(z)
1, does not
have
1. If
Ut(0)
gr(z) =
we have
=
c, a constant,then
proved that
\\g(z)\\
< 1
3.1
if
\\z\\
g(z) =
1 unless
<
and (3.14)follow
c
satisfying
mappings which
onto 0 are represented
by
and 0
Proof: Let/: z>w =f(z) bea conformal
onto
itself and the point 0 onto0.Since/(z)
disk
/(z) < 1 on the unit
Similarly, I/_1(w) ^
=
that is, \\f(z)
satisfying

131
1, whence
(3.13)
=
\\c\\
for
itself
onto
disk
\\z\\
by
unit
satisfies
is holomorphicand
/(z) ^
1. Therefore
^
w
maps the
which
mapping
have
we
disk,
w
map the unit
R.
0e
= eiez,
z>w
\\z\\
mappings
directly.
All conformal
Corollary.
constant
c a
with
Conformal
Lemma.
Schwarz's
\\ri(f{z))\\^\\f(z)\\^\\zi
=
\\z\\.
=
\\c\\
by Schwarz's
Hence,
Lemmaf(z)
= cz
with
c a
constant
1.
Let/: z>w =f{z)bea
Proof of Theorem 3.6:
disk
onto
maps the unit
conformal
which
mapping
itself.
Putting
g{z) =
we
have
the
unit
\342\200\224
OLZ
z > w = g(z) is a conformal mapping which
is given
disk onto itself, the inverse of which
by
that g:
proved
The composite
conformal
= g
l:w>z
g
that
= a
the
above
w
f(z) =
itself
can
be
= 0 we
^V
g(z) we
get
have
<f>(w)
onto
disk
unit
#(0)
=
is
=f(g~l(w))
a
by Theorem 3.4(2).
0. Hence
itself
6>eR,
corollary.
Substituting
Theorem 3.7.
vv+
=f\302\260g~1:
=
</>(w)
.
the
maps
maps
1 haw
<f>
and /(a)
/(s\"1(w)) =
=
*(w
mapping
mapping
Sinceg~l(0)
by
oL=f\\0\\
^1
=
e\302\273g(z)
All
=
eu>'^.
conformal
represented
w =f(z)
/: z \302\273
mappings
that
map the
complex planeC onto
as
= az
+ /},
a, /J
constants
a ^
0.
132
Conformal mappings
Proof: Letz>w =f(z) bea
onto the wplane, then /(z) is
z =/_1(vv) is an entire
conformal
functions.
transcendental
or
polynomials
there existsa sequence
{zn}

limn
m
zn
and its inverse
are either
is transcendental, then
Suppose/(z)
that
such
functions
Entire
w.
of
the zplane
maps
of z
function
entire
an
function
which
mapping
=
oo and
_>
limn
= 0.
^/(zj
From limn^ODf(zn)
0 we get limn^00zn = \\imn^f\\f{zn)) =/\"1(0)
is a contradiction
oo. This
and, hence,/(z) is a polynomial
=\302\243
* * '
=
+ amzm,
am * 0.
/(z)
fl0 + 0i* + 02*2+
=
By assumption f(z)
0
^
by the
all z, but
for
Fundamental Theoremof
Algebra, the equation
f(z) =
if
has roots
m
The
3.2
a.
+
fli
Riemann
Euclideanspace
identify the
real
that
=
with
is, S
=
center
=
{\302\243
0 and
({lf
coordinate plane\302\2433
=
line
(fi,
=
(x, y,
where
at ^
0.
radius 1in threedimensional
{} +
\302\2432,
f3)eR3:
0 in
the
with
IR3
=
+ {\302\247
\302\243
complex
1}.
plane,
R:
the
\302\2432,
fa)
coordinate
#
plane
Fig.
3.7
product of the
complexplane C and the
north pole and is
the
R. The point (0,0,1)ofSiscalled
\342\200\224
south
is
called the
(0,0,
1)
pole. For every point
point
the
{ intersects
(0,0, 1) of S, the line through N and
C x
=
IR3
0).
the direct
IR3 becomes
way
denoted by JV,
\302\243
+ axz,
we put
z = x + iy
In this
1 and/(z) = a0
sphere
sphere
R3,
that is,
m=
sphere
The Riemann
Let S be the
Let us
+mamzm1
2. Therefore,
^
= 0
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
2a2z+
= 0
\302\2433
in exactly
one point z =
(x,
y9
0).
3.2
The Riemann
sphere 133
From
=
x:y:l
we
{.:cj2:{3l
get
*=
y
;\342\200\224\342\200\224
1\"\302\2533
=
l\302\2533
Hence
<315)
'Vt1 1 \342\200\224
S3
The
mapping
is called
the
a
gives
possible
associating
{ # N
point
of S the point z =
(x,
y,
0)
{ >z
stereographic projection. The stereographicprojection
\342\200\224
=
onetoone
x + iy it is
mapping from S {TV} onto C. Given z
and
to solve (3.15) and find
From
\302\2432,
fi,
4V
+
\302\243i
z2=
4i
+ {3
_i
i\302\253i
(l~^3)2
(1~\302\2433)2
we
each
with
1\"\302\2533
get
,
i*i2i
(3.16)
C3\"izi2+r
Further
=
+ \302\253{2
\302\253.
z(l

*>
lz
C3,~z2+ 1'
hence
2x
*2.*l2+l
(3.17)
stereographic projection there is a onetoone
z =
between
the points
the
{ ^ N of the sphere S and
mapping
points
of the
z can
be
(\302\2431
+^2)/(l
\342\200\224{3)
complex
plane C, the complex number
^ N of the sphere S. Thereis no
by its corresponding point \302\243
represented
with
the north pole. As is clear from
the
corresponding
complexnumber
above
from
and
we
and
have
as
{>JV
(3.16)
(3.17)
z> +00.
figure
a point
with
Therefore, we extendthe complex.plane
00, called the point at
which
with N. C u {00}is calledthe extended
infinity,
complex
corresponds
are
used to represent
the points of
plane. The sphere S, the points of which
C to
or the Riemann sphere. If we extend
C, is calledthe complex
sphere
become the extended complexplaneC u {00},
we
also
extend
the lines / of C
/
to becomelines/ u {00} of the extended complexplane.Theplane through
and N intersects S in a circle.Hencethe lines
/ u {00} are represented by
Since
by
means
of the
134 Conformalmappings
circles
N
and
= (0,0,1)
N of
with
sphere S. By
the Riemann
S
the
with
the
neighborhoods
through this
plane Cu{oo}
neighborhood of N on S is
t;
\302\2433)
extended
sequences,
point
For
S.
the
extended
the
for
point
+ /\302\2432)/(l
(\302\2431
of
limits
with
identification
defined
z =
S is identifiedwith
at infinity,
point
the
identifying
number
complex
Notions such as
Cu{oo}.
of a point and so on aredefined
plane
complex
on
N
through
= (<*!,\302\2432,\302\2433)^
complex
example,
an e
by
^ + (\302\2433l)2<e2}.
{\302\243:^
AT, we
have,
by (3.16) and (3.17),
+
If { *
fl+a+K,i>,jjj^T
and since 4/(z2+ 1)< e2
is
to
equivalent
>
\\z\\2
(4
\342\200\224
e2)/e2
we
find,
putting
UR(oo) =
{zeC:\\z\\>R}u{oo},
that
{ZeS:
ZI +
Therefore
p(e)>
+00
ZI +
({3 
zn
=
00. For
{zn}
sequence
is
00
suppose e > 0
in
be
=
p(e)
U,(\302\243)(oo),
an eneighborhood of
if e> + 0.
Now, consider a
lim,.^
=
< s2}
l)2
given
C.
given,
by
y/(4E2)/E.
l/p(\302\243)(oo).
If lim,.^
then
\\zn\\
there
=
exists
Obviously,
+ 00
then
a natural
> n0{e).
number n0(e)suchthat zj > p(e)ifn > n0(e),i.e.,znEl7p(\302\243)(oo)ifn
C
is
on
c
e
a
a
of
function
minus
defined
Similarly,
if/(z)
neighborhood
{c}
= + 00, then
such that limz_*c/(z)
e
for
limz^c/(z) = 00.Because,
every
> 0, there exists a S{e)such that
>
<
if
0
\\z
/(z)
p(e), i.e.,/(z)e C/p(\302\243)(oo),
\342\200\224
c \\ < r and c is a pole of/(z),
is holomorphic for 0 < \\z \342\200\224
c\\ < 5(e). If/(z)
= + 00, hence lim2c/(z) = 00. We
then
now
the
define
/(z)
limz_*c
=
c by
value of f(z) at z
f(c)
=
00.
lim/(z)=
Thereby z */(z) becomesa continuous
l/r(c) of c into S. However,/(z)is not
function which
a ^ 0, then
a
assumes
 = lim
0
zoz
the
a = 00,
value
a
#
considered
00 at
0.
from
mapping
c. If we
to be
put/(z)
the neighborhood
continuous at c as a
=
a/z, a
a constant,
3.2
b.
Holomorphic
Let
D be
a region in
C such that
let /(z) be a function
defined
every e > 0 there existsan R(e)
> 0,
R0
for
<
/(z)fl
\\z\\ >
\302\243
if
135
singularity at oo
\\z\\ > R0} c D for
some
an isolated
with
functions
The Riemann sphere
{zeC:
and let
on D,
a bea complexnumber.
If
R0 such that
^
if zeUm(co\\
R{e), i.e.,
then we say that the limit of/(z) for z tending to oo equals a. This is written:
lim^oo f(z) = a or /(z) >a as z > oo. Iff(z) is defined on Du {oo}and
= /(oo), then/(z) is saidto becontinuous
lim z_* \342\200\236
at oo. If/(z)
is defined
/(z)
=
D
and continuous on and if limz^00/(z)
a, then f(z) can be extendedto a
on
function
continuous
by putting /(oo) = a. Let/(z) be a
Du(oo)
function
defined on {zeC: z > /?} = t/R(oo)
nonconstant
holomorphic
\342\200\224
=
z \302\273
R > 0. Putting z
z is a biholomorphic
1/z, the mapping
{oo},
=
onto
that
l/r(0) {0} {zeC:0< \\z\\ < r},
maps UR(oo){oo}
mapping
=
where r
1/R. Hence the function/(z) defined
by
/(z)=/(z)
=/(!/\302\243)
the
cases can
three
following
Case1:
=
\302\243
on Ur (0) \342\200\224
Since
{0}.
is holomorphic
=
\302\243
0 is
power series that
occur (see Section1.4d):
a removable singularity
off(\302\243)./(\302\243) can
for 0
absolutely
converges
an isolated singularity off (\302\243),
0 is
<
in a
be expanded
< r
\302\243
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+ a\342\200\236\302\243n
+ \342\200\242..
?{z) = a0 + aiz + a2z2+
Hence
/(z)=/(l/z)
can be
expanded in a powerserieswhich
/(z)
Since
= a0
= lim
z
and
we
/(z) =
* oo
a/z, a ^
0,
we
case,
^am
oo is
for
\\z\\
/?,
(3.18)
+\302\243+....
a0y
>
we
put
is holomorphic on
V^(oo).
In
particular,
taking
get
a#0.
Hence, substituting oo
(3.18) takes the form
this
absolutely
/(z) = a0
=0,
/(z) =
^+...
limf_>00/(z) =
say that/(z)
a/co
In
+
^
=
\\\\mz^^f(z)
/(oo)
+
converges
for
+
z in
(3.18) yields
/(oo) = a0. If /(oo)= a0
\342\200\224+
fl\342\204\242*\302\260\342\200\2242+\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242J>
called a zero of the
mth
order
off{z).
=
0,
136
mappings
Conformal
Case 2: z = 0 is a
pole
f(z) =
where
a.mzm +
a_m
+
\302\243w
^
have
r we
+
= limz_GO/(z)=
order
(3.19)
\302\253m^0,
absolutely for
>
R. In
Putting
off(z).
\342\200\224\342\200\224
+
+
\\z\\
\342\200\242.
and
=0m*O.
0(oo)
= oo and
lim^oo/fz)
mth
...
+
Z^,
converges
(an/zn)
\342\200\224\342\200\224
f(z) = zmg(z\\
/(oo)
\302\243
 <
0
+ <io+
+fl_lz
on l/R(oo)
is holomorphic
Hence
...
oo is calleda poleof the
0(z) =
g(z)
series
the power
this case,
<
R
>
\\z\\
n=
Z
Z
we get for
for 0
Since
of/(f).
we
put
oo.
In this case,/: z+f(z)is a continuous
from
mapping
UR(oo) into the
is
a
Riemann sphere S, but we do not say that /(z)
continuous function
of the domain of the function
which
assumes
the value oo at oo.As a point
in the same way as a point c ^ oo,but
the point at infinity,
oo, is treated
/(z),
as a value
assumed
by the function
/(z), oo is consideredas a special
=
=
az
a
\"number.\"
za, # 0 or/(z) = z2 we get
By taking/(z)
= ooa = oo,
oo'oo = oo.
aoo
fl#0,
Case
3:
z =
0 is
/(f) =
where
an infinite
equal to zero.
f(z)=
an essential singularity
In
of/(f).
this
case
a\342\200\236\302\243\",
0<f<r,
+f\342\200\224
co
n=
number
Hence
...
of the coefficientsa _x,a_ 2,.
+fl\342\200\236z\"+
..\342\200\242
+ fl_1z
+
fl0
+
..,
i
\302\243
n= 1 2
. .are
fl\342\200\236,.
not
(3.20)
an infinite
number of the coefficients a\\9
for \\z\\ > R9 where
a_ 2,. . . , an,. . . are not equal to zero. In this case, oo is called an essential
iff(z) is a transcendental
entire function,
singularity of f(z). For example,
then oo is an essential singularity of/(z). If oo is an essential singularity of
1.23)it is possible, for each
f(z) then, by Weierstrass'Theorem(Theorem
= oo and
a
such
to
find
that
number
w,
zn
lim,,,*,
sequence {zn}
complex
=
w and to find a sequence{zn}such
that
lim n_00 zn = oo and
lim
noo/ta)
\\\\mn^O0f(z)= oo.
3.2
Riemann
The
137
sphere
lim z \342\200\236
essentialsingularity
does not exist. Hence, if
of/(z),
f(z)
=
at z = oo and if
f{co) limz_>00f{z)eCexists,then/(z) is holomorphic
has
a pole at oo.
/(oo) = limz_00/(z)= oo,then/(z)
Summarizing the above computationalrulesfor oo we have for a ^ 0,
a =
a
aoo = ooa = oo, oooo = oo.
0,
=oo, \342\200\224
(3.21)
If oo is an
0
oo
coordinates
Local
c.
above we have
In the
sphere S representcomplex
numbers
the complex
the points
how
seen
z =
numbers
z can be usedto represent
(^ +
^
\302\243
if2)/(l
the
N of
the Riemann
\342\200\224
Conversely,
\302\2433)
points
of S.
\342\202\254
In this
case
the correspondence
1
\"\"^3
coordinate defined on S \342\200\224
and the complex number z
{N}
is called
of the point \302\243.
the coordinate
This
correspondingwith \302\243
complex
N.
coordinate
does not associate a coordinatewith
In order
to define a
a complex
is called
complexcoordinatewhich
{iH2 + (3 = lwe have,
for z
be applied
for
1<
to
Af,
we
z =
consider
1/z. Since
< 1,
\302\2433
'
l{3
hence,
can
l+\302\2433
l{\302\247
^ 0,
fi\302\253i_ii..*iZ\302\253i.
Therefore
we
{ =
With
The
complex
coordinate
<J
call
it
a
>
=
77r,
+C3
\342\200\224
1)}
by
\302\243*(0,0,1).
A
coordinate, the coordinate of N = (0,0,1)
* z can be obtained from the
coordinate
\342\202\254
complex
a rotation through the angle n about the ^axis
z is
>
z by
a complex
/oca/
complex
of S, we
coordinate definedon a subregion
S \342\200\224
{N}
\342\226\272
z
coordinate
on S. Of course,\302\243 is also a local
complex coordinate. Each point
complex coordinates, related by
=
z + \302\243
This
on S \342\200\224
{(0,0,
to this complex
isf = 0.
<^
coordinate
a complex
(U^3)f
respect
Since
define
(3.22)
correspondence
1/z,
+
\302\243
is called
z =
\342\200\224
\302\243eS
{(0,0,1),
(0,0,1)}
has
two
l/\302\243.
a coordinate
transformation
between
the
local
138
Conformed mappings
* z
complexcoordinates\302\243
1), only
respectively.
The
denote
with
by
we can
\342\200\224
l)eS,
(0,0,
with
the
oo with
{oo},
as
just
z ^
zeC,
we
which
do, which
at infinity
point
identifications,
and
oo,
the south
and z = 0,
fplane,
identify S and C u
these
With
OeC
1/zeC,
pole and
north
the
\342\226\272
With
\302\243 \302\243.
= 0
\302\243
C. Extending C with
and Cu{oo}.
=
and
one complex coordinate is associated:
of the complex coordinates is the
range
pole,(0,0,
\342\200\224
corresponds
S
identified
we
0, coincides with
\302\243
OeC. Hence
S = CuC
S
and
0, coincides
z ^
zeC,
z > z =
obtained
surface
the
is
\\jz
the
In Section3.2b
function/(z)
but f(z)
is nothing
function
the
considered
have
we
C and C such that
coordinate
The
1/zeC.
way the pasting
a holomorphic
with
corresponding
=
\302\243
with
determines
by \"pasting together\"
transformation
should be done.
function/(\302\243)
defined on
considered as a
=/(l/\302\243)
[/^(oo)\342\200\224 {oo}.
function
the
of
This
local
z.
coordinate
d. Homogeneouscoordinates
The
Riemann
can
sphere
complex
as a onedimensional
product C2 = C x C =
be considered
the
Consider
space.
projective
also
direct
{(Ci,C2):CieCfCaeC}andput
C={Wi,\302\2532M6C}
for
^ (0,0).
(Ci, C2)
Now, C is
of
(0,0).Thecollection
all
the
onedimensional
C
=
complex
complex
lines (
complex
a complex
e IP1
called
are
lines
line in C2 passing through the origin
of C2 passing through (0,0)is called
space and is denoted
projective
the points of P1 and if
by
P1.
The
(Ci,C2)*(0,0),
{(ACi,AC2MeC}f
coordinates
of the point \302\243.
of the
are
c
^
(Ci,C2)
(0,0)
(C1.C2)
(0,0)
homogeneous oordinates
=
=
P1
if and only if (i
same
and
Ki for some complex
\302\243e
ACi
&
point
number A # 0. If (Ci,C2) are homogeneous coordinatesof the point
then
(Ci, C2)
are
(eP1,
called
homogeneous
and
^
we write
C=
(Ci,C2).
Hence,
=
= XC2 for some
(Ci,C2) if and only if ft = K\\ and \302\243'2
=
0.
k
for
number
The
used
^
,
sign
equality
homogeneous
complex
is a
We want to show that
there
coordinates, will alwayshave this meaning.
=
S
CuC.
For
natural mapping from P1 onto the Riemann
that
sphere
(Ci,C'2)
purpose
put
l/i
= {CeP1:
ft * 0},
U2
=
ReP1:
ft #
0}.
33 Linearfractionaltransformations
139
Obviously,
Pl =
For
U2.
Utv
have
0 we
\302\245\"
\302\2432
(Ci,C2)= (Ci/C2,l)=
C=
U,
mapping C*z = Ci/C2
for
Similarly, ^ ^ 0 we have
hence the
(Ci,C2) =
C =
hence mapping
=
f=
Vz
coincideon nU2.
P1
and
S =
C by
Cu
maps
l^
onetoone
C/2 onetoone
the two
a onetoone
Therefore,
Ux
Ci/C2,
=
C2/C1 maps
0
and
#
C2 ^ 0,
>
f\302\260r
Ci
C2/C1
* =
onto
CcS.
fCi/Ci,
(U),
\302\243 \302\243
the
1),
these
combining
two
mappings
onto CcS. Since
( * z and ( * f
mapping is obtainedbetween
mappings into one. Using this
the
of P1 and thereby
points
can
the points of S with
identify
the Riemann sphere S becomesa onedimensional
complex
projective
this identification, the point zeC gets the homogeneous
space. Under
coordinates
(1,0),i.e.,
(z, 1) and 00 gets the homogeneouscoordinates
=
=
z
(1,0). Now z and 00 are called the inhomogeneous
(z, 1) and 00
= 00
of the points (z, 1) and (1,0)of P1,
coordinates
Since
Ci/0
respectively.
=
if Ci ^ 0 by (3.21),
the inhomogeneous
of \302\243 (Ci,C2) is always
coordinate
given by C1/C2
mapping,we
Linear fractional
3.3
transformations
Linear
a.
is calleda
aS
\342\200\224
py
^
We
y
of the
+ fl
yz + o
linear
0 is
If
constant.
az
=
f(z)
transformations
fractional
A function
,
form
a, 6, y,
function
fractional
aS
5 constants,
or a

/Jy
#
linear function.
included in order to excludethe casethat/(z)
we write a instead of a/S and /? instead
= 0,
0,
The condition
reduces
to a
of /J/<5, obtaining
a^0.
/(z) = az + )3,
two cases:
distinguish
0. In
y ^
Ca5\302\2437:
excluding
{
\342\200\224
/(oo)
d/y}
this case/(z) is a holomorphicfunction
and
since
= hm
^
zcoyz + <5
= hm
zcoy
\342\200\224
=
+ <5/z
,
y
on
the
zplane
140
mappings
Conformal
f(z) is
holomorphic at
y2{z +
that
is clear
it
\342\200\224
8/y
too.
oo
S/y)
Writing
y
the
pole of
is a
of f(z),
order
first
i.e.,
/(<5/y)=oo.
is a onetoone
Hence, in order to prove that/: z ^w =f(z)
mapping from
to show that for each
the extended plane Cu{oo}ontoitself,
it suffices
w # a/y, the equation f(z) = w has
w g C,
one solution
zeC,
exactly
\342\200\224
=
=
az + /}. Conversely, assume
z^
w
we
From
(5/y.
f(z)
get (yz + <5)w
\342\200\224
=
0
a<5
follows
that yz + 5 and az + /?
az
From
it
+
+
^
8)w
(yz
/}.
/?y
8
are not simultaneously equal to 0, hence
# 0 and /(z) = w. The
yz +
(yz +
equation
(\342\200\224
yw
=
is
ft
to the
equivalent
equation
\342\200\224
<5w
/?
\342\200\224
have
#
ywha
=
the equation/(z)
0, hence
w
has
solution
one
exactly
+ a)z
az +
a/y we
w #
since
and
=
<5)w
Swp
\342\200\224
ywha
inverse
C u {oo}ontoCu {oo}
and
mapping from
is given by
a onetoone
Therefore,/is
mapping
/1:w^z=/1(w)=
^\"f
yw +
\342\200\224
a
.
its
(3.24)
/(z) is
if w ^ ol/8, f(z) is
and
/_1(w)
6/y
holomorphic if z ^ \342\200\224
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
biholomorphic on the region C { 8/y}. Hence the restriction of/(z)
is a conformal
to C \342\200\224
onto
mapping which maps C \342\200\224
8/y}
{\342\200\224
8/y}
{\342\200\224
Since
C
\342\200\224
sphere S =
C u {oo},
gives
itself. For by
is also
Case
function
The
{a/y}.
of Section
continuous at z =
2:
y
zplane,
equation
toone
oo
w
mapping
/(z) = az + j5
0. The
function
a pole
of the first
from
/i:w^z=/1(w)
get z =
C u
mapping
/ as a mapping from
S
into
S,
8/y.
=
+ /? we
from S onto
\342\200\224
is
= az
3.2a,
Riemann
the
on
function
continuous
a onetoone
results
the
as a
considered
/(z),
(w
\342\200\224
/?)/a.
{oo} onto C u
J
This formula can alsobeobtained
Restricting/(z) to C we get a
=
course
is of
order of /(z), and
{oo}
and
= oo.
/(oo)
f: z
Hence,
on the
Solving the
holomorphic
>w =/(z)
its
inverse
is a one
is given
by
^^.
a
from
mapping
(3.24)
from
by putting
C intoX.
y
=
0 and
8 =
1.
3.3 Linearfractionaltransformations
S =
Cu
Section
{00}
we
A onetoone
mapping
= /(z)
f:z^w
=
extended
the
from
o
a linearfractionaltransformation
z =
From
respectively.
or
Hence, (3.25)can be represented
Strictly,
the transformation
(3.26) only
from
is
coordinates
of z
homogeneous
cox/co^
transformation.
transformation
we get
determinesthe matrix
following
discussion,
to
within
we can
(3.26)
* /nKi
r
pen
Lt
U2J
aJUJ
Hence
__
Ci
__
ycOifacoj
h
W
=
If
/z
Tl\302\273
yxz
f}
\342\200\224ywfa'
as (3.24).
formula
same
\342\200\224
Sw
_
\342\200\224
C2
the
Sa>l\342\200\224pco2
+ dt
(z)
=
\342\200\2247
y2z +
o2
theirproductf
are linearfractional transformations,
in homogeneous coordinates is given
transformation)
\302\273\342\226\240\342\226\240
f2
SMB
EH:]fc
Since
rai^iir\302\2532i?2\"
=
raia2+/51y,
\302\253i/*2+
/M2~
(i.e.,
by
the
a
select
'*
eff'itrs
get
=
a linear
as
scalar multiple but, as is clearfrom the
any matrix satisfying (3.26).Since
we
simply
form
(3.25)
fractional
be
of the
0,
linear
C1/C2, w
onto itself
plane
ocSpy*
5^\302\261f
yz +
The inverse transformation/\"1of a
(g>i>w2)
given by (3.24). Let (d, C2)an^
and w,
sphere
S ontoitselfby
(2).
3.2b,
is called
Riemann
the
mapping from
continuous
a onetoone
get
defined on
a function
as
/(z)
Considering
141
composite
142
mappings
Conformal
we get the inhomogeneous
formula
+
= (cLlCL2+ply2)z
+ dly2)z +
(yi(x2
/1./2:z.w=/1(/2(z))
(x1p2+plS2
ylp2+6l62
of two linear fractional
the product
fractional
transformation.
Since the inverse
again
linear fractional
transformation is also a linearfractional
transformation,
transformations
we conclude
that the collection of all linear fractional
We see
a linear
Thereis exactly
Theorem 3.8.
= 09
f{zx)
where zuz2,
/(z)
and where
zx
and z3
=
= 0,
points of
C u {oo}and/(z)
=
g(z3)
zj9 say
is given
zx, equals oo,is found
clearly satisfies
oo, then/(z)
by
by
the requirements,it
function
satisfying
and g(z) are identical.For this
fractional function
the linear
^^,
+
yw
of the
is a linear fractional
if g (z)
g(z2) = 1,and
one
by (3.27)
given
=
that
(3.27)
that
0(/V))
such
function/(z)
z2z3
function
show
consider
purpose
different
three
are
fractional
linear
/(z3)=oo,
the formula for/(z), if
tend to oo in (3.27).
to
suffices
one
/(z2)=l,
^/^^.
zz3j
Proof: Sincea
g(zt)
a
of
a group.
constitutes
letting
that
this
from
transformations is
g{f~l (w)).Putting
<*5/Jy*0,
o
we have
7o
= 9(/\"1(0)) =
is, ft =
that
for
w
yields/(z)
triple
function/(z)
b.
also
=
0, and
=
=
o
^\302\261{
y +
a/5 =
 =
3(/1(l))=l,
^(/1(oo)) =
cx)
y
1, hence g(f~ x(w))
=
w. Substitution
of/(z)
g(z).
distinct pointswt, vv2, w3 of
of distinct points zu z2, and z3, exactly
such that/(Zi) = w^/^) = w2, and/(z3)
Cu
one
{oo} there is, for
linear
=
fractional
w3.
Cross ratio
As explainedin Section3.2a,a line in the extended plane C u {oo}is
a line / of the complex plane C with
of C
Circles
by
extending
{oo}.
be considered
to be circles of C u {oo}.
obtained
will
y
Given three
Corollary.
each
0,
0,
3.3
three distinct
For
((z

zi)/(z
points
z, zl9
points
zl)/(z2
z3))/((z2
z2, and z3 and
(z,zuz2,z3)=
Linear
fractional
z3 of
is called
the
and
z2,
zl9
\342\200\224
z3))
is denotedby
(z,
Cu{oo} the expression
cross ratio of the four
z2, z3)
zx,
(zZi)(z2z3)
lz2~zi
z*i
143
transformations
zz3j z2z3 {zz3)(z2zi)
z as a variable,
the cross ratio (z,zx,z2,z3) is a linear fractional
=
z
z = z2, and z = z3 we get the values 0,1, and
z.
function of Putting
zx,
oo, respectivelyfor the crossratio(z,zliz2,z3).
Considering
Theorem
z9zl,z2,
then
and z3 are four distinct points of Cu{oo},
one circle or oneline if and only if their cross ratio
If z,zl9z2,
3.9.
and
z3 are on
(z,z1,z2,z3)is a real
number.
Proof:
be the
(1) Assume
argument of
argument of
6
that
(z2
\342\200\224
\342\200\2242n<0
^,
(z
\342\200\224
zt)/(z2
\342\200\224
il/<2n,
0^ = 0
0l/r=x
Fig.
3.8
zx
,z2,
and
\342\200\224
zx)l(z
\342\200\224
z3).
z3 are
\342\200\224
z3)
Since
(z,zuz2,z3)
on a circleC.Let0, \342\200\224
n < 6 ^ n,
and
let
^,
\342\200\224
7i<^^^,
the
of (z,zl,z2,z3) equals
real number if and only if
the argument
is a
be
Gf/r=
et=
n
n
144
mappings
Conformal
=
6 \342\200\224
\\j/
is clear
it
\302\261n and
on the
z is
that
considerations
circle C if
and
from simple
only
the
,z2, and z3 are ona circle,
points
if (z,zl9z2,z3) is a real number.
if zt
hence,
0 \342\200\224
\\\\f=
0 or
if 0
= 0
\342\200\224
^
geometric
=
or 0 \342\200\224^
\302\2617c,
are on a circle
and z3
z9zuz2,
if
and
is
and z3 are on a line/ c C. Since (z2 \342\200\224
z1)/(z2
z x)/ (z
a real number, (z, z t, z2,z3) is a real number if and only if (z \342\200\224
if z is on / or z = oo.
a real number, that is, if and only
only
is
zt
that
Assume
(2)
one of
that
(3)
Assume
=
oo (the
other cases
=
(z,oo,z2,z3)
(z, oo, z2, z3)is realifand
if z, z, = oo,
3.10.
Theorem
the points zt, z2,and
are similar).Since
\342\200\224
on a
be a
z3 be four distinct points in
z2, and
z3 are ona line
/, that
is, if
linear fractional
Cu
\\
j(zv)
az +
=
^^6
and only
and
function
and
let z,zl,z2,
{oo}. Then
= (*,*i,*2.*3)
(3.28)
0)/(yz + <5), ot(5  0y #0, we have, for
*zv + p = (aSPy)(zzv)
P
+ 5){y2y
+ 5Y
^ +8
{yz
= (otz +
Putting/(z)
f(\\f<
j(z)
assume that
line / u {oo}.
(/(*) J(WteX/(*3))
Proof:
z3)
,
if z,
only
Let/(z)
Let us
is oo.
z3
z3)
\342\200\224
zz3
z3 are
and
z2
\342\200\224
Zi,z2,
v
=
1, 3,
hence
f(z)f(zl)_(yz3+6)(zzl)
f(z)~f(z3)
(y2i+\302\253)(2Z3)'
Therefore
lf(z2)f(zi)
f(z)f(zi)
f(z)f(z3)lf(z2)f(z3)
theorem
This
fractional
3.11.
Theorem
Cu
3.9 we
Theorem
and
that
shows
transformations.
zz3\\ z2z3
cross ratio is invariant
under
of this
immediateconsequence
0
C be
^ 0
^ 2n
a circle in
linear
theorem
maps circlesor lines
linear transformation
or lines (i.e.,a circleis mapped
and a line is mapped onto a circleor a
Let
/zaz,
z^
have
A fractional
{oo} onto circles
the
As an
=
C with
center
c and
onto
a circle
of
or a line
line).
radius
r and
be a parameterrepresentation
of C.C
is
let 6 * z = c+ reie,
a Jordan
curve on
3.3 Linear fractional transformations145
z
< r}
\342\200\224c
U =
{zeC:
C/nK=0.
C/uK,
C is the boundary of the closed
disk [I/]. The interior U of Cison
and the exterior of V is on the right of C (Section2.1b).Now,
let
z3 be three points on C,let Cx be the arc with initial
zx and
point
and
terminal point z3, and let C2 be the
= Cx C2.On Cx and
point
zx\\ then C
given orientation
then z3 < z2 <
<zx
z2
<z3
Im
Theorem
3.12.
z2 <
w
>
part Im
of
00 is
interior of the circle
points on C such
and z3 are
zl9z2,
C be
that
>
< zx
by
the
if z2eC2,
< z2,
and
we agree that
as
an
0.
denoted
by U, its exterior
< z2
<z3, then ze U if
zY
Im
Kifandonlyif
(z,z!,z2,z3)
< 0.
Consider the cross ratio
h(z)
=
{z,zi,z2,z3)
as a linear fractional function
Im h{z)
and
and z3
not defined,
and Im w
mean w^oo
0 will
Let the
00
andonlyifIm(z,z1,z2,z3)> Oandze
Proo/:
< is induced
<z2<z3
zt
z3 < zt
and zx <z3 <z2.
< z2 \342\226\240<
z3 then
If zt
zv
the imaginary
inequality
V. If
linear order
terminal
3.9
Fig.
Since
C2 a
point z3 and
initial
with
arc
(Section 2.1a). If z2eCu then
if z3 <z2 <zl5then
by
interior
{00}of C:
V= (C [t/])u
of C
left
zl9z2,
sphere
the exterior
and
SC=
The circle
the
Riemann
the
divides
representation and C
by this parameter
=
C kj {00} into the
S
is defined
orientation
an
which
is a

=
(zz3)(z2z1)
of
z. As
continuous function on S
h{z) is
\342\200\224
{z3}.
holomorphic on S \342\200\224
{z3},
0
if
zeC
Since
#
Ji(z)
by
146
mappings
Conformal
Fig. 3.10
Theorem 3.9, Im h(z)doesnot change
sign
V. In order to determine which sign is valid
line through zx
\342\200\224<
e))
d
dt
A(0) =
z2.
e, so
small
sufficiently
ImJi(A(
and
region U or on the region
region we consider the
which
in
and A(e)eU and
to
suffices
it
Im/i(A(0)) =
0. Since
\\mh(k(t))
z1eC
on the
that
prove
\342\200\224
for
0
and
e)eV
A(
Imfi(A(\302\243))
Imfi^) = 0 it
to
suffices
>
prove
>0.
L
From
=
h'(z)
(z1z3)(z2z3)
(3.29)
(ZZ3)2(z2Zi)'
we conclude
= ,,'(Zl);l'(0)
f3
=
Putting
[^(A(0)lo
6 = arg
\342\200\224
((z2
z3)/(zi
\342\200\224
z3)),
z7^
Z3'
we have
0 <
6 < n sincez1<z2<
z3,
hence
Z2Z3
= Im
[ilm/,(AW)]=o
l/u
we see
KuC,ft(z3)=
that, conversely
Let f(z) bea linear
transformation/:
of
the
z'plane
Case 1: C
can be defined
=/(z)
by Theorem
function
transforms
the
sin0
> 0.
same
K if
ze
zeV.
Since
Theorem
3.9,
Imfi(z) < 0.
of z. Then the linear fractional
the circle C into a circleor a
line
3.11.
C isa
=f(C)isacircle.
in
z3
\\Zl ~\"Z3
ze U if Imfc(z)> 0 and
fractional
z*z'
~Z3
\342\200\224
if zeU and lmft(z)<0 if
00 and lm/j(z) = 0if zgC,z# z3,by
lmh(z)>0
Therefore,
S =
Zl
z2
Jordan
way as on
curve
on
which
an orientation
C. The parameterrepresentation
Linear
3.3
6 > z =
c+
0
rew,
0>z'
^ 0
of C induces
g 2n,
of/(C).Theorientationon/(C),
not necessarily the same as
defined
the
orientations we
the
by
original
is
representation,
parameter
of
orientation
C
into accountwe
taking them
C =/(C),
have
representation,
parameter
0^0^271,
*?*),
=/(c+
a
147
transformations
fractional
Neglecting
have
(3.30)
f(C)=\302\261C\\
C represents the circleC' with reversed
orientation
(Section 2.1a).
side of (3.30), we take three
In order to determinethe sign of the righthand
different
zt <z2<z3.
zl9 z2, and z3 on C such that
Putting
points
if
we have
and
to determine
z3 =/(z3),
z\\ =f(zx),
z'2=f(z2),
only
=
if
on
C:
the
then
or
if
the
+
<
<
<
<
former,
C;
z'2
z3
z\\
f(Q
z2
z'3
z\\
where
latter
= C\\
then/(C)
V and
and
denote interiors
=
= [/'
C.
/(I/)
representing If/(C) +C,
=
=
=
r and/(^) I/'.
C, then/(l/)
if/(C)
Let U and V
the
then
We
If/(C) = + C,
Im
=
(f{z)9z'uz'2,z'3)
prove
this
as follows:
on C Since
z'2 < z3
z\\ <
then
V the exteriors of C
and /(F) = V\\ while
Im(z,z1,z2,z3)
*\" if ze V by
3.10, we have/(z)e U' if ze U and/(z)e
C',thenz'3
<z'2 ^z'^hence/tzJet/'iflm^zXz^z^z;)
3.12.If/(C)=
> 0 and/(z)e V if Im(/(z),
z'3, z2, z\\) < 0 and since
by Theorem
(/(z),z3,z2,z'1)=
=
(z,z3,z2,zx)
by
Theorem
Im(z,zt, z2,
z3)
3.10, we
are
see
opposite.
the
that
Hence,
l/(z,Z!,z2,z3)
signs
if z e
Theorem
of
Im(/(z),
I/, then /(z) e K'
z3, z2,
and
if z
z'j) and
e
K,
then
/Wet/'.
C =/(C) is a line. Put C = Tu {00}, where /' is a line in the
~ *
the point
z3 =/
z'plane.
(00),
z3 is on C. Let zx and z2 be points
Putting
onCwithZi <z2 <z3,andputz'x =/(z1)andz2 = /(z2),thenz\\
andz2are
two different
on /', under which
points of /'. Let < be the orientation
/' divides the z'plane into a regionV to the left of /' and a
z\\ < z2. Then
V
to
the
right of /'
region
Case 2:
For an arbitrary z 5*
(z9zl9z29z3)
z3
=
we
have
(/(z),zi,z'2,oo)
by Theorem
3.10
= ^MZ:!i.
Z2Z1
148 Conformalmappings
3.11
Fig.
Hence,
6 =
putting
1/(2)Zij
=
\342\200\242sin0
z2zx
e 17' if
Therefore,/(z)
/([/)
regionof C onto
regionof Con
Assume that
line
/
u
{oo} onto a
V and its exteriorby
are different
Letting
U be
V.
points of
the region
u {oo}),
with
zx
to the left
and
of
maps the
interior
of C by
the
< on / such that
if zl5
then /(zx) <f(z2)<f{oo)
<z2,
/ and V be the region to the right
and z2
on C.
of
/, then
(2) above by considering
case
from
follows
This
z+z' =/(z)
denote
an orientation
Define
/
of /'.
region
transformation/
circle C =/(/
hence
3.12,
the lefthand side
and the righthand side
of /'
region
side
fractional
and/(K) = V.
f(U) = V
side
Theorem
by
/ maps
transformation
The
righthand
linear
the
ze P
V if
and/(z)e
lefthand
the
the
Im(z,z1,z2,z3).
zeU
and/(F) = K.
= [/'
z\\)\\
arg((f{z)z\\)/(z2
the inverse transformation/1.
c.
conformal
First
conformal
Elementary
this section
In
we
want
mappings
to
elementary
mappings.
the linear fractional
consider
transformation
f.z^w =/(z) = (zj3)/(zft
= a + ib is a complex
b
with
where
/?
denote
the region
{zeC: Im z > 0}
H+ is called the upper
H~.
Imz < 0}
a, flhfc, and oo are three points on
plane,
(3.31)
> 0.
number
1,
+
/(\302\253
isthe
hence C =/(R u {oo})
circle.
Let
U denote
*)=
circle
U
u
H~
and
and
region {zeC:
the lower half
{oo} and
i,
/(oo)=l
passing
through
the interior
the
and
halfplane
by
/(<!)=
Let / be the real axisR
H+
by
the unit
examples of
a few
give
of Cand V
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
i
1,
its
exterior.
and
1, that
Put on
U
is,
the
Linear
3.3
orientation < inducedby the usual
and/(a)
<f(a + b) <f(oo) on C and
right of R, we
have
by
order <. Since a<a
is on the left of R and
Obviously,/(jS)= 0,f(fi) = oo.
linear fractional function f(z) to J/+,
if we
Therefore,
is
a
conformal
U
disk
H+
onto
given
the domain
to Schwarz's
which map the
mappings
unit disk (7 = {wg C:w <
the
restrict
of the
transformation
the
the corollary
and
conformal
All
3.13.
onto
/?
result
this
on the
H~
the upper halfplane H+ onto the
0. The
theorem is a
following
mapping
the point
and
onU
b
Imz > 0,
=,
zP
mapping,
consequenceof
Theorem
zP
=
=f(z)
f.z+w
+
=K.
/(//)
/(/f+)=[7,
H
+
result
above
the
linear
149
transformations
fractional
1}
the
and
point
unit
direct
Lemma.
upper halfplane
onto 0 are
/? e//+
by
=f(z)
fiz^w
=
OeM.
^7\342\200\224L,
zp
Example 3.2. Let
P and the terminal
7i/m,m
mapping
a natural
which
C1 and C2 be two
point <5, let the
number,
maps
m
the area
arcs
in the zplane with
between Cx and
angle
2. We want
^
D enclosed
Let L be the line segmentconnecting
L at P and put
and
Cx
C2 at
point
/?
equal
a conformal
to determine
betweenCt and C2 onto the
/? and
disk.
initial
5,
\\jj
be
the
angle
unit
between
z \342\200\224
o
zplane
Fig. 3.12
Since f(p)
= 0 and
/(<5)
I\\ =/(C1),
T =/(L),
and
=
T2
oo,
/
=/(C2)
maps C1? L, and
with
initial
C2
onto
points 0 in the
rays
ex
150 Conformedmappings
f(D)
K7t/m
r
jS^
Fig. 3.13
tended Cplane. Let // = (/? 4 <5)/2 be the midpoint of L. Since/(p) = e**, the
the positive
real axis of the
ray T passes through e1*,hencethe anglebetween
r
a
on
and
conformal
the
Cplane
mapping
equals\\J/. Since/is
zplaneminus
the
S, the angle between r2 and T2 at 0 equals
n/m and the angle
point
betweenT{and T
the real axis of the
C2 ,f(D)
is to
f(D)
co =
Cw
on/(D)
Therefore,
=
Cplane.
the left
=
of
C
{\302\243
pmeim6
rx coincides with
D is to the left
Since
and to the right of r2 by
^. Hence
equals
is a
rx
=
the
to the
of
Cx and
(2)
of Section
of
right
3.3b,
that
is,
n/m}.
P\302\253\"O<p<+oo,O<0<
holomorphic
part of
nonnegative
function of (
= pe'e,
is
which
univalent
is the upper halfplane //+ of the coplane.
and {co:co = Cm, C e/(D)}
by Theorem 3.5, C > co = Cm is a conformal
mapping which maps
/(D) onto H+. Putting
=
\302\273(z)=/(zr
\342\200\224\342\226\240
\302\243^
,
zeD
\"[\302\243]\342\226\240\342\200\242
the mapping
by Theorem
z
= #
\342\226\272
o
(z) is a conformal mappingwhich
3.4(2). Therefore, the mappingh: z+w
D onto
maps
=
given
h(z),
H+
by
g(2)g(n)
is a
conformal mappingwhich
Theorem
3.13. Obviously,
ht=\\K'
If D is
symmetric
h(z)
h
maps
(/.)
= 0.
the
Since
region
D onto
g (n) =
e,'m^
the
we
unit
disk,
have
(zPr(szr
(zpr
with
e2im*(6zr'
respect
(zprtfzf
(zpy+iszr'
to the
segment L,
i.e., if
2iJ/
=
n/m,
then
by
3.3
enclosed
by Cx
and C2, that
C4 and outside
onto the
center
with
circle
the
Let Cl be the
33.
Example
be
unit
C2.
disk.
We
First,
Linear
with
circle
fractional
center
151
transformations
i/2 passing
through 0, let C2
i/4 passing through 0, and let D be the
are
is, D is the collection of all points that
want
to
find a
conformal mapping which
region
inside
maps D
let us put
C=/(z)=l/z.
Fig.
The
3.14
i, zx = (i  l)/2, and 0 are points of Cx and/(i) =
=
= oo, hence f(Cx)
and/(0)
lxu{oo},where lx is the line through
\342\200\224
1 in the Cplane. Similarly, f(C2) = l2 u {oo}, where l2 is the
i \342\200\224
i,/(zi)=
points
i1,
and
through
indicated
left of
lt
\342\200\224
2i and
in Fig.
and
the
;i
2i
the Cplane. Define orientations on lt and l2 as
3.15. Since/maps the interiorof Cx onto the region to the
of C2 onto the region to the right of l2,f{D)is the
exterior
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
2 in
i
/.
fiP)
2i
Fig.
3.15
\342\200\224i
line
h
152
mappings
Conformal
region of the Cplane
C, which is univalent
plane
H+
maps
f(D)
that
mapping
maps
conformal mapping that
Theorem
=
H+. Therefore,
Z) onto
eK,z
is a
l2. (o
e*c is a holomorphic
function of
=
on /(D)
and {(d:cd
e*c,C^AD)}is the upper half> o> = e^ is a conformal
of the coplane. Hence \302\243
mappingthat
=
=
>
co
e*/z is a conformal
e*/(z)
onto
/f+ and therefore z
lt and
between
3.13,
fi
=
h'l
 i
maps
(0) = 2i/3.
the
region
D onto
the
unit
disk;
by
4
Analytic continuation
4.1
continuation
Analytic
a.
continuation
Analytic
function
Let f0(z) be a holomorphic
of the complex plane and
let
Z>i be a
on the
z, defined
of
region such
that
region D0
/ 0. A
n Dx
D0
function
on
ft(z) defined on Dt which coincideswith
f0(z)
is calledan analytic
continuation
into
o\302\243f0(z)
Dt. (The meaning of
for
Given a
f0(z)=fi(z)
zeD0nDr.)
\"coinciding\" is, of course,that
function
on
there
does
not
existan
D0,
holomorphic
f0(z)
always
analytic
of f0(z) into Du but if one does, then
continuation
it is unique
by the
3.1.In
is
this
to
Theorem
to
be
said
case,
corollary
f0(z)
analytically
continuable
into Dr. Then, putting
f(z) = f0{z) if z e D0 and f(z) = ft(z) if
on the region
defined
zeDu we obtain a holomorphicfunction
f(z)
of
continuation
DquDj, called the analytic
f0(z) into D.
If the analytic continuation ft (z) of f0{z) into Di exists and if the analytic
continuation
then
f2(z) of fi(z) into the region D2 exists,
^(z) is called the
of ^z)
continuation
into D2. Generally,if a sequenceof regions,
analytic
holomorphic
Dj n D0
D0,
D2,
. . .,
is given
and
if the
Dl9
Dn.u
DknDkx\302\2610,
Dn,
analytic continuation fx(z)
continuation f2(z) of fi{z)into
of
k
=
into
./o(z)
1,
2,..
.,
Dx, the
n,
analytic
., the analytic continuation fn(z) of
is
said
be analytically continuable along
then
to
into
exist,
Dn
./\302\251(z)
fni{z)
.
and
. .. ,fn(z) are
.
the
functions
the sequenceDi9 D29.
, Dn
fx(z\\
f2{z\\
called analytic
/2(z), . . . Jn(z)
analytic
D=
by
then
putting
it is
uniquely
ft{z), f2{z\\ ..
on the
u
Di u D2
The
determined
is defined
f(z)
D0
.
continuations of ./o(z).
are
continuations
function
holomorphic
D2,
u
.
by f0(z\\
,fn{z)
continuations
analytic
of
f0(z)
D0, Dl5.
exist
..,
/i(z),
DB.
If
the
then a
region
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
u D\342\200\236
f(z) =fk(z) if zeDk.
not necessarily true that
However, if,
f0(z) and fn(z)
as
in Fig.
coincide
4.1, D0nDn^
0,
If, for a
on D0nDn.
154
continuation
Analytic
D2
A
Do
Dn
Dn\\
4.1
Fig.
e D0 n
point a
values
z =
at
fn+2{z)mtoDn
z e
Z)*,
/c
=
n
^ fn(a\\
f0(a)
Dn,
a. Moreover, if
then the
exist and
arrive
at
different
into
f\342\200\236+i(z)
continuations
analytic
+ 29. . ., fm(z) into Dm
+ 1, n + 2,. . ., m, we
function / assumestwo
if we put again f(z)
Dn+l9
=fk(z)
for
function
a holomorphic
/(z)
defined on a region
D = D0uD1uD2u\"uDnu
Dn+1
u
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
u
Dm.
values
^a),
0 then /(z) couldassumethree different
e D0 n Dn n Dm. In this way a multivalued
holomorphic
continuations
function /(z) is defined. The analytic
fx(z\\ f2{z\\ f3(z),...
are uniquely determined by f0{z\\ hence f{z) is also uniquely determined
If D0 n Dn n Dm ^
Jt(a), and fm(a) at a
by/0(4
A
holomorphic
function is
a holomorphic function will always
multivalued
possibly
while
function,
called an
analytic
to
be understood
be onevalued.
The function/j(z),
in
continuation.
analytic
contradistinction
Hence,
to f2 (z), f3 (z),... is calleda direct
is a direct analytic
of
continuation
of direct analytic
process
repeated
each fk(z)
and f{z) is obtained by a
continuation starting from f0(z).The function
obtained
/(z),
by repeating
from
the process of directanalytic
continuation
times
starting
f0 (z), as many
is called a completeanalytic
as possible,
1966,
(see L. Ahlfors,
function
Section
1.1).
Chapter 8,
fk~i{z)
relations\"
\"Analytic
analytic
of
continuations
continuations
of
f'o(z).
region Q of
the
between
For
continuation.
holomorphic
functions
if yi(z), f2(z),
are preserved
by
f3(z),... are
example,
analytic
are
then f\\(z), f'2(z\\ f'${z\\
analytic
if <\302\243(w)is a holomorphic
function defined on
Further,
if the ranges of f0(z)
its analytic
and
and
wplane
f0{z\\
...
a
continuations
.. are
<t>ih(z)\\
01/2(Z)X
in n, then
all included
are
f3(z),...
f2(z),
fx(z\\
155
Analytic continuation
4.1
analytic continuations of <j> (f0(z)).
<j>{fi(z)\\
if
Therefore,
functions
on the region D0, if fx (z),
defined
f0{z) and g0(z) are holomorphic
. ..,
are analytic
..., fk(z\\ ... and gY{z\\
f2(z\\
g2(z\\
gk{z),...
continuations along
.
.
.of
.
and
Dl9D2,
f0(z)
,Dk9..
g0(z) respectively,and if g0(z)
=
=
. .; and if
/'o(z), then gk{z) =f'k{z); if g0(z) /0(z),then
gk(z)
=/J(z);.
=
=
to
then
we
have
considered
now,
0k(z)
<t>{fk(z)\\ Up
0o(*) $Uo(z))\302\273
. . . defined
functions
on regions of the
f0(z\\ fx(z\\
f2(z\\
holomorphic
also
is
but
to
consider
it
analytic continuationsfor
possible
complexplane
of the Riemann sphere S.
on regions
defined
holomorphicfunctions
a
As
For
a
is
ew
holomorphic
whole
the
on
w
logz is calledthe logarithmic
conclude
v
function
exponential
w
Writing
wplane (Example 1.2 of Section1.2b).
\342\200\224
= eueiv, hence the
=
C*
C
of
ew
11 + 11; we get ew
is
the
range
region
{0}.
ew = z is denoted by w = logz and
z g C* a solution w of the equation
of
function
=
The
function.
logarithmic
continuation let us considerthe
of analytic
example
simple
=
6 +
from
2nn9
n
an
=
w
z=
log z is a
function\"
=
u
arg z,
log z
function
multivalued
+ i0 + 2wri,
n =
0, +1,
The logarithmic function
\\z \\eie9 z
of the exponential
function z = ew, but
at each
6 =
\\z\\el6y
we
 and
taking
values:
= logz
logz
eu
z=
Putting
\\z\\ and eiv = ew, i.e.,
=
Therefore,
integer.
number of
an infinite
of z.
function
= z that
ew = eueiv
 > 0.
\302\2612,.
(4.1)
log z is the \"inverse
ew is not univalent,
=
w
. .
since
3.5 to infer immediately that
we cannot use the corollary
to Theorem
=
of
w
the domain
logz is a holomorphic function. However,if we restrict
W on which ew is univalent,
ew
to a region
the inverse function of the
restrictionis holomorphic.For each
=
u
\302\273\302\273
+
it;:
 00
<
k define
integer
2kn
u
<
\342\200\224
+00,
n
<
Wk by
v <
2kn
\342\200\224
+
n]>
j
and let ek{w)denote the restrictionof ew to Wk,
then
ek(w) is a univalent holomorphic function
k = 3n
and
v
= 0
+ 2nn,
_
Dv =
Hence,
corollary
fk{z) =
+
f
z:z
inverse
the
nan
v,
the range of ek{w)
+ ie
is
given
2V7T
71
,fl
= r*'V>O,<0<
w =
j\302\243(z)of
to Theorem 3.5 and
log\\z\\
and
integer
v
+ 2nni,
z =
given
z = W\\
=
is, ek(w) =
that
on
0, 1,
e>G
Wk9
Putting
Wk.
or 2,
by
2V7T
_
+
711
j.
ek(w) is holomorphic
on
Dv
by
the
by
2v7T
^^
It
< 0<
2vit
11
\342\200\224+.
(4.2)
Analytic continuation
156
H>plane
zplane
Fig.
4.2
Obviously,
C* =
fi(z\\
fo(z),
and
D0uZ)1 uD2.
f2(z) are
holomorphic
functions definedon the
D0,
regions
/i(z)
Dt, and D2, respectively, and f0(z)and fx(z)coincideon D0nDi9and
and
^(z) coincide on Dx n D2 by (4.2), that is, ft(z) is the direct analytic
and f2(z)
of f0(z)
continuation
is the direct analytic
f3{z)9which is holomorphicon D0,coincides
For, writing an arbitrary point zeD0nD2 as
The function
D0nD2.
rw*\302\253i^, \\<e<\\.
we
with
on
^(z)
y<^<^,
have
/3(z)
= logz
by (4.2).Hencef3{z)
it
of ft(z).
continuation
is
proved
are analytic
that
+ i0 + 2ici
is
the
=
direct
the functions
logz
analytic
fx
= f2(z)
+ i>
continuation
(zlf2{z)9f3{z),.
continuations of f0{z)along the
of/2 (z).Similarly,
. . ,fkt
of
sequence
(z),/k(z),...
regions
Dl9D2,D09Dl9D29D09Dl9D29...
and that the functions /_ x(z), f2(z)9f3(z)9...
of f0{z) along the sequenceof domains
are
analytic
continuations
D29Dl9D09D29Dl9D09D29....
Hence
fk(z)
is the
analytic continuation of
f0(z)
for
all
k. By
integers
that logz coincides with
comparing (4.1)and (4.2)it is obvious
=
Hence
the logarithmicfunction
on
k
3n
each
+
v,
region Dv.
fk (z),
continuation.
holomorphic function obtained from f0(z) by analytic
of the
one
log
z is
Since
a
C*,0 is
u D2 = C* logz is holomorphic
on
called
of log z. From the definition
of log z we have
singularity
D0
u Dx
=
ei\302\260gz
Since deu/du =
logarithmic
(4.3)
variable
real
the
for
eu
a
^ o.
z
Z9
157
Analytic continuation
4.1
we
u,
corollary to
by the
have,
Theorem 3.1,
dw
^
For
fixed complex numbera the
for z ^ 0 by
=
ealo*z0Ld
dza
\342\200\224
=
dz
\\z\\eie,
\\z\\
>
= em
z\"
have
0, we have, by
z1/m
exp[(l/m)
zl/m
=
pnzl/m^/m9
(e^z)m =
z\"1
such that
m
= elo*z =
log
is
2,
^
usual
the
mth
then we have
z,
of z. Since(T = 0,we
mth root
=
lo*z =
number
natural
[eXp(l/m)logz]m
is an
z1/m
is,
then
m a
1/m,
=
(zi/myn
z=
(4.4),we
on C*. Since
(4.6)
integer,
power of z. If a =
that
holomorphic
= zaa/z by
log z/dz
function
aza~1.
an
is
defined
(4.5)
multivalued
a
is
z*
=
m
z* is
function
power
ealogz.
In general,
If a =
(4.4)
z
an arbitrary
dea]o*z/dz
(4.3) yields
= .
dz
za
sides of
both
differentiating
Therefore,
define
01/m
=
2, .
= 0. Putting
(4.1),
+
\\z\\
i0/m
+ 2rmi/m],
that is,
Since
z1/m
is
The
(3.7).)
(Compare
p =
z1/m is
function
the powerfunction
b.
series
Analytic
Let r0,
<
h
oo,
oo
I
B
= 0
W
mvalued
z1/m
0, 1,
. . , m~ 1.
function.
holomorphic
is
continuous
at z = 0. The point
0 is
at z
called
= 0, but
a branch
z1/m.
continuation
0 < r0
/o(*)=
an
lim20 z1/m= 0,
limz_0 l*1/ml =
of course
not holomorphic
point of
^n./r^
a0n(zc0)n.
be
by expansion
the radius
in
power
series
of convergence of the
power
158
continuation
Analytic
Then f0{z) is a holomorphicfunction
of the circleof convergence.
of f0(z\\ we pick a point
series about cx
=
foW
cx e
U0, cx ^ c0,and
fli.
fli^^r,
\302\243
11 = 0
=
l/ro(c0)
the analytic continuation
expand
f0(z) into a power
to find
order
In
U0 =
interior
the
on
we
(4.7)
^Aw(CiX
\342\204\242
4.3
Fig.
series in the
The
power
of a
circle with
Therefore, if
center
represents
rx
righthand sideof (4.7)
cx and
radius
the
radius
converges
on
the interior
p = r0 \\cx c0  by Theorem 1.16.
of convergence of the power series,
\342\200\224\342\200\224
have
we
(48)
reletc01
r^
and the
function
fx(z)
defined
by
00
n
is a
= 0
function on the disk
holomorphic
radiusrx. Sincefx(z)
on
UxnU0
if rx
i.e.,
> p =
r0
with center cx and
U p(cx) of cl9 fx(z) = f0(z)
Uri(cx)
=Jo(z)onapneighborhood
the corollary
by
=
Ux
if Ux<fcU09
to Theorem 3.1. Therefore,
is the direct analytic continuation of
\342\200\224
\\cx\342\200\224c0\\9fx(z)
Jo(z)into Ut.
We
have
by Theorem
1.11, hence
the coefficientsaXn
of
the
power
series for/i
(z) are
4.1
159
continuation
Analytic
by
given
the
Repeating
the
expand
(4.9)
)aom(cic0ra
10
above
we pick a point c2eUi9c2 # ct, and
function into a power seriesabout
c2
procedure,
holomorphic
n=
0
we
W!
Putting
00
/2(^=
= 0
the radius of
r2 denotes
where
UC2<r2,
\302\24302n(zC2)n,
n
of
convergence
the
series under
power
is the direct analytic
consideration, and assumingr2> rl \\c2 ci\\,f2(z)
in this way, we
continuation of fx(z) into U2 = Ur2(c2) <\302\243UimContinuing
continuation
arrive at the direct analytic
the
direct
f3 (z) of f2 (z), ...,
of
continuation
Here
we
know
that
fk(z)
fkx (z),....
analytic
\342\200\224\342\200\224
rk i= rfcl
~~
\\Ck~ ckl
\\>
the center of each powerexpansion^(z) and rk its radius of
\342\200\224
for
eachchoiceof cx e U0, the equality rx = r0 \342\200\224
If
c0 \\
\\cY
convergence.
be continued
cannot
holds,
f0(z)
analytically outside its circle of
ck denotes
where
convergence.
4.1.
Example
Consider
\302\243
m
If
Lw=o
=
z\"!
/o(z)=
l+z
= 0
... .
+ z24+
and if M>1>
then Zr=olzlm!^ir=olzr<+00
= +oo, hence the radius of convergence
z<l,
lzlm!
is 1 and
its circleof convergence
0 =
k,n natural
with
+ z2 + z6
Ink/n,
/o(\302\253*)\302\253\"l
m=0
the
unit
of
circle.
numbers, we have
this
For z =
=
(ew)ml
power
then
series
0 < r < 1,
m ^ n, hence
rew,
1 if
r\302\273!.
\302\243
(re*r*+
m
= n
Therefore
lim
that
some
27ifc/n
lim
r10
+oo.
/o(^,8)l=
r10
Suppose for
then for a 0 =
f0(reie)=
cx e
such
(4.10)
U0 we
have
that
e,e
lim
fAre\")
r10
rt
^^we
>
r0
\342\200\224\342\200\224
cx
would
=fAew)
have
c0,
i.e.,
Ut <f:U0:
160
continuation
Analytic
must hold
circleof
for all
Hence,
(4.10).
contradicting
and the function
e U0
if
general,
the equality
region D cannot be continued analytically
then the boundary of Dis calledthe natural
some
example,the unit
4.2
natural
is the
circle
continuation
Analytic
Let y:
t
>
t g
the
across
\\cx
c0
of D,
boundary
of/(z).
boundary
In the
above
of f0(z).
boundary
curves
along
fl ^
y(f),
=r0
rx
analytically acrossthe
a holomorphic function f(z) defined
on
be continued
cannot
f0 (z)
In
convergence.
cx
b, be a
explained in Section 2.1a
in
curve
the
As
plane.
complex
A:r > k(x)
the
case
arcs, the curve
= ?(#(*)) obtained from
of variables t = <\302\243(t),a ^ t ^ /?,
y by a change
continuous
where </> (t) is a
nondecreasing function of t with <f> (a) = a and
= b, is considered to be the samecurve
as y, i.e., y and
A are considered
<f> {p)
of the same curve. A Jordan arc
as two different parameter representations
with
an
was defined to be the point
C together
orientation
set
<
in
beused
the
If
case.
definition
cannot
but
this
y is
(Definition 2.1),
general
a smooth
differentiate
curve, then we assume that
<f>(t) is a continuously
= a + (b \342\200\224
if
for
t.
For
function with
all
a)r,
example,
<f>(x)
<\302\243'(t)>0
0 ^ * ^ 1, then y is the same curve as A: t * X (t) = y (a + (b \342\200\224
hence
a)r)
each curve can be written in the form: y: t > y(t\\ 0 ^ t ^ 1.
If yx is a curve connecting c0 and cx and if y2 is a curve connectingcx and
c2, then the curve obtained by piecing togetheryx and
y2 is denoted
by
of Jordan
for
72
^v
Fig. 4.4
l.withy^O) = c0fyi(l) = y2(0)
t >y(0,0
^ * ^ 2,where
y2isgivenbyy:
=
1
r
for
^ ^ 2.
y(t)
y2(t1)
Puttingy1:r*y1(r),y2:r*y2(0,0^t^
=
= c2,theny = yx
c1,andy2(l)
1
y(t) = yi(t) for 0 ^ r ^
In caseof
three
and
yk(l)
= ck, /c
curves
= 1,2,.
. . , n,
y(r) = yk(tfc
and
y: f>y(t),
and
more
or
0^
+ l)
f
^
n, is
yk: t
we
\342\226\272
yk (t),
0 ^
t
^
1, with
fc
=
l,2,...,n
yk
(0)
=
ck_
put
iffcl^t^fc,
the curve
obtained
by
piecing
together
x
4.2
4.5
Fig.
order
\342\200\242
in that
\342\226\240\342\226\240
, y\342\200\236
y^yi'Vi
Given
along curves 161
c2
c0
yi.72.
continuation
Analytic
y:t>y (f), a
a curve
y*.
y*
^
r
g
fe,
the
oriented
oppositely
curve is denoted
byy\"1
y\"1:
Ify = yi.y2
=
f^y\"1(f)
y(fe +
a^t^b.
ar),
y
y2_1 yf1.
=yn\"1
y\342\200\236,
theny1
ofthe power
The radius of convergence
the CauchyHadamard formula (1.19)
series
Y,7=o a*(z
~~
c)n ls
giyen
by
1
=
limsupaj1/n'
n* oo
/(z) =
~~
Xr=o fl\302\253(z c)n IS reduced to a function definedat only one
on
Since this is an uninteresting case, from now
we will always
point.
a radius
of convergence
r such that
assume that our power serieshave
0 < r ^ + oo,unless
is
the
stated.
The
sum
of a power
contrary
explicitly
\342\200\224
series\302\243*=0 an (z c)n is a holomorphic function of z on the interiorUr (c) of
If r
= 0,
of convergence.
the circle
Let y: t+y(f),
let us considerthe
the curve y of
/<>(*)=
Definition 4.1.
center
0 ^
t ^
fe,
be
a
continuation
analytic
curve
by
initial point c0 and
series
power
expansion along
with
\302\243an{zc0)n.
n=
0
If for all t
in
the
closed
interval
[0,6], the powerserieswith
y(t)
f(z,t)=
exists such
that
an(t)(zy(t))n
\302\243
n=0
the
following
(l)/(z,0)=/o(z),
(2) for eachs e [0,fe]
analytic
there
continuation
conditions
are satisfied:
is a positive e (s) such that/(z, t)
< e(s),
of /(z, s) if r \342\200\224s
is the
direct
162
continuation
Analytic
then
analytically continuablealong y
to be
is said
(z)
f0
the
and
family
of
power series
F =
{f(z9t):0\302\243t\302\243b}
continuation off0(z) along y. Let r(t) denotethe radius
for each power seriesf{z, t) belonging
to this family F. Then
the analytic
is called
of convergence
r(t) > 0 by
the
on
the
defined
condition
t) is a holomorphicfunction
and/(z,
disk Ut
with center y(f) and radius r(t). By
Ur(t)(y(t))
we have if r \342\200\224
s\\ < e(s), then Utr\\Us^
0 and
(2)
above
assumption
=
if zeUtnUs.
f(z9t)=f{z,s)
the
If
4.1.
Theorem
series f0{z)
power
continuable along a curve y: t
the analytic continuation off0
F = {/(z, f):
0 ^
>y(t),
center
with
t ^
b,
is analytically
c0
initial
with
point
c0, then
y
along
(z)
(4.11)
t \302\243
0 \302\243
6}
determined.
is uniquely
Proof:
Let F =
analytic
continuations
{/(z,
f):
0
of f0
radii of convergence
s > 0 is sufficiently
^ r ^
b} and G =
(z) along
y, and
{#(z,
let r(t)
r):
6} be two
smallest of the
^ t ^
0
denote the
and gf(z, t) with center t. If
small,
0 if 0 ^ r ^ s and /(z, t) =
UtnU0^
=
Jo(z) and g(zy i)
0O(*) on Ut n l/0 by (4.11), hence /(z, f) = g(z, t) by the
of all s such that
the supremum
corollary to Theorem 3.1.Let u denote
= g{z,t)
=
<
u
then
if O^t^s.
fe,
f{z,t)
f{z,t)
g(z,t)
Suppose that
if 0 ^ r ^ w, and for a sufficiently
e > 0 we have Utr\\Uu^ 0 if
small
w \342\200\224
b <
t
<
for
0
for
0 ^
^
f
*s,
while
<
r ^
fc.
series /(z, r)
power
/(z,
t) =/(z,
we concludethat
definition
the
the
then
+
m
(4.11). Hence
contradicting
of
The
of
same
w.
f(z,
Therefore
argument
w)
t)
and
g(z,
t) =
g(z,
= g{z,t) for 0
u = fc, that
now
shows
^
on
u)
t
<
t/M by
t/rn
whe,
is, f(z,t)
that f{z, t)
= g(z,t)
= g(z,f)
b.
If /(z) is a holomorphic
on a region D,
function
defined
a point
and if
if/0(z) is the power seriesexpansionof/(z) about
c0eD,
F = {/(z, t):0 S t ^ 6} is the analytic continuationof f0 (z) along the curve
= c0 and
with
y(t)eD for all f, then all
y: t*y(t\\ O^t^b,
y(0)
/(z, r) are power series expansionsof /(z) about y (f).
Corollary.
Let
let
r (r)
r (s)
F =
/(z, f): 0 ^ t ^ fc} be the analytic continuation of f0{z)along y,
of/(z,r) and put l/f = t/r(f) (y{t)). If
the circle of convergence
denote
= f
oo
for
some
s, then
on the
/(z, s) is holomorphic
whole
zplane
and
since
the
by
reduced to a
above
corollary
trivial
case.
The
0
S
of
radius
t
is the
since
y(t)
= y(t) by the
of /(z, t)
a continuous
is
that
such
series expansion
power
S 6,
we are
we assume
r(t)
s,0^s^6,a\302\2535>0
arbitrary
s) for all t, 0 S t
O^t^b.
convergence
6. For,
^
/(z, t) =f(z9
Therefore,
+oo,
r(t)<
163
Analytic continuation along curves
42
y
of
is a continuousfunction
f,
function of f, there exists for
(f)e
[/s if
f
 s < S.Hence,/(z,
of the holomorphicfunction
corollary to Theorem4.1.Therefore,
/(z,
t)
s) about
z
(4.8)
by
r(0\302\243r(s)y(f)y(s).
If r(t)
> r{s) then y{s)eUtand
r(s)^r(r)y(s)y(r)l
if
Hence,
\\t
\342\200\224
<
s
then
<5,
(4.12)
r(r)r(s)gy(r)y(s),
and therefore
The
limf_sr(r) = r(s).
function
continuous
^
r(t)
Sincey(r)
is
p >
r(t)
(4.13)
there existsa
S
> 0
\\t
\342\200\224
<
f) is
s
<5,
/(z,
s) about
\302\243an{t)(zy(t)T,
/(z,
y
the power
(t)
such
that
(4.14)
ifts<\302\253.
function
/(*,*) =
on [0,6],
continuous
uniformly
p, hence,if
holomorphic
value p on [0,6]:
0.
y(0yWI<p
r(s) >
a minimum
assumes
series expansion of the
to Theorem 4.1:
by the corollary
an(t)
=
\302\261f\302\253(y(t\\s).
164
continuation
Analytic
by (4.9),
Therefore,
<U0=
(4.15)
fs<5,
\302\243(\342\204\242)am(s)(y(t)y(s))mn,
and if 11\342\200\224
s \\ < 8, then f(z9 t) is the direct analytic
continuation
of f(z9 s) by
>
series
t
f
0
Let
be
a
curve connecting
^ ^ fe,
power
y:
y(t),
expansion.
be a power
series with
center
co = y(0) and cWi=y(b)9
f0(z)
c0 and
0
t
be
the
continuation
of
the
curve y
analytic
Jo(z)
along
{f(z, t): g ^ 6}
and
has
put )* (z) =/(z, fe). We say that the power series f+ (z) with center
c\342\200\236.
been obtained
from f0 (z)by analytic continuationalongy, and f^ (z) is called
the result of the analytic
continuation
of f0 (z) along the curve y.
Let >>!: t > yt (r), 0 ^ t ^ a, be a curve connecting c0 = yx (0) and cx
= y i (a) and let y2: t > y2 (0\302\273fl= * = ^\302\273
be a curve connecting
cx = y2 (a) and
= ?2 {by
c*
Let
{/(z, t): 0
=
Fx
^
f
^
a} be
power series)o(2) with center c0 along yx
analytic continuation of the power
the analytic continuationof the
and
let F2 = {/(z, t): a ^ t ^ 6}
be the
=
(a)
Vi
72(0)
F = FluF2
result of
the
y
cx =
center
with
(z)
along
along
y3,.
y2,
=
. . ,
and
yl9
(z) is the
result
the
/#(z)
(z) is the result of the
A similar result holds if
to form
together
pieced
y2, then f+
along
y
if/i
Hence,
y2.
yx
yt y2.
yw
are
. . . yn.
y1.y2.y3..
we want to
Next
yl9
y =
along
off0{z)
of f0(z)
curves
more
or
three
(z)
o\302\243f0
continuation offx
continuation
analytic
f{z, a)
{f(z9t):0^t^b}
continuation
analytic
of the analytic
=
=
analytic continuation
is the
series
alon8 72 Then
study the connectionbetween
analytic
continuation
and analytic continuation along a sequenceof regions,as
along
discussedin Section 4.1a. Let g0 (z) be a holomorphicfunction
on a
defined
and
.
of
let
be
the
continuation
.,
analytic
region D0
gi(z\\g2{z)9. gn{z)
of
the
g0(z) along
sequence regions
k =
1, 2,. . . , n.
Dl9D29D39...9DH9 DknDk.l*09
a curve
Le^(z) be the
let^(z)
order to
=
expansion
series expansion
of g0(z)
of gn(z)
obtain/^(z) as the result of analytic
curve, we selectfor
cn+i
series
power
the power
be
c* Next,
each
k =
1,
2,.. .,
n
about the point c0eD0and
about
continuation
a point
O^t^U
yk(0)
=
ck9 y*(l)
be the curvesconnectingck with ck +1 in Dk, and let y
by piecing together y0, yl5. . . , yk,. . . , y\342\200\236:
=
along
of^z)
ckeDknDk_l
In
c^sDn.
point
and we
put
let
y,: t^yk(t)eDk9
y
the
y0yly2
y\342\200\236.
be
the
= ck+l9
curve
obtained
a
4.2
continuation
Analytic
along
165
curves
Yn
C\\
4.7
Fig.
Hence
is
y
by
given
= yk(tk),
y: t+y(t)
Since
r) is the
j\302\243(z,
r)
is the
f(z,t)=fk(z,tk)
is a power series
F = F1uF2u
of
=
t (z,
j\302\243_
if
/c
^
center
with
4.2.
the
fc
+
=
gffc(z)
power
t ^
r
^
1, is
on
gki(z)
r) by
defining/(z,
1, /c =
0 ^
yk(t),
Since
0,1,2,..
.,
n,
and
t
Let
0X
(z),
02(z),
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242,
gn{z)
,
on
n +
1) =^(z).
Dn with Dk
of
the
D0 along
sequence
be
the analytic
the
region
n DkX ^
0,
k
=
of g0(z) with center
c0gD0
of gn(z) with center
c+eDn.
c0 and C* is selected such that
power expansion
series expansion
0 ^
<
t ^
where
center
proved.
of regionsDl9D2,. 
the
1). Hence,
y (t)
the holomorphicfunctiong0(z)defined
points
{fk(z,t):0^ r ^ 1},
yk.
along
fk(z,0)
0,1,2,. . .,n.
f0(z)
Theorem
be
k =
+ 1,
uFn = {/(z,t):0 ^ ^ n+1}
along
y. Obviously/(z,
analytic continuation of
have
We
fc
holomorphic
the analytic continuation
Dk n Dk1, we have j\302\243(z,0)
/(z,
^
function on Dk,Fk =
series
expansion of gk(z)with
power
is a
gfk(z)
g> t
k
fe,
connecting
t0, rlf
t2y.. .,tk9...,
r\342\200\236,
rn+1,
= 0
r0
<
tx
<
= b, y(t)eDk if tk ^ t ^ tk+l, k = 0,1,2,..
tn < tn+l
result of the analytic continuation of f0 (z) along
Let Q
be a regionin
the
complex
plane
continuation
1,2,...
and
If a
for
t2 <
,
\302\253,
letJo(z)
let\302\243(z)
be
the
curve y: t > y(t),
chosen
suitably
tk <
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
., n, then\302\243(z)
y.
and let
oo
I
fo(z)=
n
= 0
c0
power series with center
curves in Q with
initial
point
be a
all
an(zc0)n
continuable
in CI.
e Q.
c0,
continuable
lff0 (z) is analytically
along
then^ (z) is saidto befreely
analytically
is
continuation
166 Analytic
Let^z) be
pointofftandletyrf>y(t),a
y(b) = c,. Let the power
in
continuable
analytically
freely
^
series
t
^
cx be
\302\2432.
Let
bjConnectCoandc^i.e.jy^)
^(z)
with center cx
an arbitrary
= c0and
be the result of the
off0 (z) along y. In general,/! (z) dependson the choice
does
not
in
but/i (z)
change if the curve y is transformed
continuously
ft. Before proving this important fact, we have to give an exact definition of
in ft.\"
the phrase \"is transformed
continuously
continuation
analytic
of 7,
* y t (f), a ^ t ^ fr, be two curves
Let y0: t \342\226\272
y0 (f) and y t: t
yt and
c0 and cx.The curves
y0 are called homotopic in ft
^
if
a
function
there
exists
continuous
the
r(r,
5) from
(denoted
y0)
yx
=
a
f
0
s
K
into
the
complex plane
rectangle
{(f,s): ^ ^ fc, ^ ^ 1}
Definition 4.2.
in ft connecting
satisfying
(i)
(ii) r(f,0) =
(iii)
If a
r>,
y0(r),
continuous
Ci in ft and
and
is
function
ys varies
obtained
the
r(b, 5) = Cl,
s) = c0,
for eachs e [0,1],the
yx
for all t, s,
= yt (r),
1)
T(r,
r(r,s)eft
ys: t
curve
continuously
by varying
terminal
s) satisfying
T(t,
y0
a ^
0^
t
^
5
^
fe,
these three
= r(t,s),a^t
ys {t)
with the variable
\342\226\272
continuously
point ct = ys(b)of ys
1.
in ft.
remain
conditions exists,then
^
fc,
The initial
fixed
connects
s. Hencewe
can
c0 and
say
point c0 =
by condition
that
ys(a)
(iii). We
have already consideredthe case that rt(t, s), Ts(f, s), and Tfs(r, s) exist and
are continuous in Section 1.3c,without,
that condition
however,
assuming
ft\"
is
in
Since
means
satisfied.
and
are
(ii)
\"yt
y0
homotopic
\"y0 can be
transformed continuously into yx in ft,\" it is obvious that y0 ^ yx if yx ~ y0
and that y2 \342\200\224
these
facts
7o and
yo if 7i \342\200\224
y2 ^ yi It is easy to derive
~
from Definition 4.2. In orderto prove
that
formally
yx
y0 implies y0 \342\200\224
yi
~
\342\200\224
^
ft
in
If
it suffices
to consider the function
1
and
T(t,
s).
yx
y0
y2
yx
7o
Fig.
4.8
4.2
U '
T(r, 0) =
that
y0(t)
and
y0 2 y0
in ft.
lr2(r,25l),
1/2^5^1,
function
satisfying
the conditions
T(f,
1) = y2(0, that
We have
equivalencerelationon
under
If y0
~
yt
=
[y0]
[y
x
] if
and
=
r
^
fe,
/(t) =
t *
yt:
= cl5
yx(P)
T =
and
different
have
curves
two
the
a ^
(t),
yt
a ^
we first apply a
domains,
t ^
0,
with
linear transformation
t +
y0 (f)
for example, y0:
=
y0(a)
yt (a) = c0
+ fl
^H^(t_a)
and
[a, b] for the
domain
same
the
with
curvesy0:
for two
of homotopy
c0 and ct
connecting
t^ViW
7o(0,
by [y].
connecting c0 and cx,then
a definition
variable t. If
and y0(fe)
two fixed points
y0 in ft.
We have given
t *
Finally, we note
relation ^ in Q isan
connecting
is denoted
belongs
y
two curves
yt axe
and
only if
Vi'
which
class to
homotopy
all curves
of
set
y2
(i) and (iii), while
y0 *n &
^
the homotopy
that
proved
the
is,
be a regionandletc0,cx e ft. The equivalence classes
The
classes.
c0 and ct are calledhomotopy
connecting
curves
of
c~
y2(t).
Let ft
43.
Definition
=
0^5^1/2,
Iri(f'2s)'
continuous
a
that
such
s)
r1(r,i) = r2(t,o) = y1(o, r2(u)
T(r, s) defined by
the function
\342\204\242s*=
is
T2(r,
= y0(t),
r1(t,o)
Hence,
T^t, s) and
functions
continuous
exist
there
then
along curves 167
continuation
Analytic
(4.16)
of homotopy. That is, we say that yx and y0
^ y0) if yt (/) ^ y0 in Q in the senseof
as
yt
(written
homotopic
Definition
4.2, where
^b. Rather than transforming
y x (I): t +yl (/(f)), a^t
t into t through
t = /(r), we could have
t into
t through
transformed
=
t
with the same result.
rl(t)
before
the definition
applying
in ft
are
have
We
from
y: t
curve as y.
(4.16), we may
\\lt(a)
t >
i//(r) is
= a and
t
^
fe,
Therefore we
the
transforming
Since
a ^
y (t),
X:
the curve
considered
\302\273
variable
the
by
have
t into
assume that
X(t) =
y(^(r)),
X is
X:
x >
change
to
X{x) =
prove
the variable
given
X
t
a
y(<\302\243(r)),
of variables
~
by
t
y in
the
=
<f>(r)
^
/>,
to
be the
ft. By, if
obtained
same
necessary,
transformation
linear
by
a^
*(r) = 0(/(t))
monotone increasing function
a continuous,
= 6, the function
\\l/(b)
^ t
r
^
*>.
of
t such
that
168 Analytic continuation
is also
^s(fr)=
a
monotone
b
for
each
of
function
increasing
t
that
such
ips(a)
= a
and
Putting
se[0,1].
r(r,s) = y(s^(t) + (ls)r)
r(r,s) is a
a^t^b, O^sgl}
Theorem
43
plane,^
(z) a
connecting
and if
In
other
curve y
class
~
y t
Therefore,
K = {(t,s);
rectangle
=
in
1)
T(r,
y(t%
=
X(t\\
fi.
Let fi be a region
in the complex
center
c0 e fi, and Cj e fi. Further,le^ (z) be
in fi and let the powerseries^(z) with center
power serieswith
continuable
result of the
be the
V(t,0)
X c* y
T(t,s)efi,
y(fr).
the
(Monodromy Theorem).
analytically
freely
ct
and T(6, s) =
= y(a),
5)
T(a,
that:
such
on
defined
function
continuous
of f0(z)
continuation
analytic
If yx
c0 and
ct in fi.
y0, the
result of the analytic
curve
is another
a curve y0
and
c0
ct in fi
along
connecting
continuation
off0
(z) along
equals
yt
continuation
of f0 (z) along a
of the analytic
cx in fi is uniquelydeterminedby the homotopy
the result
words,
c0 and
connecting
[y] of y.
a ^ t ^ b, there existsa
=
function r(f, 5) defined
K
{(r, s):a ^ t ^ 6,0 ^ s ^ 1}
= yjt), r(a,s) = c0, and
=
such
that
T(r,
1)
r(f,s)efi,
r(t,0)
yo(t),
=
=
is a curve
t+
a^t^b,
T(6,s)
ys(t) T(t,s), ys:
cx. Putting
ys(f),
continuation
connecting
c0 and cx in fi, hence there existsan analytic
Putting
Proof:
y0(t) and yt:
on the rectangle
t >
y0:
t \342\226\272
yt (f),
Fs={fs{z,t):a?Zt^b}
of^(z)
along ys. In
continuation
off0
order to
(z) along
y
In
an
to prove
order
e(s) >
0 such
this,
it
we
will
use
analytic
the result/! (z) =Jj>(z, b) of the
is
it suffices to prove that
fs(zyb)
y0
along
0\302\243s\302\243l.
suffices
that for
to prove
fu(z,
Theorem
independent of u
b) is
independent
4.2.
and considerFs, defined
convergenceof the power series f5(z,
Fix s
b) of the
each s e [0,1] there
exists
(417)
ifii5<\302\243.
if fu(z, b) is
5e [0,1], then
^(z,
that
fu(z,b)=fs(z,b)
(Because,
result
with
t coincides
analytic continuation of f0(z)
of s, i.e.,
independent
/s(z,fc)=/1(z),
the
that
prove
of
on
u
above.
t)
with
on
of each
a neighborhood
In order
[0,1].)
Let
center
r{t)
ys(t)
point
to prove (4.17)
denote
and let
the radius of
Ut
denote
the
4.2
interiorof its circleof
r(t) ^
(4.13)
By
convergence.
along curves 169
continuation
Analytic
0
p >
and for 5 from (4.14)
iffr<5
y.(0y.(OI<P
t') is
(z,
hence^
the direct
fs(z, t). Since V(t,
0 < e < 8 such
is an
fs(z,t0) = f0(z).
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\302\273
^fw
ci = ys(^)
of
u
satisfies
then
*\342\202\254lA>
**+i]>
\342\200\224
s \\ <
\\ttk\\
<
< e.
(4.18)
that
. , n.
0,1,2,..
rk), /x(z), /2(z),... ,/n(z)
the sequence of regions
=/s(z,
/k(z)
along
^(z)
fs(z9 b) is the power
Vu: l > ytt(0\302\2730 ^ f ^ fr,
and
Let
\302\260f\302\243(z)
cx,where u
=
Putting
continuation
analytic
^ti\302\273^r2>
of
expansion
existsan e with
ks
b such
tn+x =
tk <
*
<\302\253\342\200\242
r < e and
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
Uk+i'kl
We have
if f
< p
< 11 <
= a
r0
series
power
on X, there
continuous
that
u)r(f,s)
r(f\\
Pick
analytic continuation by
is uniformly
s)
series
a curve
be
center
with
expansion
c0 and
connecting
apply Theorem 4.2to this
e, hence by (4.18):
e and
let us
curve.
If
\\yu(t)ys{tk)\\<p.
Since
Utk
is
disk
the
with center
ys(tk)
and
radius
have
r(rk)^pwe
ifre[fk,rk+1].
yu(t)eUtk
By Theorem 4.2,fs
of f0(z) along yu.
(z,
fe) equals
Hence
(4.17)
the result^
is valid.
(z, fe)
of
the
analytic
continuation
that
a closedcurve,
is, if c0 = y(a) = y(b),
>
then
^b,
y0: \302\243
y0(0> <*^t
c0 is called the base point of y. If the curve
in
4.3
is
curve
base
that
a
with
closed
Theorem
is,
point c0,
occurring
=
if y0(b) = y0(a)
c0, then the result ft (z) of the analytic continuation of
If y: r > y(r),
f0{z)
along
y0 is
from
different
a
^ r ^
a power
b, is
series
with
center
c0,
in general
which
will
be
f0 (z).
If 8(t) maps eacht e [a,b]onto the same point c0, the curve 5: t > d(t)
= c0 is a closedcurve.If y is a closed curve with
base
c0, then y is said
point
as y ^ 0) if y ^ 5 in fi. If y ^ 0, the curve y
to be homotopic to 0 in SI (written
can
be contracted
onto c0 while the point c0 remainsfixed.
Sincethe result of the analytic continuation off0(z) along 5 is of course
f0(z\\
we
Corollary.
then
the
have
If
result
y
is a
closed
of the
curve
with
base
point
c0 in
analytic continuation of f0(z)
ifi
along
and
if y
y is
^ 0 in
fo{z).
\302\2432,
170 Analytic
continuation
o
4.9
Fig.
the unit
defined on
C be
Let
function
base
with
can be
C. Then t
c0 =
point
in the
circle
y
\302\243plane,
z =
>
t *
form
7r
(e,r),
^ r g
\342\200\224
t !\302\247
n !\302\247
n9
y (elt\\
a continuous
be
y(\302\243)
\342\200\224
rc,
zplane. It is clear that
(\342\200\224
1) in the
written in the
y
z =
let
and
is
a closed
closed
each
for
some
curve
curve
continuous
in the zplane
function y (\302\243)
on C. Hence, we can defineclosedcurves
defined
=
as continuous mappings y: C \302\273z V (C)> which
map the unit circle C into the
A
unit
be
disk
Let
the
closed
zplane.
{CICI^}in the \302\243plane, then C is the
>
e C, be a closed curve with
e ft, \302\243
base
point
boundary of A. Let y: \302\243 y (\302\243)
Co
= y(l)inft.
Theorem 4.4.
0>:
which
passing
<D(7t,
=
the
0>(K)
mapping
C ?*
the continuous
(t,s)>C
maps
(That
=
to a
Consider
Proof:
= A
through
=
follows from the
\342\200\224
1, the
inverse
7r,71]
s):
fact
onto
\342\200\224
f
7c ^
that
the
^
for
rc, 0
each
circle
with
^ s
^ 1} onto A.
s, 0 <
center
s ^ 1, the
\342\200\224
1+s
= <D(tt,s)
0(r, 1) = e\"eC and <t>(r,0)
\342\200\224
=
=
s
0 or f = + n. If
if <b(t, s)
1, then
have
mapping
(ii) r(r,0) = co,
r(7t,
\342\200\224
conversely,
= seii
is continuous. Sincey
on K satisfying:
(i) r(r,s)efi,
(iii)
We
1.)
and
Q~1:\302\243
[
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
1
+ s 1
K = {(t,
maps
ft
C \342\226\272
mapping
= seu
0>(r,5)
rectangle
*\342\226\272<&(*,s)
s)
if and only if the continuous mapping y:
continuous mappingT: A > ft.
0 in ft
^
y
be extended
can
+ sl*(t9s)
~
0, there
s) = r(7t,
exists a continuous function
r(r,l)
=
s) = c0.
y(e1'),
T(t9
s) defined
4.2
Let r:
C
>
be a
T(C)
continuation
Analytic
continuous
mapping
iQ extending
into
A
from
171
curves
along
the
>
from
C into Q. Putting T(r, 5)
continuous mappingy: \302\243
y (\302\243)
5)),
r(d>(r,
K
is
on
a
continuous
f
unction
defined
conditions
T(f, s) clearly
(i),
satisfying
if there
exists a continuous function T(r, s) defined
(ii), and (iii).Conversely,
on
K satisfying
the conditions (i), (ii), and (iii) we put
=
=
r(C)
If <D(f,
s)
=
C=
if
r(f,s)
s = 0
\342\200\224
1, then
or
<I>(r,s).
t =
\302\261
7r,
hence
T(
\342\200\224
=
1)
c0 by
conditions (ii)
and (iii). Since<D(r, 1) = eu9 I\"V) = T(r, 1) = y(elt) by (ii). Furthermore,
is an extension of y: \302\243*y(\302\243).If
Y(Qeil
r(C)efi
by (i). Hence, Y\\ \302\243\342\226\272
\342\200\224
= T(r, s) and (r, 5) = O\"1(\302\243)
of \302\243.
are
continuous
functions
1, T(0
C #
show
To
that
us assume that there
1 and r(\302\243n) \342\200\224c0
lim \342\200\236_\342\231\246
^ e
a, \302\243\342\200\236
at
continuous
also
r(\302\243)is
\342\200\224
=
1, let
\302\243
A with
exists a sequenceof points
\302\243ne
= *
e > 0. Put \302\243n
of
(rn, sn). The point sequence{(f\342\200\236,
sn)}
to a point (t^sJeK.
K possesses a subsequence
which
converges
we may just as well assume that lim,,^^ (tn, sn) = (t^, s^). Since
=
for some
T(r*, s*) =
s^ #
have
we
<b(t*,sJ
=
If the
=
\302\243
continuous
=
sn)
lim HC)
oo
n \302\273
hence
t+&\302\261n,
=
\\imn.O0<l>{tfnsn)
at
continuous
0,
lim
T(rn,
n \302\273
oo
Q is
>
from
y (\302\243)
mapping y: \302\243
given by yr:
=
>
\302\243 yr(\302\243)
the curve yl = y shrinks
continuously
C = 7o(Q = T(0).Therefore,
we
say
onto a point. The closed curve y is
if y ~ 0 by Theorem
4.4.
fi
Fig.
4.10
\342\200\224
This
?\302\243 1.
contradicts
1.
Therefore, T(0
C =
5A
is also
1
a continuousmappingT:
in
Hence,
\342\200\224
A into
>
from
\302\243 T (\302\243)
curve
in
# c0
^f^s*)
limn_00Cn=
points
via the
that
If r
curves
yr
the closed
contractible
extended
to
each r e [0,1] aclosed
from 1 to 0,
decreases
fi, for
T(r\302\243), \302\243eC.
fl is
into
onto
to
become
curve
y
the point
is contractible
a point if
and only
172
continuation
Analytic
Theorem 4.5. Let
7i
>o
Put
Proof:
= c0
and
y0(rc)
unit
can
n
'
A. If
^
y
be extended
Putting T(r, s) =
easily verified
to
Hence, ^ y0
continuous
yx
function
Putting
it can
C
if
y0
be curves connecting
~ 0 in fi.
yf*
0,
= ct.
Then y
=
function on
^ 0 in fi.
y
A,
^
c0 and
cx
tt, with
yo(0) =
in
is given by the
then
fi,
y^O)
mapping
O^r^Tr,
into fi. Considerthe
=
r
y0 yf1
lyi(7r0,
mapping
s) = (1 s)ei{t~n)+S\302\243l(K\"f)
V(t,
K = {(t, s):0 ^
then the continuous
to a continuous
t
^
a
s^
n90 ^
function
from
function
r^ft, s)),r(f,s)is
1}ontothe
y (() defined
A into fi, by
continuous
closed
on C
=
dA,
Theorem 4.4.
which is
on K
function
(i), (ii), and (iii) of Definition 4.2.
in fi. Conversely, if yx ^ y0 in fi, then there exists a
T(r,
s) on X satisfying conditions (i), (ii), and (iii).
the
satisfy
r(C) = r(r,5)
be shown
0^
yx: ty^f),
the rectangle
maps
disk
yi (n)
s) 
4>: (t,
which
=
circle C
unit
the
yx
and
*y0(0
y0:
7
from
and
y0
and only
O if
\342\200\224
in
if
conditions
C
=
\302\245(f,5)
just as in the proof of Theorem4.4that
which
extends
y(\302\243).Since
obviously
T(C)
is a
we conclude
r(f)efi,
Definition 4.4. A region fi is called simply connected if all
contractible onto one point.Iffi issimply
connected,
curves are homotopic to 0 in fi. Hence, if c0 and cx are two
y two curves in fi connecting c0 and cx,then
y0 :y~l
y0 and
in fi by Theorem 4.5.
continuous
then
all closed
in fi,
points
~
in
curves
closed
fi are
0, i.e., y0
and
~
yx
Example 4.2.
fi is called convex if any
of points
A
can be
region
pair
line
in
fi.
and
of
Disks
interior
a
the
connected by
segment
rectangles are
Let A
Convex
domains
are simply connected.
examples of convexdomains.
z = y (ew\\
0 ^ 6 ^ 2rc,
unit disk and let the mapping y: eie \342\226\272
be the closed
from C = 3A into fi define a closed curve in fi. Let z0 be an arbitrary point
e fi for 0 ^ r ^ 1,hence
of fi. Sincefi is convex,ry (eie) + (1 \342\200\224
r)z0
y can be
extended to a continuous mapping
T: reie>z = T{reie) = ry(eie) + (1  r)z0,
reweA,
from
A
Example
{z:z =
into
43.
x + iy,
fi.
Let fi be the region obtained by
0 < x < 1, 0<y<l}
an infinite
deleting
number
from
of
(Q) =
segments
Analytic continuation
4.2
=
Lk
= 2~*
{z:z
connected.
y:
> z
ew
+
To prove this, it
= y(ei0), 0<.0^2n,
extended to a
k =
^^y<\\,
ry,
1,2, 3,.
suffices
to
show
from
the
unit
. .}.
that a
along curves 173
simply
continuous mapping
C =
circle
is
fi
Then
continuous mapping from the closedunit
dA
into
disk
fi can
be
A into
fi.
Writing
y(eie) = p(eie)+ io(eie)
a function
define
we
T(re\")=
\342\226\240**\\
=
p(cie) +
(2rl)to(cw)
2rp(0
+
l2r
+
continuous mapping from A
is a
which
T(rel6) by
(lr)i
+
i,\302\243r\302\243l,
O^r^i
4'
that r(ete)
Q such
into
= y{eie).
Q
I
Fig.
Theorem
4.11
Let fi
4.6.
(1) If
f}x
y! are
and
curves in fi
the
fi then
connecting ct and c2,such
/?! /?2 = Vi \"^ *n fi
(2) If P and y
are
curves
in fi,
plane.
complex
connecting c0 and cx
in fi
curves
(3) Let y
be a regionin
such that
/J
that
^
y in
pi
if /}2 and y2 are
and
^ yt and f}2 \342\200\224
72 in
fi, then /?\"*
^
y
~* in fi.
in fi with
a curve connecting
c0 and cx in fi, a a closedcurve
in fi with cx as base point.
base point, and /}a closedcurve
~
If a ^ 0, then a y ~ y and if /} ^ 0, then y \342\200\242
y.
/}
be
c0 as
Proo/:
8:
t
If a
>
^
from
4.2. For part (3),let
Definition
Parts (1) and (2)follow
directly
=
of the
<5(t)
c0, 0 ^ t ^ 1, be the curve consisting only
point c0.
0 then a ~ <5, hence a y ~ <5 y by (1). Therefore, in order to prove
174
a y
continuation
Analytic
to prove Sy
suffices
y it
=k
y(0) = c0 and y(l) = clt and
rectangleK = {(t,s):0 ^
Put
(ii)
t
y0(t)
= y. Since
y0
if 1
^
r
yx
0 S
such
If p
that
= px /}2
c\302\273
px
p2
yl9
<5(f)if
region fi. Let c0 be a
classes
[y] of closed
curves
with
base
..
y2,.
fixed
point
with
c0 in
pm
=
y
~
0^
f
^
Since
2.
1 and
^
=
(f)
yx
ym
yx
<5
y
^
y0(t)
with
y(r
\342\200\224
1)
y.
curves in fi
ym are
y2
in fi, then p c y
fi.
in
group of
the
socalled
fundamental
in Q
and let
us considerthe
briefly
curves y
point
9
1,
dy.
and
j3m
to discuss
we want
Next,
~
t g
T(t, s) on the
is identical
= c0 and T(2,s) = y(1) = cx. Hence
The second half of part (3)is proved
similarly.
Corollary.
t
0^f^2
t>yo(0>
=
1),
T(r,
r(0, s)
(iii)
0 g
\302\273y(f),
function
by
1}
=
c0 =
=
have
2, we
^
\302\243
yx(t)
y0:
(t)
yx
by: t
given
all (t, s) e K.
= T(r,
= y(t/2) the curve
y:
g s
2, 0
g
be
a continuous
T (t, s) e fi for
0) and
Obviously,
(i)
^ y. Let y
define
base
fi, then
point
y2
yt
is
a
homotopy
c0 in Q. If yt and y2 are closed
also a closed curve with
base
class
and by Theorem 4.6 (1),the homotopy
[yx y2] is
point
uniquely determinedby [yx ] and {y2]. Therefore, we define the product of
c0 in fi,
[yi]and[y2]by
The
[<5]
=
of the
class
homotopy
1. By
Theorem
l[y]
= [y]l
=
y
by [y].
we
curves
fundamental
homotopy
Since yy~l ^
have
also
the
that
have
Since both [yj([y2][y3])
closed
= c0,0
g
t
^
1, is
denoted by 1:
by replacing
0
Theorem
by
y
class [y\"1]
by
4.5,
of
y\"1
is
we have
y\"1
= i.
[y\"1][y]
associativelaw
5 (t)
= [y].
determined
Since (y1)\"1
t >
<5:
4.6(3) we have
By Theorem 4.6(2)we
uniquely
curve
is satisfied.
with
group
base
and
([yjfoa])
Therefore,
point
of fi
c0 in fi
and is
[y3]
the collection
the
equal [yry2y3],
of homotopyclassesof
forms a group. This groupiscalledthe
c0). The identity of the
^(fi,
denoted by
4.2
continuation
Analytic
along
175
curves
fundamental group nx (ft, c0) is given by [<5] = 1;the inverse
of the element
=
^
[y] is given by [y\"1]:^]\"1
[y\"1].Ify 0, then y <5, that is, [y] = 1.
As an abstract group,the fundamental
7rt (ft, c0) does not depend
group
on the choice of the point c0, i.e., if c e ft is an arbitrary point, then nt (ft, c)
and 7^ (ft, c0) are isomorphic:
c) ^ fljft,
7^ (ft,
c0). We prove this now.
is
in
ft.
If
and
c
an arbitrary
Let P bea curve connecting
closed curve
y
c0
* \342\200\242
is a closed
with
base
curve with base point c in ft
c0 in ft, then /J\"
y \342\200\242/?
point
is
and [/}\"*y \342\200\242
determined
j3]
by [y] (by the corollaryto Theorem
uniquely
4.6).
/J
is a
\342\200\242/?\"*
curve
closed
determined
is uniquely
[y]
Conversely,
with
base
point
4.5, hence [y]
=
the onetoone
mapping [y] [/}\"
Since [yx] [y2]_1=
isomorphism.
[jS^yjSjS\"1]
\342\226\272
*
This
y \342\200\242/?].
by [/}\"l
and
c0
jSjS\"l
^
by Theorem 4.6(3). We will
y j3] from t^ (ft, c0) onto 7^
[jiy2*]
is because
Theorem
0 in ft by
that
prove
(fi,
c) is an
have
we
ir'yimr'yiPr^lp'yiPr'yi'n^lp'yiyi'Pli
is a homomorphism.
Finally, let
mapping [y] + [/?\"* y \342\200\242/}]
curve with
base
(ft,
c) be an arbitrary element; then X is a closed
[A] \342\202\2547^
=
c
in
fi.
closed
curve
with
base
Putting y /JA/}\"1,Aisa
c0 and
point
point
since j5_1,j?^0we have
proving that the
4
Theorem
series
Let fi
J.
be a simply
connected
region
analytically
If/0 (z) is freely
the collection of analytic continuations of/0 (z)
a holomorphic,
onevalued
point c0 in ft defines
with
Proof:
in
ft,
and
analytic
of curves
determined
curve y.
c0 eft.
center
Let c bean
let fc{z)
continuation
c
point
in ft,
let
y
be
iz) be a power
in ft, then
continuable
with
curves
along
initial
function.
connecting c0 and c
which results from the
a curve
denote the powerserieswith center c
any
of/0 (z) along y. Since ft is simplyconnected,
c0 and c in ft is
by Theorem 4.3 and
connecting
by
arbitrary
and let/0
homotopic,
hence
fc (z)
is independentof the
is
choice
pair
uniquely
of the
of the power series X {z)9select
Let r(c) denote the radius of convergence
<=
ft
<
0
and
such
that
^ r(c\\
e(c)
e(c),
put U(c) = t/\302\243(c)(c). Of
Ue(c){c)
course
on
Since ft = \\Jcen ^(c), in
U(c).
fc(z) is a holomorphic function
order
to prove that the collection of all analytic
continuations
fc(z), c eft, of
onevalued function on ft it suffices to prove that
/0 (z) forms a holomorphic,
if U {cx) n U(c2) # 0 for two points
cx and c2 in ft, then/Cl (z) =/C2(z) on
n 1/ (c2). Let c e U(cx) n 1/ (c2). If we expand/Cl(z)into a power
series
17 (cx)
the
with center c, we obtain the analytic continuation/^(z)of/0(z). Similarly,
176
continuation
Analytic
power seriesexpansiono(fC2
coincide
fC2(z)
Let/o(z)bea powerserieswith
the region fi. Let c
let /c(z) be
fi, and
be
an
fc (z) will
also/c(z). Hence/Cl(z)and
of c, and so
center
c0 e
fi which
point
in fi,
y a curve
arbitrary
the power serieswith
analytic continuation of f0(z)
general
c is
center
coincide
on
continuable
in
they
3.1.
U(c2) by Theorem
l/(c!)n
with
(z)
a neighborhood
on
along
is not
not only on c, but
be dependent
c0 and c in
connecting
is the
c that
center
y. If fi
is freely
result of the
simply connected,in
on
also
(419)
fAz)=fcM
Let
4.8.
Theorem
c0 and
c be two fixed
classes of curves
of homotopy
collection
of y:
the choice
points of the
c0
connecting
fi.
region
The
and c is finite
or
denumerable.
Proof: It
=
{yn:n
curve
y
suffices
1,2,3,...
connecting
to
show
there is a denumerable collection
that
of
curves
connectingc0 and c in fi, such that for each
}
for
some
c0 and c in fi we have
yn. The set Q of
y ^y\342\200\236
set Q (i) consisting of all
the
rational numbersis denumerable.
Therefore,
Q (i) is
complexnumbersr +iswith r, s e Q is also denumerable.Obviously,
=
.
in
a
C.
If
.
is
.
.
a
dense
finite
.,
,
ck,.
everywhere
sequence
{cl,c2,
cm}
of points in Q{i)9 let L(o) denote the polygonal line consisting of the
the points c0, cl9 c2,.. ., ck, ck+1,...,
connecting
cm, c in that
segments
of
a
order. Since Q(i)is denumerable,
all
finite
the
set
sequences of points of
of all polygonallinesL(a) is
that
is, the collection
Q (0is alsodenumerable,
List all polygonal lines L (a) cz fi as follows:
denumerable.
L(al\\L{<T2),L(c3),.
and
=
yn
put
connecting
connecting
c0 and
\"sufficiently
c in
close to
Fig. 4.12
y\".
L(an\\ . . .
definition,
L(c\342\200\236).By
c0 and c in
..,
all
Let
t +
y(t), 0
^
lines
polygonal
fi. It is easy to verify
fi is homotopic with a
t
^
fc,
that
polygonal
be
yn
are
an arbitrary
line
a parameter
yn
curves
curve
which
representa
y
is
4.2 Analytic continuationalongcurves
tion
of y. Since
{y (t):
C
it and
between
0^
t
is positive.
if zy(r) < p,
e =
Put
p/5, then for
and
t2,
...,
\342\200\224
<
tk\\
fk+1
distance
the
p
zefi.
then
some S > 0 we
have
ifrn<\302\253.
y(f)y(!i)<e
Select rl5
a compact subset of fi
Hence we have for all t.
b} is
^
\342\200\224
fi
Yll
tm,
0 = t0
that
such
choose points
6. Next,
<
t2 <
<
tx
tm <
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
tm+1 =
such
c1,c2,...,cme6(i)
b
that
\\cky(tk)\\<e
and
(7 =
put
{cl5 c2,.
. .,
ck+1,
ch,
. . .,
cm}.
Fig. 4.13
< e, ck+1 \342\200\224
Since y(tk+1) \342\200\224
ck\\ < 3e and the segment connecting
y (tk)
is
circle
with
center
and
within
the
y (tk) and radius 4e. Sincep = 5e,
ck
ck+!
=
=
c fi, that is, L(a)
for
we
conclude
some
n. A parameter
L{an)
L(o)
y\342\200\236
=
>
f
is
r
of
0
^ ^ b, with
yn
L(a)
yn(r),
given by
representation
(tk+lt)ck + {ttk)ck+l
y.M =
*k
If
+ 1
~~
then
rk^t^tk+1,
tk^f g
h
y(t)y(fk)
=
tk+1,fc
< e and
.. ,m.
0,l,2,.
y\342\200\236(r)ck
<
3e,
hence
ly(0yn(0l<5e,i.e.,
= p,
y(0y.WI<5e
Hence
the
yn(t)
and
function
(i)r(f,5)efi
(iii) r(0,
Putting
O^r^b.
0 <^ s ^ 1, on
+ (1 \342\200\224
s)y\342\200\236(0>
the segmentconnecting
=
is a continuous
+ (1
y(r) are in fi. Therefore r(f,s)
s)yn(t)
defined on the rectangleK = {(t,s):0^r^fc,0^^1}sy (t)
points
\342\200\224
sy(t)
Since
for
s) = c0,T(fe,
all
(ii) T(t,0) =
(f,s)e.Kf
s)
= cwe
c = c0 we get the
conclude
following
y
^
corollary.
yn.
yw(r),
T(r,
= y(f),
1)
and
178
The fundamental
Corollary.
a group
or
continuation
Analytic
a
with
there are among the/cy(z),
series.
power
of y
group
fi.
or a
finite
cfcv is uniquely
by Theorem 4.8,
with center
in
Hence,
denumerable number of
. , denotethe
= 1,2,3,..
Let fCtk(z\\k
m=fcAA
by f(z)=fck(z\\
f(z)
which
function
(z),
different/^
the
zeU\302\243(c
f(z)
analytic
c. Each
of an
fact
(z)
k(z)
is freely
say
that
A power
a
analytically
the
analytic
series obtained
arbitrary branch of/(z)along
is expressed
analytic
is called
by saying that
in fi
a curve
the
analytic
on fi.
of fi and iffCtk (z) is a branch of
subregion
analytically continuable in fi and the collection
c is a
offck(z)
along curves in D starting from
connected
is freely
continuations
(z) is
k
in fi.
continuable
univalent function
holomorphic
denoted byfDk (z) and is calledthe
Obviously,X,k
branch^
we
a branchoff(z).This
If D a fi is a simply
f(z) at c, then/Ct
k (z)
all
at
define
and
fi,
/(z) is an
function
The
these circumstances,
isfreely analytically
is complete
function
k)(c),
seriesfc%k(z\\
power
and Ueick)(c)<=
multivalued. Each powerseriesfc
is, in general,
continuation
ceil.
the
of
^ r(cyk)
0 < e(c,k)
analytic
is also
1,2,3,...
radius of convergence
branch of the analytic function
continuable in fi. Under
function/(z)
=
fc
Let r(c,k) denote the
choose e(c9k) such that
of
a
only
fi isa finite
of elements.
series,
power
a region
is
that
by
c0) of
(fi,
class [y]
by the homotopy
different
x
number
denumerable
According to Theorem4.3,the
determined
n
group
the power
on D.
branch
This
holomorphic
of the analyticfunction
series expansion
is
function
f(z) over D.
of the holomorphic
function
restriction/^ (z) of the analytic function/(z)to the simply
fotk
D consists
of a (finite
of
or
number
connected
denumerable)
region
=
k
In
D
is
if
taken
to
be
the
1,2,3,....
largest
particular,
branches/^* (z),
disk l/r(c) (c) (Section 1.3d) with center c containedin fi, then, since/Dk (z) is
on D = Ur{c) (c), its power series expansion,/Ctk(z), about c is
holomorphic
on Ur{c)(c). Hence, its radius of convergencer(c,k)
convergent
absolutely
(z) about
c. The
satisfies
r(c,k)^r(c).
(4.20)
an
and
we need to consider the compositionof a holomorphic
function. Let f{z) be a freely
continuable,
analytically
analytic
complete
be a holomorphic
function defined on a
function on a region fi and let g (\302\243)
the composite
regionD of the Cplane, such that g{D) cz fi. We consider
=
D
a
in
c
and
Let
bean
arbitrary
point
g(a). LetfCtk(z)
function/(gr(0).
put
c C/r(c)(c),then
a branch
of /(z) at c. Selecte > 0 such
that
denote
g(Ue(at))
Next
4.2 Analytic continuationalongcurves
holomorphic function on Ur(c)(c)by (4.20),
on
holomorphic function of \302\243
UB (a) which can be
a. For the sake of simplicity,
series
about
we denote
is a
fCfk(z)
fa (0)
/Ci*
179
is a
hence/c,*fa(0)
expanded in a power
this
series as
power
also.
=
be a curve in D with
initial
^b and y: t \302\273
\302\243 y(r)
then the holomorphic mapping g maps y onto a
g(y): t>z = g(y{t))in ifi with initial
point c = ^(a). Under these
Let O^t
a = y(0)eD,
the
circumstances,
Theorem 4.9. LetfCt k (z)
be the analytic
O^t^fe}
continuation
analytic
is valid.
theorem
following
be a
branch of/(z) at
continuation
c = g (a),
seriesfCtk
=
{/(z, f):
gr(y), then the
with center a is
and
let/
along
of/ck(z)
the power
y of
along
point
curve
(g (())
givenby{/fa(C),0;O^r^fe}.
Proof: Let
with
center
circle of convergence
of the
all considered
for
(t))
(plane such
in the
y(r)
of the
interior
the
center g (y
t) with
series/(z,
disk
be
$tt
t
that
Ut =
let
and
c
g(Ut)
<%t.
U (y
Now
power
(t))
be a
expand
of C on Ut9 in a power seriesabout
function
0>which isa holomorphic
In
to
that
order
the
collection
t <; 6} is the analytic
y (t).
prove
{/fa((), f): 0 <\302\243
continuation of the power series fCtk fa (0) =/(#(\302\243), 0) along y it suffices to
show that if for each se[0, 6], we have picked
an e(s) > 0 such that
/fa (Of
< e(s),
if \\ts\\
y(r)el/s
then/(g(0, 0 =/fa(0,5) on l/f
c
g(y(r))
<
r \342\200\224s
<2fs,
t)
=f(z,s)
s)
s
U
g(y(t))e
e(s) implies
series expansion of/(z,
Therefore,/(z,
I/, if
n
#(y(t))
on
<#fn ^s
if
corollary to
rs
<
l/s implies
the power
r) is
hence/(z,
<%59
by the
about
Since y(f)e
< e(s).
Theorem 4.1.
hence
e(s),
0
/fa(0,
=/fa(0,s)onl/rn[/s.
We call the
branch of the
theorem
power seriesfCtk(g(0)
composite
continuable in D. Putting
c =
connecting
which is
curve
g(y)
gr(a) and
the result of the
in
function
all branches
that
fi, is
fCtk
y(b)
center
with
at a,
/fa(0)
(g(0)
=
ft in
of
where c
aeD,
and can say
/fa(0)
one of the
above
freely analytically
proof, g(y) is a curve
0(/?),and the powerseries/(z,b),
analytic
the
by
are
the above
continuation
= #(a), a
of/Ctk(z)
branchesfg^jiz) at
g(P)
with
=/(z,
of
center
#(/?),
0) along the
the
complete
with
Hence the power series/fa((),b) =/^)ti(r?(0)
analytic function/(z).
of the branchfCt k fa(0) of/fa(0)
continuation
center ft obtained
by analytic
at j3. Hence the
at a along the curve in D, is one of the branches
of/fa(z))
by the analytic continuation of an arbitrary
power seriesthat is obtained
180
continuation
Analytic
branch
can
say
of f(g(z)) along a curve in D is again a branch of f(g{z)).Thus,
we
that the composite function/(gr (\302\243))
is freely
continuable
analytically
on the regionD.
and complete
If
is
D
fi
of a
initial
with
function is
function
branch/Ct *(#(\302\243)) off(g(Q)
a constitutes
a regular
point
denoted by
holomorphic
function
holomorphic
functions
function
is a
branch
Each
D is
region
breaks into
f{g(Q)
about
^ k. We
iff
If the
4JO.
is the
fck(g(Q)
f(g(Q)k
simply connected,then
f(g(Q)k,
function defined
D. This
the
are different
and
as
the
the
k =
on D.
complete
collection
composite
1,2, 3,.
...
analytic function
of all power series
power series with center
(z) are arbitrary
k (2) and/,f,
of a
if/Ct
in
of the composite
a branch
branches
continuation
fi. Hence,
on
function
univalent
power series expansionof
freely
in
a curve
along
gr(a),
have proved
continuable
Iff(z) is a
analytically
on a regionfi, then/(z) is considered
obtained by analytic
c0 e fi along a curve
c =
<*,f(g(Q)k and/(0(C)),
different
holomorphic
4.7 the collectionof analytic
at a,
is called
and
f(g{Q)k
Since
f(g(Q).
Theorem
then by Theorem
connected,
simply
continuations
some
c0 for
branchesof
obtained by the analytic continuationoffc k (z) along a
/ (z) then/dt j
suitable curve in fi connecting c and d. In this sense,/(z) is one analytic
The
function f{g(0\\ as considered above, is freely
function.
composite
and
continuable
complete, but does not necessarilyconstitute
analytically
in the above
an analytic
function
sense. In particular, if D is simply
of a branch^,
of
the
collection
all
connected,
*(#(\302\243))
analytic continuations\"
=
D constitutes
of
a
at aeD,
in
when c 0(a), along curves
f(g(Q)
is
on
hence
obtain
defined
it
to
D;
holomorphic function/(g(Q)k
impossible
(z) can be
in D, another branch
a curve
connected, the composite function
and
continuable
breaks into a number of freely
analytically
f(g(Q)
generally
complete analytic functions on D.
by analytic
continuation offCtk(g(Q)
fc,j(g(Q)at a.
4.3
if
Also,
D is
continuation
Analytic
along
not simply
by
integrals
function
Let fi be a region in the complexplane,let/(z) be a
a ^ t ^ b, be a smoothcurve
on fi and let y: t \342\226\272
y(f),
integral
of/(z)
along
obtained
from
the
in
explained
y
given
by Theorem
fi.
in
The
1.6.
[bf(y(t))y'(t)dt.
[f{z)dz=
As
y
is
continuous
via
previous
the
coordinate
section, the curve
transformation
A:
t >
t =
A(t) =
$(t),
y
a ^
(</>(t)),
t ^
/?,
4.3
where </>(t) is a continuously
all t and 0(a) = a and <f>(p)
continuation
Analytic
function such that 4>'{x) > 0 for
curve as y. Therefore we have
to
differentiable
=
same
fe, is the
181
by integrals
verify
\\f(z)dz=[f(z)dz.
= y'{t)4>'(x)dx,
we
Since k'{x)dx
JfV(y\302\253)/(0*,
a
a
J\\fif(k(x))k'(T)dT=
proving our statement.
If y\" *: t > y~ *(!) = y(a
by
the
reversing
f
t =
Putting
f
\342\200\224
=
fe,
curve
is the
have dy~l(x)/dx=

y'(b
from
obtained
\342\200\224
y
\342\200\224
+ a
hence
t),
f/tyMMO*,
Jo
Jb
is,
/\302\253&.
J>*~Ij
y =
curve
The
7i\302\273
?2>
yx
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> Vm is
called
=
Jy
then
+ f /(z)ife+
f f(z)dz
Jy.
t > yk(r), ak1
is
y
given by y: t
together smoothcurves
jy/(z)dz is defined
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
Jy2
^
>
by piecing
smooth and
piecewise
yk:
Putting
fe
ym obtained
y2
f/(z)&
=
we
t ^
f/(y(r))yf(r)A=
Jy1
Jy
that
a ^
t),
have
we
t,
/\302\253<&
\342\200\224
 r/(fc + flT))/(6+ flT)dt.
=
a
b +
+ b
orientation,
/(z)dz
have
f
^
y(r),
afc,
f
by
/(z)<fc
Jy\302\253
where
a^t^b,
a =
with
^i <
a0 <
y(r)
^2
= yk(t),
\342\200\242
\342\200\242\"
<
<
tk_
am
t
^ t ^ tk.
Therefore
m
f{z)dz=/(t)
t
<
point
F(z)
and
y'(t)
= y'k{t)
if
f(Hi))Y(i)dt.
Now let/(z) be a holomorphic
a fixed
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242.
\302\253mi}
Hence
ak.
J/w*\302\243
be
J
/(r(t))ri(OA.
on [a.6]{ai,a2>
is continuous
a4_! <
fak
I
\302\243 
=
and consider
=1
f(z)dz,
function
defined
on the
for arbitrary zefl,
region Q. Let c0eft
Analytic continuation
182
where y
is
purpose
we
a piecewise
curve in Q
smooth
connectingc0 and z. For this
write
F(z) =
/\302\253M,
j;
Fig.
(4.21)
4.14
y.
represents the terminal point of the path of integration
disk
Let c be an arbitrary point in Q and let U(c)= Ur{c)(c)
be the largest
in fi. By Theorem 1.16,/(z) can beexpanded
in a
c contained
center
with
series which absolutely convergesin U(c)
power
where z
n
= 0
Putting
the power
series Fc(z)is also absolutely
Fc(c)Q,
\302\261Fe(z)=f(z\\
that
is, Fc(z) is a primitive
is a
piecewise
J>
Since
U(c) and
on
convergent
function
of/(z)
smooth curve in
on t/(c).
Hence, if z e U(c)and
(7(c)connectingc and
z,
then
if j?
by (1.30),
f(z)dz = FM
the
integral
we can
write
in the
W=Ff(z)dz,
lefthand
side of this equality
zeU(c).
does
not
depend
on /J,
(4.22)
4.3
We
183
by integrals
put
=
F0(z)
Next,
=
continuation
Analytic
F(z,
a piecewise
ft we put
for
in
y(0)
r) is
FCo(z)=
P f(z)dz,
J
zeU(c0).
c0
smooth curve y: t
*
y(t),
F(z, t) =
P/(y(r))/(0dr + F^z),
a power
series with
center
and
y(t)
0 ^
t
^
6, starting
from c0
(4.23)
zel/(y(f)).
absolutely
convergent on the
disk U(y{t)).Sincethe radius r(y(t)) of U(y(t)) equals the distancebetween
we
have
the point y(t) and C \342\200\224
\302\2432,
(4.24)
r(y(t)) ^ p > 0,
C
\342\200\224ft.
where p denotesthe distance
between
and
{y(t): O^t
{F(z,t):
^b}
0 ^ r ^ b} is the analytic continuation of F0(z)
the curve y. To prove
along
this it suffices to show that for sufficiently
small *s > 0,r \342\200\224
s\\ <e
implies
of F(z, s). Pick e > 0 such
that F (z, t) is the directanalytic
continuation
that
and 5 and
have,
by
t
such
letting
s
\342\200\224
t \\ <
an arbitrary
e. For
z e l/(y(f))n l/(y(s)),
we
(4.23) and (4.22),
F(z,t)=
Since
that
<e
if \\us\\
<p
\\y(u)y(s)\\
y(u)
<
\342\200\224y(s)
be
\\zy{t)f(z)dz
['f(y{u))y\\u)du+
p
the
s ^
if
w
^
J^/(y(w))y'(w)dw
in U(y(s)) connecting
J
^\"7.
7(5)
4.15
y(f)
no
by
y(w)el/(y(s))
(4.22),
P f(z)dz
J y(s)
f(z)dz.
(4.24). Hence,
connectingy(t)
the integral of/(z) along
f(z)dz=
['muWMdu+l2
J y(f)
the segment
y(s) and z. Therefore,
by
J s
t/(y(s))
f,
along
integral
+ $zy{t)f(z)dz equals
Fig.
P
\\5f(y(u))y'(u)du+
Js
JO
=
Fyis)(z).
the
and
segment
z,
184
continuation
Analytic
Hence we have
on
n U(y(s))
U(y(t))
F{z, t) =
+
[f(v(u))y'(u)du Fy(s)(z)
proving that F{z, t) is the directanalytic
Let y:
=
connecting
co
fe
^
f
^
and /J:
t
*
t
y(r),
y(f),
fc
F{zy s),
of
continuation
Ffo
s).
t ^
t, be a piecewise smooth curve in Q
= y(r). Selectfc, 0 < b < t, such that y(t)eU(y(b))
0 ^
y(0) and z
t. The curve
>
=
y is divided
5* t
^ t.
by
fe
That is, y
two
into
= a
curves;
\342\200\242
/}.
a:
Under
r
>
y(r), 0 ^
t
^
if
6,
circumstances
these
7\302\253M+(7\302\253M.
J0
7\302\253M\302\253
Jy
J\302\253
0
*
Fig. 4.16
hence, by (4.22),
I
f(t;)dt;=Fm(z).
p
Therefore
=
JVttM
f/(y(0)yW'
Now we considerz as a
with
variable
U(y(b)) while a
z in
/\302\253M
=
(4.25)
+W4
varying
over
U(y(b)) and
remains fixed.Then,by
allow p to vary
(4.23),
zel/(y(fc)),
F(zf&X
ly
\302\243
i.e.,
Jy/(f)^C
is the
holomorphic
analytic continuation of the
power
function F(z, b) which
series
F0(z)
is
along the
the
result
curve a: t
of the
> y(f),
Analytic continuation by
43
0^
t
z = y(r) by w
y(r) and representing the variable by z,
continuation
of F(z9 b\\ hence
F(z, t) is the
b. Replacing
^
=
F(z, t) is the direct analytic
power series expansionof F(z,b) about
y(r).
equalsthe value F (w, t) of the power seriesF (z,
have proved.
Let
4.11.
Theorem
F0{z) =
be a
f(z)
zeU(c0)
jzCof(z)dz,
if k
casein which
t
is,
a polygonal line ys
curve in fi
smooth
and
t
in
y(t)
continuable along ys
^
F(z,s)=
[0,
the
b]
proof
fi,
put
a
t, is
^
then
such
result
the
is
of the
continuable
analytically
casein which
k: t >
curve
=
ks(s)
analytic function
initial point c0 = k(0).This
4.11. In order to reduce the
of Theorem
that
ys c* ks.
connecting c0 and
and
complete
fi with
fc, in
is piecewise smooth, from
Theorem
k is not piecewise
smooth to the
there exists
=
t
by analytic continuationof
this fact by saying that F(z) is
show that F0(z)
first
let us denotefor eachs e
ks: t > As(r) = A(f). In the
smooth,
and
0 ^
ty(f),
y:
= F(w, b)
y (t). We
fi
on
function
=
y.
along
F0(z)
k(t), 0 ^
>
express
continuable
we
this,
k
each curve
is clear,
that
of
analytically
freely
on fi. To prove
along
z = y(r). We
continuation
F(z) is a
series obtained
power
its center
at
y
the
of
value
the analytic
at
t)
and z
= y(0)
c0
connecting
J^/(C)^C
its center w
[Zf(z)dz
F(z)=
F0(z)along
Hence
holomorphic
If zefi and
c fi.
piecewise smoothcurve
equals the
integrals 185
piecewise
^ r ^ s, by k\\
0
k(t\\
4.8 it
Since
A(s),
k is
ys
F0(z)
that
shown
was
is
a piecewise
is analytically
analytic continuationis given
by
+ Fm(z)
\\f{z)dz
Jy,
by
(4.23).
determined
By Theorem 4.3, F(zy s) is uniquely
by the homotopy
curve
of ys in fi. Hence, for a given
k, F{z9 s) is uniquely
class [ys] = [As]
determined by s
0)
F(z,
Obviously,
continuation
analytic
\\k{t)k(s)\\
wherep was
defined
choice of the polygonal line ys.
= F0(z). In order to prove that {F(z, s): 0 ^ s ^ b) is the
that
of F0(z) along k we pick an e > 0 such
and
of the
independent
if
< p
following
and k(u) for ue(s,s + e)
segment // and the curve
and
A\":
rs
<e,
(4.24).
Let
yM
put
t > A(r),
=
be
\\i
ys/i.
5^
r
^
the segment
Since ys :_
w, are
k(s)
connecting
As
in
both in
fi
t/(A(5))
the
and
c
fi,
we have
li *
hence
yu
in fi,
K
\342\200\224
ku
by
Theorem
4.6(1).
Therefore,
the power seriesF{z,u)
186
continuation
Analytic
Ufris))
Fig. 4.17
obtained by analytic continuation of F0(z)alongyu = ys \342\200\242
be obtained
\\i can
of
continuation
the
Since
by analytic
F(z9s)along
//.
segment
F(z,s) is
on
the
disk
is
holomorphic
l/(A(s)),F(z,u) the power series expansion of
and
F(z9
s) about
A(u). Therefore
F(z9u) = F(z,s) on [/(A(w))n
U(X(s))
{F(z9 s): 0 ^ s
of the analytic
^
is the
fc}
+ f
f /(*)&
J
Jy*
where
~
yfc
joining
a piecewise
A is
terminal
the
of
point
with
A(fe)
result
The
as
continuation can be represented
6) =
F(z,
of F0(z) along y.
continuation
analytic
is
yb
/(*)<**, ze
l/(A(b)),
Mb)
smooth curve (actually a polygonalline).Since
the segment
A(b) we can piece together yb and
z. Calling
this curve
y
we
have
F(z,b)=ff(z)dz.
Hence F(z)
= J* /(z)
dz
is freely
and complete in Q.
continuable
analytically
(4.25)
By
(4.26)
sj/M*/\302\273
In general,
on
the
F(z) is a multivalued
curve
connecting
y
c0
connecting
and
function
and
c0 and z in fi such that
its value
z. However,
yi
^y
mil,
if
at z dependsonz and
yt
is
curve
another
then, by Theorem
4.3,
(4.27)
/(*)&.
Jyi
Ji
each curve y there exists a smooth curve ^ such that
may assume from the start that the path of integration y is
of the analytic
function F(z) = jzyf{z)dz
(4.25), the branch FCtk(z)
Since for
y
^ ylt
smooth.
at
c eQ
we
By
is
Analytic continuation
4.3
by
187
integrals
by
given
Fe.k[z) =
yk is
where
I
k =
+ Fc(z),
f(2)dz
1, 2, 3,.
..,
(4.28)
smooth curve in fi connectingc0 and c and
c such that Fc(c) = 0. Putting /} = yfc~*
center
c and we have
base
point
a piecewise
power series
closed curve
with
with
is a
Fc{z)
y,,
/? is
a
\\f{z)dz\\f(z)dz.
hk
f/(z)rfz=
Jp
hi
Hence
that
is,
two different
between
difference
the
(4.29)
(f(z)dz,
FCJ(z)FCtk(z)=
branchesof F(z)at a point
c e
fi
is constant.
If fi is
fi by
on
function
is not simply
As
the
Theorem
4.7. In
Q is
given by
FdAz)
\302\253
+
c is
f/(z)dz
f
is a
singlevalued holomorphic
=
F(z)
J* f(z)dz. If fi
branch of F(z) over a simplyconnected
F{z)
this casewe
a point in D and
(43\302\260)
/\302\253*.
yk
a
in fi
curve
example
c.
continuation
by
\342\200\224.
logz=
Jv
(4.31)
2
We first prove that this
Putting
definition is equivalent
to the definition
given
t
0
y(t), ^ ^ t, with y(0) = 1 and y(t) = z
y: t >
have
rpr?*
Writing
y(f)
differentiate,
y'(r)
hence
=
=
function,
=
C \342\200\224
1/z,
(0},/(z)
and z. We define the logarithmic function
4.1a.
connecting c0 and
to consider
by integrals we want
as discussed in Section4.1a. Let
fi
=
C*
fi
and
bea
in
smooth
curve
1,
c0
connecting
of analytic
logarithmic
Section
write
Jyk
Jc
C* =
1
the
then
of
D
an
then
connected,
subregion
where
connected,
simply
p{t)eW(t)
with
real function
= p'(0^(f)
p(f) =
of t
with
+ p(0^(f)^/(0,
y(t) > 0
p(0)
= 1
and
0(t)
and 0(0) =
a
0,
continuously
we
have
in
we
188
continuation
Analytic
therefore
and
and
o VI})
z =
Putting
= logp(x)+ iO(T).
Mdt
I
= 01 2n7r,
0(t)
p(x)eieix) =
Hence
from
conclude
we
\\z\\eie,
n an
integer.
fzdz =
logz = \342\200\224
log
z
+
\\z\\
y(x)
n an
i0I2\302\2537ii,
Jy
which is just (4.1).
d
i
\342\200\224
az
an
principal
 =
z
the
= 1
ze\"10*2
el\302\260*1
=
1, that
^ 0, 7r < 0 ^ 7t, logz
denoted by Log z. Thepower
+ i0
series
is,
w
=
logz
is called the
of
expansion
wf0
the
\302\260\302\260
f\342\200\224IV\"1
=
J 1 *
n
= {z: z = \\z\\eie
the negative
deleting
If D
^

7r
4.4.
+
coxal
X+l
I,fO
is the
0 < 7c}
<
are
given
Logz + 2knU
We want
dx,
*=0,
(zl)\\
real axis,D isa simply
the branches of logrover D
logz =
z at the point 1 are given
^
f
0,
zl<l.
(zl)w,
^{\342\200\2241\342\200\224
W
= 1
of log
branches
= 2*7ri+
logz
of this power seriesequals1.Hence
of convergence
radius
Therefore,
(in*ir
I
l + (zl)
Cz dz
using
(4.26)
\\z\\eie
ttt\342\200\224n=
Logz=
Example
integer,
1 is
1/z about
and
z =
log z and
of
\\z\\
z
arbitrary
value
=
p(z)
.
Sinced(ze~^z)jdz = 0 we have
is the inverse function of z = ew.
For
at once from
that
\\z\\e>6
l
=
logz
we get
(4.31)
by
logz
Defining
=
k =
by
\302\2613,....
\302\2611,+2,
region obtained from
connected
subregion
C*
by
0,
\302\261
1, \302\2612, \302\2613,
to determine
0<
a
<
1,
analytic function.
e < z < /?, 0 < 0 < 27c},
ze*,
a (multivalued)
Put D = {z: =
the
Consider,
z
over
simply
by
of C * and
connected
region
where
D, the
0 <
e < 1
< /?.
branch logz + /0,
4.3
continuation
Analytic
4.18
Fig.
Then
of logz.
O<0<27i,
= exp[(al)logz],
f~l
f(z)=*\342\200\224,
z+ 1
is a singlevaluedholomorphic
function
radius e and
to this
each
u
[e, R]
by
\342\200\224
{\342\200\224
1}. The
boundary,
different
boundary
with
be extended
can
function/(z)
two
assumes
but
circles
CR are
Cc and
where
CRuC\302\243
D
on
R, respectively.The
center
0 and
continuously
+ iO)and/(x
values/(x
of D is
\342\200\224
at
iO)
R]:
xe[e,
/(x + iO)
=
/(x + tf)
lim
\342\231\2465*
+0
=
f(xiO)
+
theorem
residue
4\"
xfl_1exp[(al)27tj]
+ iO) dx
f(x
r
+
into
f(z) dz\\
Je
form:
r
cr
JCK
of cells, we seethat
a number
2.5) takes the following
(Theorem
Je
I
0
cr
\\
X
=
lim f(xid)
i
= ^r,
the closed region[D] suitably
By dividing
the
189
fe
o
given
by integrals
f(xiO)dx\\
fiz)
dz
JCt
= 2raRes2=_1[/(z)].
By (2.63)
= _
Res,
t
[/(z)]
= exp
 l)ni] =
[(a

eaKi,
further
[RU(x
+
\302\2530)f(x

=
dx
\302\273)]
(1 e2\"\")
\\R^dx.
From
It
II
f(z)dz
mdz\\
<\342\200\224r2nR
Rl
lite.=
=
/?> + 00,
Rl
2nea
1e
6\302\273+0,
\302\2730,
190
continuation
Analytic
we conclude
r+oo
_
(1
yfli
e2\302\260\302\253i)
1
x +
Jo
_
=
dx
27c/efln
Hence
+ 00
I,
4.4
 1
vfl
_
dx=
+ 1
x
,
I \302\273
sin an1
Theorem
Cauchy's
0 < a < 1.
(continued)
Let/(z) be a holomorphicfunction
U (c0)bea disk
If,
ze[/(c0).
in
c0 contained
center
with
for
zefi,
arbitrary
a
is
y
ifi
and
l>
JY
smooth
piecewise
along
y is a
4.11. We want to
c0 in
fi. The
power
series
Fx (z) and F0(z)coincide
by
hence Ft (c0)= F0(c0)= 0.
4.12.
point
curve in iQ
the analytic
consider
result Fi(z) of the
c0 and
center
with
= Fl{c0).
f(z)dz
~ 0 in
lQ, then
Theorem
base
with
of F0(z)
continuation
analytic
If y
curve
a closed
be
y
put
smooth
piecewise
as
can
be considered
connecting c0 and z, then F(z) = \\zyf(z)dz
continuation of F0(z) along y by Theorem
this
Cauchy's Theoremagainst
background.
Let
region fi, let
J* /(z) dz for
on the
F0(z) =
z defined
of
we
Therefore
the
to Theorem
corollary
4.3,
have
on
Let/(z) be a holomorphic function
closed curve in Q. If y s. 0 in fi, then
fi
and
let
y
be
a
f(z)dz = 0.
L>
This
simply
$yf{z)
connected,
dz = 0 for
Theorem 4.7.
Next
=
we
yt y2
ym
curves
yl9
introduce
to
is
curve
the
y2,

function/(z)
\\f(z)dz
The righthand
is
ofCauchy's Theorem. If \302\2431
then each closed curve is homotopicwith
is
This
each piecewise
smoothclosed
curve.
want
smooth
continuous
the homotopy variant
is called
theorem
..,
hence
\302\2431,
from
concept of homology. If y
by piecing together the piecewise
for
each
the given order, then we have,
the
obtained
ym in
defined on fi,
= f f{z)dz+ f f(z)dz+
sideof this
0 in
also clear
equality

is independent
. 
+
f /(z)dz.
of the
order of thecurves
4.4 Cauchy's
Theorem
Vi> y2>
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> ym>
y =
hence
\342\200\242
ym> as
y2
yx
a path
191
(continued)
of integration,can be
as
written
= yi+y2
y
+
Section
(Compare
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
(4.32)
+ym.
2.1a).
Extending this a
bit
linear combinations
us consider
let
further,
m
y
=
Z
=
\"*y*
a linear combinationy
Since
short.
(4.33)
yiy2
ym
we define
Further,
=
y1
and finally
5 =
It is easily
group,
integer
y\\
... +
y!+y2+
+
+y2
(4.33)
integer,
coefficients. Such
chain or
a 1chainfor
curve
the
identify
ym:
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\226\240
(4.34)
+ym
for an arbitrary curve y
(4.35)
y
the curve
denote
we
. . , ym with
generalization of (4.32),we
=
ym
y2
yi
nk an
a onedimensional
1chain
the
with
y2,.
called
is
is a
+ nmym9
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
of curves yi9
finite number
of a
+
+^2
\"iyi
= 1
k
5: t
>
5(t)
= c,
where c is a fixed
by 0:
point
0.
(4.36)
Similarly, a
of 1chains in Q can be made
chain group of ft, denoted
by Cx (ft).
the collection
that
verified
the onedimensional
linear combinationof pointscx,c2,. . ., cm
eft
into
with
a
integer
coefficients
m
Z
*= i
is called
nkck =
niCi +
n2c2
+
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
Inmcm
ofall
a 0chain in ft. The collection
can
0chains
be made
into a
chain
group and denoted by C0(ft).
group, calledthe zerodimensional
If y is a curve with initial point c0 and terminal point cx,then the 0chain
\342\200\224
of y is denoted
the boundary of y. The boundary
cx
c0 is called
by dy:
dy =
If
y
=
i n*y*
Zk
dy =
We have
c1c0.
*s an
arbitrary 1chain,its boundary
by
(4.37)
nk3yk.
\302\243
to prove that
this
definition
sy*=
Z
*= 1
is consistent
with
of
(4.34),
(4.35)
and
ym let c0 be the initial point
y t (and
y), let ck be
initial
of
and
let
be the
the
(and
cm
point
yk+i)
y). Then
m
m
Z
defined
k=l
\342\200\242
(4.36). For y = y x y2
the terminal point of yk
terminal
point of ym (and
Jk=l
is
(c*cki)
= cmc0 =
dy.
192
If y
continuation
Analytic
curve with
arbitrary
c0 as its terminal point
is an
has
d: y
of
dy
obviously
= 0.
dS
have
The map
yeCx (fi) satisfying dy
where
c0,
= 0
if and only if c0 =
ct,
a 1cyclein fi. Ify is
point and cx the terminal
that
only if
if and
is,
y
homo
a
is
is called
c0 is the initial
\342\200\224
= 0
dy
chain group C0(fi)
group C{(Q) into the
= cx
hence
y,
*
dy
morphism.
A 1chain
we have
as
cx
cx, then y
terminal point
point, hence
c0 and
its initial
\342\226\272
chain
the
from
and
(4.36) we
S of
curve
the
point
= dy.
dy\"1 =c0ct
For
initial
a curve,
point
is a
closed
a
linear
curve.
Theorem 4.13. An
of a
combination
coefficients:
curves
closed
of
number
finite
be
fi can
in
1cycle
arbitrary
as
written
with
fi
in
yk
integer
m
y
Z
*= i
n*y*
If, for some k, nk
Proof:
=
=
= 0,
hence we may
l^ly*\"1*
then
assume
=
nkyk
< 0, then
0; if nk
=
nkyk
*
\342\200\224
nkyk
that
m
y
We
will
=
Z
*= i
(4.38)
on the sumx)f coefficients
by induction
theorem
the
prove
o.
\"* >
\"*y*>
n
Em
(1) If
n
(2) Let
will prove
=
1, then
y
=
yt and
us assumethat
the
the
theorem
the
of
truth
dy
=
0, hence
holds
theorem
for
n
=
y
a closed
is
for all
v. If
dy
x
with
n
then
=0,
curve.
\342\200\224
n ^
v
yx
is a
1. We
closed
curve and
m
=
y\"iyi
Z
k
is a
\"*?*
1cycle. Since ZIT=2 n*
of a finite
of a finite
If
= 2
dyx
of
number
= cx
\342\200\224
^
c0
one of the curves y2,
Putting y0
y
=
=
y2*yl
yo +
v~~ ni
\342\200\224
v\342\200\224Uy nxyj
=
is a
linear combination
curves in fi.
Therefore, y is a linear combination
the induction hypothesis.
closed
= 0 that for at least
0, we conclude from Zr= i nk^k
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
we
have
\342\200\242
, ym> say v2>
c0c2,
c2 ^ c0.
y3,
dy2
of closed
number
=
curves
in fi by
we have
(\"ii)yi
+(\"21^2
+ ^3 +
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
^nmym
4.4
Theorem
Cauchy's
and the sum of the coefficients on the right equals v \342\200\224
1. Hence
of closed
combination of a finite
number
curves in Q
by the
coefficients
If
4.5.
y is
a linear
with
integer
induction hypothesis.
in
The above representationof a 1cycle
closedcurves in Q is not unique.
Definition
193
(continued)
the
1cycle
y
in
Q
as
a linear
combination
be represented
lQ can
of
as a linear
combination
m
=
1
of closed
written
if
jS
If
y
=
then
y
0 in
Xr=
i
called
is
fi, written
^icyic
piecewise
f/(z)ife=
definition
y
^
y2
nk
\302\243
ym,
y
is
\\i
k = 1 Jyk
a piecewise
J J{z)dz=
while
obviously
where
\302\243
\\f(z)dz=
if
(4.39)
integers,
Q
y.
such that all
y=
[f[z)dz9
all
with
yk are
(4.34),
(4.40)
nkyk.
\302\243
k = 1
Jyk
(4.35),
piecewise
and
(4.36), that
smooth curves,
is, if
then
(4.41)
/(2)dz
smooth
curve, then
[f{z)dz
\\6f{z)dz
fi,
curves yk are piecewise smooth,
smooth. Now let y = Y!k = i nk7u be a piecewise
of the function/(z) (continuouson
the integral
is consistent
Jy
and
define
k= 1
Jy
=
jS
~
1chain
is a
smooth 1chainand
Q) alongy by
This
nk
curves y*, homo topic to 0, then y is said to be homologous to 0 in
y in Q are called homologous in
y ~ 0. Two 1cycles/? and
\342\200\224
~
y
 0,
y*
n*y*,
\302\243
k= 1
\342\200\224
0.
(4.42)
194
continuation
Analytic
Theorem 4.14 (Cauchy'sTheorem). Let f(z) be a holomorphic
defined
on the region fi and let y be a piece wise smooth
If
y
~ 0
then
in fi,
= 0.
J7(z)dz
Since
Proof.
be
h
=
~~ 0,
y
curve such that
also
^ 0 in
yk
fi,
as
represented
the equality
as
be written
can
y
.., p. Omitting
1,.
function
1cycle in fi.
=
k
=
y
=
y
=
J]J
x
.., q.Sincey
1,.
Z*\302\253i
m*A>
from
curves
onepoint
a closed
smooth,
is piecewise
y
can
smooth curve,
the meaning of
kh is a
the outset
where
yk is
where
nkyk,
9
P
miA=
Z
Z
nkyk
*= 1
1
h=
be transformed into the same 1cycle
Z; = i hPj by using (4.34) and (4.35).To prove this in detail, first write yk and
=
=
as: yk = yki y*2
and
Ak suitably
Xh
\\> G *(*)
ykff
hrK
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
all different curves among the
andr T^andlet/?!,/^,\342\200\242
represent
>ft
is that
curves yfc,
fi
=
^;
..
1, 2,
v =
., p. If
either ft or ft,
sequenceas
both
all
If not
., ft,. Eachcurve
kh are
and
Pa,. Hence,Z* =
with
smooth
=
Pfx
and
i mhK
coefficients
integer
=
1, 2,.
combinations
linear
are
with
integer
Z* = i n*7*
of ft, /?2,.
**
can
.., ft,
then
smooth
piecewise
Jyk
yk
are
direct
 i
n*V*
Since
curves
closed
not
all
yk
are
denote
and
and
to show
it suffices
smooth,
piecewise
yk
piecewise
that
such
the ft which are not piecewise
smooth.As
each
curve
p in fi, there existsa polygonal
Let ]5j
.., q and
ft
ftj\"l, then we omit
. .. We write the resulting
either ft or
yky, A^ equals
fc
=
(4.42) and the theorem is a
smooth,
piecewise
Z*
. , r(fi),
of
consequence
4.12.
Theorem
=
2,. .
= Z
 1 nk[f(z)dz
k
h\\f(z)dz
and
1,
are identical.
expressions
(4.41)
.
combinations
closed curves yk
If all
by
. ,
=
ft, /J, such that
/?i,/?2,. . \342\200\242,
ft,.
ft,.
yk
//
a pair
sequence
. .,
j9 hence
as linear
written
. . , a(k),
is
there
of fil9 p2,.
coefficients
and
j32,.
px,
1, 2,.
the
from
some
for
ft\"*
Z* = i n*7*can
= iw*^*an^
Yfh
smooth,
in
line
the
proof
is
which
there
that
yk ^ yk
there are
in
yk.yk(.
yk^,
\\
exist
and
y
curves among
of Theorem 4.8, for
homotopic to p in fi.
line such that ft ^ ^ in fi if ft is not
=
put ^
ft if ft is piecewisesmooth.We put ykv =
= P?1 if
=
and similarly
yk
a polygonal
fi
piecewise
/?/* if
=
\\
ykv
/\302\273/!
4A
andXfc =
XN^2
195
(continued)
From
Xv
P
Theorem
Cauchy's
Q
=
mhh
Z
h=l
nkyk
\302\243
k= 1
we get
P
9
^
*= 1
h= 1
Since
Afc
=
is
Afc
a smooth
J
Since
=
yk
=
7k, *s
y^, *y^
V^t
a
is
y/c2
V*\342\200\236
by Theorem
a closed curve in fi and ykv
in fi, and
closed
curve
Cauchy'sTheoremasstatedin
2.2
homotopy.
bounded
closed
using
Remember
k =
=
t
A= 1
Section
\342\200\224
CvX
dTx(K) =
2.3a).
The boundary
drx(K) ^ 0 in
and
y
a
have
we
=
YJCx
X
fCtk{z)
that/(z)
\302\243vCAv
or
the
by
2.1,
= Cx
drx(K)
C
the
function
holomorphic
defined
homologous to 0 in
on the
connecting c0 and
analytic continuation
in fi
functions
continuable,
the
is holomorphic
f(z)
complete
Jordan
smooth
piecewise
1cycle C is
is the
F(z) = \\z f(z)dz
=
F0(z)
yCof(z)dz about c09zeU(c0\\by
branch
=
dTx(K)
Theorem 4.14.
extendedto multivalued
Let/(z) be a freely
fi and letfCtk(z) represent
a finite
and
Hence
curve
of
curves and
consisted
Jordan
on a
dTx (K) of eachcellisa
fi.
= 0 by
If/(z)isa
C, of which
smooth
defined
1, 2, ...,//},
^Z^vCXv9CXv
$cf{z)dz
yk
region fi ^ [D]. Denoting
in
as
obtained
the proofofTheorem
[D],
of
decomposition
{rx(K):
in fi,
~ 0
:_ yk
2.2 can be considered as a special
seen by rewriting the proof of Theorem
that [D], occurring in Theorem 2.2,was a
piecewise
disjoint
function
holomorphic
cellular
y^
Theorem
the boundary,
region,
number of mutually
a
a
can be
This
4.14.
Theorem
in fi
and
Xh
4.6(1).
caseof
(cf.
=
hence \\
too,
lc= 1
1
\342\200\242
was
smooth
are
Xh
9
P
yk
the
curve,
kh. Therefore
an
fi
region fi, c0 a fixed
point
arbitrary
along
Theorem
as discussed
analytic
curve and
y
4.11.
of
the
This
so
and
point
zefi,
then
power
series
result can
be
below.
function
on the region
branches
of/ (z) at cefi,fc = 1,2, 3,. ..
c
on the greatest disk U(c)
center
.Each
with
and
196
Analytic continuation
contained in ft. In orderto define
integral
bf(y(t))Y(t)dt,
J/W*J!
where y: t
the
smooth curve in :Q,we have
to
=
k
determine
1, 2, 3,. . assumed
by/(z)
values/y(0k(y(f)),
at y(t) we want to consider. For this
a
select
purpose,
branch/y(fl)tk(z) at the
initial
of
and
let
be the analytic
y(a)
y
point
f={f(z,t):
a^t^b)
continuation
at y(t) and
along
y offy(a)tk{z). All/(z, t) are branches
of/(z)
on
>
Pick
e
the
disks
0
such
that
U(y{t)).
holomorphic
>
y(t\\
which
a ^ t
of the
^
if
/(y(0\302\273
0
\342\200\224
<
s
\\t
=/(?(*)>
.,
(4.43)
iffs<\302\243.
y(t)eU{y{s))
Then,
a piecewise
is
fr,
0 =/(z, s) on [/(y(f))n t/(y(s)),
a
is
continuous function
off.
Therefore,
r)
have
we
\302\243,
hence
/(z,
s) and/(y(f),
we
define
=
f(y(t),t)y'(t)dt.
i
ifiz)dz
of this integral of course dependson the choice
of the branch
The
value
of
y(a)
y.
f(z, a) =fy(a),k(z)at the initial
point
in
ft
Now let y: t * y(t), 0 ^ ( ^ t, be a piecewisesmooth curve
an arbitrary
c0 with
connecting
point z e ft and consider the integral
F(z) =
t)y'(t)dt
[of(y(t\\
where {f(z, ():0 ^ t
f (z, 0) = fCotk(z)
off(z)
ro(z) =
=
(2f(z)dz
t} is
^
at
f
J fc
the analytic continuation alongy
of
the
branch
c0. Put
(4.44)
ze[/(c0).
fc(z)<fe,
C0
Theorem
4.15.
F(z) =
the
is
$zyf(z)dz
analytic
continuation
along
y
of
Fo(4
Proof:
We put,
just as in the proof of Theorem
4.11,
'f
F(M)=
It suffices
along y
of
f(y(tlt)y'(t)dt+
0
to show that
F0(z).
on U{y(t))n
To
U(y{s))
if
t): 0
{F{z,
do this,
0
^ r
zeU(y(t)).
f(z9t)dz,
\\
Jy(f)
it
is
^
t
^
sufficient
\342\200\224
s <
t} is the
to show
e, where
e is
analytic continuation
that F(z,
t)
=
F{z,
s)
determinedas in (4.43).
4A
If 0
^
s^u^t

t
s <
e, then z eU(y(t)) n
implies
u)
/(y(u),
Theorem
Cauchy's
we have
Hence
=/(y(w),s).
s) and
t) =f{z,
f(z,
implies
U(y(s))
197
(continued)
for an
arbitrary
zeU(y(t))nU(y(s))
u)y'(u)du
[ f{y{u\\u)y\\u)du+ f/(y(u),
Js
F(z,t)=
=
s
JV(V(\,5)/(U)^+")
V(v(w),w)/(w)dii+
J0
=
+
w)/(\302\253)rf\302\253
r/(y(\302\253X
f
J
Jo
that
fact
The
F (z) is a freely
function.Since homotopy
is a directconsequence
of
along y
F0 (z), it
of
is also
fact
that
is the
F(z)
analytic
complete
f(z,s)dz
analytic
complete
valid if/(z) isa multivalued
continuable,
freely
f
J y(f)
on fi
function
f(z) is a singlevalued holomorphic
of Cauchy's Theorem (Theorem 4.12)
variant
the
/(z,r)dz
s)dz = F(z, 5).
/te
when
as
the
f
J y(f)
y(s)
continuable,
is proved in the same way
is a
+
J0
analytic continuation
function.
function
on fi
That
is, if/(z)
and if
y
is
a
dz equals the
smooth curve in Q connectingc0and cr, then
piecewise
\\yf(z)
value of the power seriesFx(z) obtained
continuation
by analytic
along y of
at its center cx:
F0(z)
1
by
of
f(z)dz = Fl(cl\\
4.15.
Theorem
If p
is a
the
piecewisesmoothcurve
of F0(z)
continuation
analytic
with
homotopic
along
ft
is
y in Q,
the same
then the result
power
series
Fx(z\\ hence
[f(z)dz=
j3^y.
[f(z)dzy
(4.45)
on the choice of the branch fCoik(z)
that
(4.44). Equality (4.45) holds underthe assumption
appearing
of
both integrands
are analytic continuationsalongthe path of integration
initial point c0. If cx = c0, that is, if y is a
the same branch fCOik(z)
at the
~ S
base
closed curve with
(Sis the onec0 and if y ^ 0 in fi, then y
point
Of
course,
FY(cx)
depends
in general
in F0(z)
point curve c0).Hence
J/w*i
Therefore
we have
f(z)dz
6
=
0.
198 Analytic continuation
4.16.
Theorem
on
be a
Let/(z)
region fi and let
the
i>
valued
the
on
f(z) =
fi =
region
center 2,
1 and
base point
to 0, then (4.46)is not
is homologous
function
Fig.
4.20
z=
ze,e, 
obtained
region
tt
<
6 ^
connected and the branchesoff(z)
the
on D with
we have by the
holomorphic
first
order,
=
\\f(z)dz
For
sufficiently
let CE
be
the
e, let
^ =
with center
= 2ni
ft
with
is a
have
we
.
= ^/(Izl)^2. LetD be the
\"
D are
C. D
from
/+ (z) and /_
is simply
(z).Since
(z) is
/+
point 2, which is a poleofthe
= 2niy/2.
Resz = 2 [/+(z)]
[e, 1] be the segment
0 and radius e, then
(f(z)dz = f/+(x)dx+
1
J
two
circles
y = a'/?a~1'/?~1
1 in fi. Let us evaluate
real axisU
with
analytic continuation along the circleC\302\243
hence,
by (4.45)
/_(z),
J*
be
\342\200\224
L
of the
exception
a and
/(Z) = ^f
Z
have yjz
over
true.
residue theorem (Theorem2.5)
\\f+(z)dz
small
circle
point
yjz = eLogz/2>
the negative
by deleting
then
0,
7t, we
Let
{0,2}.
/+(2) = ^4,
Z \342\200\224
L
=/+ ~ (z),
f(Z)
then
a holomorphic,
is
2)
\342\200\224
base
for yjz by
a branch
Fixing
C
with
curve
Writing
y
necessarily
\342\200\224
y/z/(z
respectively
piecewisesmoothclosed
$yf(z)dz.
~ 0
(4.46)
The function
4.5.
Example
function
curve in fi. If
closed
a piecewise
be
y
completeanalytic
f(z)dz = 0.
if y
However,
freely continuable,
connecting
* A\"!
/J
initial
point
f /(*)& + Jf/(x)dx
JCC
E
e and 1 and
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
CE
(z)
\302\243,/+
A in
fi. By
becomes
4.4
199
(continued)
4.21
Fig.
e tend
Letting
Theorem
Cauchy's
to 0 from the right,
Sep1012
C2n
C
Jo
Jcc
we have
~
Ee
hence
J/(z)</z=2p^rfx.
Since
continuation
analytic
by
J
Ja
f
point
becomes/(z), we
have
=
Jo
we
f(z)dz
= Ff(x)dx+(
f(z)dz
=
J/r1
a *p,/+(z)
=
/+(z)dz 2iri>/i
1 of p~1,f(z) =/(z) also, have
f f{z)dz
Jo
at the initial
Since

=
f(z)dz
*
along
kr
ji
f(z)dz+(lf^x)dx9
J*
hence
f
l[^dx.
Therefore
Since
obviously
y is
In
y
~
=
y
not
y
a0a\"1
~
0 in
/T1
\302\2432.
Since
homotopic
with
= a
j^Az)
*fe
^
0, we
by
and
(4.34)
(4.35),
conclude from Theorem4.16that
0.
if y is a closed
general,
converse is
but
the
0,
example.
=0
+ )3aj3
curve in a
region 12,then
not necessarilytrue, as
y
shown
~ 0
in iQ implies
by
the
above
5
Mapping Theorem
Rie ma tin's
5.1
Riemann's
Section 3.3c some examplesof conformal
We gave in
/: z
=/(z)
disk
in
impossible to
U by
find
a conformal
mapping/which
which
D onto
zplane into
in
it will be
general
maps D onto the
functions.
of suitably chosenknown
of
the
existence
theorem
following
concerning
map
mappings
in the
the composition
have the
mappings
D \"of simple
shape\"
mapping
the wplane. Given an arbitrary regionD,
a region
_\342\226\272
vv
the unit
Theorem
Mapping
unit
disk
we
However,
conformal
U.
D be a region in the complexplane C, z0
Riemann's MappingTheorem,
Let
a point
in D, and U = {w:w< 1}the unit disk in the wplane. If D is simply
one
conformal
D # C, then there existsexactly
and
connected
mapping
=
=
_\342\226\272
> 0.
0
z
w
D
U
that
from
onto
satisfiesf{z0)
and/'(z0)
/:
/(z)
D
and
Obviously for a conformalmapping/between
that D be simply connected and D # C. Since,
necessary
Theorem
(Theorem
1.24), a
function
cannot
exist
C isa constant,there
conformal
/
mapping
from
that
is holomorphic
a conformal
D onto
mapping
U exists, then
U to
by
exist,
it
is
Liouville's
and bounded
on
from C onto U.Ifa
/ is a onetoone
continuous mapping from D onto U and its inverse mapping/\"1
is
continuous. Therefore, D has to be simply
the
connected
by
simple
of simple
connectedness of U and the definition
connectedness
(Definition
first
We
4.4). This sectionisdevotedto proving Riemann'sTheorem.
give an
outline of the proof.
(a) We first show that there exists at least one conformalmapping
z^>w
U such that /(z0) = 0 and
from D onto a subregion
of
/:
=/(z)
there
exists
3.5, this is equivalent to saying that
/'(z0) > 0. By Theorem
at least one univalent, holomorphic function defined
D satisfying
on
1 for all zeD.
/(z)<
3F denotethe collection
of all univalent,
Let
(b)
holomorphic functions
5.1 Riemann's Mapping
> 0.
f'(z0)
If
and satisfying
(a), & is nonempty.
on D
defined
/(z)
By
a conformal
f{z0) = 0
and
/: z > w
mapping
> 0
/'(zo)
is, <\302\243(w)is
obviously 0(0) =
<\302\243'(0)
=
=
0.
by
Schwarz's
our
=
U
\342\200\224f(D)onto
satisfies
we have
1 and
^
\\<f>(0)\\
with
c: [/,
g(D)
\\<f>(w)\\
c
some
for
cz
> 0 and
assumption,/'(z0)
g'(z0) =f'(z0) if and only
s=
Now,
put
Lemma,
<f>(z)
^.
to
=
\\c\\
1, and
<
the case
1. Since
= 0'(zo),
<mr(zo)
and
By
only if
we have
9(z),
<\302\243(/\302\273)
and,
course f{z) belongs
is a conformal mapping from
for w < 1 and
holomorphic
1 occurs
1/ that satisfies
D onto
3.4, ^
that
zeD, f(zQ) = 0 and
for all
from
=f(z)
then of
exists,
picking an arbitrary g(z)e&, we
By Theorem
< 1
/(z)
201
Theorem
if g(z)
g'(z0)> 0.Therefore,
identically.
=/(z)
g'(z0)
^f'(z0)
Let s be defined
by
0'(zo).
sup
If a conformalmapping/:
z>w =/(z) from D onto [/ exists, then/(z) e ^
s. We
that there exists a function
f(z)e^
satisfying
and/'(z0) <\302\243
prove
=
if
5.
we
show
that
is
an
To
this
end,
arbitrary
/'(z0)
sequence of
{f\342\200\236(z)}
=
functions fn(z)e& with limn_ oo/n(zo)
s> *hen there existsa subsequence
\342\200\242
\342\226\240 is
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
<
<
<
that
on all
uniformly
convergent
n,{/\342\200\236,(z)},\302\253x n2
the
limit function f(z)
1.19,
compact subsets of D. By Theorem
=
on
limi_00/;j(z)is holomorphic
=
=
s>0.
/(zo)
0and/\"(zo)
holomorphic
function
is a
fi = C
Putting
Section4.2,
/iD2(z)=
h{z)
{a},
has
subregion
\342\200\224
/i(z),
the
=
h(z)
where
y/(z
of this
range
D
on
D and
hence a
c)
is a
is U, that
function/(z)
D
from
is a
\342\200\224
point
<x
is,
I/.
onto
in
that
C such
freely analytically
on Q. Hence, as
o\302\243D.
continuable
explained in
branches
hDl(z) and hD2(z) on the simply
of Q. Putting h(z) = hDl(z) we
have
function
analytic
two
Hence,
lim^^/^z).
3F.
there
assumption,
\342\200\224
and completetwovalued
connected
to
conformal mapping,
D \302\243Cby
=
f'(z)
function/(z) is univalent
belonging
we prove that
(d) Finally,
> w =/(z)
z
/:
(a) Since
this limit
that
show
We
(c)
and
D
fc(z) is
a holomorphic
defined
function
on
D,
satisfying
/(Z)2 =
The
function
h(z)
Z(T.
is univalent
on D: if
fifo) =
fc(z2),
then
zx
= cxh^Zi)2
Riemann 's MappingTheorem
202
= a+
=
h{z2)2
respectively
= a
zx
z2. The
\342\200\224
+ h(zr)2 =
o+
the
contradicting
<7,
=
h(z2)2
and h{D) =
{h(z):zeD}
of
h(z\\
h(z2),
points. (If h(z1)= \342\200\224
=
hence 2h{zl)
h(zl)h(zl) = 0y
common
no
have
h(z\\
is, Zj =
ranges h(D)
z2,
then
that
o$D.)
assumption
Since
*'(*o) = i/(*o*)*0
3.2 that
Theorem
from
conclude
we
\342\200\224
Therefore,
neighborhood f/\302\243(/i(z0)),
Therefore,
Hence, if zeZ), then fc(z) + fi(z0) > \302\243.
g(z) = e/(h(z) + h(z0)\\
the
function
is also
gr(z)
satisfying
<
\\g(z)\\
1 for
from D ontoa subregion
small
a sufficiently
contains
Ji(D)
0.
e >
fi(\302\243>)^ \302\243/\302\243(fi(zo))
=
0.
putting
on D
defined
a univalent, holomorphic function
=
>
w
all z, that is,#:z
#(z) is aconformal
mapping
0. Putting a =
^(z0) ^
[/, but
of
gf
we consider
(z0),
the mapping
/ =
D
unit
the
from
e10
\342\200\224
w
a
\342\200\242
(f>.
a subregion
and, since
=
tf>'(w)
itself (Theorem3.6),and
= /(z)
Clearly,
f\\z>w
of U
satisfying
/(*o) = *fo(*o))=

e\"(l
real number,
0 a
,
1 \342\200\224aw
U onto
disk
g and
<t> \302\260
0, of
onto
<*(w)=
w >
0:
a2)/(l
aw)2,
0. So
we
of a
A sequence
D if
Theorem
of functions
there exists a
5.1
{MonteFs
defined
functions
Theorem).
on the
that
subset of D.
(1)
Let
such
that
If the
Q (i) denote
D is
we
converges
and
let
a subregion
bounded
uniformly
\\fn(z)\\ < M
for all
of
{/\342\200\236(z)}
bounded
uniformly
the setof all complexnumbers
where r and s are rationalnumbers
the
established
D onto
called
of the
opposite
have
from
sequence
region D is uniformly
exists a subsequence{/\342\200\236
(z)}
Proof.
on
defined
{/\342\200\236(z)}
constant M
6 the
for
Taking
conformal mapping/: z +w =f(z)
of U satisfying f(z0) = 0 and/'(z0)> 0.
(b)
mappingfrom
= 0,
Since
on
composition,
*(\302\253)
/'(z0) = ^(l~a2)1s'(z0).
we have g'{z0) / 0.
g is conformal,
>
argument of g'(z0), arrive at/'(z0)
existence
the
is a conformal
the countable
on
zeD.
holomorphic
D, then
on each
of
the
there
compact
form
set D n
r+
is,
Q(i) be
5.1
DnQ(i) = {cl,c2,c3,. . . , ck,...}.
is everywhere dense in D. We first prove
n 6(0
subsequence
ck. For
purpose,
of
{fnj{z)}
monotonic
nn
of {nkm}
so
denote
we
of natural
sequences
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
The
and only if the
the fact that
< if
{fnj(ck)}
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242}<
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
> njm,
increasing
'' ' <njm<
<
< nj2
possible to selecta
converges for all points
that it is
let
= {njl> nj2>
injm}<
that
such
{/\342\200\236(z)}
we
this
represent
203
Theorem
Mapping
by
represented
D
's
Riemann
sequence
set of natural
numbers, that
numbers
{njm}
is
subsequence
a subset of {n^},
subsequenceof {\302\253km}< by
{njm}< is a
is,
is a
{njm}<
{nkm}<
Obviously,
{\"*\302\273.}<
For the
=>
sake of legibility,
function
sequence
{/(cbn)},
which
<
...
bounded
^
\302\253fcjn
...).
z =
Substituting
=5
{\302\253im}<
for
that
=>
we
Then
we have by
of
=>
'
*kk < nkj
=
^
rijj
=
if
nj
Jc
is
obtain
we
nim)}
the
subsequence
this way, we arrive at a
natural
numbers
=>
< ^
{\"km}
\" '
<y,
a monotone
implies
{nfc, nk+!,
sequence
Therefore,
the
ck,
nk
+ 2,.
{/(cfc,nkm)}
sequence
Jc
=
function
1, 2,
n}
. . , n,, . . . } is
converges,
sequence
=
increasing
=>
njjE{njm}
a subsequence
so does the
= {/(z,
{/n.(z)}
sequence
{nkm},
the
of {nkm}<.Since
sequence {/(ck,H,)}.
h,)} converges at all
3,
(2) By assumption, the/n(z)areholomorphic
z e D we
{/(z,
(5.1)
= {r^,
{n^}
points
the
sequence {f(ck,nkm)} converges.
n2, n3,. . ., n,,. . .}
natural numbers. Since k<j
the
in
put
\"*
hence
of
' '
number
Jt, the
each
Now
cx
a convergent
has
Continuing
{n2m}<.
=> (\"3m}<
{\"2m}<
c2 in
which
\302\253im)},
ofa sequence
sequenceof subsequences
such
z=
Substituting
n) =fn(z).
put/(z,
obtain the bounded number
sequence
convergent subsequence {f{cunlm)},(nil < nl2
{/(c2,
where
{\302\253lm}<
(5.1)
njm.
{/(z, n)}, we
sequence
n2m)}>
we
has a
<nlm<
{/(Q>
implies
{Wjm}<
on
the
region
D and
for all
have
\\fn{z)\\
< M,
For ceD, let p > 0besuch
Ma constant.
that
U3p(c)
c: D,
where
\302\243/3p(c)
is
the
disk
with
Riemann 's MappingTheorem
204
3p. Then
radius
c and
center
<J\\ZC\\
For,
C
if
'
ForCeC
while
is a
circle
we
center
with
c and
radius 2p,
we have
(5.2)
by
11
Cz
Cc\\
=
\\zc\\
<zc
=
Kz\\Kc\\ p2P
hence
< M,
K\\zc\\M2p
=
2p2
iiG^^w
of
We prove that the subsequence{fn.(z)}
(3)
Theorem
Cauchy's
have
1
/B({)
< P.
if ZC
\\fn(z)fn(c)\\
{fn{z)},
=
M
\342\200\224
\342\200\224z c.
P
which
at
converges
2(0, converges uniformly on all compactsubsetsK c D.
K and C \342\200\224
D. Since
K is compact we have
Letr denotethe distance
between
e > 0 there exists a natural
r > 0. We have to prove that
for
arbitrary
if
such
that
number
zeK,
j0(e)
all points
D n
ck of
if h >j>jM
IfnjWLkW < B
Put p = r/4 and select<5 > 0 such that MS < ep/3 and 5 < p.Since for each
zeK
there exists a point ckeDn Q(i) such that \\ck \342\200\224
z\\ < 5, K is covered by
=
K
is already
the disks Ud{ck), k
covered
1,2, 3,.. . . SinceK is compact,
disks
a
of
Hence
we
have
finite
number
the
by
Ud(ck).
Kcz
1
m (possibly
some
for
Since
k =
1,
if
An
number
the
2,. .
.,
m,
we
after rearranging the point sequence{ck}).
sequence
{fnj(ck)} converges for all points
for a sufficiently large j0(e):
have
j0{e) then
h>j>
zeK
arbitrary
Suppose
Us(ck)nK*0
(j l/,(ck),
k=
zel/^cj,
\\fnj{ck)
< e/3,
fnh(ck)\\
belongs to at least one of the
then \\ckz\\ < S < p, hence
l/3p(cfc)c=l/4p(z)=l/r(z)c=D.
Therefore,
by
(5.2),
/.W/(ck
<zck
p
<
\342\200\224
<
p
3
Ud{ck\\
Jc
=
1, 2,
k =
1,
. . .,
ck,
m.
2,.. .,
m.
5.1 Riemann ys
205
Theorem
Mapping
and hence
We conclude
1/^)^/^)1
<
\\fn(z)fi(z)\\
J+
that
,,Mz>,<f+,/.<,>,.(,>,<\302\243
for h >j>j0(e).
on D,
Let & be the collectionof all univalent,
functions
holomorphic
=
0 and/'(^o) > 0 for some fixed
such that \\f(z)\\ < 1 for all zsD,f(20)
e
of
is bounded.
To
&
is
D.
The
set
all/'(z0) for/(z) e \302\253^
z0
By (a),
nonempty.
c D and put h(z) =f(z0 + pz). Since
that
see this, select p > 0 such
Up{z0)
<
for
is
1, \\h(z)\\ ^ 1 and fc(0) = 0, we have,
z
by
h(z)
holomorphic
= fr'(0)/p ^ 1/p.
Schwarz's
Lemma,
^ 1 hence
/'(z0)
\\h'(0)\\
Put
5 =
(5.3)
f'(z0)
sup
f(*)<^
and selecta function
=
5.1, there existsa subsequence{fnj{z)}
on each compact subset of D.
uniformly
converges
=
/(z)
we know,
Theorem
by
that
that
#
Zi
Hence,
the contrary, that
=/(z2).
z2 and/(zx)
putting
a =/(zx), we
exists an e > 0 such
for
on
the
large
U\302\243(zr) of
Let p be the
circle
zt.
value
minimal
C = d
there
is,
limj_00/l^(z)is
are
two points
on D,
while
know by
Theorem
3.1
and
Z).
on
univalent
zl5 z2eD such
Since/'(^o) = s > 0,/(z) is not
then /(z)
sufficiently
neighborhood
is holomorphic
have/(z0) = 0 and
a constant.
(1.60), that there
that
if0<zz1^e
Now,
f(z) =
function
this
f(z)
= 0, we
= 5.
lim f'nj(z0)
/00
prove
that
1.19,
Sincefnj(z0)
=
us assume
Let
lim/n,.(z)
limj^^f^jiz).
We
which
{/\342\200\236(z)}
J00
/'(z0)
(c)
\\\\mn^^ffn(z0)
of
by
Defining/(z)
=
that
such
Theorem
s. By
f'(z)
{/w(z)},/w(z)e\302\253^',
sequence
[U^z^ ]
/(z)fl^/i>0,
 a * 0.
j, fnj(z)
has at least one apoint on
We prove this now.
assumed
by the continuous
center
with
if
zeC,
zx and
radius
function
e. Then
\\f(z)
the
\342\200\224
a \\
Theorem
's Mapping
Riemann
206
hence, since the
function
compact subset
sequence
C of D, we
for
have
that
assume
Now,
a)
l/(fnj(z)
is a
(5.4)
not possess any apoints
function of z on [mUt(zl)']m
does
fnj(z)
\342\200\224
large ;
sufficiently
if zeC.
/nj(z)a^>0,
holomorphic
principle (corollary to Theorem 1.21),l/( \\fnj{z)
maximum on C. Therefore,by (5.4)
maximum
\342\200\224i
that
the
by
Hence,
its
\342\200\224
assumes
a )
\\i
is,
if zeUAz,).
/n;(z)a^>0,
This contradictslimj_00/nj(z1)
In a similar way it may
We
Ue{zi\\
Since
on D.
univalent
f(z0) = 0
and
that/WJ(z) has at
be proved
and

\\f(z)
f'(z0)
least one apointin
disjoint,
contradicting
^ \\fnj(z)  ^ 1 for
lirn, _\342\231\246
apoints
=
U\302\243(z2)are
in D
< 1. Since,
principle that \\f(z)\\
= s > 0, we conclude j(z)e&.
maximum
the
= a.
=f(zl)
that Ut(zx)
assume
may
that/nj(z) has at least two
from
in t/c(zi),then
if zeVE(Zl),
\302\243,
\\fnj(z)a\\
the
on
uniformly
converges
{f\342\200\236j{z)}
hence
the fact
it follows
is
that/wj(z)
all z e D,we
conclude
as observed
above,
In order
to prove that the range/(D) of/(z) coincides
the unit disk
with
I/. From
this assumption
we will derive
the existence
V, we assume/(D) \302\243
of a function g(z)e 3F with g'(z0) > s, which contradicts the definition, (5.3),
(d)
of s. Iff(D) \302\243
[/, there
have 0 < t < 1.The
mapping
point ret/
such that
w>(w
mapping
itself mapping
U onto
from
is a
\342\200\224
t)/(1
\342\200\224
fw)
is a
= 0,
we
conformal
t onto 0; hence
^(z)=/(z)'T
^l'
t \302\243f(D). Since/(z0)
l(5.5)
1t7(z)
'
of z defined on D and satisfying
function
a
is
continuable,
analytically
complete,
freely
^/w
C* = C \342\200\224
twovalued
Hence,
analytic function defined on the region
{0}.
have
Theorem
that
we
D
is
since
4.10,
by
simply connected,
>/[^(z)] breaks
\342\200\224
into two branches h(z) and h(z). The function h(z) is a holomorphic
is a
0
<
function
univalent
holomorphic
\\\\l/{z)\\ < 1 for
defined
h(z)2 =
all z.
on
D such that
<A(z),
0
<
\\h(z)\\ <
1.
(5.6)
5.1 Riemann's Mapping
since ij/(z) is univalent
Therefore,
is h(z).
D, so
on
207
Theorem
Observing
that
# 0,
h(z0)
we put
lPHz)
Sincew
U
\342\200\224
e'a(w
/?)/(l
/?w)
0, g(z) is a univalent,
< 1 for all zeD and
\\g(z)\\
mapping which maps U onto
function
defined on D such
Since h{z0) = /}, we have
a conformal
\342\200\224 is
/? onto
and
that
+
holomorphic
=
gf(z0)
0.
ll^l2'
Since
f{z0) = 0, we
from
have
2h(z0)h'(z0) =
and
(5.6)
V^o) = (1
(5.5)
M2)/'(zo)
hence
= (lli?l4)rUo)
2l5k^'(20)
0 = /Jg*
since h{z0) =
0 <
0 <
1, we
have
the
prove
<f>(w)
z >w =
let g:
=
/:
g(z)
be
z+w
conformal
another
and 0'(zo)
=/(z)
> 0.
= g(f1M)
gofl:n+<t>M
=
fif(z0)
= ei0w,
we
0,
OeU.
[/
onto
region
connected
satisfying
in
such
that
<f>{f{z))=
g(z).
by the corollary to Schwarz's Lemma that
> 0,
Therefore ei6f(z) = g(z). Since g'(z0)
we have
have
g(z) =f{z)
Mapping
identically.
Theorem.
the
complex
plane
C, then
\342\200\224
F
it
F
itself,
the complementF = S D,
=
S
to the Riemann sphere
Cu{oo}isaclosedset. is
if is impossible
to find two nonempty, closedsets F0
= F0 u Fx and FonFi = 0.
(e) If D is a
of D with respect
F!
= 0
g(z0)
e'Vteo) = 0'(zo) > 0, i.e.,eie = 1 and
This completes the proof of Riemann's
called
hence
of a conformalmapping
onto U satisfying
conformal mapping from
Since
Therefore
mapping
<f>
is a
uniqueness,
from D
mapping
The
p2.
D onto U and satisfying/(z0)= 0 and/'(^o)> 0.
mapping
To
=
h(z0)2
*\342\226\240
the existence
proved
> 2/J,
1 +102
have
0f(*o)>/'(*<>) =
We
=
\342\200\242*
(\302\260''
2fil
Since
= ^(z0)
t
and
and
208
's
Riemann
calleda
If the complementF
5.7.
Definition
=S
D
then D is
is connected,
\342\200\224
of D
holes.
without
region
an example of a regionwith
5.1 shows
Figure
Theorem
Mapping
holes.
D
F2
Fig. 5.1
(SeeL.Ahlfors,
Theorem 5.2.
without
region
16.) If D c
4, Theorem
Chapter
a function
holes,/(z)
closed curve in
smooth
1966,
on D, and y
holomorphic
C isa
a piecewise
D, then
f/(z)<fe = 0.
Proof:
a ^
S
t
^
y be
Let
Let
fe}.
\342\200\224
\\y\\
containing
oo)
containing
F
are
closed
containsa
have
we
have
we
fi contain
sets
F =
F ail
with
=
F
SDcQufi1.
(F0 = FnQ
{z:z
neighborhood
of C and
subset
Qhk =
(compare
a ^
t
^
fe,
let
and
\\y\\
=
{y(r):
set
open
of
S
\342\200\224
y
0
 >
=F
and
have
F in
plane
and
=0.
Fx =
Since
FnQx
both
=
F and
0.) Since the regionfi
oo, T = yufi! = S \342\200\224fiis
r c: S \342\200\224
F = D. Since T is
=
Fx
R} u{oo}of
sinceFcQwe
Cli
F0nFt
hence
and
Since F is connectedby
\342\200\224
C is positive.Picka <5
into an infinite
>
0 such
number of squares
8
sidelength
{x +
Fx and
F0v
T
compact, the distancebetween
that 28 < r and divide
the complex
with
y(r),
finQ!=0.
oo, we concludeF0 ^
a bounded
>
Q denote
= fiufi!,
Since y c: D,
\342\200\224
SI
t
the connected componentof the
oo (i.e., the largest connected open subset
and Slx the open set defined
by
Sy
assumption,
by y:
represented
iy: h8^x^hd
Section
2.2b).
+ 89k8^y^
kd
+ S},
Kk =
0, \302\261
1, \302\2612,...,
5.1 Riemann 's Mapping Theorem 209
Fig.
5.2
all squares
Arrange
that
Qhk
have
a nonempty
intersection
with
T
in a
sequence:
<2i, 62.
and denotethe
\342\200\242.&>.
of
union
those
6v,
squares
Since the diameter of each square Qx
hencercKcD,
by
the
sides.
four
+ C8,
The
<2a
= Qhk,
=
C4A3
equals
rC4A_2 +
C4A1+C4A
\342\231\246
C4A
5.3
^26,
we have
KnF
= 0,
*9QA of a square Qx is a 1cyclemade up
=
Put dQx
Ct + C2+ C3+ C4, 3Q2 = C5 + C6 + C7
boundary
C4A1
Fig.
* 0,
by K
Then
dQx
G*nr
Riemann 's
210
Mapping Theorem
sides of Qx are CJ, y = 4A \342\200\224
3,
4X
4X
where
1, 4A. If the side C; of QA = Qhk is also a side of Qhk^
= (ft  1, Jc), (ft + 1, Je), (ft, k  1) or (ft, Jc + 1), then we write C, as
(ft', k)
CJ if Qhk> c K and as C'j \\iQww $ K. The sides \\C)\\ of & coincide with a
=
side Cj  of some other squareQ\342\200\236
Qw Taking orientations into account,
the
Ignoring
 2,
we
have
four
the
orientation,

=
C)
\342\200\224
C\\.
c
K with
C'j
are cancelled:
ai
c=
X
 of (2a are not contained in any square Q\342\200\236
the
sumof all 1cycles
taking
dQ^k = 1,..., v, all
sides
The
A. Hence,
^
 C'j
t= 1 5(2,= Ycy.
(5.7)
of the point set K is \\C\\ = \\J\\Cj\\. If zeT, then
the boundary
c X, we have
for
some
Since
zgQm
square.
Qhk
z^C}', hence z\302\243\\C\\.
T is contained
in the interior of K:
Therefore
Obviously,
ra(K) = K\\C\\.
We
will
that
prove
/W = ^
=
for ze(K)
the equality
i f
^o^
T^^C,
2ni)ctz
holds.Thefunction/ is holomorphic
ze
z e gA for some square
then
we
have
by
Qx
Integral formula
by Cauchy's
(Theorem 2.4)
\342\226\240
r
/(2)
and
on D by assumption and K c
a K. If z belongs to the interiorof (?A
D.If
(z)
(K),
(5.8)
ze(IC)
po\302\253
Theorem
Cauchy's
(Theorem 2.2)
27t'Jec\302\273^_z
Therefore,
by
(5.7) and
(4.40),
/it'^TTlJ^CZ
that
is,
equality
(5.8) holds
27ClJcC~Z
if z belongsto the interiorof Qx.The
integral
on
of
z on (K) by
the righthand
function
side of (5.8) is a holomorphic
of z. Therefore
function
Theorem 1.17, and thereforea continuous
(5.8) is
also valid if z is a point on the boundary of the squareQx.
Since
(5.8)
y cz T cz (X), we obtain from
i^lH^
5.1 Riemann's Mapping
211
Theorem
Therefore
I'w*2bJ>\302\253f\302\243=
Putting
the
region ft
^(dz/iCz)2).
Since y
of
function

=
</,'(\302\243)
on
(
\342\200\224
cC
{oo}
is
*J/(Q is a
function
the
\\y(dz/{^z)\\
^(\302\243)
\342\200\224
\\y\\
by
we have by
closed,
holomorphic
Theorem
and
1.17
(1.30)
\342\204\242Is(\302\243)*a
Therefore ^r(C)
region Q \342\200\224
{oo},
on the
constant
is
conclude that ^(0 = 0 identically
We
an
with
point
arbitrary
uniquely determined by
in D
curve
another
If y
zeros.
zeD, the
of
value
the
z and
Writing
a holomorphic
choiceof y.
*/? is
y\"
we
f'(z) \302\253fc
=
J,. f(z)
as
j;(/'(z)//(z))rfz
= 0.
= 0.
\\yf{z)dz
J* (f'(z)/f(z))dz
integral
of the
on D,
Since,moreover,/'^)//(z)is holomorphic
hm
\342\200\236
^(Q
piecewise smoothcurveconnectingz0
is independent
connecting z0 and z, then
],m
and/(z)
z0eD
holes,
is a
lim(_
Hence
onfl{oo}.
Now let D c C bea regionwithout
function on D without
while
a closed
have,
For,
if
is
f} is
curve in D.
by Theorem
5.2,
0.
function
the
J^(/'(z)//(z))\302\253iz,
/(z)
is a
holomorphic
hence
=
d(el{z)/f(z))/dz
on
defined
function
D. By
=f'(z)/f(z),
and since/(z0) = 0
(4.26), dl(z)/dz
e*{z)/f(z) is constant
0. Therefore
we conclude
/Uo)'
Selectingan arbitrary
value
of
log/(z0)
we have
exp[/(z) + log/(z0)]=/(z),
that
the
is,
holomorphic
analytic
multiplevalued
In
the
above
holomorphic
proof
only
/(z) +
function
log/(z).
of Riemann's
to show that
branches
over
log/(z0) is a branch over D of the
Hence
+ log/(z0).
= f
^dz
log/(z)
connected
function
(5.9)
Mapping Theorem we assumedDis simply
a) and
y/ [^(z) ] have two singlevalued
D each. Therefore, this assumption can be
J (z
212
by the
replaced
and
's
Riemann
branches
assumption
zeros
without
and
h{z)
that
on
for
D, yj[f(z)~\\
\342\200\224
D. If D
h{z) over
in (5.9),
as occurring
Theorem
Mapping
each
that is
function/(z)
has two
holomorphic
singlevalued,holomorphic
c Cis a regionwithout
log/(z),
holes,
is a singlevalued,
function
holomorphic
on
D and
holomorphic
exp [log/(z) ] =/(z). Hencey/[f{z)] has two singlevalued
the
branches h(z) = exp [logf(z) ]/2 and  h(z) over D. Therefore
following
holds.
theorem
C is a region without
holes and z0
5.3. If D \302\243
z>w= /(z),
there exists exactly one conformalmapping/:
=
0 and/'(z0) > 0.
and
unit
disk
satisfies/(z0)
Theorem
As
stated
above,
disk U, then
if there
D is simply
A region
Corollary.
exists a conformalmappingfrom
connected.
in D, then
a point
from
D onto
the
the unit
D onto
Hence,
without holes in the complexplane
is
simply
connected.
This fact
follows directlyfrom
For, suppose
that
the
complement
equality
with
(5.8)
in the
respect
proof of Theorem 5.2.
to S =
Cu {oo}of
the
c C is the disjoint union
of two
nonempty
simply
region
\342\200\224
=
closed sets F0 and Fx, i.e.,S E
F0 u Ft and F0nF1 = 0. If oo e F0,
of C. Letting
then Fx is a bounded closedsubset
F0yFu and E\\jFx play the
in the proof of Theorem5.2,we
role of F,T, and D, respectively,
occurring
for an
find
that
there exists a 1cycle C such that
(5.8) holds
equality
\342\200\224
an
is
and
function
that
on
S
F0
arbitrary
arbitrary point
holomorphic
zeFx.
E
connected
Putting/(z) = 1,we
get
(510)
\342\200\242ssIfj*
of homology
By Theorem 4.13 and the definition
(Definition
4.5) all 1cycles
E. Therefore (5.10)
are homologousto 0 on a simply connected
region
contradicts Cauchy's Theorem(Theorem4.14).
a region without holes in C as a simply
Ahlfors
has
defined
connected
L.
Section
Definition
that
definition,
Ahlfors, 1966,
4.2,
(see
1). By
region
In order to prove that
Theorem.
Theorem 5.3 becomesRiemann'sMapping
\342\200\224
D
over
have two singlevalued holomorphicbranches
y/(z a) and yj[^(z)]
in the proof of Riemann's Mapping Theoremwe used
the Monodromy
was not used
Theorem (Theorem 4.3). Note that the Monodromy
Theorem
for the proof of Theorem5.3.
5.1
If the
is
boundary C ofa bounded
For, suppose S
and
Fx
C
Since
with
Fx.
DuF0,F
Fi
C u
{oo}
0. It
<=
F0;
= DuCuF0
\342\200\224
=
D
to
suffices
F0 =
that
prove
closed sets F0
0 or Fj = 0.
connected closed set, we have C c F0 or
the case C c: Fx is treated
similarly.
Putting
= [D] F0 is a closed set and S = F u Fx
u
conclude
0.
Hence, by the above corollary,if the
connectedclosedset,
DcCisa
the
for some
F0kjFx
closedset,we
Since S is of coursea connected
=0.
F nFt
c C is a connectedclosedset,D
is a
\342\200\224
F =
=
=
DczFqvFx
[D]
Let us assume C
C cz
and
\342\200\224
D =
F0nFt
=
D
region
213
Theorem
Mapping
holes.
without
a region
's
Riemann
the closed
C of
boundary
C of
boundary
D is
then
simply
a bounded
region
In particular,
connected.
region D is a Jordancurve,
D is
then
if
simply
connected.
C and
A
Theorem 5.4. IfD \302\243
C e A, and the angle 0 are given,
mapping/:
z+\302\243=/(.?)
exists
there
A that
onto
=
satisfies/(z0)
and
Co
By Riemann's Theorem there existsone conformal
mapping
disk
U that satisfies g(z0) = 0 and
#(z) from D onto the unit
Proof:
z
then
D
from
regions and z0 e D,
exactly one conformal
connected
simply
= 0.
argAzo)
g:
C are
\302\243
\342\226\272
w =
g'{z0)> 0
and
conformal
one
mapping
h:
+
\302\243 w
=
satisfies fi(C0)
and fc'(Co)> 0. Putting <\302\243(w)=
conformal mapping from U onto itselfthat satisfies
= 0
f=hlo<t>og:z>i;=f(z)
is a conformal
mapping
from
D
A onto
from
fi(\302\243)
ei0w,
=
<\302\243(0)
[/ that
a
<j)(w) is
w>
<j):
0. Hence
= hl(ewg(z))
onto A and satisfies f{z0) =
h~1(0)
=
\302\2430:
\\h
A
u\342\200\224>u
both
Differentiating
and putting z
=
h'(i;o)f'(zo)
z0
sides
of the
equality h(f(z)) =
yields
= eieg'(z0).
Therefore
f'{z0) = \\f(zo)\\ei9,
thatis,arg/'(zo)
= 0.
/'(z0)l = ^,
\"
(Co)
ewg(z)
with
respect
to z
Riemann 's MappingTheorem
214
Iff:
then
z>\302\243
=
(j)
is a
=f(z)
h of
=
so
eww,
the
Regions D and
A
each
with
other
(0,
maps 0
each other are
regions
equivalent
Conformally
can be
as the analytic functions on theseregions
C are
5.4, all simply connectedregionsD \302\243
as far
By Theorem
equivalent.
Correspondence of boundaries
Let D and A
be
connected
simply
their respectiveboundaries.
There
the question of what
conformal
mapping
kind
that
assume
both
are
D and
and let C and T be
results known pertaining to
between C and T is inducedby
regions
several
of correspondence
between
problem depends on the
we
mapped onto
be conformally
equivalent.
concerned.
conformally
a
U that
onto
Lemma, we have </>: w > </>(w)
conclude
that there exists only one conformal
= 0.
and z0 onto Co that satisfies
arg/'(z0)
can
that
A
conformally
5.2
z0 onto
to Schwarz's
corollary
onto
D
called
identified
1/
and
0 = arg /'(z0). We
mapping from
are
D onto A
conformal mapping from
<>g~x is a
onto 0. Hence,by
mapping from
conformal
A.
The
in C
degree
of difficulty
of this
on C and F. In this paragraph
imposed
T are piecewise
smoothJordancurves.
restrictions
C and
C of a bounded regionD is a piecewise smooth Jordan
boundary
= DuC
D
is
then
the
interiorof its closure
curve,
[D]
of [D]; then Q is a region.Since
To see this, let Q representthe interior
3
3
Q
0
the
D,
[D]
assumption DgQ impliesC n fi ^ 0. Let y: t \342\226\272
y(r),
=
that
^ t ^ 1 with
y(0)
y(l), be a parameter representation of C such
is an a, 0 < a < 1, such
a
There
0
t
<
that
for
and
^
y(0)e\302\243l.
y(t)eQ,
\342\226\272
f
C
We
divide
into two Jordan curves,Cx:
0 ^ t ^ a, and
y(a)\302\243fi.
y(f),
there
C2: f > y (0, a ^ t ^ 1. Since C is a piecewisesmooth by assumption,
exists a sufficiently small d > 0 such
for all r, 0 < r ^ 5, the
that
circle
/r
with center a and radius r intersectsCt as well
as C2 in exactly one point
If
the
Fig.
5.4
5.2
[ft] 
boundary
its
minus
of intersection,
point
Section 1.3a);henceUs{y(a))
turns
y(a)$Q
the
contradicting
fact
the interior of [D].
So,if
Jordan
the
boundary
putting
A
C =
mapping
such
that
(j3) e
Xr
the bounded
the interior of
in ft (see
smooth
region D is a piecewise
=
C
hence
have
we
= C
D
[Z>]
[D]
\342\200\224
D is
(see Definition2.2).
setin C onetooneontoanotherpoint
both / and its inverse mapping are continuous
is
a point
/ from
the
C and
orienting
Therefore,
d[D],
circle
ft, the
is contained
C2,
[D],
bounded closedregion[D].
of the
and
the
the
Therefore,
ft. Therefore
C2
D is
then
(a)}
{y
region
with
Ar(a),
\342\200\224c=
C of
boundary
curve,
is a
ft.
<=:
id D,
ft
[t/a(y(fl))C2] c: [ft].
out to be in an interior point of [ft] = [D],
D = ft, i.e., D is
that ft is the interior of [D].Therefore
IVsivia))] =
Hence
Q
of ft is a subsetof C2.Sinceft
boundary
Ar
of
ft
[ft] = [D] and
(see Section 2.1b). Since
ft is a subset of C and
Ar(a)
respectively
Ar(/S),
215
of boundaries
Correspondence
in C
set
called
a
homeomorphism.
6, Section 4). Let D and A be
Chapter
=
>
D
z
be
a conformal mapping from
\302\243f{z)
let/:
regions
A. If the boundaries of D and A are piecewise
onto
Jordan curves,
smooth
to a homeomorphism/from
the conformalmapping/can beextended
[D]
onto [A]. The mapping / maps the boundary
C = d[D] of D onto the
Theorem 5.5
(see Hurwitz,
boundary
Proof:
1929,
in C and
bounded
T
=
of
d[A]
(1)By
way
A
orientations:
preserving
let us first
of preparation
of a point qeC. Lety:
neighborhood
t \342\226\272
y (f),
a parameterrepresentation
ofthe piecewise
=
< a < 1. Let
for
0
some
a
with
y(a)
q
=
Ar:0Ar(0)
represent the
for
circlewith
0 all circlesAr
two points Ar(a)
this
for
a point y{a)
proved
obviously
same
course,a =
will examine
a(r),
/?
result
=
/?(r),
0 ^
smooth
radius r. We
q and
center
C in exactly
the
consider
what
in the
happens
with y(0)
curve
Jordan
\302\253?
^ 1
= y(l) be
C and put
r^
(? +
small d >
a sufficiently
= T.
/(C)
=
=
y(w),
y(ak)9
holds also
m
=
the properties of
u(r)
with
u >
0 <
a, and
where
saw in Section2.1bthat
r ^
<5
Ar(/?)
the curve
intersect
=
the
y{v), v <
curve
a. (We
C is not smooth;
for points y {a) where C is smooth.) Of
of r. We
and i; = v(r) are all functions
these functions below.
216
's
Riemann
Theorem
Mapping
Fig. 5.5
As stated
earlier, y(t) \342\200\224
q\\ is
increasing
the closed
t on
of
function
is determined by the
u== u(r)
function
f = w(r) is the
inversefunction
is a continuously differentiable,
closed interval
and
[0,5]
9+
hence
q=
y(a)
=
function
the
of
monotone
u'(r) > 0.
=
r^\302\253W=Ar(a(r))
is a
a(r)
interval [a, a + k] for
yM\302\253l>*
^lr(09l>a
The
differentiable, monotone
k > 0 and
some
a continuously
equation \\y(u)
r =
\342\200\224
=
r, i.e.,
y(r) \342\200\224
q . Therefore,
w(r)
of r on
function
increasing
The function
q\\
a(r)
is determined
the
by
y(ti(r)),
r.
of
function
differentiable
continuously
Since
we have
y(u(0)),
lim e'a<r>= lim
r* +0
r+ + 0
Since ((dy(t)gl)/A),=
y^Uir))~q =
y'(a)u'(0).
+o
r
=
y'(a)
by (2.16),
we
have
u'(0)
=
l/y'(\302\253).
Hence
lim
r+0
/(fl)
\302\253*\302\273
/(fl)
a(0) = limr +0
This proves that
y'(a). Hencea(r)
the
right
is a
derivative
exists
a(r)
of r on
function
continuous
D*y(a) of y(t) at
t
and
equals
the argument of
[0, S'].Here,y'{a)
denotes
= a.
\342\200\224
interval
<5,0]
/?(r) is a continuousfunction ofr on the closed
[
~
=
and j8 (0) \342\200\224
7i equals
n if
the left derivative D y (a). Therefore,
+
<x(0)
/J (0)
C is smooth at y (a) and /3(0) # a(0) + 7i if C is not smooth at y(a). Since
Similarly,
A,nD =
{Ar(0):
a(r)
<
6 <
P(r)}
(5.11)
5.2 Correspondenceof boundaries 217
have
we
=
Ud(q)nD
<
rem: 0 < r
{q +
<5,
< 6
a(r)
< )8(r)},
(5.12)
with center q and radius S. HenceUd(q)nD
is a
a
set.
connected
open
region
We
want
is uniformly
to prove that the holomorphic function
(2)
f(z)
on D, that is for each e > 0 there existsa S(e) > 0 such that if
continuous
where Ud(q)
disk
the
is
and therefore
<
zw
on D.Letus
a
(5.13)
not uniformly continuous on Dand deduce
continuous
on
/(z) is not uniformly
by assumption,
for each natural
that
number m there are zm
there exists an e0 > 0 such
Since
such
and wmeD
that
<
kmWm
SinceDand A
are
and {/(ww)}are bounded
bounded
every
sequence possessesa
it is possible to find
a sequence
Therefore,
{mn},
\342\200\242
< \342\200\242
of natural
numbers
such that all subsequences
\342\200\242,
sequences.
subsequence.
and
{zm\342\200\236}>
{wm.}\302\273{/(zm.)}\302\273
1
Hence,
{zm}, {vvm}, {/(zm)},
bounded,
convergent
rewriting
that
are
{/(wm\342\200\236)}
~
m\"1
\"\302\273
zn
and
zm>
as zn,
wm
zn
lim
n * oo
have
we
wn,
(514)
Hence
and
are convergent.
{/(wn)}
Since
we put
wn.
then
geD;
Suppose
(5.14).
contradicting
{/(zn)},
w\342\200\236
by
(5.14),
=
oo
n\302\273
qe[_U].
respectively
\\f(zm)f(wm)\\Zso,
lim^^
q = lim
have
m,^nwe
n
and the sequences{z\342\200\236},
{vvn},
lim^^
Since
convergent.
m\342\200\236
\\znwn\\<,
=
^ Co
l/(Zm)/K.)
1M
is wellknown
It
Now,
< e
/(z)/(w)
f{z) is
that
assume
contradiction.
D,
then
(5(e),
qed[D]
\\im\342\200\236^aaf(zn)
= C.
We
put
=
\\im\342\200\236^00f{wn)=f(q),
\302\243\342\200\236
=/(z\342\200\236),C!>\342\200\236
=/(w\342\200\236),
and
P =
lim
n*oo
Now
Pe[A].
=
Hm
C\342\200\236
n \302\273oo
Suppose
f(zn),
PeA,
Q = lim
=
lim
co\342\200\236
n\302\273oo
n*oo
then q =
limn^GOzn
=
/(w\342\200\236).
=
lim^^/\"1^)
A conformally
since the inverse map /\"* of/ maps
f~1(P)eD
PeT and similarly QeF.
that
contradicting qeC. We conclude
onto
By
D,
(5.14)
PQ^eo>0.
sufficiently small p, 0 < p <
l/p(P)r\302\273A
= P and
lim^^o),,
regions by (1). Since lim.,<*>\302\243\342\200\236
For
e0/3,
and
are
l/p(Q)nA
= Q, we
have
for
a
Riemann 's
218
Mapping Theorem
5.6
Fig.
if n*j,
If
we
choose
defined
as
<5,
j is
Fig.
Since
curve
sufficiently small, we have
this
for
j:
\\imn^ODwn
=
q, for
arbitrary
0 <
\302\243,
e <
5, we
have
sufficiently large.
5.7
\302\243\342\200\236
=f(zn)e
a: s>o(s),
s >/\"~1
(ff(s)),
in (1),
WjtU3(q).
*ltV6(q\\
n >
(5.15)
thent;neUp{P\\coneUp(Q).
Since lim^^^z,, =
where
number j:
natural
large
sufficiently
0
UP(P)
by (5A5),
it
0 ^ s ^ 1, in the
1, connects z7
^ s ^
is
possible
region
and
to connect
UP(P).
zn in D.
and
\302\243,
\302\243\342\200\236
by a
The curve f~l(c):
Since zj \302\243Us(q) and
5.2
zn
for all r
z{r) =
t in
the circle
Up
(Q\\
in
at
kr
w(r) =
Since
angle <p
the
on r.
depends
\" *
curve/
(t)
connecting cojand con
Similarly,
w, and
connects
wn
in
\302\253W<^<W
ArW0,
point on the curve
is a
a,
we
The
two
cases
assume
<f> <
<
$
and
\\j/
\\j/
^.
=
kr{6)
p<
the same way,
so
let us
q +
^jef{kM)de
J/'^(0))^(0)^
=
we
h
ence
have A;(0) ire16,
reie,
^
\\f{Kmf(K{<t>))\\
Lf(/lr(0)) r as the
Schwarz's inequality,
<
have
=
=
Writing
P2
in exactly
treated
<f> are
we
Then
m\302\2530)/(^(*))
Since
<
and
have/(z(r))el/p(P)
Since \\PQ\\ ^ e0> 3P>
co{r) =/(w(r))el/p(Q).
= l/(w(r))/(z(r))
> p.
IM(W)M(\302\253)I
similarly,
by
intersects
D and
one point:
least
\302\243r
=/(z(r))
z (r)
one point
at least
*(r)<<i><P(r)
Xr{4>\\
where the
by (5.11),
a curve
/
r
e <
with
l
(a) intersectsthe circlekr in
< S. Since z(r)e kr n D, we have
curve
the
e U\302\243
(q),
219
of boundaries
Correspondence
T
(
Hence, since (x(r)
product of Jr
<
l/UW)l\302\253\302\273Y
<
<f>
<
\\j/
\\\\f'(K(0))\\rdO.
<
(}{r)
[rdO
< a(r)
and
/'(Ar(0))
[*
^/r
we get, by
/'(Ar(0))2rd0.
+ 2n, we
obtain
f/l(r)
p2
sides
arrive
we
<5,
P_
2tt
The
J
both
Dividing
e to
<2nr
integral
W.
=
\\f{q
of the
at the
log<
\302\243
+ reie)\\2rde.
\302\253(')
above inequality by
27ir
and
integrating
inequality
(5.16)
/'(<7+ re\2rdrrf0.")
Je
from
J
on the right
a(r)
is an integral over the
(l/a(\302\253)[U.(\302\253)])nfl
=
fa +
r\302\253*:
\302\243
< r
subregion
< <5,a(r)
< 0
< j8(r)}
of D
the
area
of the subregion f(We) of A. For,
writing
representing
= x
with
center
as
rew
and
coordinates
+
q
I1>
considering (r, 0) polar
in the (x, y) plane, we have by the formula for the change of variables:
z =
/'(z)2rdr</0
a(r)
=
/'(z)2
J
Wt
</*<*>;.
q
Riemann's
220
Theorem
Mapping
=
Now putting/(z)
we have
+ iv,
u
=
(z)2
\\f
/I =
area of A
aiwiof/(\302\273y.
we
from
get
(5.16)
S
P2
contradicting lim\302\243^+0
=
S/e
log
+ oo.
Hence/(z) is uniformly
continuous
D.
(3) In
order to extend a
/(z) =/(z)ifz
points
C,
define
to
suffices
it
to a
where {zn} is a sequenceof
if zgC,
ro/(zj
limn^
on D
/(z)
is easily verified as follows:SelectceC
such that {zn}converges to c. Foreach8 > 0there exists an
points zneDconverging
zn e D
on [D] = D u
/(z)
eDand/(z) =
function
continuous
uniformly
function
continuous
uniformly
and
by (3.5), hence
Jw.d(x*y)
J*.
on
(x, y)
(\302\253,
v)/d
=
f \\f'(z)\\2dxdy= f ^axrfy
Putting
d
z. This
to
satisfying
n0 (5)
if
z\342\200\236zj<<5
continuous on Dfor eache > 0we
is uniformly
Since/(z)
m>n>n0(6).
a
find
can
<5
(e)
If
vv
> 0
satisfying
<
l/(z) /Ml
if
\302\243
z
 w
<
>
n >
<5
z e
(e),
D, wg
D
and therefore
/(zJ
/(zn)
that
is,
the
sequence
< e
if
{/(zn)}
converges. Put
m
n0 (S (e)),
( = lim^^/\"^.
< <5(e) for sufficiently
and wgD, then w \342\200\224
zj
\342\200\224
to c. Hence /(w) f(zn)\\ < e. Letting n tend
converges
< <5(e)
Hence,if
converges
is
w\342\200\236gD,
{wn},
to
that
\302\243
independentof
the
is,
of
choice
the sequence
lim
zn
= c,
zneD.
n*oo
function f(z) defined
D is extended
on
=
on [D]
defined
that
DuC. In order to prove
continuous on [D], we replacec by z in (5.17)
^
For wgC such
to w. Since wn
that
w
\342\200\224
z\\ <
(5.17)
{zn}. Therefore we write
way the
l/(vv)/(z)
{zn}
conclude
converging to c, the sequence{/(vvn)}
is uniquely determined by c and
limfI_00/(zn)
n*oo
this
c
a sequence
=
\302\243
7(c) = limf(znl
In
n,
oo, we
to
wgD.
if wc<<5(e),
/(w)Cge
large
since
\342\200\224
\302\243
if
wz
\342\200\224
<
<5
(e) let
z
S (e)
{wn}, wwg D,
large
f{z)
function
is
f(z)
uniformly
weD.
< 5(e),
for sufficiently
to a
n,
be a sequenceconverging
we
have
/(wn)
\342\200\224
/(z)
^
e,
5.2
hence
^ e.
/(w)\342\200\224
f(z)\\
Therefore
ifwz<<5(\302\243)
7(W)/(Z)^\302\243,
is uniformly
continuous
on
[D],
continuous mapping from [D] onto [A].Theinverse
A conformally
onto D. Therefore it is possible
that is,/(z)
on
continuous
= #
+
\302\243 z
#:
mapping
which
(\302\243)
maps
inverse off: g = /\"*.(For,
way
sequence converging to z, then
g is the
above,
as
Km
0 (7W) = \302\243
f
if
Similarly,
\302\243eT,
restriction
of/to
(4) We
then
onto
[D]
mapping
fi
it suffices
D = {z:z<
Since /(D)
1}.
Then
0
= T,
that
maps
is a
=7(z)
*
of/maps
mapping/\"
g =Tl to a
[A] onto [D] in the same
z e C and if {zn},zw e D, is a
to extend
=
=
lim
z.
z\342\200\236
is a homeomorphism
=
=/(D)
A,/(C) = T, that is, the
Therefore J
mapping
is, / preserves
D onto the unit
C,
T.
onto
\\C\\
Let g be a
orientations.
U and
disk
mapping which maps U
to consider the case in which
circle.
is the unit
C = 3[D]
0+z = 6w,O^0^ 2n, of
representation
if
z*\302\243
[\302\243>]./:
(/(z\342\200\236))
a homeomorphism
which
a conformal
is
lim
= C)
7(0(0)
is
prove /(C)
mapping
Then
=
/(z\342\200\236))
[A].
\\C\\
conformal
Therefore
of boundaries 221
Correspondence
onto
A
is
D
From
obtain
we
put
h
*\342\200\242
=/\302\260#~
and/=fc\302\2600.
the
unit disk.
the
parameter
the
parameter
representation
O^0^2tt
/(Q:0+C=/(^
for the Jordancurve/(C).Since/(C) =/(C) = r, we
7(C) = T (seeSection2.1a).
=
= 3 [t/r], and Ar =f{Ur),
Putting
Ur
{z: \\z\\ < r}, Cr
of A and
0 ^ 0^
have/(C)
Ar is
=
T or
a subdomain
smooth curve in A, represented
=/(^),
by 0>C
of
radius
C
the
the
onto
Jordan
curve
/ maps
[0,1]
=
X: s \342\226\272
s
The
curve
X
is smooth
^ 1,in [A].
X(s)
except at its end
7(s), 0 ^
a conformal
from
at X (r) =/(r)
mapping X crosses/(Cr)
point X (1). Since/is
>
left
s
to
the
left to right.HenceX (s) e Ar if s < r and X (s) \302\243
if
is
r, i.e., Ar
[Ar]
=
is defined
by Definition 2.2.
of/(Cr). Therefore f(Cr) d[Ar],where
d[Ar]
is a
f(Cr)
27r.
Sincethe boundary
have
example,
(Cauchy's
T
\342\200\224
Q =
f(Cr)
closed
region
[A]
~
an arbitrary
0 in
Ar
is given
by
C \342\200\224
{/(0)},
as
explained
region containing[A]
in connection
Theorem).
In order to
\342\200\224
= r/(Cr)
3([A]Ar)
we
the
of
prove that7(C)\342\200\224
/(Cr)
mapping
M:(5,0)+M(5,0)=7(seie)
^ 0 in
with
Theorem
\342\200\224
Ar,
for
4.14
Q, we considerthe continuous
the
from
K =
rectangle
fi(s) = M
Putting
Theorem
's Mapping
Riemann
222
(s,0),fi:
s>
r ^
fi (s),
7(1) in [A] ArcQ. Themapping
closed
with
curve
base
g s ^ 1,0^
{(s, 0):r
Af
5 5*
1, is
the
maps
0^
into
2tt}
[A]Ar.
connecting/(r) and
boundary dK of K onto the
a curve
point/(r):
^\342\200\242/(QAi'^/CQ1.
Hence, ///(C)//\"1
/(C,)\"1^ 0 in
fi,
hence
7(C)/(Cr)~0
in fi by
(4.34), (4.35),and the definition
of
r/(Cr)
(Definition
homology
0 in fi. Hence
4.5). Also
r/(C)~0
Q.
in
Now
\342\200\224
1/(C
/(C)
suppose
/(0))
of C is
=
\342\200\224then
2r
T,
holomorphic
on Q
~ 0 in
= C \342\200\224
we
/(0),
Q. Since the
conclude
function
from Cauchy's
Theorem (Theorem 4.14)
if**
JrC/(0)
5.8
Fig.
Since
r =
/(0)eA,
d[A] we
have
by
Cauchy's
integral
formula
(Theorem 2.4)
2*;Jrc/(0)
So
we
have
Now
let
at a
arrived
that
assume
us
regions and
that
C
contradiction
=
d [D]
both D
and T
and hencef(C) = T.
and A are simply connected bounded
= d [A] are piecewisesmoothJordan
5.2 Correspondence
of
223
boundaries
Using the orientation defined on C,we have for three distinct points
and
at, a2,
a3 on C eitherax<a2< a3 or a3<a2<
at (see Section 3.3b,
wherethe caseof the circle was treated). Let/; z \342\226\272
be a conformal
( =/(z)
>
D
onto
and
z
which
A
be
the
\302\243
let/:
mapping
maps
=/(z)
homeomorphism of Theorem 5.5,from
onto
[D]
[A].
curves.
Given three different
5.6.
Theorem
ai
<a2~<a3
o^
<a2
there
<a3,
and/(a3) = a3.
Proo/
is a
1}.If
(afc),
3[t/]
=
\302\243
(afc)
mapping
wk, it
satisfying w1^<w2<W3.Sincef{ak)
exists
there
suffices to prove that
itself
determined
by/=
4>\302\260g. Since
hence/=
<f>
oik.
Section 3.3b.
onto
By
A
the
unit
U
disk
h~log
g(C)=
that
Theorem
Since
at
one
< a2
3.13,
f(ak)
=
be
the
3.6,
fractional
C*
<xk.
the mapping
one
g(ak)
the
conformal
A onto
mapping
is a
3.3a),
are three
corollary
transformation
< a3 by assumption,<f> maps
4>
(Section
=
A
by a
*
transformation
Ci <t>2 <\302\243>*By
fractional
from
mapping
is given
<f>\\ \302\243 </> (\302\243)
5.5,
a
g be
Let
an arbitrary
sphere S onto itself
Theorem
is, it
that
vvk,
disk.
unit
1}. For
conformal
Theorem
linear
Hence there existsexactly
satisfies
g(ak) =
the
if
only
one conformal
exactly
A is
and
if
oik
<
{(:\302\243
linear
+ T by
such that
points on the unit circle T,
Theorem 3.8 there existsexactly
$ (Ck) =
g. By
<f>
the Riemann
from
homeomorphism
A =
\302\260
<\302\243
(C). The
function
that
case
the
A, let
D onto
=
U that satisfies
D onto
from
g(z)
mapping/from
linear fractional
that
onto
A
= a2,
from D onto [/, then/=
D onto A.
suffices to prove the theorem for
D onto
conformal mapping from
onto
a1,/(a2)
\342\200\224>
A
mapping g: z>w =
conformal
from
=
f(at)
satisfying
D onto
is a
A, g = fc \302\260/
/ is a conformal mapping from
= + 5
Theorem
D
U.Since
from
onto
5.5,
/T(r)
[I/] by
mapping
=
on
the unit
here
and below k
where
1, 2, 3, are threepoints
conformal
/i
and a3 on C such that
and
a1,a2,
a3 on T such that
al9a2,
if
Conversely,
circle
mapping
conformal
mapping from
conformal
=
a conformal
g is a
\302\243>
wk
be
h
Let
= {w:w <
points
different points
exists exactly one /
three
and
to
<p such
itself by
from D
224 Riemann ys
conformal mapping from
unit disk U. Replacing A
is a
the
conformal
the
by
H
+
can be written
conformal mapping from D onto
his a homeomorphismfrom
is a
transformation
h
(oo) = 1, ft\"1
R
u
that
such
= ooif and only
7(0
the
get
Riemann
onto
C = d [D]
{oo}. Therefore/maps
three points on C
we
[D]
the
maps
Since
the
[IJ+]. Since
unit circle d [I/] onto
from
homeomorphism
U.
c0 <cx
=
(c0)
if g
1,
onto
<c^
\302\243
(cx)
=
and
and7(0=
=h~l
the
linear
where
\302\260g,
fractional
onto itself,
sphere
=
(0)
\342\200\224
1, h
(1) =
\342\200\224
i and
u
positively
three different
are
c^
there exists exactly
D onto //*
from
D onto
from
onto
line
[W+]
Ru
{oo}.
points on C = d
one
H+ can be
= fl+uRu{oo}
such
[D]
conformal
?(c0)
satisfying
that
mapping
=
Ojlq)
= 1
\302\260\302\260
The
5.3
oriented
then
c0<cx
<c^y
f:z>t=f(z)
fi
/
[Z>]
homeomorphism7from
= d[D] onto the
(2) If c0,cl9
as/
the positively orientedline
{oo}. If Cq,^, and c^ are
then 7(co) = 0,7(ci)= 1, and
 i, and g (cj = 1.Therefore
R
Theorem 5.7. (1) The conformalmapping
that C
onto
result.
following
extendedto a
\302\243plane
above proof, all
= //+uRu{oo}ofH+inSand/=fc1^is
*\"1([^])istheclosure[H+]
a
half of the
in the first
H+
* of
the
H
halfplane
upper
D onto
/from
mappings
g
Theorem
Mapping
a.
of reflection
principle
The
of reflection
principle
arbitrary region D in the complexplane let D be defined by
=
D
function of z on D, then/(z) is a
{z: zeD}. Iff(z) is a holomorphic
For an
holomorphic
of
function
Expand f(z)
Proo/:
f(z)=
into
z on
a
Z).
power
series
around
an arbitrary point
ceD:
*n(zc)\".
\302\243
Then
7(f)
=
<uzcr
\302\243
w= 0
power series expansion of
holomorphic function of z on D.
is the
Let
D
be
interval
a region
(a,
b\\
of
D
around
ceD.
Hence/(z)
is a
upper halfplane of the zplanesuch that the
is
of D, that
the real axis is part of the boundary
A
u (a, b) u Disa regionin the zplane.
let
Similarly,
in the
D and
(a, b) c [D] \342\200\224
open
f(z)
The
5.3
Fig.
5.9
region in the
be a
upper halfplaneof the
(a, P) of therealaxis
that
such
equivalent,
/: z
f(z) from
(a, b) onto A
g:
mapping
z^^
0 (z)
mapping
the open
interval
to extend a conformal mapping
=
D onto
A to a homeomorphism /: z > \302\243
/(z) from
u (a, /?), then it is possible to extend/ to a conformal
\342\200\224
from
g{z)
Du(a,
fc)uD onto Au(a, /})uA. The
is
possible
is given by
0(z)=
Since g
that
of the
is part
it
If
5.8.
> C =
Du
such
\302\243plane
A and
boundary of A, that is (a, ft) a [A ] \342\200\224
in the Cplane.If Dand A are conformally
u (a, /?) u A is a region
the following theorem holds.
A
Theorem
225
of reflection
principle
*eZ>
(7M.
re
M
(5.18)
MX
l/(z),
zeD.
(z)isan analytic
continuation
can be
of/(z),/(z)
extended in only one
way.
on D
D
and
u (a,6)
continuous
onto
A
that is, if z e (a,fe),
the
continuous
function g{z)
holomorphic function of z on D,J(z)is holomorphic
on D u (a, b). Since/is a homeomorphism
mapping
u (a, j3) such that/(D) =/(A), we have/((a, b)) = (a, 0),
is a real number and so/(z) =/(z).Therefore
then
\302\243
=/(z)
is a
Since/(z)
Proof.
functions/(z)
defined
in
(5.18)
holomorphicon DuD. In
to prove
Du(fl,fc)uD it
order
suffices
small
neighborhood
Ue(c)
coincide on
and/(z)
is continuous
to
that
of each
prove
it is
that
b). This
proves that the
on Du(fl, fe)uD and
g(z) is holomorphic on
(a9
holomorphic on
somesufficiently
point ce(a,b). Since [t/c(c)]c=Du
226
Riemann
(a, b)
u D for sufficiently
's
M*)
=
^
2ni
is
on
holomorphic
Theorem
Mapping
small
Jc
c. = a[i/.(c)]
rr^.z
\342\200\224
w
function
the
\302\243,
1.17.
Theorem
U\302\243(c) by
to prove that g(z) = h (z) for z e UE (c), we put V =Ue(c)nD
=
V
Ue (c) n D, whereby\\UE (c)] is divided into two cells [ V\\ and [ V~\\.
=
we have, for ze P or zeV,
+3[F],
C\302\243 3[K]
In order
2711
w~z
Jam
and
Since
2^J^[P]W~Z
Fig. 5.10
IfzeV,
on
then the function
hence
V9
g (w)
\342\200\224
is
gf (w)/(w
z)
also
continuous on [V] and holomorphic
on V.
on [ V ] and holomorphic
continuous
of w is
Hence
dw =
i
0
amw\"
Theorem
by the strong version of Cauchy's
on [ V] and holomorphic on
continuous
formula (2.57),
= J_f
h(z)
= g
h(z)
Therefore,
= g
Ue(z).
Hence
(z). If z e
(c),
U\302\243
g (z)
we
g
(z)
V9
follows
from
the
it
then
we
have
conclude
that
is holomorphic on Ue{c).
on
the
fact that/:
z>\302\243
is proved
by Cauchy's
D u
from
=/(z)
in the
same
0. Sinceh (z) and
=
g (z) holds identically
h(z)
(c), Im
if zeUe
holomorphic
region
That g (z) isa onetoone
mapping
function
V,
g (w) is
integral
g(W,
(z). Hence, h{z) =
continuous on
2.3). Since
(Theorem
z#
have
We
(a, fc)
D u
that
0 (z) are
on
that g (z) is
a
u D.
(a, fe) u
is a
proved
way
D onto A
homeomorphism
u (a,
/J) vj
A
mapping
5.3 The principle of reflection
(a, b) onto
D u
3.5, g:
z>\302\243
Au(a,
j?)uA.^
of g (z). Therefore,
(a, /?) and the definition
is a conformal mapping from
g(z)
Du(a,
Let / be a line
assigns
to each
respect
to /,
the
in
reflection ofz
with
be reducedto
complex
point z the
z
by
\342\226\272
z. A
transformation.To seethis,
=
X(w)
z and
respect
reflection
select
z* are
with
which
symmetric
point
with
the
is called
z*
to the real axis U is,
an arbitrary line / can
the help of a linear
points c0 and ct on / and put
(5.19)
respect
with respect to
to IR with
respect
two
different
+ c0.
(Clc0)w
correspondence z + z*
to I. The
reflection
with
reflection
a
with
to I. The
respect
plane. The
point z*, such that
the reflection
is called
of course,given
by Theorem
onto
6)uD
u
A
=
227
5.11
Fig.
> z =
X:w
X(w) maps the points 0,1,and oo of the
onto
the
and therefore the
plane
points c0,cuand oo, respectively,
\342\200\224
=
real axis IR onto /. Hence, u + z X(u), oo < u < + oo, is a parameter
representation of /. If z = X (w), then z* = X (w). (For, putting
transformation
linear
The
extended
w =
f iv,
u
\\
u,ve
{X (w)
U,
+
X
V
^
0, we
(w))
have
= X
(u\\
(w) = 2 (cx
X(w)X

c0) iv.
segment connectingX (w) and X (w) is perpendicular to the line /
X
is on /. Hence the linear transformation
X(u)
midpoint
z> z*
w>w
the reflection
the
reflection
with respect to R into
Hence, the
and
transforms
its
respect
to
/.)
The above
X
is a
with
line
w >
onto
To
IRu{oo}
z =
\\i
special
of the
(w) is another
example
of a
linear transformation
extended complex plane
linear fractional
onto
If
/u{oo}.
transformation mappingR
/u {oo}, then z = n{w)impliesz* =
see this, put $ = X~lofi; then <f>:
\\i
the
mapping
u
\\i\\
{oo}
(vv).
wKf>(w)
is
a linear
fractional
228 Riemann 's MappingTheorem
transformation
a^ = #_1(oo),
(1). and
= #_1
0i
itself.
onto
Ru{oo}
mapping
*
(0),
cf)
real numbers and
a^ are
and
au
a0,
a0 =
Putting
*M\302\253
(w0(\302\253i\"ao)'
Hence
=
$ (w)
(\302\243(w),
Iffor example
=
a0
(j>
the
maps
oo, ax
halfplane
upper
cl9 and
let c0,
A
Since
A
=
(0)
=
of z
reflection
=
(1)
A
A(w)>
Let c
(w)
A
C and put
on
points
A\"1
ww0
=
c^, the
where z =
linear fractional
z* ^
and
(w)
distance
from
fractional
X
c is
given
with
by
respect
to C
3.3b).
(5.21)
(c).
UR
putting
Again
?^.^^,
w~w0
Thus
(w).
\\z*
r >
a line are invariant
is, if C is a circleor a
line
in C
c* =
z*
\342\200\224
=
and
This
\342\200\224c.
linear
\\j/
a linear
oo*
c
(R2/r)ei6.
through z and its
that the
also shows
at c
of the choiceof the
{oo} onto C.Thereflections
oo
under
and
/?2/z
have
starting
ray
is independent
from U u
are given by
we
0,0eR,
\342\200\224
=
c\\
to C
respect
transformation
circle or
=
and z # oo,z* is on the
reflection z^z*
(Section
real.
halfplane onto
z*c
z \342\200\224
c = reie,
writing
Hence, forz^c
of C
the
C, A maps
= /?2.
(zc)(z*c)
Therefore,
(c)
of A.
choice
again. Hence
ww0
A
^
\302\243,
the lower
A maps
is valid
(5.21)
(c),
the
+
(oo)
zc = Ite*\342\200\224^,
to a
C be a circlein
the
maps the line Ru{oo} onto C. We define
=
z*
A
to
C
as
as
in
Just
above
the
(vv).
respect
to a line, it is proved
that the reflection z
respect
Re*
If c^ < cx< c0,then
with
1/vv. In this case,
vice versa. Now
and
upper halfplane conformally onto the interiorUR
Putting w0 = A'1 (c) we have by Theorem 3.13
w0 =
=
<\302\243
(w)
z* = A (w) with respect to C is independent of the
be the center of C,and R its radius. If c0 <c1 <cOD on
l(w) = c +
have
with
case of reflectionwith
=
respect
c,)
cl9 and
= A(w)
w+z
transformationA:
A
c0,
we
= A
(4>(w)),
(w)
circle. Let
to a
c^ be three different
<co0(c
=
(w)
\\i
= 1, and a^ = 0,then
onto the lower halfplane
we want to define reflection with
zplane,
z =
using
= z*.
= >l(^H)
= >l(0(w))
A/(w)
therefore
= c.
Reflections
fractional
fractional
of
linear
oo
c and
with
transformations,
transformation
respect
that
of z,
5.3 The principle of reflection
5.12
Fig.
then
\\j/
229
of ^ (z) with
reflection
is the
(z*)
to
respect
or line
the circle
ty
(C):
<Mz*)=<Mz)*.
this, let k: w
To see
+
{oo} onto C, then \\j/
R u
with
R u
from
transformation
to
respect
Let
5.9.
Theorem
of C
C is
case
in
w +
ok:
{oo} onto
\\J/
k (w) be a linear fractional
z =
\\j/
is given
(C)
C be
(C).
by
^
the reflection
Therefore
\\J/
from
transformation
(k (w)) is a linearfractional
(z)*
=
a line or a circlein
(\\jj \302\260k)
(w)
the
zplane
of
ip
(z),
^ (k (vv)) =
=
and let
z =
A(w),
^ (z*).
c be the center
a circle.
zplaneintersectingat the
point a ^ c and let 6 be the angle betweenyx and y2 at a. If yf, yf,
and a* are the reflections
with
of yx, y2, and a, respectively,
respect
to C, then the angle between yf and
y at a* equals \342\200\2246.
z > z* with
The reflection
to C maps circles or lines into
respect
(1) Let yx
(2)
and
y2 be
smooth
curves in the
circlesor lines.
Proof: If
A:
w>
z =
k(w) is a linear fractional
transformation
mapping
the
to C is obtained
z> z* with
respect
{oo}onto C,then the reflection
A. If
from the reflection w + w with respect to R via the transformation
=
=
>
w the theorem is obviously
z A(w), then z*
A(w). For the reflection w
from
which
the theorem follows.
true and A is a conformal
mapping,
line R u
We
want
now
LetCbe
a
the
reflection
to derive
from Theorem
5.8the principleof reflection.
c and radius R and let z > z* be
in the zplane with
center
with respect to C. Further,letD bea
circle
region
contained
in the
Riemann 's MappingTheorem
230
D*
D
r
Fig. 5.13
exterior of C,such that c$D and let the arcy \302\243Cbe part of
D. If (y) represents
which
the arcy from
the
the boundary of D: y c [D] \342\200\224
D* is
we
two end points have been removed,
further
assume
that Du(y)u
one regionin the zplane. Here, D* = {z*: z e D}.Ifz e C, then z* = z, hence
\342\200\224
cz [D*]
D* and
each point z e (y) is an interior
y
point of D u (y) u D* by
that
is
assumption. Let A be a region in the upper halfplane of the Cplane
the
interval
of
the
real
axis
of
to
let
the
D,
(a, j3)
equivalent
conformally
open
Cplanebe a part of the boundary of A and assume that A u (a, ft) u A is a
region in the Cplane.
interior or the
Theorem 5.10
/: z+C=f(z)
z C =f(z) mapping
\342\226\272
conformal
# is
and
of
(principle
for
mapping
D
given by
*eZ>,
*e(y),
Let w0 be a point in
in the interior of C and
contained
of C, and put
Proof:
Hw) = c 4w \342\231\246
z =
=
A(w) is
(5.22)
zeD*.
l/(z*),
A(oo)
mapping
homeomorphism/:
onto
A u (a, /?), then / can be extended
to a
(y)
=
\342\226\272
z
D*
u
from
A
u
onto
\302\243 #(z)
(a, /?) A*
g:
Du(y)u
9(2)/^
axisRu
be extended to a
D u
17(4
A:
conformal
the
If
reflection).
A can
onto
Ite*
^^,
ww0
the
such
wplane
vv0 <
Im
^ e
a linear fractional
that
Im w0
0 if D is containedin
the
if
D
is
exterior
R.
transformation which
onto
{oo} of the extendedwplane
c f /?\302\243^is a point on C. Since y Si
> 0
C, we
maps
the
real
A(w0) = candA(w0) = oo.
assume from the outset that
C and
The
5.3
^ has beenchosensuch
that
\302\243
y. If
A(oo)
the domain of definition
we restrict
A1: z>w = A~l(z)
the
inverse
of
transformation
\342\200\224
a conformal
becomes
mapping from C {A(oo)}
c $
3.3a). If D is containedin the interiorof C,then
oo
hence
\302\243D*,
C
to
\342\200\224{A(oo)},
A1
onto
C
D by
assumption, hence
in C \342\200\224(A(oo)}.
is contained
Du(y)uD*
231
of reflection
principle
\342\200\224
(Section
{w0}
A'1
Thus
maps
conformally onto the
If Im w0 > 0 then A\"*
in
region A~l(D)uA~*((y))uA\"*(D*)
the interior
of C onto the upper
the
maps
wplane.
of
C
onto
the
lowerhalfplaneof
and
the exterior
halfplaneof the wplane
the wplane.If Im w0 < 0, then A\"l maps the exterior of C onto the upper
If D is
of the wplane.
and the interior onto the lower halfplane
halfplane
contained in the interiorof C,then Im w0 > 0 and if D is containedin the
in the
of C, then Im w0 < 0, hence in both cases, k~l(D) is contained
exterior
of the wplane and A~l(D*)is containedin the lower halfhalfplane
upper
of
the
wplane.Further,ifz = X{w) then z* = X(w\\ hence w = X~l{z)
plane
Du(y)uD*
implies
A(oo)
w
=
\302\243
y, A\"l ((y))
A\"1(D*) =
therefore
A_1(z*);
is an
open
Therefore
interval
=
A1(D)uA\"1((y))uA1(Z)*)
Since
/: z + f
by assumption
the real
fe) on
(a,
C = f{A (w)) maps
to a
A
u
=
\302\243
homeomorphism
D
(Z)) conformally
/\302\260A which
by Theorem
Therefore,
(a,/?).
A
maps
5.8, f<>
u (y)
onto
\302\243u(a,
A can
b) u
flf
=
GoA~1:j^C
\302\243
u
(f(X(w)l
we\302\243,
KM*)),
we(a,b),
l/(A(w)),
is given
by
=
u
(Du(y)) onto
to a conformal
/?) u A.
conformal
Hence,
mapping
A(\302\243u(a,b)u\302\243)onto
(5.18):
G(w)=j
w =
and
Au(a,
a
/ can
A:
(a, /?), f\302\260
can be extended
be extended
\302\243
onto
= G(A\"1(z))fromDu(y)uD*
Au(a,j?)uAandby
Putting
A
onto
A
= A1
fr)
(a,
G(w) from
mapping G:w>\302\243
the conformal mapping / can be extendedto
=
wplane.
A and
onto
conformally
be extendedto a homeomorphism
/ mapping
w >
Since
A_1(D).
axis of the
\302\243u(a,fc)u\302\243.
= /(z) mapsD
~*
=
\302\243
where
\302\243,
A_1(z), we
we\302\243
have z =
A(w)
and
z* =
A
(w),
hence
^(z) =
G(X~l(z))
(5.22).
is
C to bea circlein the zplane, but the principle of reflection
is a line.In that case, we have to assume that D is a regionon
onesideof C,that y c C is a segment such that y c [D] \342\200\224
D.
It is important
to note that by the principle of reflection, a function
f(z)
on (y) can be extended to a function that is holomorphic
that is continuous
in each point of (y).
We assumed
also
valid
if C
232 Riemann's Mapping
Theorem
a circle or a linein the zplaneand
to C. Further,
let D be a simply
connected
such that Dr\\C = 0 and the boundary
C be
Let
respect
zplane,
Jordan curveand let the arc or segment,
z >
let
z* be
bounded
and
D is
of
the reflection with
region in the
a piecewise smooth
of the
a part
C, be
y \302\243
boundary
d[D] of D, orientationsconsidered; other words, y a d[D]. Since
D n C = 0, is either in the interior or the exteriorof C, C is a circle,
=
and on one sideofCifCis line. If /: z
f(z) is a conformal mapping
in
D
if
\342\226\272
\302\243
a
+
halfplane H of the \302\243plane,
the upper
D onto
from
a homeomorphism/:z+C=/(z)
to
= H+
u
{oo}. We assume
/_1(oo)^
positively oriented line Ru{oo}, /((y))
u
R
/((y)) = (a,0), oo^a<)3^+oo.
5.10 to
Theorem
5.11.
Theorem
=
A
from
0(z)
+
(y).
an
is
Since
onto
[f/+]
maps <3[D] onto the
segment on R, say,
/
open
y\302\243C,
(a,0)\302\243R.
Applying
from
D onto the
be
can
mapping
f:z>\302\243=f(z)
extended
to a
H+ u (a,/?)u
D* onto
Du(y)u
Since
yields:
conformal
A
upper halfplane H
=
i/+
[\302\243>]
mapping
be extended
/ can
then
conformal mapping g: z *\302\243
The
//.
gf(z) is given
function
by (5.22).
principle
w >
X\\
z =
Jordan
analytic
t
+
fractional
of
by
of
the principle
the
the complex plane with
is
functions
called an
analytic
real
are
linear
this transformation
generalization
a^t^b9\\n
y(t\\
both Re y(t) and Im y(t)
arc. Let W a Cbea.
that
property
arc y:
Jordan
smooth
a
reflection
the
from
the
using
By replacing
(5.20).
A(w),
an arbitrary conformalmapping,
reflection is obtainedas follows.
A
(5.10)
principle
real axis (Theorem5.8)by
for the
transformation
reflection
the
derived
have
We
regionwhich
with
is symmetric
respect
W\\ [a, b] c: R n W, a < b, and A:w+z = A(w) a
conformal
from W onto the region A( W) in the zplane. Under
mapping
a ^ t ^ 6, is an analytic
arc in the zthese circumstances,y: t \342\226\272
Jordan
X(t\\
z* of z with
to
plane. We define, for points z e k( W\\ the reflection
respect
to the real axis(i.e.,W
the curve
y
by
z = A(w)
^> [a,
j3]
maps
fi onto
c:
R niQ,
D
be
with
w
A(vv),
a region in C
a < /?, and
/i(fi) and
point Ce//(Q)
Let
\342\226\272
z* =
fi be
let
Similarly,
=
fx:
respect
is
which
=
a> > \302\243
//(co)
define 6: x
to
\342\202\254
W.
>
=
\302\243
mapping
^ t g j3. The reflection
Jordan arc 6 is given
by
zplane, such
that
Dcl(lf
to
respect
/*(*), a
the analytic
a region in the
with
symmetric
a conformal
+
),
which
of a
where
The principle
5.3
+
W
 D and Du(y)u D*is a region
[D]
={vv6^:Imw>0},yc
Here (y) represents {y{t):a<t <b}. Similarly,
in
A and
region the Cplane such that 8 a [A] \342\200\224
Au((5)u
zplane.
the Cplane.If D and A
theorem.
5.12
Theorem
f:z>C=f(z)
/:
mapping
+
C =/(C)
conformal
D
g:
mapping
g(z) is
function
The
A can
Du
As an
construct an
Let
U =
=
I/(**)*,
zeD*.
c2,
and
c3,
that of
lt
/ can be extendedto a
onto Au(5)u A*.
Du(y)uD*
(5.23)
of the principle of reflection
example of a socalled
<
1} be
the
/3 and
IsonC,
/x,
and let Px
P3 that of
/x
now
to
zplane and C = {z:\\z\\ = 1}.
and /3 be the tangents to Cat ct,
/2,
be the point of intersection of l2
and
want
in the
disk
unit
we
function.
modular
respectively,
and
a region in
we have the following
A* is
functions
application
c2, and c3 be threepoi
Let cx,
the
be a
given by:
zeD9
ze(y),
{z: \\z\\
in
c fi(Q+)
A u <5, then
gf(z) from
f/(X
Modular
A
If the conformal mapping
be extended to a homeomorphism
onto
(y)
z>\302\243
let
reflection).
of
onto
g(z)=\\ /(z),
fc.
equivalent,
conformally
(principle
from
z
are
of reflection 233
/2. The
circle Ct
with
center
and
/3, P2
P1 and
passing through c2 and c3 intersectsthe unit circle C at right angles, as do the
the circle C3 with
C2 with center P2 and passingthroughc3 and cx and
circle
ofC\\, C2, and C3
passing through cx and c2.Theintersections
closed disk [[/] = U u C are arcs yi9 y2, and y3 and the end points
of yt are c2 and c3, the end pointsof y2 are c3 and cu and the end points of y3
are cx and c2. Let D be the region
enclosed
by the three arcs y^ y2, and y3.
The closure [JD] of Disa \"threeside\"
with
sides
y x, y2, and y3 and vertices
ct,
c2,and c3. Since clyc2,and c3areon the unit circle C, we will call [D] a threeside of arcs inscribedin C.
the
the unit disk U as a modelof the nonEuclidean
plane,
Considering
lines of the nonEuclideanplane U arethe arcs in U of circles that intersect C
at right angles.The openarcs(yt), (y2), and (y3), obtained by omitting the
end points from yl9 y2, and y3 are therefore lines in the nonEuclideanplane
and
the lines
[D] n U is a threesidewith
(yx), (y2), and (y3) as sides.If w is an
in
a line (y) passing through w
the
interior
of
that
threeside,
arbitrary
point
will
of
intersect
at least one
the sides (yj, (y2), and (y3).
=
For v
with respect to Cv the reflection
1, 2, 3 we will call the reflection
center
P3 and
with the
234
's Mapping
Riemann
Fig.
Theorem
5.14
the arc yv and denote this reflection by z > z*. By Theorem
z> z* with respect
to yv maps the circle C, which intersects
into
a
circle
at
which
yv
right
angles,
maps Cat right angles again, while the
Hence the reflection z+z*
points of intersectionof C and yv are invariant.
respect to
5.9 the reflection
with
maps Contoitself.Sinceit
also
the refection
onto
itself.
Thus
Now
let us
consider
maps
oo onto
Pv, the exteriorof Cismapped
z^ z* maps the interiorU of Contoitself.
the reflections with
respect
threeside of arcs [D] inscribedin
to the
three sides
yl9
y2,
and
the image of D
the images of cx
underthe reflection
with respect
to yx and let c Jp yfx denote
and yA, X = 1,2,3, under the same reflection.Sincethe image of C under the
reflection with respect
to y x is C, c \\x is the point of intersection of Cand the
= yx.
line throughPx and clf while c%t = c2 and cjt = c3.Obviously,
y^
y3 of the
C.
Let
DJ denote
The principle of reflection 235
5.3
By
Theorem
using
and c, is the
arc
5.9, the
intersecting
image yf x
C at right
of
the
arc y2,
angles in
c%x
which intersects
=
c3 and
C in c3
c\\x. Similarly,
the
intersecting
y%Y
angles in c2 and c^. Therefore,
of [D] under the reflectionwith
to yx is a threeside of
image
[f>*]
respect
arcs inscribedin C with sides yl9 y%l9 and yfx and vertices c^, c2, and c3.
is
the
C at right
arc
The imageof [D]
under
the
reflections
with
respect
to
y2
and
y3
is
similar way. To state the result, let the image of D, cv, yA, and
=
1, 2, 3, and A, ji and v all different) under the reflection with
)V (v, K H
to yv, be denoted by D*, c*v, y Jv, and y*v, respectively. Then [DJ] is a
respect
threeside
ofarcs inscribed in C with, as sides, the arcs yv, yjv, and yjv that
the
intersect C at right angles and as vertices
points
c\302\243v,
cA, and
c^. We see
in C under reflection with
of arcs
inscribed
that the image of a threeside
to any one of its sides is again a threesideof arcs inscribed
in C.
respect
a
from
of
arcs
inscribed
in C
this
threeside
Repeating
process, starting
[D]
we arrive at an infinite number of threesides of arcsinscribedin C. In order
to prove this let us write
of D, cv, yA, and y^, under the reflection
the
images
with
to yv, as Dv, cvv, yAv, and y^, suppressing
the *. The imageof
respect
=
under
reflection
with
to
is
the
respect
[D]; the image
[Dx]
yn
original
yx
of Dx and yA1 under reflection with respect to one of the other sides,say, y21,
is again a threeside of arcs
we denote
by D12, and yA12, respectively.
[D12]
=
its
sides
the
arcs
are
inscribedin C and
yt 12, y212
y21, and y312,all of which
found
in a
Fig.
5.15
intersectC
Theorem
's Mapping
Riemann
236
at
of D12 and
the images
Denoting
angles.
right
under
yxl2
threeD12l9respectivelyy
=
side of arcs inscribedin C with sides y1121
y112, y2121,and y3121,all of
which
intersect
C at right angles. Denoting the imagesof D121
and
yA121,
to
under
reflection
with respect
y3121,by D1213, respectively
yA1213,
in C with sides y11213,y21213, and
t^ 1213] is a threesideof arcsinscribed
with
reflection
x 121, [D12 x ] is a
respect toyll2by
731213= 73121*
an
For
such
words, Dv, yXv
D\342\200\236vp
and
ypv\342\200\236;
to
respect
reflection
the
with
suppressing the *, and similarly,
respect to the arc y^; zVfl^>zVflp
zv/ip
\342\226\272
zv/ip<T
of an
reflections
all
with
reflection
the
composition
3's,
],
[DVfip
In other
with respect
with respect
to yv;
to y^;
to
respect
reflection
yavfip,
denote
us
Let
the
are
[Dvtl ],
similarly.
are
yAv/1
and
with
],
[\302\243>v
of arcs inscribedin Cis defined
reflection
images of D and yx under
2's, or
l's,
of Dv and yXv under
reflection
images
the
and
are
of
under
reflection with
images
DVfi
yXvfl
yXvfip
of Dv/lp and yAv/ip under
the images
DVfipa and yAvp<T are
and
DVfl
of
a sequence
are different,
terms
threesides
. .of
[Dv/lp<T],.
. .} consisting
{v, //, p,(x,.
sequence
arbitrary
consecutive
that
arc
the
the
represent
zv\342\200\236
with
reflection
the
of reflectionsis a conformal
zx+zxtl,
zVfl
\342\226\272
. .
zVip,.
compositions of reflections z> zVfl,
U
zv,
with
reflection
to
ypvil;
Theorem5.9,the
Since
mapping.
map
onto
itself, the
conformal
are
z^zxlipa,...
z *
by
yv
respect
to y<TV/ip,....By
respect
even number
z+zx,
zv >
let
to
respect
brevity's sake let us write {v,}
of {v,/i,p,a,...}, where
instead
{vi> v2, v3,...,vj,
vj+1,...}
= 1, 2, 3,j = 1, 2, 3,... , and
For each such sequence{v,}
v, ^ v, + 1.
Vj
a sequence[L>VJ, [DVlv2]> ... of threesides of arcs inscribed in C is
from [D] by repeated reflectionsand the
defined.[Dv v
v ] is obtained
which
mappings
itself. For
onto
U
map
=
side
yx
of
[D]
The side
and
[Dv
respect
=
v._iV.
yv.Vj
v
with the
corresponds
]
v
is the
side yXv
is a
v._t
yv.Vj
of [Dv
image
v.of
^
[DVj
Vj
v
=
], X
common side of [D,^
v
] under
v
the reflection
1,2,3.
v.
tv]
with
Vi.
to2yViJ'
The reflection
with
to
respect
yv
v v
is
v
represented
by
(5.24)
Zv1v2...vJ_1 \">Zv1v2...v/
The compositionof the
is
reflections
...,
z
_
by
represented
vjivj
zVi+zViV
z*zv
(5.25)
The
mapping
mapping for
[DViV2mmu
z^ zv
] and
even
v
v
j
by
maps
the
Theorem
U by
[DViVj. .
]\"\\
onto itself and isa conformal
unit disk
denote the intersection of
is obtained from
[DVi v,,. v.]'\"
5.9. We
that
is,
The
5.3
237
of reflection
principle
'\"
We use
to indicate
its vertices.
that three vertices
v]by omitting
[Dvv
and
are
two
have to be omitted.If [Dv
different threev
vl
[D\342\200\236
\342\200\236
\342\200\236
]
*\342\200\242 . . .
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
hk1
V,V2
fiifi2 \342\226\240
Vj\302\273
have
and
of arcs, then the corresponding
sides
v ]'\"
[P^ ^
[0ViV2
^T\"
=
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
common points if and only if k =j\342\200\224l,fit = v19/jl2 = v2, \342\200\242
,A*k
Vj_t or
=
=
.
.
We
have
j
kl,vt =vl9v2 ii29.
^^/i^.
vT\" n
[^vlV2...
where
(yViVi.
_. ViX
are obtained
and (y^^...^)
omitting
by
respectively 7^^...^^
U is the union of D\" and all
[DVjV2
disk
unit
1, 2, 3,. . .
vj* vjiJ=
Now
let
connected,
us
put cx
there
exists
=
\302\2432m/3,
c2
=
\302\2434wi/3, and
c3
= 1.
the
v.]'\",
a conformal
+ of the
the upper plane H
wplane by
to extend/
Theorem 5.7(1), it is possible
Riemann's
end
v,.
Mapping
points.
=
Since D
mapping /: z>w =/(z)
arcs
the
from
(y^,...*,.,)
yvjvlv2...vj_ly
The
=
XjJ\"
[DVjV2.
3,
1, 2,
is simply
from
D
Theorem.
onto
By
to a homeomorphism/mapping
+
=
to select a
By Theorem 5.7 it is possible
[D] onto[H ] H+ulRu{oo}.
=
=
=
to
We
want
an(*
\302\260\302\260such
that
*>
0, f(ci)
mapping /
7(ci)
?(c3)
of reflection
of this conformal
consider the analytic continuation by means
the
arc
The
/ maps
homeomorphism
open
(yx) onto the open
mapping /
interval
5.11, the conformal mapping/
(1, + oo) of IR. Hence,
by Theorem
+
D onto
H
from
can be extended to a conformal mapping g: z>w= g{z)
u(l,
fromDu(y1)uD1onto//+
+ oo)uH\".
toextend/toconformal
isalsopossible
a
oo,
H+u(\342\200\224
0) u i/~.
= g(z)fromDu
holomorphic
function
Fig. 5.16
from
(oo,0),it
Du(y2)uD2
onto
these extensionsalsoby
to extend / to a conformal
mapping
u
the
ontoi/+
\".
I
n
this
(0,l)uif
way,
(73)^^3
to become
continued
f(z) defined on D is analytically
Since/((y3)) = (0,1),it
g:z^w
mapping
Since f((y2)) =
We denote
is also
possible
+ w
g: z
= g(z).
Riemann 's MappingTheorem
238
the
function
holomorphic
g(z)
on the
defined
region:
S(1)= Du(y1)u(y2)u(y3)uD1uD2uD3
= [D]\"'uD1uD2uD3.
The
function
is given by
g(z)
zeD,
=/(z),
(g(z)
r
\\
where z+zy denotesthe reflection
\342\200\224
in the
g(z) is the region C {0,1}
all
Du
g(z)
zeD,
(yv)u
= (1,
+
is not
v =
Dv,
(526)
zv6(yv)uDv,
[g(zv)=f{zl
to the arc yv. The range of
Since
wplane.
g(zt) = g(z2)= g{z3) for
but
on each region
is univalent
g{z)
with
univalent,
1,2, 3.
Putting
oo), (J2) = ( oo,0)
and
respect
=
(l3)
v =
=?((yv)),
(Jv)
= //\"ulRu{oo}
and
(5.27)
Since the side y21 of [Dx]
with respect to yx, the mapping zx
S((),2i))=/((y2)) = li = li
=
conformal
possibleto extend
=
mapping zr>w g{zt)
the
\342\226\272
Using
the
where
z >
original
/(z)
> gr
(zv)
zv
from
^e
(y^) u
domain
from
\\i
g(zv)
^ v. The
onto
Dv u (y^) u
extension is given
from
reflection
to represent
we
the
with
to
respect
have
function
g(z)
continued
the arc
y^v.
by (5.27),
sake,
we denote
[D2]\"'
reflections z^zx
defined
on the
to become
and
zv
region S(1)
the
y (yuDJ
[DruD1uD2uD3u(
= \\PT u [DJ'\"u
simplicity's
of the
composition
zv/I. In this way the holomorphic
= [D]'\"u Dx u D2 u D3 is analytically
on:
function
g{z) defined
holomorphic
(For
by
(5.29)
represents
*
S(2) =
Dv/1
(5.28)
Dv/1
zv/1 is the
g(zVfl),
.
the
Similarly,
/f\" can be
[I/].)
Dv
=
+
ff~u(J2)u//
g(zv\302\273)=m
zv/1
Dv
reflection
the
under
onto
Dlv(y21)<<jD12
as a variable with
gr(zv), v = 2, 3
+
[ff
] = [//\"]
the open
maps
g(zt)
w =
0(zv)>
1,2, 3, where zv
image of y2
is the
extended to a conformalmapping
zv>w
onto
//\" u
for // = 1, 2, 3 and
(IJuH+
v =
mapping
+
arc (y21) onto
Hence,
by Theorem 5.11 it is
(oo,0).
to a conformal
zl^g(zl)
mapping
from
(Here zx is to be considered
conformal mapping zv *
onto
[Dv]
conformal
the
extending
onto H\".
for
(I,)
Putting
(0,1).
zv>g(zv) is a homeomorphism
mapping
=
have
zvelDJ,
g(zv)=7(4
0(zv\342\200\236)
we
1,2, 3,
u
[Z>3]'\" u
( (J
DVA
all analytic continuationsof g(z)by
g(z)
The principle
5.3
5.17
Fig.
be represented
S{2) can
also.)
239
of reflection
as
S(2)= U ^v^([S(1)]nl/).
v
ft*
m =
For
we define
3,4,5,...
S(m)=
the
Sim) by
region
(5.30)
([S(mU]nI/).
U^,...^
to yield
continued
function
g(z) on S(2) can be analytically
=
m
union
The
on
functions
defined
Slm\\
3,4, 5,6,....
g(z)
holomorphic
of
union
the
on the righthand side of (5.30)denotes
v occurring
v
\\JDV
one
of
where
take
the
3 x 2m\"1 regions Dv v
, vml9 vm
vl5 v2,...
v ,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
values 1,2, or 3 and vx ^ v2 ^ v3 # \342\200\242
^ vm_ x ^ vm. [S(m~ n] is a polygon
~*
3 x 2m
with
intersect
the unit circle C at right angles.
arcs
that
yv v v
v
The sideyv v \342\200\236
is common
to the threeside [Dv v ''' v ] and the
\"\"\" vm~l
m
* 2
V\" 1Y
\342\226\272
z
be defined
as in (5.25), the analytic
[S(w
polygon
2)]. Letting
v
zv v
A
holomorphic
continuation g(z) is given
0 Kv2...
if
m
is
=/(*)>
vJ
and
odd
*v, v2...
is
In
just
even,
this
way
*Va... ^
as (5.26)
the
to
extended
vMe
(y
vw_,)
Vl...
^
>Vl
v2...
v
(5.31)
v
(5.32)
by
0 <zvlV2...O =/(*),
if m
by
(y
Vl...,._
and (5.29).
holomorphic
function
holomorphic
yield
t)
u \"Vlv2...
f(z) defined on D is analytically
functions
g(z) defined
on
S(1),S(2),S(3),...,S(m>.
Since
D
c S(1)
/(z) can be analytically
c S{2)c
... c
continued
S*10
c
.,
to
yield
[) S(m)=l/,
m=l
a holomorphic
function g (z)
240
's
Riemann
on U. Putting
defined
Dv u
=
D u (y v) u Dv,
=
\302\243v
and
Theorem
Mapping
\302\243v/1
u
Dv\342\200\236,
(y\342\200\236v)
generally
a
is
1 v HI
U
vml
an
holomorphic
v\302\273'
of
' ' ' v B'}
1 v*
each
On
U.
of
\302\243Vlv2...vm
and z >w = g(z)
is univalent
g(z)
vml
...
vlv2
and the collection {Ev
covering
\302\260Pen
function
... vml^U
^vmvl
of U
subregion
>s
\302\243Vlv2...vm
the
...
^vlv2
vmlvm
' ' '
\302\243v
1 v2
all
=
...
vlv2
a
is
onto H+ <<j(IvJvH~. Therefore
g(z) is an example of a socalled
0'(z)#O
of
the
z =/_1(w)
be the inverse function
Let
modular
function.
=
= f(z)
w
w+z
on
then
function
D;
/_1(w) is a
f~l:
holomorphic
that maps the upper halfplaneH+ of the wplane onto
conformal
mapping
of reflection,
D. By repeated application of the principle
f(z) is analytically
on
U.
the
Fromthis we see
continued to yield
function
g (z)
holomorphic
conformal
C
\342\200\224
{0,
multivalued
/\"*
is
(w)
on
function
analytic
continuable
analytically
freely
its analytic
that
1} and
function
The
zeU.
all
the inverse
that
from Evvv
mapping
for
we
is invariant under analytic continuation (Section4.1a),
= w, that is, z = g~l (w) is the inverse of w = g (z).
to
In order
that/\"1
Wx
analytically
freely
g(z) to
u (JA) u if\", A =
of
restriction
=
is
(w)
H+
onto
v
1.2\"*fn
\302\243Vi.
Wv
from
mapping
Divide P into
<
<
^_x
Wk
rh
n
complete
analytically
the
power
>z
g~l\302\253
12 mmm v in
/J: r >
Vm.
\302\243Vj
V2
\342\200\224
curve in C {0, 1} and let
Let
function/\"1
\342\226\272
w =
ph: t
= 6,
/J
W3;
that
w
{g~x
series
put
is, /?J
ft
{t\\ 0 ^
rfc,
continuation of/\"*(w)
with
along
(w,
t): 0
to h,
respect
ft
to
c
^A(h).
^
t
g~l (w, t) of
^.J.
^
w
\342\200\224
/J(f)
g^
that/\"*
\342\200\242
<
tx
region
(h>) can
(w) defined
by g jjjj,
(w)
we denote this
all inverse
along /?.
*
Since/\"
with
analytic
r0 <
in one
(See Definition
are
fe,
=
is given
along/^
and
^
H+
contained
we assume
P{th^x)
t
on
0
from
conformal
a
is
(w)
defined
^ r g
is
ph
=
us consider the
(w)
(\302\253?),
rfc_x
such that each
W^W^and
induction
continued
continuation by
that
w
=
continued to yieldthe holomorphic
function
on H^(1),the analytic
Using
:
...v
a conformal mapping
vm(z) *s
holomorphic
tn
we
and
vJz)
gViV2
3. Obviously
0Vlv2
, 0V~J,
12
curves
regions
be analytically
by
\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
<
<
{h) of the
ffi
be a
of the
(w))
g(g~l
analytic continuation g (z) of /(z),
the
in C \342\200\224{0,1},we denote
continuable
onto
H^
= c0eH+
>5(0)
continuation
=
z>w
0Vlv2...vm
have
the
\302\243Vlv2...vm
1, 2,
region
= C{0, 1}.
H^1u^2u^3
Since
using
directly,
verify
the
in
continuation g~l(w) is a holomorphic
= w
C  {0,1}.Sincethe identity/(/~l
(w))
has
(w).
been
analytic
4.1 and notice
functions of
w
The
5.3
= g (z).)
Since
Since
^(fc),
some
with
coincides
that/\"*
the analytic
(w)
is freely
_,*(/.)
*s a
on
(w)
continuable
analytically
is freely
(w)
g~l
of
(w,th_x)
/?(*/,1)\302\253
holomorphic singlevalued function
continuationof g~l {with_1)
(w). g~l
g~l
just
/J*. We
along
along /J. Hence/\"
{0,1}
this
and
conclude
(u>) is
freely
analytic
and complete
continuable
analytically
*
on
1}.
onC{0,
c.
Let
of
function
Theorem
Picar(Ts
F (z) be an
z defined
on
5.13
Theorem
rangeof
of
the whole
zplane C.
values
with
z, i.e.,
F (z)
A nonconstant
one exception.
most
at
is either
F (z)
function
entire
an
entire function
Theorem).
(PicartTs
all complex
assumes
. .vm
and ftj c W^,
a neighborhood
of 0h
point
continuable on the region C 
analytically
continuation is
g~J2
v^/U/oM
g^Jj...
it is
J is the initial
p (th_
241
of reflection
principle
is a holomorphic
entire function
F(z)
In other words,the
C or C\342\200\224
{w0}
.or
some
vv0
e C.
F (C) c
C \342\200\224
wx} for some w0, wxeC (vv0 ^ w,). Since
{w0,
\342\200\224
the linear transformation w+(w\342\200\224
w0) maps
w0 onto 0 and wx
w0)/(w!
\342\200\224
c:
C {0, 1}. Substituting \302\243
1 we see right away that F (C)
for z in the
onto
=
of w
the
inverse
is
modular function g(z) discussedabove,
\302\243 g~l
(w)
\"x
=
is
a
The
function
multivalued
0 (C).
g (w)
analytic function,
C \342\200\224{0,
continuable and
and
moreover
freely
analytically
holomorphicon
1}
\342\200\224
onC
the
function
Therefore,
g~l (/(z) is freely
complete
composite
{0,1}.
is a
on C by Theorem 4.9. Therefore,g~l (F(z))
continuable
analytically
an
entire
on
is
function
that
C,
is, g~l
(F(z))
singlevalued
holomorphic
hence
function, by Theorem 4.7. On the other
hand,
C = 01(w)el/,
<
1.
a
is
Theorem
constant
Liouville's
Hence, g~l (F(z))
{F(z))\\
\\g~l
by
our
with
(Theorem
1.24) and F(z) reducesto a constant,in contradiction
Assume
Proof:
assumption.
If F (z) isa polynomial
in
F (C)
z, then
If F (C) = C\342\200\224
{w0},
of Algebra).
the
= C (by
value
vv0
the
Fundamental
is called
Theorem
the exceptional
value
of the transcendental entire function
the
value
of
cos z
has no
exponential
function
exceptionalvalue.
F (z). For
example, the exceptional
ez is 0 (seeExample
while
the function
1.6),
d.
The
If D
is a simplyconnectedand
bounded by
SchwarzChristoffel
a Jordan
curve
consisting
formula
bounded
of
n
region
segments,
in the
then
complex plane
region
the closed
242 Riemanns MappingTheorem
[Z>]
an ngon.
is called
d[J>] =
Let [D]
be an ngonand
>vy;.+i
yiy2
let
be given by
its boundary
y\302\273
the vertices cx_x and cx. Let 0X, \342\200\224n<0x< n,
between
angle
yx+1and yx at cx (the socalled exterior angle). If
+
the upper halfplane H
w =f(z)
D onto
is a conformal mapping from
/: z \342\226\272
yx connects
each
where
be the
to a homeomorphism/from
of the wplane,then/can beextended
[D] onto
=
H+ u R u {00} by Theorem 5.7 (1) and /maps d[p] onto the
[H+]
line
oriented
positively
IR
u
{00}. Hence,
< ax
\342\200\242
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
<
\342\200\224
axt
co<a1<a2<
ax
putting
<
\342\200\224f(cx\\we
an <
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
=
\\C0
assume
may
+ 00.
Cn
CnX
n
5.18
Fig.
Let
the
<}> denote
inverse
of/:
mapping from H* onto D.We
only
= 9
functions
elementary
(j>
zzJ
=
will
now
<f>:
w \342\226\272
z = <j> (w)
establish
of w. The reflection
by) the segment yx
determined
Then
=f~1.
is
^^i(ZcA_1)
given
a formula
with
respect
is a
conformal
for 0 (w)
to
(the
using
line
by
+ c,.1.
(5.33)
D under the reflectionwith respect
to yx by DJ.
with
to yx. Since
that
is the symmetric
of
[D J] isan ngon
[Z>]
respect
image
=
*n
theconformal
case
a
convex
is
mapping/
f((yj))
ngon,
(ax1>\302\260a)\302\273 [D]
+
=
from
D onto
H
can be extended to a conformalmapping
0A: z+w
gx(z)
from D u (yx)u Z)* onto H+v(ax_l9ax)yj
H+ by Theorem 5.11. (If A = 1,
then we let (fl0^i) represent(an, + 00)u {00} u (\342\200\224
The function
00,^).)
We
denote
the
image of
gx
(z)
is given
by
inverse
the
denote
of 3A by ^A.
^l
gr
from //+ onto D can
from [H+] onto [D]. The mapping
= $(w)
mappingfrom
of 4>. Since
*
ff
$ =/\"*, ^
=
Since all \\j/x
by (5.34).
from H* u (aA_ l5 ax)
holomorphicfunction
\\\\fx
given
a
to
w+z
onto D u
mapping </>:
homeomorphism
= ^A(w)
(yj u
w +
DJ
z
$
is a conformal
an
and
extension
by
+
wetf
mappings,
$'x (w) # 0. Also if [D] is not
in (5.35) is a holomorphicmapping
as defined
conformal
are
\342\226\272
z =
w
\\l/x:
is
(w)
The conformal
extended
^:
u JJ~
ax)
lf
<Mw),
j<Mw)
convex,
u (aA_
be
(5.34)
*
z?e(yJuDJ
^(2*)=/(z),
We
of reflection 243
The principle
5.3
(w)
onto D u
(yj u
and
\\j/x (w) ^ 0. Hence, the
DJ
be
(j>
analytically continuedto yield an
on
function
is holomorphic
^ (w) = \\j/x (w), X = 1, 2,. . . ,n, which
analytic
=
weif\"
.
.
.
and
For
#(w)*
^(w)
,<*\342\200\236}.
Rujoo}^,
^(w)
= $ (w)* do not coincide if X ^ //, hence ^ (w) is a multivalued function.
and
its branches ipx(w)
There exists a very
between
relationship
simple
and z> z* takes the
zf>z
^ (w): Since the composition of the reflections
u i/~
(w) on
H+ can
form
aM*0
zJz^a^zJ+Z^,
by (5.33),
we
have
=
^(w)
weH~.
a/xA^(w)lj3/lA,
Hence
\302\273;>)
\302\273f;(w)
=
Therefore
wgH
^i(w)'
^\302\273
the function
*m\302\243tt
&
(w)
is a
holomorphic
from which the
since ^
of
w
=
(w)
is
singlevalued function
points a0, al9. . . , an_x
a
00, we have
holomorphic
on a
on the Riemann
have
univalent
neighborhood of
been
function
00
deleted.
R u
{00},
In particular,
sphere
on a neighborhood
Theorem
's Mapping
Riemann
244
where /J(l/w) is a power seriesin
/?(0) =
that
such
1/w
= 0.
fc(oo)
(5.36)
In order to study thebehaviorofh (w) in a neighborhood
$ (w) on a neighborhood of aA. For sufficiently
consider
chosen
suitably
defined
0. Hence
kx the
angle
mapping
qA:
=
z + \302\243
qA
of each point ax, we
small e > 0 and a
(z), where
(z)
qA
is
by
=
qA*) = J\"*(zcJ\"a\\
cox
n6x,
=
< e} on the upper half
disk
maps the fanshaped regionSx {zeD:\\zcx\\
=
=
Im
>
<
0
0
and
radius
center
and
with
C
fl
p
eK,to*lVx
{\302\243:
p}
[/p+ (0)
is a subregion
of the upperhalfplaneH + of the wplane and $ maps
=f(Sx)
=
where
onto
conformally
Wx
<DA (w),
Sx. Hence the mapping Q>x: w > \302\243
d>A
(w)
is defined
(w)
<DA
by
=
eiK*

(<\302\243
(w)
(5.37)
wg^
cj*'^,
.
\342\200\242
\342\200\242\342\200\224
ax
b
K
\342\200\242
p
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
0
p
Fig. 5.19
is a
conformal mapping from
within
contained
(a, b) of the
interval
{a,
a circle
real axisofthe
b) is part
<bx
homomorphism
w
from
Wx\\j
>
C = eiK* (#
(a,
b) onto
17* (O).jfmaps that part of yx yA+1
onto
the open interval
cx and radius \302\243
boundary of
from
(w) 
ax
Obviously,
wplane.
of the
conformal mapping
onto
Wx
center
with
Wx
cA)n/ft\\
Wx.
onto
It
follows
*
U (0)
we^u
U* (0)u ( \342\200\224p,
p).
= f(cx)
Thus
e (a,b).The open
from
(5.37) that the
can be extendedto a
(a,6),
Oa can
be extended to a
5.3 The principle of reflection
conformal
(O)u(p,
tfp+
*\302\245x:
W^
u
b) u
(a,
onto
^
l/p(0). Since a^efofr) and $(aj
=
p)ul/p+(0)
= 0.
*F A (aA)
have
(w) from
=
w \342\226\272
\302\243 %
mapping
245
=
we
c\342\200\236
Hence
^A(vv)=(waA)GA(vv),
where
Since *FA
=
(w)
* (w)
by
and
akT^
FA(w) is
7t
(w

u
(a, 6)
u
and
Wk
GA (w)
# 0
for all w.
have
Fx
FA (w)
(w),
= (***
GA
(w))\302\273*'\"
holomorphic on a neighborhoodof
=
cojn\342\200\2241
^
=
0' (w)
Wk
vve^we
= (w
ck
Since
# 0.
FA(aA)
<DA(w) for
Here,
(5.37).
on
is holomorphic
(w)
GA
(FA (w)
aJW
ax
and
have
\342\200\224OJn,we
+
\342\200\224
(w

flJ
F'A
(w)),
a>2
hence
0 (W)
flW
w\"\"flA
where
=
(w)
\302\253a
Since
FA
(aA)
^
holomorphic
log
/aw
(FA
(w)
+
\342\200\224
(w

coA
a,)
F\\
(w)).
0, Hx (w) is holomorphicona neighborhood
which
on a neighborhood of ax from
of 0A
and
ax has been
ft
(w)
Therefore,the expressionfor ft (w), which was obtained under the
w e Wx is valid on a neighborhood
assumptionthat
ofaA. Since ft (w) is holomorphic
on the wplanefrom
.
.
.
have
been removed,
which
,an
al9a2,
*(w)+ I
is an
entire
~^\342\200\224
of
function
w
and
lim^.^
ft
= 0
(w)
by (5.36). We
Theorem
Liouville's
\302\243ejn
h(W)=
x
Therefore
Iogtf>'(w) =
for we//+
and
ft(w)=
X
hence
n
log
</>'
(w)
=
\342\200\224
J]
ai
(^AO
(w
l\302\260g
~
fl^) +
constant
is
deleted.
conclude from
246 Riemann 's MappingTheorem
conclude
we
which
from
n
4>' (w)
Fixing
an
= C0
[7
(w

w0e//+,
arbitrary
(w)
=
C0
f
J
where
C0 and
5.14.
Theorem
of
the
wplane
C\\
are
fl
 flj\"#^ *v + Clf
0*
w0 A=l
C0 ^
constants,
A conformal
onto the
mapping
C0
and
the
SchwarzChristoffel
that maps
proved:
the upper halfplanetf+
can
ngon
be represented
as
w0X=l
C, are constants,
\342\226\240\342\226\240
\342\200\242the
\342\200\242
exterior
0!,02\302\273 \342\226\240
>^a\302\273 \342\200\242,#\342\200\236
called
(5.38)
0. We have
interior D of an
J
where
constant.
we have
\"
4>
co a
ai)~exl*>
C0 ^ 0,w0
angles
formula.
at the
a
fixed
point
in H+
and
vertices ofthengon. (5.38)is
6
Riemann
This
book
famous
Differentialforms
To
the
groundwork
6.1
surfaces following
analytic functions on Riemann
The Idea ofRiemannian Surface.
with
deals
chapter
Weyl's
surfaces
what
for
lay
follows we study
differential
forms.
a.
\342\200\224
y)
u(x
du =
y)
(p\\(x,
(p
which
and
=
cpi dx +
or
assume
dy,
dy,
a region
D in the
ux = ux(x,
y),
=
cp2
du,
is given
uy(x,
=
function
of
but
by
y).
expression
(p2(x, y)9
a differential
is called
the coefficients
complexvaluedfunctions,
if the
y, the
x and
y\\
the
differentiable,
uy
of
of
is continuously
for short) of u
functions
= cpx{x,
cpi
y)
u(x,
iy)
complexplane is
is continuously
(or differential
Generally,
u(x +
...
real
C\302\260\302\260,
analytic,
previous expressionfor
a 1form.
<Pi{x> y) can be
on
u(z) =
If u = u(z)=
are arbitrary
cp2
generalizes the
form of degree
(p2
uy
(p2(x, y)
7
=
differential
uxdx +
class
function
rea' variables
....
analytic
total
the
defined
of
iy) oftwo
+
real
C\302\260\302\260,
differentiable,
If
iy,
differentiable,
continuously
w(*>
realvalued
the
that
variable z = x +
complex
class
forms
Differential
We say
cp\\
in
=
this
(p\\(x, y)
section
and
we
is
functions, unless the contrary
and
clear
that
the
coefficients
cp\\
necessary
cp2 are realvalued,
(p = cp\\ dx + q>2 dy is called a real 1form.
If the coefficientscp\\ and cp2 are continuous functions of x and y on the
D in the complex plane (or on the point set S), then the 1form
domain
=
dx
+ <p2 dy is said to be continuous on D (or on S). If cp\\ and
q>\\
q>2
cp
are continuously
...
on D, then
differentiable, of class Cn9 of class C\302\260\302\260,
...
the 1form cp is continuously
of class Cn, of class C\302\260\302\260,
differentiable,
indicated.
that
cp\\
When
cp2 are
and
it
is
realvalued
to make
Riemann
248
surfaces
on D. Usingthe
z =
variable
complex
the 1form cp
x+iy,
is
written
also
as
cp(z) =
If
cp{(z)dx+
u =
function
the
class
of
forms
cp
class
=
+
the
defined
and ip
+
(acp\\
\342\200\224dx
ip2
+ (<3(p2+
cp =
1
a, b eU
bip2)dy,
1form
the
and
w
+ bip of two
is
defined
dy
by
cp\\
dx
+
cp2
dy
is
by
=
ucp
+ (ucp2)dy.
(ucp\\)dx
The following two
obvious:
are
rules
bv) = adu + bdv,
d{au +
\342\200\242
a,
now
to introduce
a new
We
want
exterior product. The exteriorproduct
\342\200\224
ip Acp =
<p A ^
for 1forms
(a<p +
<p
A (flV
cp =
=
<fc A <\302\243t
by) A
0, dx: A
rfy
is
A V),
= a(cp Aip) +
b(cp
A #).
cp2dy
and
=
A dx
\342\200\224
dy
for
1forms
called
the
i.e.
antisymmetric,
&(%
= ((p\\ip2
(p Alp
\\p\\dx + xpidy and
and dy Ady = 0, we have
xp
\342\200\224
=
observing that
A dy.
(Pi^p\\)dx
of the form
An expression
co =
+ b%)
operation A
V) +
a(<P A
=
V
cp\\dx\\
eR
satisfies
moreover
ip and
and
(p
b
vdu + udv.
d(uv) =
Putting
combinationacp
{
ip\\
bip\\)dx
function
of the
product
1form
the
then
The linear
on D.
cpidy
acp + bip =
and
region D
...,
C\302\260\302\260,
q>\\ dx
of class Cw, of
differentiable,
du is continuous, of class
is continuously
j>)
w(x,
on the
C\302\260\302\260,
...,
Cw_1,
cp2{z)dy.
con dx
A
co\\2 =
dy,
co^ix,
y),
for cp A ip, is called a differential
which generalizesthe previous
expression
the
In this section we will assume that
form of degree 2 or a 2form.
is
unless
the
w
is
realvalued
of
the
2form
coefficient
contrary
conix,
y)
of
If a; 12 = conix, y) is continuous,
indicated.
differentiable,
continuously
a) = a)\\2 dx A dy is called continuous,
the
2form
class Cn, ..., then
of a function
u
of class
C\\ ... . The product
continuouslydifferentiable,
and a 2form co is defined by
uco = (ua)\\2)dx
and
the linear
aco +
A
dy,
combination aco +
bip
=
(aw\\2
bip
two
of
+ bip\\2)dx
A
dy,
2forms
a,
co and ip by
b GR.
Differential forms 249
6.1
=
con
Putting
=
(O
I
0) =
\342\200\224
dy
=
a)jk
con
^2
2
n
we arrive
dx,
dx).
in
2forms
for
result
variables:
n
dXk>
putting
by
\342\200\2240)%,
dy A
A
^J
Mj*
be written as
<fy A
o>2i
is a specialcaseofthe
This formula
where
+
dxAdy
(o>i2
a) can
2form
the
\342\200\224Q)2i9
x\\ =
x and x2 \342\200\224
a)2\\dx A
y. Since
A dy. In the case of two
w^dx
\342\200\224
2,
a> =
at
coefficient is ton, hencethe
the only independent
is
to distinguish
not
but
used
the 2form
really
necessary,
coefficient
a;i2.
variables
is
subscript
from
the
domain, than
the
a>
Obviously,
If
can be
This
1form defined on a
\342\200\224
Adx
dcp\\
defined
by
+ dq>2 A
dy,
cp is
xp).
cp
=
dx
(p\\
+
(p2
dy.
reduced to
have
We
+ bxp)
d(acp
and, since for
(pi
of
derivative
dip
A
differentiable
a continuously
is
<p
exterior
utp = u(cp
A \\p \342\200\224
(p A
ucp
rf* +
udcpi
\342\200\224
adcp
a
continuously
A
we
dx,
+
ER
a, b
bdxp,
function
differential
w,
d(ucp\\)
A dx
= du
d(u(p) = du Acp + udcp.
If
uyx
twice
is
u
=
Uxy,
(6.2)
differentiable,
continuously
hence
A
have
then du =
uxdx +
uy
dy
and
by (6.1)
ddu = 0.
(6.3)
b. Line integrals
Let
y :
t
w(z)
\342\200\224\302\273
z =
*(0 +
=
u(x,
y) be
a continuously
defined on a region Q
z = x+iy
y(f),
MO*trie
a ^
function
/^ 6, be a
u(y(t))
in
smooth
= u{x(t\\
the
curve
Hence
ux(y(t))x'(t)
+
complex
in
uy(y(t))y'(t).
of
function
plane
Q. Writing
y(t)) is continuously
and
differentiable
d_ u(y(t)) =
dt
differentiable
and
let
y(f) =
Riemann surfaces
250
u(y(b)) 
=
u(y(a))
f
Ja
For a 1formcp = (px{z)dx + (p2(z)dy, which is continuous
the integral of cp along y by
=
f cp
\\y<p a
call
Q,
we define
(6.5)
in (6.4). It is easy to see that the above
if
the curve y is piecewisesmooth.We
\\Ycp
of line integrals
we have
line integral. Using the notation
occurring
be used
integral
of
definition
on
+ (p2(Y(t))yV))dt
f ((pi(Y(t))x'(t)
the
generalizing
(6.4)
+ uy(y(t))y'(t))dt.
(ux(y(t))x'(t)
can
also
=
u(y(b))u(y(a))
du.
(6.6)
f
Jy
1forms cp
For two continuous
(cicp +
=
c2V0
and
ip we
9 +
ci
c2\\
Jy
Jy
obviously
have
V,
ci
<?i>
R.
\342\202\254
Jy
/(z) be a complexvalued continuous function
= u + iv, u = w(z) and v = 0(z), we have
Let
f(z)
f(z)dz =
*<p =
Putting
=
cp
udx
vdywt
=
f(z)dz
(p\\dy9
\342\200\224
1*
+
cp
Now, accordingto definition
=
\\f(z)dz
Jy
\\
Ja
\342\200\224
v dy + 1(0 d*
w <\302\243c
a 1form<p
*<p of
dc +
\342\200\224<P2
=
+ / rfy)
fc;)(dx
form
dual
the
Generally,
+
(w
q>
=
on
is defined
cp\\dx\\
Q.
Writing
+ u dy).
by
cp2 dy.
obtain
(6.7)
(p.
the
(6.6),
of f{z)
integral
along y is given
by
f{y(t))y'(t)dt.
From
= ux'(t)
f{y(t))y'{t)
we conclude
real 1form
put/(z)
=
(p\\(z)
f (p
Jy
If t(z)
satisfying t'(x)

= Re
+
Kvx\\t)
uy'{t))
\\cp + i\\ *<p.
\\f(z)dz=
Jy
For a
 i>/(0+
cp
Jy
Jy
=
(p\\(z)dx
i<P2(z).
f
/(z)<fe,
(6.8)
+ cp2(z)dy9 which
=
Then/(z)rfz
/(z)
=
cp
+
^ (z)
is continuouson Q, we
i*(p,hence

icp2(z).
(6.9)
Jy
of r, a ^ r ^ /?,
is a continuously differentiable function
= b, then the curve A : r \342\200\224\342\226\272
> 0 for all r, /(a) = a, f(/?)
A(r)
6.1
= y(t(r))9 cl ^t ^ /3, can be
a ^ t ^ b (see Section4.2).The
: t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),
the curve y
with
identified
251
forms
Differential
equalities,
following
and
be
can
JyJ
/y
Jy
proved
by using
resulting
from
(6.9). If
y
=
y\\
the
together
pasting
in that
   9 Ym
Yi,
Jy
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
y2
is the
yw
73
curves
smooth
piecewise
=
<P
=
nm be
(p is
(61\302\260)
53\302\253*y*k=\\
hk
k=\\
the
results, this definition is compatible with
for example (4.34), (4.35) and (4.36).
on D and if
the 2form a> = conix, y)dx A dy is continuous
above
the
By
y
<?>
]C'2*
y\\,
obviously
order, then,
J/m
Jy
Jy,
Jy2
smooth
curves in Q, let \302\253i,...,
Let
yi, ..., ym be piecewise
=
a
1chain.
The integral Jy(p, where
and
let
be
integers
y ]C*=i\"*y*
a 1form which is continuouson Q, is defined
by
Jy
curve
standard
definitions,
If
jd
<
y)\\dxdy
a>i2(xr,
+oo
then we define
\\
CO
=
JD
JD
The integral \\Dco
on the
y)dxdy.
0)\\2(X9
said
is
closed region
continuous
y)dxdy.
conix,
It is clearthat $Dco
is decomposedinto
is
[D], then we define
Jr
J[D]
)[D]
J\\D]
absolutely. Further, if co
to converge
as J[d]0>
as well
the
closed
regions
is linear in a>.
[A]\302\273
If
the
closed
region [D]
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
then
\342\200\242\302\273
[^/iL
[AL
cy.
J.\302\243J
Theorem
6.1
such that
its
(Green's
boundary
(6.11)
[A]
Theorem).
d[D]
consists
Let
be
[\302\243>]
of a
finite
a
number
bounded
closed
of mutually
region
disjoint
Riemann surfaces
252
piecewise
a region Q D
<P
=\\
Jd[D]
1form
cp
J[D]
[D] = r,(tf)
(6.12)
dcp
U
U
T2(K)
into cells
be decomposed
can
[D]
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U
rx(K)
Theorem
#[\302\243)]
=
(6.13)
T^K)
in
obtained
= Q
^vCXv
and
(see Theorem
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U
U
decompositon of [D]
2.1. Since dTx(K)=
or dTx{K)
the cellular
represent
differenti
is continuously
then
[\302\243>],
Proof: Firstwe note that
2.1). Let
Cva
If the
curves.
Jordan
smooth
able on
=
the
J2vCXv9
Section
of
=
^Q
(6.14)
Hence
2.3a).
By (6.11)
Ckv
we have
d[D] = Y^dn(K)
(see
proof
and (6.13)we have
dcp
it suffices
therefore
1idTk{K)
holds
for all
cells FX(K)
are
Tx(K)
>y>
to prove that
dcp
H
hk{K)
cells FX(K). As is clear from
the
of Theorem
proof
all of the form of the cells of Example
2.3,i.e.
=
{z:z = x + iy,a^x^b,
y(x)
^y^
d(x)}9
i
iy
ib
jX^L^_.
~J
'?/
*/
tm*
[_
1
c
\342\226\240p
Ib
x
l^>
rm
[co
\\ll
V
2.1, the
Differential forms 253
6.1
or
Ti(K)= {z:z =
where y(z)
and
[a,
interval
b] such
that
JdT(K)
for
a cell
(6.15)
dcp
JT(K)
T(K) given by
T(K) = {z:z = x + iy,a^x^b9
the other casebeing treated similarly.
u(x,
cp = udx + vdy, u \342\200\224
Writing
C
of two line
Q consists
a :y
\342\200\224>
z =
a +
z =
fi:y^
fe
+
x
on
v(x, y)
are, by assumption,
The boundary
Q.
^ y ^
iy9
y(a)
iy,
y(b)^
a^
a^
id(x),
\342\200\224\342\226\272
Z =
X+
and
y)
segments:
and two smooth curves:
z = x + *y(x),
:*>
y
6 :
^ (5(x)},
y(x) ^ y
functions
differentiable
continuously
T(K)
y{y)
iy9a^y^b,
defined
continuously differentiable functions
<
<
if
a
b.
We
will
the
y
prove
d(y)
equality
<
y(y)
cp=\\
f
+
d(y) are
and
y(y)
similarly,
on
are
d(x)
closed
the
on
^x^
d(y)},
differentiable functions of x defined
continuously
< d(x)
such
that
if a < z < b and
[a, b]
y(x)
x
d(a),
y^Si
x^
b,
x^ b.
i.e.
= Y+P~
=
ar(x>
a\\
5
\342\200\224
a.
r{K)
b
dcp =
Since
(vx
\342\200\224
uy)dx
A dy9
x
we have
cd(x)
rfcp
=
JT(K)
JT(K)
We
first
observe
(i;*
that
\342\200\224
uy)dxdy
=
\\
Ja
dx\\
(vx
iy{x)
\342\200\224
uy)dy.
of the cell
254
Riemann
surfaces
rb
rd(x)
dx\\
J y(x)
Ja
j\302\273b
=
y)dy
uy(x,
[u(x, d(x))
J a

rb
rb
=
u(x, 6{x))dx
Ja
=
dx
y(x))]
u(x,
u dx
\\
\342\200\224
\\ u
id
\342\200\224
Ja
u(x,
y(x))dx
dx.
Jy
Next we put
and we
(jc,
y)dy
v(x,
t,s)=\\
\302\256(x,
notice that
continuously differentiable
is a
t, s)
<I>(x,
function
s such that
t) and
<>*(*,
t, s)
=\\
0>,(x,
t, s)
= v(x,
\302\256s(x,
t,
s)
vx(x,
y)dy\\
t)\\
= v(x9
s).
Hence
rd(x)
p6(x)
d_
dx
=
y)dy
v(x,
+ v(x, d(x))d'(x)
vx(x9 y)dy
Jy(x)
Jy(x)

Integration of both
with
sides
rd(b)

y)dy
v(b,
iy{b)
v(x9 Y(x))y'{x).
from a to b yields
to x
respect
the
equality
od(a)
y)dy
v(a9
Jy(fl)
rb
=
rd(x)
dx\\
\\
J y(x)
Ja
vx(x,
y)dy
rb
+
rb

v(x, 6(x))6'(x)dx
Ja
v(x, y(x))y\\x)dx.
Ja
Hence
c6(x)
cb
Ja
Since
vx(x,
ds\\
obviously
JT(K)
Formula (6.15)
vdy
y)dy=
JP
Jy(x)
Ja\" dx
Jy
=
\\pu
JP
dx
=
Jd
is the counterpartfor
Ja
vdy
Jd
vdy+
vdy.
Jy
conclude
0, we
Ja
1forms
JdT(K)
of formula
(6.6).
of
Differential forms 255
6.1
closed region[D]such that
ux(x,
u(x, y) is continuously differentiable on the interior of [D] and
y)
functions
and
and uy(x9 y) can be extendedto continuous
ux{x9 y)
y)
uy(x9
on [D] and the partial
on [D] is said to be continuously
differentiable
derivatives
ux(x,
y) and uy(x9 y) on [D] are defined
by ux(x,
y) = ux{x9
y)
A
and
function
continuous
= uy(x, y).
uy(x9 y)
on [D]
u(xy y)
defined on a
1form
continuous
A
is said to be continuously
=
cp
cp\\
on
differentiable
+
dx
[D] if
(p2dy
q>\\
[D]. Green'sTheoremis still
differentiable on
continuously
are
forms cp which
continuously
valid
on [D] in the
differentiable
defined
and
are
(pi
1
for
following
sense:
be a bounded closedregionsuch
Let [D]
Theorem
6.2.
consists
of a
curves.If the
cp is
1form
=
<P
of
number
finite
J[D]
Jd[D]
assuming that
y\302\243(x)
for
small
a sufficiently
=
T(Ke)
(see
the
proof
r(^\302\243)
{x
C
ey(x)
0 and considerthe cell:
+ iy:a + e^x^be,
yE(x)
2.3).
=
Jrc/co
(p=\\
+ (1
 e)(5(x)
cp is
^y^
differentiable
continuously
y(x) <y<
6\302\243(x)}
on
6(x)}
<ty
e tend
to +0
we obtain:
dcp.
JT(K)
1.14 of
To see this we first
=
<5\302\243(x)
e >
6.1. Letting
JdT(K)
\302\243(5(jc),
hence
Jar(/i:)
by Theorem
+
cell
d(x)}.
^y^
y(x)
{x+iy:a<x<b,
T(E\\
<P
Theorem
\302\243)y(x)
of Lemma
T(E) =
and

(1
on the
differentiable
is continuously
=
then
[\302\243>],
<fy
T(K) = {z+ iy:a^x^b9
To this end, put
on
differentiable
(6.15):
equality
Jrc/:)
cp
mutually
dcp.
=
<P
Jar(A:)
its boundary
disjoint piecewise smooth Jordan
continuously
It sufficesto prove
Proof:
that
Section 1.3 can be derived
observe
that
equation
(1.42),
directly
from
Theorem
6.2.
Riemann surfaces
256
^(/TO,
can be written
=
s))
s))Tt(t,
s))Ts(t,
Qt(f(T(t9
s)),
as:
d(f(T(t9
s))Tt(t9
d(f(T(t,
s))dT(t,
f(T(t, s))Ts(t, s)ds)= 0,
s)dt +
i.e.
s))
= 0.
From
s) A dT(t,
d(f(T(t, s))dT(t, s)) = f'(T(t, s))dT(t,
s) = 0
it is obvious
that a holomorphic function f(z) of z satisfies
this
equation.
functions.
K be the
So we have established (1.42) for holomorphic
Letting
rectangle
k = {t + is : a ^ t ^ b, 0 ^ s ^ 1}
is1
k
K
\\
,
t)
ci
0
6.2 yields
Theorem
f
J a/:
f(T(t,
s))dT(t, s) =
and the lefthand memberof this
f
Jfl
=
differentiable
form.
cp is
Since
closed.
s))Ts(b,
/(T(ft,
JO
\\)dt
= 0
equals
equality
f
s))
s))dT(t,
f
/(.Ha,
s)ds
5)^
ff))r5(fl,
+
f /(z)&
f f(z)dz
Jy,
Jby
f
Jya
/(z)&.
(1.44).
A 1form
differentiable
\302\243/C/\"(T(r,
Jf a:
JO
/(*)&
f
iwt(t,
f(T(t,
Jy0
yields
0)dt +
0))r,(f,
f /(T(f,
ia
This
t
cp
that
can
function
be represented
is called an
as
cp
=
exact differential
du with
form.
w
a
continuously
A continuously
= 0 is called a closed differential
1form cp satisfying
dcp
ddu = 0 by (6.3), every continuously differentiable
exact
the
is
valid
converse
of
this
statement
too.
Locally,
form
6.1
257
forms
Differential
Theorem 6.3. Let the 1formq> be continuously
on the
differentiable
=
0. Let c be an arbitrary
of Q and choose
region Q such that dcp
point
r > 0 such
Q.
that
Then
there
a
exists
twice
C
Ur(c)
continuously
= du on the disk
differentiable
function
u such that
cp
Ur{c).
Proof:
Put
=
cp
+
dx
cp\\
where
dy,
cp2
are continuously differentiable
define
a function
u on Ur{c) by
u=
=
y)
u(x9
Ja
Now u(x,
y)
uy(x9
u(x, y)
=
Jb
q>2(x9
<p2
c =
Putting
=
<P2(x, y)
a + ib,
we
rj)dr}.
to v and
respect
with
q>i(x9 b)
+
dcp{\\dx A
dy
=
y)
Q.
and
(p2(x, y).
is alsodifferentiable
ux(x9
b)d\302\243+
with
(p\\(x, y)
on
functions
q>\\{^
y) is differentiable
=
<pi
to x
respect
d
P
I
and
rj)drj.
t<P2{x9
by assumption
Since,
fdtp2
\\dx
dcp =
=
0,
J
dy
we have
d
[y \342\200\224
[y d
=
Y])dr]
<p2(x,
Qq>\\(x9
rj)drj =
(p\\(x,
y)

q>x{x9 b).
Hence:
Therefore
u
=
du =
c.
=
y)
ux(x9
q>i(x9 y).
y) is
u(x,
twice continuouslydifferentiable
Harmonicforms
If f(z) is
f(z)dz is calleda
f'(z) = p + with
a
1form.
df(z) = du
= ux
p
+
+ idv = (p + iq)(dx
Since f\\z) is a holomorphic
holomorphic1form.Fromthis
a holomorphic
1form is
d(f(z)dz)= 0.
(This
because
vy
and
d(f(z)dz)
Writing
q =
+
\342\200\224uy
+
function,
fact
region Q, the 1form
f(z) = u + iv, we have
on the
function
holomorphic
holomorphic
iq
is
and
Ur(c)
= (p.
(p2(x, y)dy
+
y)dx
tp\\(x,
on
it follows
i dy)
the
vx. Hence
= f'(z)dz.
differential
that the
f'(z)dz
exterior derivative
is a
of
always 0:
= df{z)
Adz = f\\z)dz Adz
(6.16)
=
0.) By
(6.7) the
258 Riemann surfaces
1form
holomorphic
follows:
f(z)dz =
where
that
the real part
d(p = d(*cp) =
Definition
6.1.
region
Q and
the
and
cp
u dx
\342\200\224
V dy,
both closed forms,
part *cp are
imaginary
is continuouslydifferentiable
cp, which
1form
so
the
on
satisfies
= 0
d(*(p)
is calledharmonic
on
(6.17)
Q.
above result, the
By the
=
cp
0.
A
=
dcp
i * cp,
+
cp
real and imaginary parts as
be split into
can
f(z)dz
real part
1form f(z)dz
a holomorphic
(p of
harmonic.
is
Conversely:
If the
6.4.
Theorem
is a
holomorphic
Proof:
1form
cp
cp
Writing
=
\342\200\224
udx
vdy
0 = dcp = d(u dx \342\200\224
v dy)
0 = d(*cp) = d(v dx + u
UX
=
Vy,
=
Uy
cp2 dy,
=
cp
cp\\
cp2
we
dy
u(x, y) and
v
=
cp
(x, j>)
=
\342\200\224
{\342\200\224vx uy)dx
=
dy)
A dy,
\342\200\224
(ux
A dy,
vy)dx
equations
/(z) =
u
iv is
+
**<p =
have
a holomorphic
dx
*(\342\200\224cpi
+
(pi rfv)
=
of
function
\342\200\224
cp\\ dx
\342\200\224
(6.18)
\342\200\224cp,
that the
conclude
the
dual
part
imaginary
form
of a
form is again harmonic.
1form
holomorphic
f(z)dz = cp + i * cp is
*cp
of a
harmonic
harmonic.
d.
Harmonic functions
Let u =
differentiable
*du
i *
i.e.
Hence,
also
+
dx
**<p z
We
+
i;^.
Therefore,
by Theorem 1.4,
z = x + /y and
= f(z)dz.
q> + i*q>
For
u =
with
the CauchyRiemann
e; satisfy
and
u
cp
we have
functions
continuously differentiable
i.e.
region then
on some
harmonic
is
1form.
=
can
\342\200\224vx
w(z)
\342\200\224uydx+
be written
=
w(x, y)
defined
functions
uxdy
as
and i; =
on
the CauchyRiemann
=
\302\243^z)
a region
v(x,
y) be
continuously
complex plane. Since
equations ux = vy and uy =
in the
Differential forms 259
6.1
=
*du
dv.
(6.19)
for a holomorphic function
= ddv = 0. Generally,
let
Hence
d{*du)
continuously differentiable
=
f(z)
u(z) =
u =
iv we
u +
(6.3)
by
a twice
>>) be
w(x,
have
then,
function,
d(*du)
=
+
dx
d(\342\200\224uy
= (w^
ux dy)
+
A dy.
Uyy)dx
Putting
&u
&U
we have
=
d(*du)
Obviously
+ d2/dy2
d2 /dx2
is calledthe
If a
6.2.
Definition
(6.20)
w.
in
linear
is
Aw
A dy.
Audx
The
linear
differential operator
Laplacian.
twice continuously differentiable
=
0,
we
As
=
f(z)
u
a regionQ ofthe complex
satisfies
plane
then u is called a harmonic
function.
have seen, the real part u = Re/(z) of a
Im/(z) =
Re(\342\200\224if(z))
Theorem 6.5.
be
written
harmonic
is a
iv
+
as
A
the
is
also
harmonic
real part
small neighborhood
of any
Hence
function.
a harmonic
function
of a
point
u =
function
defined on
Aw
=
A
the Laplace
equation
function
holomorphic
its
w(z)
imaginary
part
v =
function.
u =
u(z) defined on a
holomorphic
function
region Q can
a sufficiently
on
f(z)
of Q.
Since by assumption *du is a continuously
1form
differentiable
Proof:
=
on Q satisfying d(*du)
0, there exists a twice continuously differentiable
function v = v{z) on a sufficiently small neighborhood
of any point of Q
such
that
*du
=
CauchyRiemann
*dw = dv
is just another
we
conclude
that
equations,
dv.
Since
of
way
f{z)
=
u +
writing
the
iv is
holomorphic.
Corollary.
Harmonic
functions
are real
analytic functions.
For a harmonic function
u defined
on a region Q, the
v
function
=
dv
is
determined
on
each
satisfying
*dy uniquely
neighborhood
apart
\342\200\224
= 0 hence V\\  v is
from a real constant
if dv\\ = *du, then d(V\\
(for
v)
a constant). This means that the holomorphic
function
f(z) satisfying
=
u
on
determined
R, uniquely
Re/(z) is, apart from a constant ib, b \302\243
Riemann surfaces
260
each
determined
ddu =
is
a
d(*du) = 0, is a harmonic
du + i*du = f'(z)dz
1form.
with
Q
G
Co
Fixing
by means of
is
of f(z)
f\\z)
uniquely
Q.
on
defined
function
Since
Q and
1form on
du
holomorphic
point z
a holomorphic
and
u
by
derivative
the
Therefore,
neighborhood.
(6.21)
a point co G Q and connecting
an arbitrary
a piecewisesmoothcurvey we put
r/'(z)&+M(cto).
/(z>=
h
continuable
Now, /(z) is a freely
analytically
function on Q, which, in general,is multivalued.
f(z) =
du +
* du\\
i\\
Jy
and
= u(z)
u(co)
(6.6)
By
+
i\\
Jy
complete
analytic
we have
* du.
Jy
we have proved:
Therefore
lfu
6.6.
Theorem
is a harmonic
= u(z)
f(z) = u(z) +
on
function
Q, then
a region
*du
(6.22)
i\\
Jy
is a
freely analytically
Hencea
multivalued
and
continuable
function
harmonic
is the
u(z)
analytic
real part
function on Q.
of a holomorphic
= Re/(z).
: u(z)
function/(z)
complete
Riemann surfaces
6.2
a.
As
Let
denote
\302\251
0 G
(i)
UM6&C/
(iii)
If [/ G
that
G
for
\302\251
(i),
(ii)
is a
subsets
arbitrary
then
\302\251
set and
and
the
of IR2,
U2
plane
its
with
open
sets.
then
\302\251,
v G
and
\302\251
if 2
general,
(such
U2 G
and
\302\251
(ii)
In
spaces
Hausdorff
consider
an example let us first
of open sets
the collection
(iii)
if
and
\302\243\302\247>
G \302\256,
[/ fl
F G
it is
agreed
above are
\302\251.
which sets are
satisfied), then
2
called open
is
called
topological space.
6.3.
Definition
A set
2 together
with
a collection
of 21 satisfying
(i) 0eq,Xe
(ii)
Uue&U
\302\251,
G
for
\302\251
each
subset
\302\243&>
of\302\251;
\302\251
consisting
of subsets
a
Riemann
6.2
UG
(iii) if
is
satisfies
the following
(iv)
for
P G
system
arbitrary
P G
that
such
KG\302\251
2 and
Q
\302\243/,
0
then the topologicalspace2 is called
be a Hausdorff spaceand
Let 2
P
G
a subset
2,
Just as in
the idea
is
on 2.
topology
[/
Q) there exists
n F = 0,
G V and \302\243/
G
2,
^
(P
a Hausdorjf
let
that P
be
\302\251
e U
the notation
possible
to base
open set,
closure,
point,
boundary
a
defines
of open sets.
If
also
\302\251
G
and
\302\251
space.
its
of open
system
\302\243/
is
G \302\251
and
sets. For
an open
called
U{P) to denotean arbitrary
open
point P.
it
R2
use
We
F\\
of the
neighborhood
such
2
\302\243/
of
neighborhood of
\302\251
a system
called
of open sets
condition (iv):
the
that
say
U n V G
then
\302\251,
is
space and \302\251
a topological
called
We
V G
and
\302\251
261
surfaces
the definitions of
closed set and
of neighborhoodsUE(P),so in
interior
a Hausdorff
space
point,
on
function
continuous
it is
possible to
define these conceptsusing neighborhoods
U(P).
of 2. Then P G 2 is calledan interior
Let S G 2 be an arbitrary
subset
of S if there existsa neighborhood
of
U(P) C 2 ofP.The collection
point
interior
of S and denoted by (S). The
all interior points of S is calledthe
such
set of all points
that each neighborhood
P,
U(P) has a nonempty
intersection
with S is called the closureof S and
denoted
by [S]. Obviously,
S
is
called
The
set
the
of S and a point
C
(S)C
[S].
[5]
(5)
boundary
of S. If S = [S] then
belonging to the boundary is calleda boundary
point
S is called
a closed set. It is clear that
all
sets
U G \302\251
are
sets and
open
=
because
as S
conversely all open sets S belongto \302\251
(5), there exists for
all P G 5 an open neighborhoodU(P) G \302\251
such
that
U(P) C S. Hence by
(ii) of Definition
we
6.3
S =
have:
(J [/(/>) g \302\251.
Pes
Therefore
Let
\302\251
is
S c
the set
precisely
2 be a
subset
of
of all open sets of the
the
Hausdorff
Hausdorff
2 and
space
of open
space
put
2.
\302\2515
=
sets of 2. Then S
system
{C/nS'.C/G\302\251},
a system of open sets, calleda
becomes
a Hausdorff
space with
15
2.
is
of
Unless
the
stated, subsets S of a Hausdorff
space
subspace
contrary
2 will always be considered a subspacesin this
sense.
Since the real line [R,
the plane
R2 and so on are all Hausdorffspaces,subsets
of IR, IR2 and
so on
can be considered as Hausdorff
spaces.
where
denotes
\302\251
the
Riemann
262
A subset
surfaces
of
[/cl
Hausdorff
the
space
U as the union of
to write
possible
(compare Section 1.1b).A
2 is
two
called connected if
nonempty
disjoint,
is not
it
sets
open
a region.
open
between two Hausdorff spaces 2
Next, we want to consider
mappings
and
T
with
of
subsets
Let
\302\251r respectively.
\302\251s and
systems
open
for each point
be a mapping from 2 onto T. If it is possible
f : P \342\200\224>
f(P)
P G 2 and for each neighborhood V(f(P)) G \302\251r of f(P) G T to find a
neighborhood
\302\243/(P)
subset
connected
is called
that
G \302\251ssuch
D F(AP))
/([/(/>))
then the mapping / : P
ie. P G
G Feir,
/(P)
(623>
is called
\342\200\224\342\226\272
/(P)
/_1(F)
continuous. This means that
then there exists a
if
V eJBT,
and
Therefore, a mapping /
continuous if and only if the inverse imagef~l(V) of all
V G \302\251rare open in 2 : f~l(V) G \302\251s.
subsets
open
let / be a onetoonecontinuousmap
the Hausdorff
Now
sending
space
2 onto the Hausdorffspace T. If the inverse
is also continuous,
map f~l
then
a homeomorphism
exists
/ is called a homeomorphism.If there
2
onto
then
2
T
and
are
called
T,
mapping
homeomorphic.A
2 onto
T induces a onetoone correspondence
homeomorphism
mapping
between
Hausdorff
and
\302\251s
\302\2567\\Therefore,
spaces can be
homeomorphic
identified as topologicalspaces.
defined
on a
be a realvalued or complexvaluedfunction
Let
f(P)
>
2 and let Q G S. If for each
e
0 there
subset S C 2 of a Hausdorff
space
exists a neighborhoodU(Q)such that
neighborhood
that
such
\302\251
2* f~\\V).
U(P)
T is
into
2
from
G
U(F)
P G
/(P) 
C/(g) H 5,
e
<
f(Q)\\
(6.24)
at Q. If f(P)
function f(P) is said to be continuous
of
domain
then
is
its
calleda
continuous
S9
points
f(P)
(6.24) can be written as
then the
is continuous
all
function.
at
Since
f{U(Q)nS)CU\302\243(f{Q))
f(P) is a
from
or
C.
R
into
function
continuous
function
as
\302\243,
be a subsetof the
S =
of 2 such that
Let S
sets
containsa finite
covering
of S
Definition
6.4.
finite
number
such
subcovering.
that
S is
if and
a Hausdorff
space
Hausdorff
TICK,
with
space
\\J u^ruU
of sets,
only if
is a continuous
/(P)
/ : P \342\200\224\342\226\272
as
a
system of open sets,
JB\\S
2. A
is called
an
collection Zi
open
C \302\251sof
of S.
covering
I?is
open
If Z{
another
the covering is calledfinite.If
then T? is called a subcoveringof Z{.
called compact
if each opencovering
of
\302\243
contains
a
Riemann surfaces 263
62
Proposition.
Proof: It
A
compact
suffices
to
that
5clJ
exists for
=
it
Denoting
n%=lVk
set
we
have
that
from
space2
is
by
open
map
Vk and
by
=0
5 C (J*=.i^*
the
space
subcovering
open
have
we
\302\243/*,
each F
of Riemann
from
the sets
<
\302\2433
S :
coordinate
U2 =
G
{\302\243
153
by
zi(\302\243)
=
I > z
z,
=
>
\302\2433
1/2}
by
=
z2(\302\243)
\302\273
z(\302\243),\302\243 z2
complex coordinate on C/2. Since
at least one local complexcoordinate:
zi(\302\243) or
local
local
zi(\302\243) through
^ds
coordinates,
the
zi(\302\243)
coordinate
and
+ \302\2433
\302\2472
S
a local
restriction
=
\342\200\224
{N}
U\\ =
example,
G C/i
\302\243
Z2(\302\243)can
=
G
{\302\243
complex
of z to
a
z2(\302\243) determines
C/2, each point
z2(\302\243). If
Z2(\302\243), while
\302\2473
is
z(\302\243)
the
S = C/i U
two
1+
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
zi
zi(\302\243) determines
on U\\. Denoting in the same way
S :
+
=
z(\302\243)
of
h
z(h\\
corresponding
\302\243>,
\302\2430, S?
definition of
the restriction of z to, for
1}. Denoting
38
surfaces
domain
The
3.2c).
<
\302\2473 1/2}
from
/ is
SinceS is
= (&,
Riemann sphere S = {\302\243:\302\243
there are defined two complex
coordinates
(Section
has
\302\243
Since
of f(S).
K^, i.e. 5 is compact.
= (JJLj
f(S)
Definition
denote
F*
Letting
 * z = z(\302\243)=
G
{\302\243
F*
we conclude
the subset S of the Hausdorff
if S is compact,
then
its
image
On the
1}
and
is open,
U = f~l(V) of
hence
G 28
image
= /_1(F),
is
of
F \342\202\254
an
S.
open covering
Si}
\302\243
can
be
covered
Z{,
\302\243=1,2,
by a finite number Uk \342\202\254
w :
S :
G
\302\243?
6.3 (iii)
: [/
{\302\243/
6.
=
=
F(0
putting
since
Definition
number
C ULi U{Pk).
:5
U(P)
have
J7(P) we
a finite
from
T and
inverse
the
compact,
with
\302\243/(P*)
V such
compact.
Proof: Let P C lr be an
...,
U =
e V(Q) and Sf^(0)
Hausdorff
the
into
is also
Zl =
the
among
If / isa continuous
6.7.
Theorem
continuous,
open sets U and
[SI.
fig
f(S)
Q
point
to
According
[S],
m
= 0. Since F(0
U(Pk) f]Vk
P G S
5 is
V corresponding
the
implies Q fi
0. Denotingthis [/ by
compact, S can be coveredby
...,
1, 2,
each
F =
U n
Since
U(P).
/>G5
[/(/>*),
Qfi S
that
show
6.3 (iv) there
P G C7, Q G F and
Definition
is closed.
S C H
subset
of
\302\243
S has
n C/2, then
be
obtained
transformation
(625)
264
Riemann
Apart
from
surfaces
For example,
identifying the
stereographic
projection
=
G
{\302\243
<
S :
0, 0) onto the (\302\2431,\302\2432)
plane
^^,
1 51
61
+
z2
*2
T
plane
the
\"Western
the
=
hemisphere\"
\302\243/3
to (3.17) and (3.16) we have
0}. According
\302\2431
S.
on
A,
\302\247i<0,
complex coordinateon
a local
the complex
with
(\302\2431,
plane
\302\2432)
from (1,
\302\243Z3=Z3(\302\247)
yields
coordinates can be defined
local complex
z2, other
and
z\\
z2 + T
*3
z2
+
l
hence
.z+1
.zz+z2l
z1
z2+ lzz
=
if
Therefore,
\302\243
Zi
=
Z3
=
*3\302\253),
,
Z2
Z2
=
Z2(\302\247),
betweendifferent
local
The propertyof being connected
coordinate transformations is the most fundamental
are biholomorphic
coordinates
morphic
local
Z3
=
coordinate transformations
that the
see
,*v
Zi(\302\247),
n \302\243/3,
\302\247 \302\243/2
.1+Z2
*11
Zi =
 1
for
(6.25),
^3 =
We
then
\302\243/3,
\342\226\240
1 + 1
*
7,
^3 =
hence, by
C/i n
complex
by biholoof
property
coordinates.
complex
In order to
surface.
The Riemann sphere is an exampleof a Riemann
let
2
of
be
a
definition
Riemann
a
connected
a
surface,
give general
the points
of which we denote by p9 q ... . Let 2 be
Hausdorff
space,
covered
or
finite
a
by
countably
infinite
number
of
regions
C/2,
U\\,
continuous
functions
there be given complexvalued
\342\200\224>
:
are
such
that
the
each
on
homeomorphisms
maps
p
Zj(p)
z7Zj(p)
Uj,
then the sets
^ 0,
mapping
Uj onto regions Uj C C. If Uj n \302\243/*
=
=
:
and
:
C
peUkD
{zk(p)
Uj}
Uj
Ujk {zj(p) peUjf) Uk\\
W*y
C W* are both open sets in C and
and let
...,[//,...,
\302\273
z*(/>)
zy(p),
*> \342\200\242
is a homeomorphism from
'
tjk
maps
Ukj
7 and
\342\200\224\342\226\272
for
Zj :
Z/y*
/?
\342\200\224>
Zy(/?)
are
with
\302\243
called
peUjf)
\302\243/#
onto
(6.26)
Uky
Ujk.
If
all
homeomorphisms
^0 are biholomorphicthen
/oca/ complex coordinates on [// and
Uj DUk
the
the
265
Riemann surfaces
6.2
t
iy
Uj
*
J4^>
zC>)
p*
1%
\342\200\242
zdp)
Zk
***^^^^
uk
o\"
collection
Z2, Z3,
{z\\,
local
of
system
local
A
complex
Riemann
and
surface,
by
coordinates
system of localcomplex
Let
7\302\243
be
a Riemann
local
covered
let {z\\, Z2,
be the
The
the
Uj containing
*\342\200\242
^ \342\226\272=
a point
zy
the
local
its
7\302\243,
selected
a
complex number
If
z7. p G C/y n C7* then
is a
(6.27)
local coordinatez* =
onto
z^(p)
zy
=
is biholo
zy(p),
definition.
can identify the
identify
G
have
ijh(zk\\
*/
which maps the
morphicby
Zj(p)
function
p
is
7\302\243
is called
zy(/?)
a point
complex
course
Of
zy(/?).
number
system of
transformation
coordinate
Since
=
local
\342\200\224>
is uniquely determined once we
= zy(/?)
zy
z>
: p
For
p.
point
...} be its
zy,
domain of the
c\302\260mplex
p. Of course, zy
of the
to
the
rangeUj \342\200\224
belonging
zy(C/y)
region
...,
coordinate)zy
coordinate of the
local (complex)
7\302\243.
let Uj
and
(or simply complex
by the Uj : TZ C (Jf^/
coordinate
and
7\302\243>
for
surface,
coordinates
complex
coordinate
space 2 on which a system of
.} is defined is called a
\"y
is called the
{zi, Z2, ..
Zj ...}
{zi,Z2,
denoted
is calleda
on 2.
Hausdorff
connected
coordinates
complex coordinates
of local
...}
zy,
coordinates
complex
6.5.
Definition
...,
G Uj
p G 7Z
is
by its
determined
complex number zy
with
the point
identified with Uj. Hence,the
/?
Riemann
=
it
zj(p)
local coordinate zy
with the point p
corresponds
surface
with,
TZ can
=
G
zy(/?), we
If we
Uj.
then Uj becomes
be considered as the
266 Riemannsurfaces
by piecing together the regions U\\9 U2,
of the complex plane in such a way that the points z* G W#
and Zj = Tjk(zk) G Ujk C Uj coincide.Considered
this
the
way,
=
the same point of 7\302\243
if
Zj G Uj and z* G Uk represent
z7
Tjk(zk)=
T^
surface
...
...Uj,
C Uk
points
RegionsU in
Example 6.1.
Example6.2.
S can
by
(3.16)
Riemann
S is
sphere
coordinate
two
the coordinatetransformation
Z2 =
surfaces with
are Riemann
plane
complex
z.
z? = (l+&)/(l?3)<3
y/3}. Similarly, U2 = {z2 :
<
: zi
The
be coveredby
that
the
z *
coordinate
local
one
only
{zi
obtained
[jjUj
is
a Riemann
surface.We
neighborhoods
U\\
if &<l/2,
<
\\z2\\
Since,
U2.
Ul=zl(Ul) =
to (6.25)
According
\\/3}.
seen
have
and
by
given
.
T2i(Zi)=\342\200\224
Z\\
and
with
U2
<
\\/y/%
\\z\\\\
u = u(p)
Let
\302\243)
n
radius
be a
z2 =
Zj
=
in such
way
two disks
that
U\\
z\\ eU\\,
coincide.
on
defined
functions
a
on
defined
a Riemann
a region
surface TZ.
D C 7\302\243.
On
by the local coordinateZj(p)henceputting
peDD
Uj(zj(p))9
Ujy
on the open set
z7 defined
=
C Wy. Since zj(p)
rJk(zk(p))by (6.27), uj(zj) = uk(zk)
Uj)
= Xj + iyj and w,(^, #\342\226\240)
=
Uj(zj)(x, j), we have
Tjk(zk). Writing zj
of the
Vj = zj(D H
if
U2
realvalued function
a function
is
Uj(zj)
=
G
together
pasting
plane
complex
1/zi
consider
/? is represented
\302\243//,
u(p)
the
in
y/%
\\/3 and
<
we want to
Next
surfaceobtainedby
the Riemann
S is
Hence
<P) =
Xj +
yj)9
uj(xj9
complex
The pair (*/,jj) isalsocalled
a local
variable
=
iyj
peDD Uj.
of p. Since zy : p
zy(p),
coordinate
\342\200\224>
z7(/?)
if and
a homeomorphism,
only if for all j
w(/?) is continuous on \302\243)
D D
satisfying
Uj ^ 0, we have
Uj(xj9
yj) is a continuous function of Xj
to complexvalued
is
similar
with
situation
functions
and
The
respect
yj.
f(p) defined on a region D CTZ.Putting
is
=
f(p)
fj(zj) is a function
The function f(p)
DHUj
Definition
^
of
on Vj and fj(zj) = /*(z*)if Zj
z7 defined
is continuous on D if and only if for
0, we have
6.6.
peDDUj,
fj(zj(p)\\
If for
is a
/}(zy)
all
y
satisfying
continuous
DDUj
=
Tjk(zk).
all j
with
function of z7.
^
0, the functions
uj(xj9
yj)
Riemann
62
of Xj
then
class C00, ...
If
differentiable, of
yj are continuously
the function u = u(p)
and
all
for
the
on
variable
complex
the region D C
If we consider
D C
region
satisfying
j
the
is continuously
267
surfaces
class Cn, of classC\302\260\302\260,
...,
C\", of
class
of
differentiable,
11.
function
^ 0, fj{zj) is a holomorphic
is
a
defined
then
f
unction
holomorphic
f(p)
z/,
of
DDUj
on
TZ.
surface
the Riemann
TZ
obtained
a surface
as
regions Uj, j = 1,2,3, ...,
by pasting
of
the
complex
plane, then the
together the
the
with
the
and
functions
identified
is
eTZ
\342\202\254
point p
u(p) and
point zj ZY/
and /(z7), i.e. the subscript j of w7 and /}
as
f(p) can be written
u{zj)
and
Since
and
in
occurring
z7 \342\202\254
\302\243Y;
fj(zj) becomessuperfluous.
u,(z/)
=
=
we
have u(z;)
are the same points on 1Zif z,Z* \342\202\254
Uk
w(z*)
^(z*),
=
= /(z*) if
the
and
are
i.e.
different
and
from
zj Tjk(zk),
u(zj)
/(zy)
/(zy)
for
in
obtained
and
z*
w(z*)
expressions
by substituting
/(z^)
z;
we write u(zj) = u(xj + iyj) as u(xj, yj). With this notation,
usual,
respectively. As
=
a function
w(/?)
w(j9, yj) defined on a region D <z 1Z is continuous,
if and only if it is a
differentiable, of class C\302\260\302\260,
...,
continuously
function
of the local
differentiable, C\302\260\302\260,
continuous,
...,
continuously
coordinatesXj
holomorphic
with
of
function
the coordinate
on Uj
coordinate
local
the
transformations
to z,
respect
D W*
is holomorphicif and
= f(zj)
f(p)
Tjk is biholomorphic,
as
because,
yj and
and
Tjk(zk)
saying
is
the
with respect to z* on Uj D UkIf f(p)
is a holomorphic function
V = f(D)
is a region in
range
Zj. Here,
\342\200\224\342\226\272
are
: z*
Tjk
that
same
=
/(z7)
on
defined
that
essential
biholomorphic
is holomorphic
f(zk)
as saying
is a
if it
only
is
it
is holomorphic
it
that
D ClZ9
the region
its
then
the complexplane, sinceholomorphic
We say that /:/?\342\200\224> f(p)
D conformappings
open mappings.
maps
=
is a singlevalued holomorphic function
on
mally onto V /(\302\243>) if f(p)
is singlevalued,
D C 1Z. (The fact that f(p)
the region
of course, means
are
p ^ q implies f(p)
function defined on the
that
^ /(#).) If w(/?)
region W C 11,
local complexcoordinateon
number
infinite
of regions
PT.
W\\,
singlevalued, holomorphic
function
{wi,
local
h>2,
\342\200\242
ww,
\342\200\242.,
...}
of
If 1Z
W2,
a singlevalued,
is
w :
p
w(;?)
is covered by a
...,
wn(p)
Wn,
holomorphic
\342\200\224\342\226\272
can
...
is defined,
or
finite
on
if
and
wn
a system
as a
countably
each
then the
complex coordinates
of local complexcoordinates
ofTZ. There
of
a
of
different
local
many
ways
choosing system
complex
for ft.
constitutes
be used
Wn a
collection
: /? \342\200\224\342\226\272
ww(p)
are
infinitely
coordinates
268 Riemannsurfaces
6.3
a.
Differential
Let
TZ be
surface
a Riemann
on
forms
Differential
forms
surface, {z\\, z2, ...,
a Riemann
local coordinates, Uj the
=
W7
Zj(Uj) its range.
coordinate
local
the
of
domain
of
its system
...}
Zj9
: p
zj?
\342\200\224>
Zj(p)
and
If we
z/(/?) then, as we
identified
with
becomes
section, Uj
Uj and K
=
becomes obtained by pasting togetherthe regions
\\J jUj. In
Uj C A : TZ
The
this section too we identify
:
with
=f
coordinate
Uj.
Uj
Uj
Uj
and z/ \342\202\254
: Zk \342\200\224\342\226\272
are biholomorphic
transformations
\302\243/*and
Zk = Tjk(zj)
Tjk
if z7 = tjk{zk).
are identical
Zk \342\202\254
[/*
Uj and [/* are both regions of the
in
seen
have
the
identify
p
point
coordinate
local
its
with
Zj
the previous
complexplane,
Uj D
that
assume
we
but
w
the
in
=
u(p)
continuous
DnUj
^ 0, then
Dn
and
Tjk{zk) on DO
=
Zj
on
be
\302\243>
can
Now
=
<Pj(zj)
on each
is given
the
a continuous
^ 0
then on
+ (pj2(zj)dy9
Zj
and if on D D
DDUj^0
<pk(zk),
Zj
=
Uj
=
< \\/3}. If
D C TZ and if
< zi
of
w/(zy)
function
together in the
for
defined
w(/?)
= w^(z^)
way\"
right
continuous
a 1form,
xj +
iyJf
(6.29)
D a 1formcp is defined by
<Pj(zj) is transformed into <pk(zk) by
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
Tjk(zk). That is to say, writing
Zj
Wj
=
ZJ
= r./*(z*) =
r./*(**
(6.28)
DUk^0
Tjk(zk),
that
+
on
Zj defined
putting <p{zj) = q>j(Zj).Equality
XJ
radius
if continuous
if
and
Riemann
0 and
region
a continuous
then
6.2, the
center
function
Conversely,
Tjk(zk).
Dn Uj
by \"pasting
(Pj\\(zj)dXj
=
(Pj(zj)
transformation
Zk
zy
: l/>/3
{z\\
on
uj{zj) defined on each DO Uj 7 0.
in a similar
1forms on D are defined
way. If
functions
means
=
UjHUk ^0
obtained
D
defined
w(z7) is
= w*(zfc) if
defined
on
are
Uj{zj)
U\\
function
=
w,(z7)
w,(z7)
\302\243/,
functions
but
plane,
complex
is a
U2 =
part of
common
the
denotes
Uk
in Example
Uj and Uk consideredas subsetsof Tl.Thus,
=
with
S
both
and
are
disks
U
U\\
U2,
U\\
C/2
sphere
\\/3
=
+
(6.29)
the coordinate
iyk)
and
t/*(z*) =
we
from
conclude
dxj
=
^ =
ajk(zk) +
dfr7
ctjk dxh
A/*
<&*
1 d^
+

/3jk
+ ay*
iPjk(zk\\
Tjk(zk)(dxk + i dyk) that
=
dyk9
ajk(zk), 1
ajk
=
rfy*,
)8y*
=
)MZ*)
J
hence by (6.28)
<Pj(zj)
=
(aJk<pji
+ Pjk<pj2)dxk +
(fijk<Pj\\
+ CLjkcpj2)dyk.
~
3Q.
6.3
(6.29) implies
Equality
=
<Pk\\(zk)
righthand side
of the above
ajk(pjl(zj)+Pjk(pj2(zj),
=
<Pki(zk)
The 1form cp
...
if
C\302\260\302\260,
in the
1form
the
that
269
surface
<pk(zk), i.e.
equals
equality
forms on a Riemann
Differential
called
is
(6.31)
+ ajk(pj2(zj
*A J
/3jk<Pji(zj)
continuously
continuous,
are continuous,continuously
all <Pj(zj)
differentiable,
of class
differentiable,
of
class
....
C\302\260\302\260,
(Oj(Zj)=
is given
and if on
(ok(zk)9
then a 2form w is
D D Uj ^ 0. Since dry
A
A dxj
(Ojn{zj)dxj
Dr\\UjDUk^0
(Oj(zj)=
\302\243&,
2form
each Z)n[/;^0a
if on
Similarly,
=
dyj
=
Zj
D
on
defined
=
A dyj
(6.32)
Tjk(zk),
by
(a2jk +
A
\\Tjk(zk)\\2dxk
a)(zj) = C0j(zj) on each
putting
A dy*,
[52jk)dxk
i.e.
(6.33)
rfy*
(6.32) becomes
equality
=
a>k\\2(zk)
The 2form
...
if
C\302\260\302\260,
called
is
co
(6.34)
\\Tjk(zk)\\2Q}ji2(zj).
continuously
continuous,
are continuous,continuously
all a>j(zj)
differentiable,
of class
differentiable,
of
class
C\302\260\302\260,....
function
to define
order
In
u
where
on a
defined
w/(z7) =
uj(xj
of a continuously
region D c Tl, we put Uj(zj)
the differential
+
iyj) is a
continuously
differentiable
=
u(zj)
n
7\302\243/,
function
of
on D
differentiable
0,
Xj
and j>,, satisfying
=
Wy(Zy)
on D D
Uk{zk\\
Zj
=
Tjk(zk),
nt/^0.
\302\2437/
We will prove:
rfw/z,) =
duk{zk\\
Zj
=
(6.35)
xjk{zk).
We have
dxyduj(zj) = \342\200\224
+
duk
uk(zk),
__
dyk
hence
dUj
dxk dxj
dxk
duk
dxj
__
dxj
dyj,
dyj
dxj
and Uj{zj)=
\342\200\224L
duj
dyk dxj
dyj dUj
dxk
dyj'
dyj duj
dyk
dyj'
duk(zk)
=
\342\200\224
dxk
dxk
+
\342\200\224
dyk
dyk
Riemann
270
surfaces
=
Since dxj/dxk
we
=
dyj/dyk
and dyk/dxk
ajk
= dxj/dyk = Pjk,by
(6.30),
have
duk _
y
cfcty
duk
=
shows
dyj'
akdUj.
Jk
I
dxj
Hence dufej) =
^~
dxj
BkdUj
Jk
dyk
(6.35)
^ + #.J
(6.31).
by
duk{zk)
cp(zj) = duj(zj) on each D D
differential
of
This 1form
^ 0.
Uj\342\226\240
by du.
denoted
u and
1form
a continuous
obtain
we
that
dyj'
Equality (6.35) shows
cp
on
is
called
zj =
= (pk(zk%
by putting
the
of
differential
the
that
is invariant
under
a continuously differentiate function
=
transformation zk \342\200\224\342\226\272
zk
Tjk(zk).
of
Next we want to define the exterior differential
1form defined on D. Let the continuously
differentiable
form cp be given by (p(zj) = (pj(zj) on each D D Uj, while
cpj{Zj)
D
cp
the coordinate
a
continuously
1
differentiable
(6.36)
rJk(zk)9
i.e.
This means
for
dxj
(pki{zk)dyk.
dyk and /3jk dxk + ajk dyk
ajk
ajk dxk
lefthand side we get the righthand
the
on
respectively
rfyy
+
cpk\\{zk)dxk
\342\200\224
substitute
we
if
that
and
=
+ (pJ2(zj)dyj
<Pj\\(zj)dxj
expression
Considering
yj as
and
Xj

dxk
(pj\\(zj)(ajk
+
dyk)
fijk
<Pji(Zj)(f}Jk
of
functions
yk their
and
xk
dxk + aJk
=
dyk)
differentials
cpk{zk).
are given
by
dxj = ajk dxk

[ljk dyk,
=
dyj
f}Jk
dxk
+ ajk
dyk
hence, by (6.3)

d{ajkdxk
d(Pjk
Therefore
+ ajk
dxk
by
= ddxj =
dyk) = ddyj =
pJk dyk)
0,
0.
(6.2)
=
dcpk{zk)
dcpjx
A
(ajk
= d(pji(Zj) A
dxk
dxj

dyk)
+ dcpp,
+ d(pJ2(Zj)
A dyj =
Pjk
A (Pjk
dxk
+ ajk
dyk)
dcpj{Zj\\
i.e.
dq)j(Zj)
on D fl
[//
= dcpk(zk),
DUk^0.
we obtain a
So if
Zj =
(6.37)
rjk(zk)
we put oj(xj)\342\200\224
dcpj(zj)
continuous 2form.This
2form
co
on
each
is called
DnUj^0
the exterior
63 Differentialformsona Riemann
derivative
(6.37) shows that the
of a continuously differentiable 1form is invariant
coordinate
transformations
of
derivative
similar way.
Zj
=
We
*(<P/i dxj +
=
=

dxk +
~(pk2
=
the
if
that
cpj(zj)
(6.31)

+
dyk)
fijk
dxk +
cpn(Pjk
(ajk(pji +
on the
region
and
= cpk(zk)
we have
ajk dyk)
/3Jk<Pj2)dyk
dyk
<pk\\
\342\200\224
on
*q>j(zj)
\\p(zj)
each
D n
on D.
defined
local properties, operations and
In this way all
functions and
defined
cp
dyj
<pyi
(pk2dyk).
So, if we put
*cpk(zk).
dual form *cp = ip of (p is
=
under
dxk +
*(<pk\\
Hence *<Pj(xj)
Uj 7 0, then
to verify
have
CLjk(pj2)dxk +
iPjk<Pj\\
=
*(p
= *cpk(zk).Using(6.30)and
dxk
(pfi{ajk
exterior
dyj)
<pJ2
dxj +
cpj2
=
Tjk{zk).
of a 1form
z7
form
only
Tjk(zk) then *q>j(zj)
by dcp.
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
zk
define the dual
We want to
D in a
denoted
is
and
cp
271
surface
so
on,
to
pertaining
region in the complexplane
that
are
invariant
under biholomorphic
transformations can be considered
and
on
as properties,
so
pertaining to functions and differential
operations
forms
defined
on a region of a Riemann
surface.
In what follows we will
so
for
and
on
defined
functions or differential
apply concepts,operations
or differential
forms
on the complex plane to functions
forms defined on a
Riemann
whenever
the transition is trivial. For example, if cp is a
surface,
differentiable
1form on the region D of the Riemann
real, continuously
surface
71 satisfying
is called
harmonic
on D
dcp = d(*cp) = 0, then
cp
A
twice
differentiable
function
(Definition 6.1). realvalued,
continuously
defined
forms
differential
on a
satisfying d(*du) = 0 is calleda harmonic
function
a
to
Theorem
1form
is
on a
harmonic
6.4,
6.2). According
cp
(Definition
on all
region D of TZ if and only if there are holomorphicfunctions
fj{zj)
that
can
be
written
such
as
+
cp
i*cp
UjD D^0
w,
cp
on
each
+
i *
D
C 11
(6.38)
fj(zj)dzj.
u
is twice
Aju(Zj)dxj
DDUj^
0. Hence, by (6.34)
on D n Uj f)Uk
the
differentiable on
continuously
the
then, by (6.20)
d(*du) =
Aku(zk)
transformation
for
=
cp
realvaluedfunction
If the
region
D and
on
defined
=
7
Laplacian.
A dyJ9
\\T'Jk(zk)\\2Aju(zj),
0.
This
is the
AJ
Zj
formula
=
=
for
d2
^
+
d2
^
Tjk{zk)
the
coordinate
(6*39)
(6.40)
Riemann surfaces
272
ft.
Line
integrals
map y :
A continuous
t
\342\200\224>
y(t)
which
the closed interval
maps
called a curve. Since \\y\\
[a, ft] c
=
to find a
{y(t) : a ^ t ^ ft} is compact by Theorem 6.7, it is possible
finite number of coordinateneighborhoods,
If
y(i) e Uj,
\\y\\.
Uj covering
then the local coordinate
of y(t) can be given as
IR
the
into
surface
Riemann
71 is
zMt)) = *j(t) + iyji*).
If the local coordinate Yj(t)
is
differentiable
continuously
If
then
is
called
a
smooth
curve.
is a smooth
0
for
all
t,
y
y
y'j(t) ^
Yj(t) =
and
if
curve
functions
of f, then y is called
such that all xj{t) and yj(t) are real analytic
an analytic curve (cf. Section5.3a).The definition
of piecewise
smooth
and piecewise analytic
should
be clear.
curves
is not invariant
Since the concept of a \"line
under biholosegment\"
it makes
no sense to consider \"line segments\"
morphic transformations,
on a generalRiemann
but we can use analytic Jordan arcs instead
surface,
of line
Two line segments in the plane are either disjoint
or their
segments.
intersection
consists of one point or a line segment.The
for
situation
Jordan arcs on a Riemann
if
surface
is similar:
the intersection \\y\\ n <5 of
two analytic Jordan arcs y : t \342\200\224>
a ^ t ^ ft, and
d : s \342\200\224>
c ^
y(t\\
d(s\\
s ^ d, is nonempty,
then
it consists
of a finite number of points
at
and
note
we may
most two analytic Jordan arcs. To see this
assume that
\\y\\
n
I(51
is
an
accumulation
Pm
=
y(to)
point,
y(tm)
= d(sm)
to po. Sincey
set. A compact, infinite
set
a ^ to ^ b and c
d(so),
infinite
point. Let po =
=
then
there
+ Po, a ^
has
an accumulation
^ so ^ d, be such an
exists a point sequence {pm}with
tm
^
ft and
c ^
sm
^
d, which
converges
arcs, we have tm \342\200\224>
to and sm \342\200\224>
so if
=
=
\342\200\224>
m
oo.
Let
y(*o)
d(so) and
Uj be a neighborhood containing po
in
series
around
and
and
so
to
expand yy(0
respectively.
dj(s) power
d are
and
oo
both Jordan
oo
functions
and dj(s) are extendedto holomorphic
of t and s
on
of
and
Since
a
defined
so respectively.
respectively,
neighborhood to
=
it is possible
yj(to)
dj(so) and y'j(to) ^ 0 and dfeo) 7 0 by assumption,
=
3.2to
solve
the
to
Theorem
equation
according
dj(s)
y7(f) with respect
=
with
X a holomorphic
to write
s
to s on a neighborhood of to and
X(f)
function of t : (5/(A(f)) = Vy(0 Hence <5/(s0)A'(fo)= r#*o), so A'(*o)
^ 0.
=
=
is a
Since Yj(tm)
sm. The function A(f)
dj(sm), we have A(^m)
= A(f) =
of
t
Section
Hence
function
5.3a).
A(f) is alsoa
(see
/u(t)
holomorphic
t
a
of
Since
both
of
on
to.
tm and
neighborhood
holomorphicfunction
Hence
Yj(t)
6.3
\342\200\224
are
X(tm)
sm
point of the
0, hence
/u(i) =
real,
set of zerosofft(t).
3.1, i.e. x(i) =
identically.
x(t)
forms on
Differential
=
to
a Riemannsurface 273
limm\342\200\224oofm
Hence
p{f)
Hence,
X(t)
an
is
accumulation
identically, by Theorem
is real for real values
of
t.
= 0
=
is
Therefore,
neighborhood of to to the curve t \342\200\224\342\226\272
yj(t)
dj(X(t))
\342\200\224>
obtained from the curve s
the coordinate
transformation
by
<5/(s)
s = X(t).Hence,if a < to < b and c < so < d, then for a sufficiently small
e > 0 we have
on a
=
d(t)
Notice
s =
that
of t
function
Let ,4
be
the

of
correspondence
a closed set, so are T
e ^
of
function
t^
A
S.
and
number
a finite
and
: 6(5)\342\202\254
^}, then
Jordan
are
5GS
t \342\202\254
T and
between
t0
f, since
^ 0.
accumulation points of
= {s
{t : y(0 \342\202\254
^} and S
[c, rf]. Since both y and (5
*S C

t0
+ s.
(6.41)
X(t) is
a real analytic
with A'(0
+ e]
\302\243,
t0
set of
it consists
compact,
T =
a monotone
X(t) is
on [t0
d if
\342\202\254
y H
y(X(t))
If
t
\302\243
T,
arcs,
\\y\\
D
\\d\\.
Since
\\y\\ n
\\d\\
is
of isolated points. Putting
of course T C [a, Z>] and
there exists a onetoone
given by y(t) =
a < t < b and c
(5(5\.")
Since
< s=
A(/)
^4 is
<
d
interior point of T and s an interior point of S by (6.41).Hence,
= c or
t < b, is a boundary point of T, then A(f)
A(f) = d. If
t = td. Therefore,
then we write t = tc\\ if X(t) = d, we write
T
two boundary
points in {a, b).
then f is an
if
X{i)
a
ty
=
has at
<
c,
most
(i) The case that
points tc and td in (a, 6). We
td
tc being treated similarly. Then
=
[tc, td] or T [a, tc] U [td, b\\ Hence \\y\\ n <5
of a finite number of isolated points
an analytic
and
two
has
T
assume tc < td, the
either T =
consists
either
Jordan
arc {y(t)
:
(ii)
tc
boundary
case
^
t ^
<
td} or
of
two
analytic
(iii)
Jordan
arcs
274 Riemann surfaces
Denoting
T =
[f*,
that
points and
(iii) The case
\\y\\ n
an
analytic
that
T
consists
\302\243
no
has
tc or t^ in (a, b).
point
we
T = [a, f*] or
have
f*,
of a finite number of isolated
arc
Jordan
points on
boundary
= y.
[a, &],hanceyn<5
If both y and d
considerationsthat
by
point
boundary
Hence
b\\.
only one boundary
T has
that
case
The
(ii)
are analytic
either
Jordan curves, then
=
y
it is
(a, b). Then
from the
clear
consists of a
<5oryn<5
=
T
above
number
finite
of points.
if and only if for
in
line
U
connectingthese
polygonal
it is proved that
an open
surface
set U of a Riemann
K is connected
points,
if and only if for each pair of points in U there existsa piecewiseanalytic
in U connecting
curve
those points.
a ^ t ^ b, be a smooth
curve
on the Riemann
Now, let y : t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),
Just as one provesthat
in U
each pair of points
surface
an
set U G
open
is
A
connected
exists a
there
7\302\243.
Letting
zj(y(t))
local
the
denote
= xj(t) +
coordinate of y(t)
=
Yj(t)
iyj(t)
G
Uj,
we have
= rjk(yk(t))
Yj(J)
if y(t)
G
Uj
n
transformation.
iy* :
where
[/*,
rXO
Since tj*(z*)
to
t
yields
*My*(/M(0
= a^z*) + ifijk(zk),
=
x)(0
the coordinate
denotes
r^(z^)
with respect
sides
both
Differentiating
=
=
z* \342\200\224>
zy
~
\302\253y^W0
we
have
Pjky'k{t\\
=
ajk
ajk(yk(t)l
1
=
j
jtf(') = fijtxiit) + ajky'k(t)9
Pjk
PJk(yk(t)).
Next we want to define the integral of a continuous 1formcp
a region
D G TZ
+
<Pj\\(Zj)dXj
on each DnUj^
means
which
(Pk(zk)
a curve
along
rfty
(py2
0.
We
substitution
that
Hence we
y satisfying
for
y(0
have
<py(z/)
yby
on DO Uj C\\Uk^0,
the expressionfor q>j(zj) yields
= <p*(z*)
of (6.30) in
obtain
=
G C/y,
function of t
Put
G D.
= <p(Zj)
CPj{Zj)
=
(pji(yj(t))x'j(t)+ (Pj2(Yj(t))y'j(t)
Putting
by comparing (6.42) and (6.30).
P(y(0)
\\y 
on
defined
+
VjiiYjitWM
the above equation
definedon [a, b].Therefore
=
+ <pk2(Yk(t))y'k(t)
(pkx(yk(t))x'k(t)
(6.43)
<Pj2(Yk(t))y'j(t)
shows that
we
define
(p(y(t))
is
a continuous
the integral
of
cp
along
63
Differential
forms on a Riemann
275
surface
b
ia
Jt
side of
The righthand
zk
\342\200\224>\342\200\224
Zj
(6.44)
<p(Y(t))dt.
(6.43) is invariant
we can
Therefore
Tjk(zk).
transformation
a coordinate
under
omit the
subscriptj
and
write
(6.43)
as
(p(y(t))
which
by (6.44)
= (pi(Y(t))x'(t)
+
<p2(Y(t))y'(t)
+
cp2(y(t))y'(t))dt.
becomes
Cb
ia
Jt
Since the
(<Pi(y(t))x'(t)
forms
differential
q)j\\ dxj
+
q>j2
(6.45)
dyj
and
o)j\\2 dxj
A
dyj
are
the
transformations we sometimessuppress
and
dx
If
we
do
so
it
A
should
a>\\2
dy
cp2
subscript
dy.
be kept
local
a)\\2 depend on the choice of the
q>2 and
<p\\9
=
coordinate
in the
zj. For example, the coefficient f(z)
fj(z) occurring
1form
a
is
which
is
function
holomorphic
holomorphic
f(z)dz
=
into
transformed
under the coordinate transformation
fk(z)
z'jk(z)fj(z)
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
a
and
not
Zk
simply holomorphicfunction.
Tjk(zk)
Zj
Let
u by a continuously differentiable function
on the domain
defined
we
have
n \302\243/,
0
DC 11. On each\302\243>
^
under
invariant
coordinate
j and write
in mind that
q>\\ dx
+
Hence
du(y(t)) = ^x'j(t)
and
=
^m

u(y(t%
therefore
f
This
+
is
du =
u(y(b))
of formula
an extension
an arbitrary
(6.6)
(6.46)
that
is
valid
for the
complex plane to
surface.
Riemann
c.
 u(y(a)).
Locally finite
lfz(p) isa
open coverings
defined on a region
end
of Section6.2b,
11, then,
\342\200\224>
on
is a singleU. If zq(p)
can be used as a local coordinate
z : p
z(p)
if
on a region U(q) containing q and
defined
valued holomorphicfunction
= 0, then
\342\200\224>
is called a local coordinate with
center
q. In
z^(/?)
zq : p
zq(p)
=
If
0
this case zq(Uq) is a regionin the complex
plane containing
zq(q). for
^
>
r
0 the closed disk {z G C : \\z\\
some
r} is contained in zq(U(q)), then
U of a Riemann
singlevalued
surface
holomorphic
function
as explained at the
Riemann
276
surfaces
: \\zq(p)\\
called a coordinate disk with
= {p
Ur{q)n
is
coordinate
Z2,
of z7,
is a
r}
q and
center
r on
radius
needs
to
compact subset of 11.It hardly
disk Ur(q) depends on the choice of the local
on K,
...,
z/, ...} is a systemof localcoordinates
a
and
coordinate
6 TZ
neighborhood such that q
Uj
~
=
zj(P) *j(q)
Zq(p)
is a
[Ur(q)]
{zi,
<
q
coordinate
local
center
with
7\302\243.
Obviously,
said
be
the
that
zq. If
coordinate
Uj is the domain
e UJ9 then
q.
U an open covering of 2 such
a
neighborhood U(P) of P such
possible
that
then
U D C/(P) ^ 0 for
Zi
Z{ is called a
finitely
only
many U \342\202\254
I
t
if
is
that
is
a
obvious
Z(
locallyfinite open covering.
locally finite open
subset of 2, then
there
of 2 and AT is a compact
are only finitely
covering
that
H
K
0.
such
U
U
\342\202\254
Ti
many
^
if 2 is a
P e 2 it
In general,
that
for each
and
space
to find
is
each
Let
6.8.
Theorem
Hausdorff
q G
be
7\302\243
a local
given
coordinate z9 with
disk Ur(q)(q).It is possibleto selecta
infinite number of coordinatedisks:
and
a coordinate
Uj =
Zi =
that
such
<
0
Ur{j){qj\\
: j = 1,
{Uj\342\226\240
2, 3,
j = 1, 2, 3,
^ r(qj%
r(j)
...} is a
finite
locally
center
q
or countably
finite
...,
of
covering
open
TZ.
If K is compact,then
and
coordinatedisks UR^q){q)
Proof:
TZ is
that
assume
to prove
coordinates
on
Wj( Wj) in
=
Wj be
let
and
1Z
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
C
{wi, w2,
of Section 6.3a,
beginning
W7
this, let
there
7\302\243.
Therefore,
C
Bn
...,
can
B\\9
Wj,
...} be a
consider
exists
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242.
C \302\243M+1C
[5\342\200\236]
the domain of
we
sets
two conditions:
following
(i) each [Bn]is compact,
Bx C \\B{\\ CB2C
(ii)
[B2] C
order
So we may
of open
number
infinite
countably
the
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
i Bn,
satisfying
In
number of
by a finite
is obviously true.
covered
be
theorem
not compact.
(1) 7i is the union of a
Bi>
7\302\243
can
the
As
wy.
at the
explained
Wj as a region
each
for each
system of local
& sequence
Wj
CO
Ajx
cAj2C'CAJmC'~C
Wj9
=
\\J(Ajm)
WJ9
m=\\
of compact
only
it
is
sets
true
Ayi,
that
Aj2,
Ajm C
...
(here
(Ajm+\\)
(Ajm) denotes
but
for
each
the
m,
of
interior
Ajm
C
(AJn)
Ajm).
holds
Not
if
Differential forms on a Riemann
63
large enough. Hencewe
m is
n >
mn <
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
<
m2
C (Ay2)
i4yi
have
Ay\342\200\236,
C
Ay2
C
=
Wj
C
Ajn
subsets of K (i.e. if zy
then z7 and z* representthe same point
Tjk(zk)
Bn =
an(^
U^Li(^y\302\253)
C
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
C
\\Ajmn+l)
\342\200\242
 \342\200\242
C
(Aj3)
C
Ajmn
Ajn as
the
Considering
=
zy
C
mi <
numbers
natural
pick
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
C
Ajm2
we
by
again
Ajmn
can
that
such
(Ajm2) C
Ajmx C
Denoting
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
277
surface
C
(^+1)
\342\202\254 and
^y\342\200\236
z^
1Z) and
of
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
.
and
\342\202\254
A^
putting
(J(Ay\342\200\236)
have
we

=
[*\302\273]
(J
j^n
(J[(^\342\200\236)]
j^n
Hence the sequenceof open
and
(ii).
=
(2) Put tf,
is compact.
AT\342\200\236
AJn
=
K2
[B2]9
Bn we have
=
B2,...,Kn
U
Bn+l.
=
Kn
the above conditions(i)
satisfies
{Bn}
J~=i
[B3]
...
K2 U
K\\U
C
C
(J(^\342\200\236+1)
j^n
of
sets
= (J~=i
Wj
Since
C
Ajn
= U.
(J~=1 *\342\200\236
*\342\200\236,....
[Bn+X]
Each
[Bn+\\]9 hence
00
(6.47)
n=(JKn.
\302\253=i
Since
D
Bn
we have
(ii),
[5\342\200\236_i]
by
A^i
be
can
covered
2, ..., 7(1)of
by a finite
Ur(j)(qj\\
with
q e
UR(q)(q)
K1CU1UU2UU
Since
K2ClZ
KJ)
ur{j)(qj\\
disks
Ur(q)(q)
and
\342\202\254
K2
a way that U^q){q)
Similarly, it is possible
disks Uj = Ur{j){qj)
dU+ 2, ...,y(/i):
7(/il)
in such
Kn
C
l/fcD+i
0 <
r(#),
Cll
of
7*00
r(#) ^ R(q),for
\302\243//=
coordinate
9 chosen
each
[B\\].
to cover
Kn
with
0 <
[\302\243\342\200\236_,],
U
number
finite
1, 7(1)+ ,...,
= 7(1) +
r(wj)> J
q
7=1,
R(qj),
K\\:
covered by a
be
can
K2
[B\\]9
with
=
r(j)
Um.
\342\200\224
=
2,3,4.
number Uj =
disks
coordinate
=
*
tfnCft[\302\243\342\200\236!],
U
C/y(\342\200\236i)+2
finite
a
r(j)
of coordinate
number
^ R(qj)9
j = j(n

\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U \302\243/,(\342\200\236)
C ft
 1)
+
1,
[\302\243\342\200\236_,].
(6.48)
Since
ft = IJ^Li
coordinatedisks
all [C/y]
coordinate
determined
Kn, the collectionZ{=
2, 3,
...} of
: ft = (J
is not compact,U consistsof
this way
are compact and ft
disks. Hence j(n)
:
{\302\243//
= 1,
7
is an opencoveringofft
infinitely
\342\200\224>
if
00
n
\342\200\224>
00.
Replacing
\302\253
by
y
^/
Since
many
\302\253
+
1 in
Riemann surfaces
278
(6.48) we seethat
picking
m >
C
[5\342\200\236]
[Bm]9
7
Uj
n such
hence
Since 72, =
> j(n).
Z{ is
are at most7(72)
a locally finite
Uj D [5W]
0 for
some Bn. This Bn is
sets
that
\342\202\254
Zi such
Uj
of TZ.
covering
open
j9
= 0 and
=
n [Bn]
\302\243/,
to
TZ belongs
\342\202\254
9
q and there
of
If
is a
Zi
a compact
U eZ{
each
Bn,
\\J^=X
+ 1)<
1). If j(n
j{n +
^j^
j(n)
Partition of unity
d.
K
for
1)
fl5\342\200\236^0. Hence
and
0
thatj(m) ^ j < j{m+ we have
= 0.
Therefore,
[// n [\302\243\342\200\236]
an openneighborhood
C/y
=
D [Bn]
surface
locally finite open covering of the Riemann
subset of TZ, then there are only finitely many open
TZ
sets
K ^ 0. Hence, if 7\302\243
is compact,
Z{ consists of a
=
R
then
7?
If
not
sets.
is
open
compact,
IJ^Li Kn by
of
are
hence
at
a countably
most
Zi consists
(6.47), where all Kn
compact,
infinite number of open sets.In both cases we can write
finite
such
that
number
of
U D
^ = {C/,:y =
If
u
\342\200\224
is a
u(p)
^ 0 is
u(p)
on
function
set of
of the
closure
the
TZ,
called the support of u:
u =
supp
The
l,2,3, ...}.
of a
support
ell:
[{p
u(p)
1form cp
=
7^
points p
such
that
0}].
cp{p) or a
2form
=
a>
a>(/?) on
7\302\243
is
defined
similarly:
suppcp = [{p e1Z
suppco = [{peTZ:
covering of
=
Pj(p)
Zi =
Let
6.7.
Definition
A
TZ.
defined on
TZ
(ii)
^
pt(p)
the
is
cp(p)
^0}]9
w{p) ^ 0}].
{Uj : j
collection
following conditions
(i)
:
called
= 1,2, 3,...} a
: j = 1, 2, 3, ...}
be
{pj
a partition
of
of
locally
C00
functions
to U
subordinated
unity
finite
open
p7
if the
are satisfied:
0 for
all p
TZ and
\342\202\254
C
supppy
Uj\\
equality
(649)
l=X>X/0
y
is valid.
If pyC/?)
7 0, then /? e
Uj. SinceZ{= {[/,}is
for all 7 except finitely
many
on the righthand side of
pGTZ.
at each
point p
(6.49)
to
reduces
e
a
TZ.
locally
Hence
finite
finite,
the
pj(p)
= 0
infinite
sum
sum at each
point
6.3 Differential
formsona
existsa
For each
6.9.
Theorem
of
partition
Proof: (1) We
coordinate
6.8.
Theorem
in
as
subordinated to it.
case where Z4
the
consider
Putting
=
We define
the disk U), e >
=
Uej
If e
3=
:
= {p
U^iqj)
<
\\zj(p)\\
{Uj} of 11there
= {Uj} consists of
=
zj(p)
simplify the notation, we have
Uj
279
surface
Zi =
covering
open
1 = YljPj(P)
unity
first
disks,
locally finite
Riemann
zq.(p)
to
in order
r(j)}.
0,
by:
{p:\\zj(p)\\2<r(j)2e}.
we
then
r(j)2,
=
put
Uej
Since Uj
0.
=
U\302\253>o^}
we
have,
by
(6.48),
*n C
\"5
U
[J
\302\243>0/(fll)<;^\302\253)
Kn is
since
Hence,
compact, we have
for
some
e >
0,
Knl)<j*\302\243j(n)
each
for
Hence,
j
it
is
possible
to find
a sufficiently
small e(j) >
0
such
that
C
Kn
(J
</*\">,
f(/il)<M/(ii)
(6.47),
so, by
CO
=
K=\\jKn
We define a
C00
function
\\Jur.
hj(s)
hj(s) =1
0 < hj(s) < 1
hj(s)
=
0
for
of the
real variable 5 as follows:
s *\302\243
rQ)2


</),
e(j) <
for
r(j)2
for
s^r(j?e(jy2.
s < r(j)2
e{j)/2,
(6.50)
Now,
hj(x2
+ y2)
is a
C00function
of
x and
7, hence
\342\200\236.f^_JM*/Q0l2), />\342\202\254\302\243/,,
penUj,
W\\o,
is a
C\302\260\302\260
function
=
\302\2737y(p)
on
1, hence
\302\243*//>)
>i.
ft
with supply
=
[ufn/2] C Uj. if p \342\202\254
ufA,
then
280
Riemann
surfaces
Since YljVjip) *s
by (6.50).
a finite
actually
sum,
is
it
a
of p.
C\302\260\302\260
function
Hence
defines a
Therefore, {py
Zi=
subordinated to
...}
2, 3,
that
a
constitutes
= 1
C/y and
C
supppy
J2jpj(p)
of unity
partition
{Uj}.
(2) For the
arbitrary
= 1,
: y
1Z such
on
C\302\260\302\260
function
general case, let W
finite
locally
finitely many
disk UR(g)(q)
open
with
Wm
that
such
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
: m
{Wm
2, 3,
1,
...} be an
then
there
exists only
covering of 1Z. If q G 7\302\243,
it
is
to
a
hence
select
coordinate
G
f^m,
q
possible
if q G Wm then
C fFm. Applying Theorem
U^q){q)
6.8 to the collection of coordinatedisks U^q)(q)
obtained
in this way, we
=
=
obtain a locally finite open covering
with
of
11
Zi
{Uj}
Uj
C/r(y)(<7y)
and 0 < r(j) ^ /?(#/). Let m(j) representa choiceof m such
that
#y G
Since
we
have
Now
C
let
be
a
C
PFm.
C/y
W^j).
C/y
{py}
U^qj)(qj)
=
of unity
subordinated
to Ti
above
and put
partition
{C/y}as obtained
Om(p)=
pJ^'
^2
m(j)=m
om{p) is a
is closed,
om=
supppy
U rn{j)=m
on
C\302\260\302\260
function
7\302\243
and
supppy C Uj and
closed. Hence
^ 0
om(p)
Z{=
for all
p ell.
The
hence
is locally finite,
{Uj}
set
p7 is also
supp
=
SUppOm
SUpppy C
(J
(J
C
C/y
JFm.
m(j)=m
mij)\342\200\224m
Further:
m
m
is a partition
Next we want to
so {a ^}
using
the idea
of
define
the
of a partition
assume
Zi =
that
all
{Uj} of 11is locally
a>(zy)
on each
C/y,
we
=
integral
of
unity.
cok\\2(zk)
by (6.34).
Hence
[Uj]
finite.
=
on each
C/y
{z\\, z2,
Let
such
region,
If Uj fl
are
(Oji2(zj)dXj A
have
to W = {FFm}.
of a continuous 2form
subordinated
unity
of local coordinatesof 7\302\243,C/y a
domain of zy, while
H = \\JjUj.
further
j
m(j)=m
that
[C/y]
0,
U^
compact
...,
and
that
Writing
dyj9
D
\\Tjk(zk)\\2a)ji2(zj)
zj
J7* 7
=
0,
Xj
+
iyj9
zy,
over
co
be a
...}
in the
is contained
then
the
Zj
=
open
K,
system
rjk{zk).
We
covering
63 Differentialformsona Riemann
=
\\<\302\273k\\2(Zk)\\
281
surface
\\Tjk(zk)\\2\\a)jl2(Zj)\\,
so
=
\\o)\\(zj)
A dyj
\\a)Jl2(Zj)\\dxj
continuous 2form on 72. Let {pj} be a
to Zi = {\302\243/,}. Since JZyPy = 1, we have
subordinated
defines a
Each pycy
on 72
t/y.
^ =
equal
to zero
the region Uj in the z7
5^
(6.51)
Pj<\302\273j\\2(zj)dxjdyj
have put pja)jX2{zj) = pj(zj)a)jl2(zj), pj(zj) = p7(p)
and
is compact,
the sum on the righthand side of (6.51)is finite.
we
where
defined on
a 2form
as
pycw
is identically
unity
define
we
plane,
Considering
on 72 which
2form
a continuous
is
\342\200\224
of
partition
z7(p). If 72.
TZ is not compact,
this sum is
convergence. To do this
we
Since all terms on the righthand
convergesor divergesto foo.
are
side
=
If
its
\\co\\:
(6.52)
dyj.
Pj\\a)jn(zj)\\dxj
JmeJ
of
the integral
consider
to ascertain
have
we
and
infinite
z,
the series
nonnegative,
either
Since
*ss
Pj0)ji2(zj)dxjdyj\\
\\JUj
on the
<
+oo and
\\n\\(o\\
series
the
CONs
f
\\in
If
Obviously
f
in
I
=
\\n\\(o\\
is
\302\247na>
system
in the
contained
of 72
covering
On
linear
system
Wn
we
say
of
value
the
that
\302\247na)
is
not
determined.
in a).
the
of
value
of local
To see this, let {w\\9
Wn
domain of
wn
be
...} be another
is
[Wn] compactand is
open
{Wn} is a locally finite
w2,
...,
wn,
such that
regions
and
above is independent of
the open covering {Uj} and
defined
as
\302\247na)
coordinates,
and let {on} bea partition
put
if
absolutely
converges
(6.53)
of unity {p7}.
of local coordinates,
partition
(6.51)
fl,.
showthat
the choice of the
pj\\coj{2(zj)\\dxjdyj
righthand side of
we shall
+oo
We have to
the
J Uj
\\
=
W
of
unity
subordinated
to W.
Riemann
282
surfaces
a)(wn) =
to verify
We have
that
\" =
f
ill
first
If
hence
compact,
of
Uj
pjOn
(6.55)
(6.51) we have
Pj0n<Dj\\2(Zj)dXjdyj.
equal to 0, then supppjOn C Uj D
is covered by finitely many connected
transformation
coordinate
The
Wn.
=
(On\\2(wn)
Since
Wn
is
components
=
: ww \342\200\224\342\226\272
zj
Tjn(wn)
Tjn
and
biholomorphic on each component
by (6.34).
by
ona)nX2(wn)dundvn.
T2
identically
supp
n
is also given
(6.54)
j iuj
not
is
pjOn
in (6.51)
ivn.
iwn
=
OnCO
as defined
+
un
\302\260n<\302\273>
(6.55). By
prove
wn =
JK
n
in
J^co
Yl f
in on(o=\\
We
A dvn,
(onX2{wn)dun
is
\\Tjn(wn)\\2(Ojl2(Zj)
=
yj)/d(un9
d(xj,
rj\342\200\236(w\342\200\236)2
dyj
PjOncOj\\2(zj)dxj
=
i\\Vn
iUj
=
vn\\
we
PjOncoji2(zj)
get
J' J
dun
dvn
0(UmVn)
PjOncojn(zj)\\Tjn(wn)\\2dundvn
iwn
I.
Since
number
of sets Uj such that
there are only a finite
for
0.
some
we
have
if y > h.
Hence,
//,
^
Uj DWn^0
= 1 on PT\342\200\236
=
0 if y > h. Hence
and
Pj(p)
is compact,
[Wn]
n [Wn]
Uj
Therefore,
Y^j=\\PAp)
ona) =
proving
If
2,
shall
Y]
=
PjOn(oni2(wn)dundvn
ono)ni2(wn)dundvn,
(6.55).
is
7\302\243
...,
PjOn(oni2(wn)dundvn.
n
obviously
(6.54)
prove
E
j^i
by (6.52),
f
in
pjH
=
]CHl=ia\302\253
assuming
=
there exists for
is a
&
then
compact,
and
#\302\273}
f
in
that
I\\(o\\
each
finite
1 by
J^a>
<
<
covering.
(6.54). If K
+oo.
Since
such
that
+oo
e >
0 an
h
W
= {Wn
:
n
=
1,
is not compact,we
63
oo
pM<8
Hence, by (6.51) and
(6.53):
h r
\302\273
w by
pj
an(*
IC\342\204\242:!0^
I
oo
p
E
I^m^
f
we
oc
\"EI/HH
Replacing
283
surface
f
]C
If
forms on a Riemann
Differential
/\302\273
E
L/H*
<\302\243.
l/>i
that
observing
f
^
^h\302\273
Eff\302\273H
get
m
w
f
<\302\243.
If
Since
j
*S A.
there is an
is compact,
\\Jj=l[Uj]
Therefore
m.
>
n
PyO0\302\243r=ia\302\273(/\302\273)
m
=
that
such
# 0
if 1
n
W\342\200\236
Uj=i[^y]
=
Pj(P)T,\342\204\242=ianip)
Py(p)
if
*\302\243
Therefore
m
nh
p
I
pf
^E
E
w\302\260
hence
and
f
II 7i
In Section
=
I
(6.54).
proving
co
in
~j
6.3b we
A
a>i2(z)dx
dy9
\\Do)\\idxdy.We
have
definition
Let
(6.51).
already defined
z =
x +
to
iy9
verify
the
integral
over
a
that
this
of a
region
be
A
JDa; =
as
is consistent with
definition
:j= 1,2, 3,...}
Zi = {Uj
continuous 2form
\302\243)
c
a
locally
finite
open
D consistingof disks Uj C D, and {p7} be a partition
of unity
subordinated
to Zi = {Uj}. Then the integral of co over D according
to
definition (6.51) is given by
covering of
00
Therefore
p
*> =
J/)
assuming JDa>
unions
to show that
it suffices
j^l JD
<
of rectangles
U~=i(^\302\253)
+oo.
Selecting
and satisfy
we have by
\342\200\224
A
(656)
PjV
y\\\\
A\\
a sequence
c
A2 C
the original
{^4^}of sets Am
C Am c ..., Am
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
definition
of
the
integral,
which
C
are
and
\302\243>
Riemann surfaces
284

co
\\\\
co by
Replacing
co ^
and
$^y=1Pytt>
i\302\273
I
/l
JD\\

j=x
I
p
I
JD
\342\226\272
0
\\co\\
\\\\co\\
/w
\342\226\272
oo.
(6.57)
that
observing
A
/\302\273
JD
j=i
we get
InJDj=l
ZY =
Since
y
>
If
i\302\273 AZ
h

JAm j=]
{\302\243//}
is
A(/w) for some
JD
/w
^
I
JAm\\
for each
finite,
locally
f
I
I
j=l
have
we
sufficiently large h(m).Hence
=
Ylj^xPj0*
Therefore

f
I
f
=
UjDAm
w on
0 if
^m
f
I/z(m)
hence
and
by (6.57)
\\\\
to
\342\200\224
/J
y^J^
Jd
\342\200\224>
0
PyG)
/W \342\200\224\342\226\272
oo,
I
(6.56).
proving
Green s
e.
Theorem
Let C bea
1Z,y
and
with
center
smooth
Jordan curve on the Riemann surface
piecewise
0 ^ t ^ 1, y(0) = y(l), a parameterrepresentationof C
=
be a local coordinate
#
y(a) with 0 < a < 1. let zq : /? \342\200\224>
z^p)
center
and
consider
the
coordinate
disk
q
U^q){q)as a disk with
0 and radius R(q) in the zq plane.
The map
: t
^ y(t),
= rew0 <6<2ji
0
/?(#) defines a circle with center
= Ar(6)
kr\\0^zq
0
with
<
r ^
UR(q){q).Assuming
the
v
<
circle
a < u,
continuous
functions
two regions:
that R(q) > 0 has been taken
beginning
from the first part of the proof of Theorem 5.5
and Ar(fi) = y(v\\
C in two points Xr(p) \342\200\224
y{u)
the
from
we know
small,
sufficiently
that
Xr intersects
a <
of
j3
<
r, 0
a +
r contained in
and radius
2jv9
^ r
U+ = {rew : 0 <
and
that
a =
a(r) and ft
^ R(q).henceC divides
r<
[/ = {rew :0<r<
=
disk
the
R(q\\
a(r)
<6<
fi(r)}9
R{q\\
/3(r)
<6<
a(r)
are
/3(r)
U^q)(q)
+ 2jv},
into
63 Differentialformsona Riemann
 C = U+ U
Ur{q)(q)
Since
Xr
left,
For
q
exists
the left of C and
each
C a
\302\243
Ar(a) from
C in
intersects
C/+ is
is to
C/~
left to
the
C//^) such that
[UR(q)(q)]
finite open covering of TZ
disk
a locally
D C
to
right
each
for
and
7 0. By Theorem6.8,there
form
Uj = UriJ),
U={Uj:j=l,2,3,...},
0 < r{j)
from
above
defined
the
of
(6.58)
C.
of
right
0.
in lr(b)
and
right
pick a disk C//^) as
tjGCwe
U~ =
C/+ H
IT,
285
surface
*\302\243
If
0, then
UjHC^
C and
\342\202\254
?,\342\200\242
Uj
c
=
u
u+
mapping, right
with
left
and
transformation.
if Uj
Hence,
=0
[/^0,f/+n[/i
and
Uj into
t7+
(on
the
c/j = 0.
t/+ n
t/j,
transformation
coordinate
the
C divides
by (6.58)
(on the right):
left) and Uj
Since
/?(<?,).
z*
=
\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242
z;
r^(z/t)
is a
conformal
this
respect to C do not change under
n Uk n C / 0 then
0, t/J n
[/tn[/^
n l/J
0.
J7J
Putting
t/+(Q
I/(0=J^.
=
(J
[/(C)=(J^
t/y+,
9,ec
?,ec
9/ec
(6.60)
\302\243/(C)
is
a
C and
containing
region
C
divides
U(C)
into
two
regions
U+(C) and t/(C):
t/(C)  C =
U
(7+(C)
\302\243/~(C),
t/+(C)
=
fl t/~(C)
0.
(6.61)
The set t/+(Q is to
assume that
D = ([\302\243>]).
is
C
If
D n
the
open
set
left
of
U+{C)
V
C and
U~(C) is to the
right
of
C.
We
of a compact closedregion
where
[D]
then U+{C) C A for since C does not
\342\200\224
=
is an open set, hence the
U+(C)
[D]
is the union of the two disjoint
open sets V and
boundary
*7+(C) # 0,
pass through U+(C),
connected
the
Riemann
286
surfaces
C/+(C) D D9
V =
hence
implies C/\"(C)C D.
assuming
C C C/(C)C [\302\243>],contradicting
C A i.e. if D is to the
U+(Q
C =
again
that
of
left
D
is
implies
\302\243
Therefore,
TZ
if qj
[D]
U = {Uj} is
0.
UjCiD^
<7/
\302\243
W]
=
elZ
\342\200\224
[D],
CUD.
[Uj]
is
[\302\243)]
Therefore,
we have
[\302\243/,]
UjD
a continuous 2form on
w be
{pj : 7 = 1,2, 3,...}
be
a
^ 0 if
of
partition
closed
the
and
w
+
if
only
if 1
e C
qj\342\226\240
^ h
^ j
1. Under
(6.62)
and
[D]
region
subordinated to
unity
with
Uj
if qj \342\202\254
C, hence:
Uj
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U Um.
UM U
D=
[[/,]
open covering
many
0 if 7 ^
=
n [D]
and
and
D
e
q}r
finitely
that
Uj n [D]
we may assume that
D=UJUUJUUUJU
Let
only
= 0, hence
n C
and the
compact
are
there
md gjeD is h+l^j^m
these circumstances
[Uj]
C D if
observe
further
We
Since
finite,
locally
C D,
that C
C
qj
[Uj]CD or [Uj]CTZ[D].
C
C
have
we
\342\200\224
U(C)
occur
cannot
D
^ 0
D D
U~(Q
\302\243/\"(C) C
d[D].
= Ur(j)(qj)C UR{qj)9
\342\200\224
that
is the boundary of [\302\243>].If
is
called
the boundary of the
C
C,
to the right of C, then
we replace
C
fact
the
closed region[D] : C = d[D],If
by C\"1 so that
Since Uj
and
C Z)
U+(C)
since,
simultaneously
we can prove
0. Similarly
But,
D [D] = 0 for / > /w, hence
covering
{ Uj} of 11.Then
Uj
>
m. Hence 1 = ^2J=iPj(p) on [D]and
identically on [D] for j
Zi =
the
/?,(/?)
let
open
= 0
so
m
Now
think of
D as a Riemannsurfaceitselfand
JD
j=\\*V
as defined in
JD
Section 6.3d above.Sincesupp
^ = ^A
j=\\
Ju+
Pj(o+
pj
Uj we
have
(663)
^'^
\302\243
explained
of [Uj]
boundary Xj \342\200\224
d[Uj]
in the zyplane.The boundary
C
j=h+xJUj
at the end of Section6.3d,we
as
integrals over the regions Uj and
lv pjco
As
consider
is the
of
circle
[Uj]
with
is a
can
Uj
center
consider
of
the
0
J^
pj(o and
zyplane.
and radius
Jordan curve
The
r(j)
consistingof
6.3 Differential
a Riemann
on
forms
surface
287
=
the piecewise smooth Jordan arc Cj = CC\\[Uj\\
and
the
arc
Aj\"
= Cj*A*. The integral
of the continuous
2form pjco
XjD [D] : d[Uj]
over the closed region[C/t]can be defined as
=
[D]
we define
the
Then, by
[\302\243/+]
U
U UM
[C/+]
(6.65)
UUUm
[D] as:
(6.63):
a)
is
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U
of a> over
integral
=\\
i[D]
If a>
we have
by (6.62)
Since,
C664)
Pi0*'
Pj\302\260>=
J
Deo.
2form on
a continuous

Tl
(6.67)
[D] =
[/\" U
K and JtiM <
 \342\200\242
\342\200\242
U~h U
U
+oo,
then
U
Um+X
Um+2
U
\342\200\242
 
,
hence
Jll[D]
j=lJU7
J2*rn+l
Since
+
PjO)
for each y
=
\\
1, 2,
PjCO
...,
co =
A,
=
(o
a> +
of
be
D consists of a
smooth Jordan curves.
the region
Theorem
6.10
surface
TZ
<p
=
f
J[D]
dq>,
let
and
disjoint piecewise
1form on D9
differentiable
mutually
[
JC
finite
Theorem).
(Greens
a Riemann
the equality
obtain
we
from (6.66) and the definition
The above result can easily
on
PjO)
(6.68)
integral
extended
number
(6.51).
to the
of
case
mutually
boundary
disjoint
of
piecewise
be a compact, closedregion
of a finite number
consist
d[D]
Let [D]
C =
smooth Jordan curves.If cp
then
C =
the
that
d[D].
is
a continuously
of
Riemann
288
surfaces
We prove the theorem
Proof:
piecewise
Let Zi = {Uj: j
to Zl. Since,by
have
Therefore
\342\200\242
 \342\200\242
U
=
PjV
U
U UM
[C/+]
identically on
the
hence
TZ
^ j'
1
with
Uj.
Hence
=
d(pjcp)
f
(6.69)
^ m. Since suppp7 C
we have, for 1 ^ j ^ h
f
J[U+]
=
d(Pj<p) =
f
JC
}[U)]
is valid
Therefore (6.69)
J[Uj]
Since obviously
arbitrary
partition
7?, \342\200\224
Uy>A+i
7
of
=
1, 2,
unity
t^y]
Ja;
=
=
Pj<P
\\cPj<P
and since
0. Therefore
=
Xj
=
Ay
n
Py</>
0.
that (6.69) also holdsin this
smooth Jordan curves, let Zi =
conclude
and [UJ] D
\302\260Penset
=
Jd[Uj]
finite
locally
subordinated
*s an
and applying
^ h.
have
we
m,
^(Py<P)
piecewise
...,//
z7plane
^ j'
0,
be the
d(pj(p)
(6.70)
\342\200\224
we
\\cpj(p
= Ur(j)q(j)
Uj
qj e C for
1
=
^(Py<P)
+
Pj<P
\\cjPj<P
$ t+Pj<p
1 ^
h +
and
pj(p
p,(p.
for
Since [Uj] C D for
an
Jcj
have
[Uj], we
we have
d[[/,],
CD
the
in
=
Pj(p
Cj\342\226\240
f
both
get
Samp
=
Uj,
d(pj(p).
=
d(Pj<p)
J[t/]
For
]C\"Li d(pj(p).
equality
Considering [Uj] as a closeddomain
J[D]
=
J[D]
jT{
Green's Theorem(Theorem6.2)we
A/
dcp
dipjcp)
f
\342\200\224
J[D]
[D] and
Um
J[D]
all j
Since
subordinated
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
U
[D]9
J[D)
to show that
f
JC
vanish on
U
j^\\JC
it suffices
for
of unity
a partition
be
(p = ^2J=iPj(p
JC
holds
= 1,2,3,...}
(6.65)
= [t/+]
[D]
Hence
2, 3,
1,
and let {pj : j
by (6.59)
we
=
The proof of the general caseis similar.
the locally finite open covering
be
...}
given
curve.
Jordan
smooth
d[D] is just one
C =
that
case
the
for
to
open
C =
covering
0 for
j'^
Z4. Since Z4 is
an\302\243^
given
h
+
locally
case.
{Uj}9
by (6.59), let
1. Let {p,} be a
finite,
V =
63
on a
forms
Differential
Riemann surface 289
h
(J Uj.
7=1
= 0 for y ^ A + 1, hence
CcVc
If p
=
U(C)
V then
\342\202\254
py(/?)
Pc(P) = 5^Py(P)
7=1
is
PcU?;
\342\200\224
C and
C\302\260\302\260
on 7\302\243
class
of
on
and
on
TZ
C\302\260\302\260
supp dp
Q D
dcp
c
\342\200\224
F.
If
U C,
C/+(C)
p\302\243
F. Therefore,
C
\302\243 C/+(C)
with
supp
a 1form
is
rfp\302\243
p
is a
while
of
continuously
= 0, then
(6.71)
Since by assumption
A(p + pjdcp = dpj A </>,
as follows.
this
=
d(pj<p)
we
C. Putting
</p+A(p.
f <p= f
derive
U
(\302\243/+(C)
differentiable 1formon 1Z
We
of
^[/+(C)UC,
\\0,
pJ is a function
p+(^) = l identically
class
the neighborhoodV
to 1 on
equal
identically
^Py
by (6.70)
have,
dpjA<p=\\ JC pj<p9
J[U+]
l^j^h,
Hence:
dPc
J[Ut(C)]
l[t//(0]
since
=
Let
Riemann
surface
H.
yh
=
and EjLiPyOO
d<p =
be
(p
If supp
{\302\243//}
supp
Z{.
q>
Since
=
on
supp
0 for
y*
a
continuously
cp
is
compact,
differentiable
[tf+(01.
while
(6.71).
1form on the
then
0.
Proof: Let Ti =
neighborhoodsUj of
to
(p,
this
6.11.
[
\\
JC
PcOO
1 on C. SincesuprfpjC U+(C), proves
Theorem
in
=
<p
C [C/+(Q]
[C/+]
Y2j=iPj(P)
A
>
(p
be
and
7\302\243,
is
let
compact,
w, hence
covering by coordinate
partition of unity subordinated
{/?/}
D
there
exists an m such that
Uj
= 0 for
>
m.
Therefore
j
a locally
py<p
finite open
be a
290
Riemann
surfaces
7=1
so, by
Green's Theorem
Jn
j=l
(Theorem6.1)
Jn
j^i
Jd[Uj]
Let y : t \342\200\224>
a ^ t ^ b, be a piecewisesmoothcurve on 11and
let
y(t),
closed
1form
on
differentiable
7\302\243.
We
want
closed continuously
(p
be a
consider
to
\302\247y(p.
point on y such that there exists s with 51 ^ r and a ^ s ^ 6
= y(t), then it is called
such
a multiple point. If y is a closed
that
y(s)
=
and
its
base
curve,
y(b)
point y(a)
y(f) = y(a). If y has no multiple
If p = y(f) is a multiple
curve.
points, then y is a Jordan arc or a Jordan
point, then there exist only finitely many s with y(s) = p. This follows
If
y(t)
is a
because if there were infinitely
y(sn)
n\\
P,
there
ri2 <
\342\200\242
  <
=
<
c =
lim/_00
number is
be
\342\200\242
of
rij<\342\200\242\342\200\242,
snj9 we have
assumptionthat
their
would
a
the
y(snj) =
there
y(c).
smooth.
y is piecewise
finite
different
many
are
only
convergent
bounded
Hence
3, ..., with
subsequence {sn}9
sn9 n =
1, 2,
sequence
{sn}. Putting
=
0,
y'(c)
contradicting
the
and
if
So, if y has multiple
finitely many t such
points
that
y{i)
is
a
which we denote by
a ^ t\\ <
t\\9 t2, ...,
tu
multiple
point,
\342\200\242
< ti ^ b. Hence, for
each
exists at least one tk, k 7 1,
t2 <
f,, there
=
<
with
all
tk, satisfying y(tk) = y{tt\\
pairs th tk, tt
y(tk)
y{tt). Among
\342\200\224
let
and let us put a\\ \342\200\224
tk
tt is smallest
tj9 th denote the pair such that
tj
and
Since
if
b\\ \342\200\224
t^
obviously
y(a\\) = y(b\\) and
7 y(s)
y(t)
\342\200\224\342\226\272
^
^
^ / < s ^ Z?i,
the
curve
is a piecewise
a\\
Ci : /
\302\253i '
b\\9
y(f),
6.3
curve. The curve
Jordan
smooth
forms on a Riemann
Differential
smooth curve connectingy(a) and
parameter representation
a piecewise
y, is
from
Yit
YW)
where we have
similar
In a
and
<p
(p=\\
\\
b\\
+
a\\.
q>.
Jyi
<P+\\
JCi
JC2
<P+\\
<P
Jy2
this procedure, if y(a) ^
smooth Jordan
piecewise
a
<p=\\
\\
Jy
JC{
If y(a)
= y(b\\
at all
and we have
d +
C2 +
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
C2
+
left with
we are
remainder
no
JCV
have:
we
4.4)
Cv +
+
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
(p.
(p.
(p++\\
notation of 1chains(seeSection
y =
have
Jyv
of steps
number
JC2
we
and
q>+\\
\\
JCV
JC2
(p+\\
JCi
arc yv
of steps we
number
a finite
after
y(b),
+\342\200\242+
(p
q>+\\
after a finite
<p=\\
\\
Jy
In the
y\\
the remainder by y2, we have
<P=
Repeating
Jordan curve C2 from
smooth
a piecewise
removing
Jy
at
+
jC\\
way,
denoting
arrive
b
have
We obviously
Jy
c\\ =
put
\342\200\224
C\\
by the
given
y(b),
ax^t^cu
_\302\253,,+*,),
\\y(,
of removing
result
is the
which
y\\9
291
surface
yV9
respectively:
=
y
If y has
so
somewhat,
it becomes
finite
cn
=
twice
i
In
this
n(b
y =
obviously
some
a +
y\\
\342\200\224
a)/m,
\342\200\242
y2
continuously
<P
way
=
the
of
yn : t
curve
1, 2,
of
\\Yn(p
Therefore
Uj.
\342\200\224>
y{t\\
By
Theorem
differentiable function

finitely
= {Uj} be a
cn\\
..., m, belongsto one
7/w
y\302\253
Uj(n)(Y(Cn))
value
n =
let Zi
disks Uj of 1Z.Since \\y\\
number
finite
y
at most
with
be done,
can
this
be covered by a
m such that each
\"transform\"
first
smoothcurve y
by coordinate
covering
open
we
points,
multiple
a piecewise
to find an
possible
with
Cv.
points. To see how
it can
compact,
+
many
infinitely
that
many multiple
locally
+
CX
Uj
on
6.3,
each
is
is
it
t ^
^
cn
while
t//(n)\302\273
cp
=
rfwy
for
Uj. Hence
Uxn)(Y(Cnl)).
is
determined
by the
end points
y(cn\\)
292
Riemann
surfaces
Therefore the value
if we replace
of
does
not change
\302\247yn(p
smooth
Jordan
which
connects
and y(cn)
arc
by
y(cn\\)
yn
arbitrary
yn
=
in Um : Jy\342\200\236(/> \\yncp. Now select Jordan arcs yu y2, ..., y\342\200\236,
... ,ym
\342\200\242
in this order such that yn intersects
in
at
most
finitely
yi
y2
9n\\
and
ofyn.
y(cn)
an
and put
points
many
smoothcurve with
and
9
at
\342\200\224
9 m Now, y
9n
9\\'9i
most
finitely
many multiple
is a piecewise
points connectingy(a)
and
y(b)
cp=
Jy
Jy
<p.
Removing from y piecewise smoothJordan curves C\\, C2, C3, ... in the
smooth Jordan arc yv
way described above, we are left with a piecewise
and
i.e.
connecting
y(b\\
y(a)
9= d
if y(a)
=
So
have
we
If y is a
differentiate
Jordan curves
Jy
C
JC(p
=
J^
+
Cv +
(6.72)
yV9
a closed
is also
curve and we have
(6.73)
proved:
continuously
Let
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
= y(6),then y
Cv.
C2++
Cl +
6.12.
Theorem
C2
If y(a)
7^ y(b).
9
+
C\\9
C2,
(p=\\JCi
...,
piecewise smooth closedcurve on 7\302\243,if cp is a
smooth
1form on 1Z and if the piecewise
Cv are determined by (6.73),then
(p.
(P+.+
<p+\\
JC2
JCV
a piecewise smooth
a
dcp by (6.71) and the JpJ
dp+
be
with
closed 1formofclassC\302\260\302\260
compact
Jordan curve on 11,
occurring
support.
Hence
in this equality
putting
then
is a
6.3
y =
+
+ dp
rfp+
+
on a
forms
Differential
Riemann surface 293
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
+
f
Jd^cv
the following theorem:
we obtain
1form
a closed
exists
cp
If
the
cp is
1form
Proof:
y :
Let
= 0
Jy(p
on 1Z.
exact
Let
jtq
be
i.e. if
cp
=
du for
=
0 where
that
some continuously
y is an arbitrary
piecewise smooth closedcurves
point of 71. For an
be
*> a piecewisesmooth
y
on
71, then
p G
point
arbitrary
curve
piecewise
closed 1form on
differentiable
a continuously
a fixed
t ^
and put
u(p) =
be
cp
for all
\342\200\224\342\226\272
fl ^
y(0,
f
exact,
71, (6.46), \\ycp
curve on 71. Conversely
6.14.
Theorem
such
support
closed 1form definedon 71.
differentiable,
u on
closed
If
7\302\243.
class
there
(6.74)
a continuously
is
differentiable
function
smooth
of
\302\243y
with
C\302\260\302\260
compact
\302\243yA(p
M
where
piecewise smoothJordan curve on 71,then
is a
If y
6.13.
Theorem
cp
is
let
7\302\243,
po and
connecting
p
p.
Jy
jy
The
function
becauseif
yx
u(p)
y\\
is
a closed
\342\200\242is
y1
<P

curve, hence by the
I
not
on
choice
the
connecting po
<P
=\\
Jpo
Therefore
du(p)
=
Cdrollary 1. If cp
p,
then
<p
=
0.
Jyry1
CP
Clj
=
This is so
and
assumption
Therefore we may write u(p) = JT cp. In order to prove
restrict our attention to the coordinatedisk Uj, with
center
=
the
write
we
can
where
Theorem
6.3
cp
By
duj,
Uj
on UJ9 hence, by (6.6):
differentiable
function
continuously
u(p)
of y.
C
h
Jyi
p,
smooth curve
piecewise
CP
CP
\\
depends only on
another
q>+\\
Jqj
duj(p)
is
C<lj
duj=\\
cp
J
+
uj(p)

that
du
=
cp, we
qj.
is
a twice
uj(qj).
po
= cp.
a continuously
differentiable
closed 1form such that
Riemann
294
surfaces
smooth Jordan
all piecewise
\342\200\224
0 for
\\ccp
curves C on
then
ft,
is
cp
exact
on ft.
closed
1form
Corollary 2. A continuouslydifferentiable
=
is exact if and only if \\n% A cp
0 for all continuously
forms
a compact
with
\302\243
cp
on ft
defined
1
differentiable
support.
Proof:
(1) If
=
cp
A cp
\302\243
we have by
compact,
\302\243A<p
f
then
du,
=
[
=
= \342\200\224
rfw A \302\243
rf(w\302\243). Since
\342\200\224
\302\253)=0.
then
(2) if converselyJ^^f A cp = 0 for all \302\243,
all piecewise smooth closed curves
y
Hence cp
is
of
a region
analytic
a Riemann surfacein its
D is
Since
Jy(p
on ft
=
=
Cx +
Cx +
A
=
cp
0 for
by Theorem 6.13.
then
Deft,
curve y : f
own
right,
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
Cv +
+
it
is
y(f),
we can
to
possible
^
\342\200\224\342\226\272
a
consideredas a curvein D to obtain
y
J^
exact.
If p and 9 are arbitrary
points
connect p and 9 by a piecewise
D.
is
suppw\302\243
Theorem 6.11:
t ^
in
ft,
apply (6.72) to y
yv
smooth Jordan arc connectingp = y{a) and
yv
\342\200\242
=
q
y{b) in D. Furthermore, when constructing y \342\200\224
yx%yi
fn
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
it is possible
to pick analytic
Jordan
arcs
ym
yn connecting
y{cnx)
and y(cn). Hencewe have proved the following useful result:
a piecewise
is
where
q are two points of a regionDeft, then
Jordan arc in D.
and
analytic
p
q by a piecewise
p and
If
6.15.
Theorem
possible
to connect
6.4
Dirichlet'sPrinciple
a.
Inner
Let q0
=
\342\200\224\342\226\272
z^/?)
z(p)
=
{/? : z(/?)
morphic
Since
z/R
product
norm
be a fixed point of a Riemann
be a local coordinate with
< R} a coordinatedisk.By
defined
function,
: p
and
\342\200\224\342\226\272
is
z(p)/R
on
also
is
it
a region
a local
surface
center
qo
definition,
containing the
coordinate
with
ft
and
and
C/o =
z(/?)
is a
closed disk
center
let z
: /?
\302\243//?(<7o)
biholo[C/o].
90, we may
beginning that C/o is the unit disk {p : \\z(p)\\ < 1}. Let
defined
on a region containing [U] from
S(z) be a holomorphicfunction
the point
of
which
a
smoothJordanarc
C C/o has been deleted. We
qo
\\a\\
assume from the
write
6.4 Dirichlefs Principle 295
=
S(z)
3> +
sake, we will
For simplicity's
been
has
deleted
from the
1form
on
harmonic
(p =
on
C/o
JO +
\342\200\224
or.
prove that
as rfO if
(In
there

W
qo even
the point
of
definition
same
the
Uo such
on
We
S(z).
as
singularity
though
qo
call
a
cp
d\302\256 if
there
that
on
defined
</> is not
general,
a harmonic
exists
1form
</>
on
\\o\\.)
In
with
7\302\243
the
we will
section
this
same
singularity
on d[UQ].
(6.75)
consider
example,
=
S(z)
with
x + iy.
<j90
constant
To give a typical
region of
1Z\342\200\224
\\o\\
z =
y),
\\o\\ include
let
1form <po
a harmonic
exists
O = $(*,
i'V,
 + z.
z
Since
j;)
tp(*?
*2 +
0 if
=
j>2
=
1, i.e.
W satisfies
condition (6.75).Let {z0,z2,
system of local coordinateson TZ, Zi = {Uo, U\\,
such
locally finite open covering, where each Uj is a region,
Z2,
...}
be a
Ui,
that
...}
a
[UJ] is
and
disk
C/o is a unit
compact and contained in the domain of zy, while
= 0 for
\342\200\224\342\226\272
^
I
let
:
and
the
Zk
j
represent
r^
[Uj] D\\o\\
t>(z*)
A 1form
K and a 2form co on 1Z can be
coordinate transformations.
q> on
=
written
as
A rfy respectively.
cp{zj)
q)j\\(zj)dxj + q>j2(zj)dyjand a>\\2(z)dx
For a continuous 2form a> on K, \\nco is defined by:
=
<*>
jJUj
is a partition
where {pj}
[/* we have
<*>k\\l{Zk)
by
(6.34)
=
=
o>
M
Suppressing
the
\\
a)
index
in
subordinated
unity
XoU\342\200\224
{Uj}.
On
a region
/ ^d(?cj1yj)
2_
0)j\\2{Zj)
d(xk, yk)
hence
Vj
=\\
of
f/*(Z*)l
and (3.5),
ill
dyj
PjCOjn(zj)dxj
\302\243
Jn
iuk
pyft>iti2
j we
write
a)\\2(z)dxdy.
^
rfVit
=
iuk
o)kU(zk)dxk
dyk.
(6.76)
296 Riemann surfaces
inner
The
1formscp
continuous, real
of two
product
1Z is
\\p on
and
defined
by
=
V)k
(<P,
A *V>.
<P
Since
*ip =
cp A
+
dx
(cp\\
\342\200\224
A
dy)
(p2
\\p\\
dy)
A dy
+ <P2ip2)dx
(<PiVi
+
<*c
(\342\200\224V>2
then
call
We
=
Vk
(<P>
(<PiVi +
=
\\\\<p\\\\n
f
in
The integral on the
If it
+oo.
towards
<
defined
^
11V11
inner
\342\202\254
TZ, the
ft
<p] +
<
\\\\(p\\\\n
we
V>2
the
that
For a region
1forms
continuous
two
in
occurring
integral
is determined.
(cp, ip)ii
of
and
cp
xp
by considering D as a
write (cp, ip) and \\\\cp\\\\ instead
of
defined
are
ofcp
\\\\<p\\\\d
on
+
+ Vi
implies
(cp, ip)D
product
either converges or diverges
is ^ 0. Since
that
and
Riemann surface.Fromnow
{cp,
cp\\
+00
and the norm
on D
by
equality
its value
absolutely
(6.77) converges
D
of this
side
right
P2V2I
and
+00
denoted
cp,
(<P2i+<Pi)dxdy.
converges,
2piVi +
IMIft
of
cp)n the ho/th
y/(cp,
(6.77)
(pi^i)dxdy.
will
ip)n and 9>ft respectively.
Since
+ VO2
(cpx
\\\\cp\\\\
that
<
{cp,
and
+00
xp)
is
+ (cpi
+
+ 00
HvH
implies
in cp and ip,
linear
(cp, xp)
=
A(p +
//^ll2
(V,
^
V2)2
that
2(cp] +
\\\\cp
+
\\\\Xcp\\\\
cp\\
<
+00.
0 for
X
ip\\\\
=
+ ip\\
e
+
xp\\)
It is
R and
easy to
verify
that
</>).
Hence
= $.<P +
=
for
real
arbitrary
X and
X2\\\\cp\\\\2
^<P
^V\302\273
\\\\Xcp
equality is a positivedefinitequadratic
Hence its discriminant (cp, ip)2 \342\200\224
MPIMI2
\\(<P.
V)l
*
\\\\<P\\\\
IIVll
+
+ 2Mv,V>)
//. Since
this
+ M)
+ //VII2
form
^2f
^ 0
the
in the
ls nonpositive,
righthand
variables
i.e.
A
side
of.
and
//.
Dirichlet's
6.4
Hence <^H
=
V^H2
ll^>ll2 H 2C<^>,
V^) H
V^I2 ^
297
Principle
Cll<^ll
H~ IIV^II)2
V> +
Vll ie
and
therefore
+
\\w+n*\\w\\\\
Replacing
^
\\\\cp
\342\200\224
\\p\\m
cp
by
cp

xp we
the
Hence
ui
get <p ^
\\\\cp

IMI 
(6.78)
IIHIWI^HVVll
holds.
Let 5(z) =
O+
be
iSff
where
some
is
<po
+
JO
on TZ
defined
<x,
then
exists,
\\a\\9
cpo
=
\342\200\224
d$>
cp
G. we
on
1form
/r = [C/o].
can
which
cr
to
be extended
denote this extension
also
+ (\\W\\\\nK)2.
\\\\cp0\\\\2K
\342\200\224
a
\342\200\224
C/o
a region
on
defined
the collection of all
We denote
on
by:
\\\\cp\\\\<p
=
\\\\cp\\\\l
to find
possible
1form on t/o Put
G D K from
differentiable
continuously
defined
a
is
it
such that,
(6.79)
is a harmonicfunction
has been deleted, if such a cp
a continuouslydifferentiable
<p0. We
\342\200\224
1Z
on
<p0
Since O
by
to see if
We want
given.
continuously differentiable 1formcp
=
cp
IIVll
inequality
satisfying
1forms
differentiable
continuously
cp
(6.79) and
condition
(i) dcp = 0
(ii)
by
If
\302\243<d.
\342\200\224
0 on
d\\cpo)
d(<P
on C/o, because
= 0
dcpo
\342\200\224
C/o
\342\200\224
\\o\\.
For
on C/o
continuous
dcpo
is
cp,
xp ^
*s
V)o
\302\243<j>,
(</>,
by
Op, V)*
=
+
Vok
(<Po,
\342\200\224
((p, ^Oo
Obviously,
Lemma
+oo
then
\302\243<d,
cp \342\202\254
and dcpo =
defined
<
\\\\cp\\\\<p
(V>
VOt^a:
(</>,
(P)o>
6.1.
(1) If (p, ^
then A(p
ll*<P +
(2) if
cp,
and
\342\202\254
\302\243<i>
A and
G
and
\302\243<i>
+
/^
A*V*
=
^ are
cp
\342\200\224
differentiable 1formon
xp
be
can
X +
extended
7\302\243.
Denoting
this
fi =
1,
(6.80)
+ Mf*<P> VOo
+ f^2\\M\\l
&\\W\\\\l
then
\302\243<*>>
xp \342\202\254
real numbers satisfying
to a continuously
1form
by
cp
\342\200\224
xp,
we
have
Ik

Vll2

IMll

2(<p,
V)o
+
HVlll
(681)
Riemann surfaces
298
Proof:
(1)
/u
1Z\342\200\224
\\a\\. Finally
+
on C/0 
+ ip0
on
differentiable
i.e.
+ /^Vo,
^<Po
+ /uip
Xcp
/uip) = 0 on
d{Xq> +
that
\\o\\,
Since
C/o.
that
+
+ /uip G
Xcp
+
+ (P<P
Wo\\\\2k
<
M>\\\\nK)2
+cx)
\302\243<*>\342\200\242
further
Since
A(p0
=
+M>o\\\\2K
(2) Since
+ /^2V;o^,
+ 2A/i((p0, Vok
>*2MIk
=
+ /*V>lk*)2
+ 2X/*(<p9
X2(\\\\(p\\\\kk)2
xp)nK
also true.
(6.80) is
=
cp
\342\200\224
=
ip
<p
continuously
d<S>
since
= UM
/itpWl
we conclude
(A(p
=
rfO + cp0, ip
have Xcp + /i^ = ^^ +
condition (6.79). It is obvious
satisfies
\\\\Xcp
=
<p
^o are
cpo and
= 1, we
where
A+
have
we
(6.79)
By
d$> +
\342\200\224
</>o
= JO
+
\342\200\224
is
Vo
ip can
on
Vo
C/o
\342\200\224
oJ,
have
we
differentiable
continuously
to a continuously
be extended
\342\200\224
extention coincides
1Z. This
on
differentiable
1form
ip
while
ipo,
cpo
on C/o.Hence (p
and
cpo
with
\342\200\224
cpo
ipo
on
K,
hence
\"
IIV
If
Lemma 6.2.
that
such
11r] 11
+
IIV
Since cp
differentiable on
\\\\<P
C/o,
= d$>
+
drj
\\\\q>0
+
cp
17
=
that
cp
+ drj G
n a
=
0, then
I
(<Po,<fyk
Since S(z) =
has been
IMIo +
+ drj
+ dt/Wl
we conclude
supp
(p +
then
G \302\243<*>,
ip
drj G
function on
TZ
\302\243<*>\342\200\242
If,
moreover,
2(<P,
+
cpo
+
<fy)
+
drj
(6.82)
\\\\dti\\\\2.
and
</>o
is
+ ^*7
condition (6.79).
satisfies
continuously
Since obviously
\342\200\224
0 and
+ drj)
If
=
<fy*
Proof:
d(cp
differentiable
then
77 D ct I =0,
supp
VIDk*
continuously
and if
+00

(V
(6.81).
a twice
is
77
<
Vo\\\\2K +
\\\\<Po
proving
(6.68),
by
~
=
V>H2
O+
=
(<P

drj\\\\2K
+ (p
+
<
drj\\\\nK)2
+00
\302\243<j>.
rfO,
<fyk
=
(<P,
drj)K

(JO,
rf^)*.
K from
deleted, the CauchyRiemannequationstell us that
*P
is
holomorphic
on a
region G D
which
cr
Dirichlet's
64
d\302\256=
Wx dx
+
=
dy
Wy
\302\256y
+
dx
\302\256xdy
=
299
Principle
*rfO.
Hence
(JO, drj)K=\\
JK
drj/\\*d\302\256=\\
JK
drjAdW=\\
z = ew, 0 ^ 0 ^ 2jt, be a parameter
Let 6 \342\200\224\342\226\272
representation
circle dK. Since by conditon (6.75) 4> == constant
dW/dd = 0, hence by Green's Theorem (Theorem 6.1)
Jo
jok
Jk
d{r]dW),
JK
unit
the
of
on
we have
dK
\302\253^
therefore
and
Hence
=
drf)K
(cpo,
= 0.
rf^
(JO,
(<P, drj)K
=
dti\\\\%
+
\\W
(6.83)
=
\\\\q>o
+
and so
+
dri\\\\2K
\\\\<p0\\\\2K
+ 2(<p,
(\\\\<p
+
dtiWntf
dr])K +
+ 2(<p,
(\\\\(p\\\\nK)2
drj)nK
+ (^lk*)2
=
\\\\cp\\\\l+2(cp9drj)+\\\\drj\\\\2,
(6.82).
proving
Dirichlet's
b.
Principle
Let r] be a twice continuously
satisfying
<
\\\\dr]\\\\
is defined.For fixed
rj
k =
of
e.
C\302\256,hence
all norms
V +
defined
on
7\302\243
^ + d^Ho
^<d, where
+ dri\\\\q>.
inf^
v
value
of the norms
V + ^7llo> i.e. there
function
on 7\302\243,
such
differentiable
continuously
77^,defined
=
=
<
k. cp
is a harmonic 1+00 and \\\\ip + ^o
\\p + drjoo
H^ooll
on Tl with the same singularity as dip.
will
of
this result in this section. Selecting a sequence {?/\342\200\236}
prove
functions
with
such
differentiable
<+00
r]n
continuously
\\\\drjn\\\\
In
fact,
the
k is
minimum
a twice
exists
that
form
We
twice
that lim^oollV
(Pn
and
rp let
ip + drj
as above:
function
is a
function
differentiable
then
If V \342\202\254
\302\243<d,
k be the infimum
+oo.
we
Dirichlet's
theorem.
=
+
drjn\\\\
V + drjn,
obviously
Principle
have
is
=
k, we put
dn =
lim^oo
contained
(5W
 *2
\\/MI*
=
0. An
in the
important
proof of the
(6.84)
part of the proofof
following
existence
300
Riemann
surfaces
Theorem 6.16. Thereexistsa
 <p\\\\ =0.
lim^oollp,,
Let us
Proof:
first
the
prove
cp G C<&
1form
such
that
inequality
(6.85)
\\\\(Pm(Pn\\\\^dmdn.
For arbitrary
R satisfying
\342\202\254
A, ft
=
+
Xq>m
A + /i = 1, we have
^<p\342\200\236
V +
+ /^*)
d(Xtjm
hence
^
+ft(Pn\\\\
\\\\A(pm
^ =
A2K2
+ /U2K2.
+2X/UK2
by (6.80)
Therefore,
*2(ll<Pn.*
K2)
<Pn)*
+ 2lf*d<Pm,
~ K2) +
~
A\\\\(Pn\\\\l
K2) ^
0.
Hence,
~
\\(<Pm,
Vn)*
\\(<Pm,
<Pn)<&
*2\\2 ^
~ *2\\
(Pm*
i.e.
^
~K2\\
dmdn
Using (6.81) we have
~
\\\\cpm
(pn\\\\2
=
=
^
^
~
\\\\<Pm\\\\\\>
<Pmo
K2
~
\\\\<Pm\\\\%
52m
+ 2dm
+ \\\\(pn\\\\%
<?\342\200\236)<!>
2(<pw,
 2{((pm,(pn)<p
K2 +
<Pn)&
2\\(<Pm,
\342\200\242
d2n +
d2n
=
~
~
(dm +
K2) +
\\\\(pn\\\\\\>
*?\\ +
\\\\<Pn\\\\%
we prove
Next
rj
n \\a
\\
rj
C
=
(6.86)
0 and
(6.87)
C/0.
For arbitrary
by (6.82),
X
IR and
\342\202\254
assuming
i.e.
d2n
+ 2X(cpn,dri)
+
Therefore,
\\(cpn,drj)\\2^\\\\drj\\\\2'd2n,
proving
*?
that
1(^0,^)1^1!^!!^
supp
~
<5\342\200\236)2,
\\((pn,drj)\\^\\\\dri\\\\dn,
if
K2
(6.85).
proving
if supp
~
(6.86).
X2\\\\dr]\\\\2^0.
supp .7 D a
=0
we
have
If
C/o =
C
supp?7
Principle 301
Dirichlefs
6.4
K, then
hence
drj) +
+ 2A((pM0,
\\Wn\\\\l
^
l2\\\\dr]\\\\2
k2.
obtain (6.87) in a similarway.
such
existence of a cp \342\202\254
\302\243<j>
prove
there
to
show that
suffices
From this we
the
To
it
3,...
continuously
<P(j)\\\\u
1form
C/o
that
such
cpo
to verify
cr ,
if C/y n
the required
~
\\\\<PU)
0,
\302\243/it
^
~
\\Wn
as n
Hence

^(y)
Similarly, if
Uj
D
^
C/o
=
+ cpo coincide
d$>
and
</>(,)
by putting
consider
can
=
cp
on
</>(7)
cp0
=
~
IIPn
=
<PH2

supp
\342\200\224
q>\\ dx
po
(Ik,
Since,for
=
A*(p
(p
(p
<Po\\\\k
to prove that
In order
and
*
</>{k)\\\\uk
0,
on
coincide
+
+
<PU)\\\\Uj
UjDUk.
Uj D C/0, hence
on
<pwo
1<P*0
~
<Polk
\"\342\226\272
0,
cp
rfO
7^1,
~
<P0\\\\2K
+
=
<p
1form (p
d\302\256+
defined
K =
containing
~
(\\\\<Pn
cpo
on
on
TZ
C/o

\342\200\224
\\o\\.
to a continuously
extended
being
a region
on
\\\\<Pn0
as
C/o.
and
[C/o].Since
(pWlZK?
= [C/o],we have
H<Pn0
where
on
<po
<P{k)\\\\lJfiUk
~
cpw
on Uj D
Uj,
\342\200\224
differentiable 1formdefined
and K
\\\\<Pn~
\\Wn
JO
a, we obtain a continuously differentiable
We
easy
\342\200\224\342\226\272
\302\253
oo.
Therefore,
Hence,
and
^ <Pn 
(PoWujHUo
cp
is
it
rfO +
\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo.
i.e.
0.
+
<P(j)\\\\uj
^
0,7 ^ 1, then <pn
d<&
\\\\(P{J)
as
=
<P(*)li//it/*
+
<Pn\\\\ujnUk
\\\\<PU)
^
=
1, then
~
^
<P(k)\\\\ujDUk
and
closed
\342\202\254
\302\243<&.)
cp
1, * ^
^
y
j =1,2,
such that
cp^
Uj, / ^ 1,
(p = cp^ on all
put
we obtain
\342\200\224
First,
lim^ooH^o
we
if
that
1forms
0,
<p
Uj and a continuously differentiable
\342\200\224
on C/o. (Because
<Po\\\\u0 =0
0 on
=
\342\200\224
\342\200\224 =
limw_^oo<P/z
all
for
exist
closed
differentiable
liirinKX)!!(/)\342\200\236
that
all
=
q>2
C C/o, we
dy
7,
E
=
cp\\\\nk
</>2
arbitrary
f
pTxinK
+
=(/)?
have Xj^i/9/ = 1 on
 <pk*)2 =
\302\260>
\342\200\224
rfy,
is an
~>
(po\\\\u0
lim^od!^
\\(p\\2dx A
+

\\\\(pn0
PjWn
as
w *
0, we
oo.
write
(p\\,
1form. Since po +
IZj^iPj
~1
\342\200\224
7\302\243 .K and

cp\\2dxdy.
(6.88)
Riemann
302
surfaces

\\Wn
~
\\\\<Pn
+ 0
<P(j)\\\\uj
as
n
\342\226\272
oo
have
we
cp\\2dxdy =
\\cpn

\\\\cpn
\342\226\272
cpfy
0,
\342\200\224>
oo.
then
compact,
side
righthand
^
(p\\2dxdy
JUj
as n
is
7\302\243
~
PjWn
JTlK
If
=
<p\\\\uj
Zi =
of (6.88)
{\302\243//}
is a
finite
=
0.
an
is
open
and
sum
covering and the sum in the
we can conclude immediately
that
lim(pw(p^A:
n\342\200\224>oo
If
TZ is
not compact, then
~
y2
j^{
^
<Pn\\2dxdy
PjW\342\204\242
JTlK
JTlK
=
\\<pm
(pn\\2dxdy
(\\\\<Pm<Pn\\\\nK)2
^\\\\<Pm<Pn\\\\2^(dm+dn)2
~
\\<Pm
with
both sides of the
Hence, multiplying
by (6.85).
^
<P\\2
~
2\\<pm
over 11
an(* integrating
Ylj=\\Pj
\302\243
pj\\v\302\273
f
= 0 and
Since lim,,^ 6n
(pn\\2 +
v\\2dxdy

2\\<pn
\342\200\224
we
K,
inequality
q>\\2
obtain

*2((5\342\204\242+dn)1+2
\302\243 n*\302\273
limw_oo(pw
<p\\\\uj
=
0 we
^ur
have
*
f
]T
j=x JnK
Pj\\<pm<p\\2dxdy^2d
m'
Therefore
CO
KK)
(\\\\<Pm<p\\\\
\\2
.89)
7=1

Therefore
lim
\\\\(pm
m\342\200\224KX)

\342\226\240

=
(p\\\\n
=
0,
\342\226\240K
hence
0.
lim \\\\(pm
\342\226\240<P\\\\
m\342\200\224\342\226\272oo
In
order
and
TZ\342\200\224\\o\\
to prove
(ii)
Mo
that
cp
< oo.
we
G \302\243<*>
have
Since on all
to prove
j ^ l,cp
\302\243//,
that
=
(i)
cp^j)
dcp
and
= 0
the
on
(p(7)
Dirichlefs
6.4
1forms, we have
dcp0 = 0, we have
are closed
on
and
C/o,
\\\\<P\\\\KK ^

\\\\<P
d(dQ>
+
<PmhK
limn^ooWcpno
such
By
(6.85)
we
<Pn\\\\uj
~
\\\\<Pm0
and
< +00,
H^/ttHo
\\(<Pn,
0 and
^
<Pm
^
~
u < +oo
the
defined on the unit
sequence {dn}
(i)
(ii)
for an
supp
cp
on
77 C
the
cp is
then
unit disk
we have
1,
d(rjcp)
since
C/0.
at the
origin in the
lemma
following
with
the zplane.
U of
two conditions
following
with
to
respect
= 0:
^t/(5M,
function
differentiable
continuously
with
rj
there exists
a continuously differentiable,closed1form
U such that
\\\\<p\\\\u
cp
<
and lim^ooH^,,
+oo
been
has
established,
following way. For an arbitrary
a < 0, such
: z < 1 \342\200\224
a},
in the
determine W = {z
Green's Theorem (Theorem6.1)we
Therefore,
that
differentiable 1forms cpn
0 and limw_oo6w
>
existence of such a
closed
the
to
disk
the
6n
twice
arbitrary
JU
C/o such
^ 5W+5W,
^
df/)u\\
\\(cpn,
Once the
that
with
<pn\\\\u
\\\\(pm
[/,
that
Uj
c
center
with
disk
unit
of continuously
Lemma 6.3. If {cpn}satisfies
a real
to prove
<5W,
C
supprj
(5W,
H^llt/o
Uj as
{(pn}
sequence

+
supply
\\\\drj\\\\urdn9
reduces
\\\\<Pn
on
cpo
j ^
<5W,
^ $m
<Pn\\\\u0
\\\\<Pm
zyplane.HenceTheorem6.16
concerninga
+
^^m
(pn\\\\
~
^
^
dtj)Uo\\
consider
may
=
<Pn0\\\\u0
drj)Vj\\
\\(<Pno,
We
1form
closed
+oo.
and (6.87):
(6.86)
by
cpo
(6.89):
have:
~
<Pm
+
JO
continuously differentiable closed 1forms
<Po\\\\u0
= 0 for
that lim^ooll^,,
j ^ 1.
(Pu)\\\\uj
\342\200\224
Uj
=
cp
\\o\\,
\\Wm\\\\nK
there exists a continuouslydifferentiable;
on
\342\200\224
Uq
+ cpo) = 0. Henceby
< +oo, we have \\\\<p\\\\<& <
</>oII a:
to prove our Theorem 6.16,it suffices
In this way, in order
<P(j)
on
0. Since
=
dcp
m +
and hence, sinceobviously
=
dcp
303
Principle
=
d(r]cp)
(p\\\\u
it follows
=
0.
rj with
supp
easily
rj C U,
supp
77 C
FF.
By
have
d(rjcp) =\\
J[W]
that
\342\200\224
rjcp
=
0
Jd[W]
= (drj
A
cp)
+ (rj
A dcp)
=
(cp
A **
^77) + (rj
dcp),
Riemann
304
surfaces
t]d(p =
\342\200\224\\
cp A**drj
Since
dcpn
=
have
0, we
=
*drj)u\\
\\(cp9
=
\342\200\224(cp,
*drj)u
Ju
Ju

\\{cp
^
=
*drj)u
(cpn9
\342\200\224
\\vrj
= 0.
dcpn
Hence
cpn, *drj)u\\
n>oo.
\\\\<P<Pn\\\\v\\\\*dTi\\\\u>09
Therefore
= 0.
rjd(p = ~{q>9*drj)u
L
W
Since
dcp
=
in order
suppty
~
=
<P\\\\2U
</>l2 +
~
\\<Pn2
C U9 we
conclude
that
0,
functions
and
1form
differentiable
to prove
q>2 on
and
q>\\
dy9
<Pl^)dx
it suffices
[/, such
that
cp
exist
there
that
for
all
we have:
{(pni}
<P\\\\2dxdy^09
\\<Pn\\
JU
=
<Pn~ (p \\\\u
limw_oo
differentiable
continuously
function
sequences {cpn\\}
\\<Pn2<P2\\2dxdy^0,
JU
\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo.
n
end, we
define
if,g)=\\
where /
~
(\\<Pn\\
Ju
to prove the existence of a continuously
that
To this
rj with
arbitrary
0. Since
\\\\<Pn
such
holds for
= 0
\\vr]d(p
f(z)g(z)dxdy,
Ju
= f(z) = f(x
continuously differentiable
(<Pn,
and
iy)
=
df]x)u
g =
with
function
(<Pn\\Vxx +
f
Ju
g(z) =
U = {z : \\z\\
defined on
functions
continuous
+
=
Il/H2
supp
\\f{z)\\2dxdy
g(x + iy)
are
1}. If rj is
t] C U, then
realvalued
a three
<
times
<Pn2Vxy)dxdy,
Ju
=
(<Pn, *drjy)u
Ju
((PnlVyy +
<Pn2Vxy)dxdy
hence
(cpnU Arj)
Since d(pn
\\(<pnU
and
=
=
Ju
09 we
Arj)\\
=
cpn\\{rjxx
have
(cpn9
=
+ Vxy)dxdy
=
*drjy)u
\\((pn,
drix)u\\
\\{cpn9
dfiy)u\\
^
(</>\342\200\236,
drjx)u
0. Therefore,
\\\\dYix\\\\u*dn9
similarly,
((pn2,
Arj)\\
=
^
^t/
<5\342\200\236.

(q)n, tdrjy^.
by condition
(ii),
Dirichlefs
6.4
Since
have,
=
\\\\dVx\\\\l
+
\\\\r,\342\200\236f
and
^2
=
\\\\dtiy\\?v
305
Principle
we
+ H^H2,
^2
putting
=
N(V)
+
+ IWI2
IW2
0V\302\2532
that
Since

\\\\cpmX
condition
* N(rj)
AV)\\
\\toHl9
+
<pnl\\\\2
\342\200\242
(5\342\200\236,

\\\\<pml
=
(pn2\\\\2
tf fo)
^
Ai/)
\\(cpn2,

Up*,
\342\200\242
6\342\200\236.
have
we
p\342\200\236y,
by
(i)
~
<Pml
<Pn\\
II
to prove
in order
Therefore,
dm +
^
$n,
~
\\\\<Pm2
Lemma 6.3 it
<Pn2\\\\
^m +
^
<3\342\200\236.
the following
to prove
suffices
lemma.
Lemma 6.4. If
with
real
=
lim^ocd,,
U such
on
defined
{fn}
sequence
{dn} of positive
the
of
continuous functions
0,
sequence
< +oo
satisfies the following
\\\\fn\\\\
some
to
respect
numbers satisfying
that
conditions:
+ dn9
\\\\fmfm\\\\*dm
(0
(ii) If
rj
an arbitrary
is
three times
with
supp rj C U, then
\\{fn,
Aj/)
^
there
such
that ll/H <
\342\200\242

to prove this lemma,we put
real numbers a and /3,
positive
=
f\\\\
P =
/? <
\\z\\2
function
+ HM2.
+ II^IP
^/ll^P
function /
differentiable
+to and lim^ooH/,,
In order
small
=
N(n)
6n,
a continuously
exists
then
N(rj)
continuously differentiable
on
defined
=
x2 +
a, let p{P)
y2. For sufficiently
be a
C\302\260\302\260
function
P such that:
if P ^
p(P) =1
0 ^ p(P)^ 1 if
p(P) = 0
we
Next,
rje(P)
for
77
determine
satisfying
j32
01
P^a2
^
if a2 P.
a three times continuously
=^
0 <
( r]E(P) is a third
polynomial
[ UP) = ^~P(P)logP
A
simple
which
calculation
defines rjE(P)
yields
function
differentiable
rj < /3 such that:
degree
the following
when 0 ^
P ^ e2:
U
0.
in P
if 0
^ P ^ e2
ife2^P.
expression
for
the
polynomial
of
306
Riemann
surfaces
1
Since

d1t]e(P)/dx2
= (
Ai/e(/0
Hence, for
+
^
^ J
+ 17K/O).
4(ft/e'(P)
=
^(P\302\2432)2.
putting
O^P^e2,
At/\302\243(P),
\"M*
we conclude
P^e2,
that
is a
Ee(P)
^ 0.
Ee{F)
of P such
1
z=
putting
(6.90)
re,e, we have
r
rfP =
r2, hence
=
P
r\302\243
r2jr
\302\243\302\243(P)cfctdp
2r
and
rfr
r\302\2432
=
i
differentiable function
continuously
Further,
\\E\302\243(P)dxdy=
because
=
%(/0
2
A^(P)
that
have
we
\302\253\302\243
P *\302\243
\302\243
0
Therefore,
4x2tj?(P) + 2^(^)>
=
E\302\243(P)rdrdB
JoJo
n\\
Jo
Ee(P)dP
2
\302\243
3 r2
=
eydp
=
6
^(Pe')
1.
0
We put
A/(P) = L A(p(P)log
that
Note
0
/32, we have
P ^
^
in
contained
Let
W
M(P)
w =
by
=
T/6(Z,
W)
M(z,
w) =
as we
w
^(z,
w) and M(z, w)
G
W, then

write
will write
\\z\\
P ^
^
a}.

\342\200\242
8p'(P))
0. Since p(P) = 1
P ^
for
a2. Therefore,suppM(z2)
is
Obviously
(6.91)
0 and
center
radius
1
\342\200\224
a
and
let us
represent
put
W2),
\302\243\302\243(z,
W)
=
~
\302\243\302\243(z
W2),
w2).
/
functions
supp
of
0 for
^
log
M(P).
ii>. We
M(z 
sometimes
the
+
T]E(\\Z
w we
If w
{z : /3
annulus
the
=
i
\342\200\242
^Ap(P)
C\302\260\302\260
function
A^(P) = EE(P)
C C/ be a disk with
points of W
Just
is a
M{P)
= L
P)
for
/(z),
rj\302\243(z,w),
supressing
the variable
\302\243\302\243(z,
w) and
M\302\243(z,
w)
respectively.
t/\302\243(z,w)
C
U. Hence
by condition
(ii)
z, for
as
fixed
w),
?7\302\243(z,
6A Dirichlefs Principle 307
Arj\302\243(z9
(/\342\200\236,
Since
=
rj\302\243(z,w)
=
7V(\302\243)
putting
^
w))
\342\200\224
?7\302\243(z
vv2),
N(rj\302\243(z9
6n.
is not
w))
dependent
on w. Hence,
we have
w)),
N(rj\302\243(z,

w))
N(rj\302\243(z9
\\(fn,Ar]\302\243(z,w))\\^N(e)6n.
Therefore, by (6.91)

w))
(/w, \302\243\302\243(z,
(fn9 M(z,
^
w))\\
\342\200\242
<5\342\200\236.
N(e)
(6.92)
Putting
(E\302\243g)(w)
=
(g,
\302\243\302\243(z,
w))
=
E\302\243{z9w)g(z)dxdy
Ju
g =
where
g(z) is an
g < +oo,
We
we
consider
ll^slk
<
a
as
(E\302\243g)(w)
Ee : g \342\200\224\342\226\272
E\302\243gan
integral
We will prove
call
on
function
continuous
arbitrary
of w defined
function
(Esg)(w)
and applying
Ju
Since,
v^*(z\302\273
w)
*
w)g(z)dxdy
VEe(z>
Schwarz's inequality we obtain
\\(EEgXw)\\2^
f Ee(z,w)dxdy\\
Ju
Ju
Ee(z, w)\\g(z)\\2dxdy.
(6.90):
by
Ju
=
E\302\243(z, w)dxdy
Ju
=
\342\200\224
w\\2)dxdy
E\302\243(\\z
1
we have:
l(\302\243fgXw)2^
f
\302\243\302\243(z,
vv)g(z)2rf*rfy.
JU
since
E\302\243(z, w)du
we arrive
dv
^
E\302\243(\\w

z\\2)dy dv
^ 1,
at
f
JW
\\(E\302\243g)(w)\\2dudv^ f
JU
g(z)2rfxrf>;,
which proves(6.93).
We
put
(Mg)(w)
= (g,
W.
(693)
\\\\g\\l
=
on
operator.
as
(\302\243\302\243g)(w)
Writing
Hence,
U satisfying
M(z, w)) =
M(z,
vv)g(z)dx.iy;
Riemann
308
continuousfunction
is a
(Mg)(w)
be two
surfaces
arbitrary points in

\\(Mg)(w)
and M(P) is a
=
w)
M(z,
M(z

w)
and
w\\
w,) g
M(z,
satisfying
M(P)
continuous in z and

wi)2
Af(z,
prove this, let w
= 0 if P ^
P
is uniformly
w2)

M(z, w)
of
C\302\260\302\260
function
M(z,
is w
(MgXwOl ^
\342\200\224
W. To
w on
of
Since
W.
[

w)
\\M(z,
iu
M(z,
w. Therefore
+
wx)\\2dxdy
a2,
0
\342\200\224\342\226\272
Furthermore,
wi.
(Mg)(>v)s\302\243M(z,w)g
6
and if w
then
W
*\302\243
\\\\M\\\\
\\(Mg)(w)\\
inequality we
By this
hence
on w. Putting
not dependent
w)\\\\ is
\\\\M(z,

\\(Mfm)(w)
U and M(z, w)
w) d
M(z,
supp
M
=

M(\\z
w)\\\\ we
\\\\M(z,
hence
w\\2),
have
weW.
\\\\g\\\\,
have
=
(6.94)

\\(Mfm)(w)
\\\\M\\\\(dm +
^
(Mfn)(w)\\
(Mfn)(w)\\
*\302\243
M
\\\\fm

fn\\\\,
dn)
by condition (i).
Since
on
uniformly
all
that
=
lim^^ood^
on
function sequence
the other
and observing
that
f(w)
is
too
and
W
\\(Mf\342\200\236)(w)f(w)\\ ^
On
conclude
in w, we
continuous
(Mfn)(w) converges
= limM_^00(A#w)(>v),
f(W)
Putting
are
(Mfn)(w)
continuous
0, the
W.
disk
the
we
M.(5m,
W.
(6.95)
hand, by (6.92)
\\(E\302\243fm)(w)f(w)\\^N(e)dm.
Hence

\\(E\302\243fm)(w)
g(w) ^ c, then
If, in general,
Wmf\\\\w
=
g^
W.
we
$w\\g(w)\\2dudr
^ jzc2, hence
+ N{e))dm.
y/5K\\\\M\\\\
and condition(i)
Since, by (6.93)
\\\\EEfn
*s
+ N(e))\342\200\242
dm,
^ ( M
f(w)\\

E\302\243fm\\\\w
^
\\\\fn
+ dm
fm\\\\
^dn
+
6m
N(e))\342\200\242
we obtain
~
\\\\EJn
f\\\\w
Therefore, since \\\\mm
^
^{\\\\M\\\\
\342\200\224
\342\200\224>oo&m 0, we
+ 6m
+ 6n.
have
\\\\EEfnf\\\\w^dn.
Because Ee(z, w)
is
/\342\200\236(z)
1
\342\200\224
a +
uniformly
/?}, the
^ 0,
EE
\342\200\224
continuous
function of w
0
if
\\z
^
\342\200\224
on for
w\\
e and
/^(z,
w) = 1, while
example the closed disk {z : \\z\\
^
Dirichlet's
6.4
(EEf\342\200\236)(w)
=
w)fn(z)dxdy
on
to fn(w)
uniformly
converges
\\E\302\243(z,
the continuous function / by
1 \342\200\224
0 < a < 1, there
a},
Designating
{w :
=
\342\200\224
for each
see that
we
fw,
are
<
\\w\\
disk
functions
continuous
fw
the inequality
W satisfying
on
fw(w)
if s \342\200\224>
Therefore
+0.
W
11=1,2,3,....
/\342\200\236/lk^<5\342\200\236,
W
309
Principle
\\\\fnfw\\\\w*&n.
If
as
=
V
^
/irllir
IL/V
i.e.
W C
that
such
is
V
{w :
<
\\w\\
a < 1,then:
y}, y <
+ ll/n
/nlk
IL/V

1
^
/Vlk
*
26M
0,
\342\200\224\342\226\272
oo
\302\253
= fw(w) if w \342\202\254
W. Hence
there exists a continuous
which coincideswith fw in each W, while
/V(w)
on U
/
function
\\\\fnf\\W*&n.
is independent
Since 6\342\200\236
of W
/,/^(5w,
Since
<
suffices
{w :
\\w\\
it follows
+oo,
/\342\200\236
prove this
= IJ o<a<iW,
n= 1,2,3,....
and [/
immediately
(6.96)
that
In order
< oo.
/
to
disk
U, it
/ is continuously differentiable on the unit
is continuously differentiable on each W =
to show that
/
< 1 \342\200\224
<
<
1. Thereforewe fix W again, by (6.96) and
0
a
a},
(6.94) we
function
have
\\(Mf\342\200\236)(w)

^
{Mf)(w)\\
\\\\M\\\\
(Mf)(w) = limw_>00(A//'w)(w)
Umn^ooiMfnXw) by the definition
Hence,
= (M/)(w)
f(w)
SinceM(P) is a
w
=
u +
+
iv)
w G
for
W.
we
also
while
Wy
f(w)
=
Therefore
off.
weW.
(6.97)
of P,
=
w) =
M(z,

M(\\z
w2),
z =
p ^
a2, hencethe
x+
iy,
iv,
of A\", Y,
C\302\260\302\260
function
\342\200\242
d\342\200\236,
= (f9 M(z, w)),
C\302\260\302\260
function
M(x + iy, u
is a
have
we
U and
i;. /w(/?)
=
0 for
partial
derivative
fiu(Z9
is a
uniformly
we can
> 0
\302\243
^
d
\342\200\224M(x,
My,
iv) =
u +
continuous function of z and
> 0 such that
a 6(e)
find
MM(z,
Let h
W) =
0 be
wi)

a real
Mu(z9
w)\\
number.By
^
the
e if
\\wx
Mean
w,


M\\\\z
for
w
w\\ <
Value
w\\2)
\342\200\242
2u
W. Hence
\342\202\254
for each
(6.98)
6(e).
Theorem
we have
310 Riemannsurfaces
h +
u +
M(z9
O<0<
hence,if
\342\200\224
iv)
u +
M(z,
iv) =
Mu(z,
+ 6h
u
+ to),
1,
w +
M(z9
^ 0 then
d(s) and h
h <
<
\342\200\224d(e)
\342\200\224
h)
w)
M(z9

<
Mu(z9 w)
y/jt89
and therefore
M(z, w
+
\342\200\224
h)
<
w)
Mu(z9
y/jTE.
by (6.97)
Hence,
\\f(w+h)f(w)
this
Since
6(e)9
fu(u + to)
Since by
^
w
w. Similarly,
u +
and
that
such
h
to u
respect
on W and the
iv)).
/(w) = /(w + to)
the partial
w. Therefore,
function
of
function
of u
and i; on
Theorem
6.17.
The

wx)
\\\\Mu{z9
ll/H
is clear
it
<5(\302\243),
v and
to
0
that
(6.98)
\342\200\224<
respect
e >
by
= (f9 Mu(z9
\\fu(wi)fu(w)\\ ^
if wi
y/jti JtS.
arbitrary
conclude
0, we
is given
derivative
for
holds
h
Mu{z9 w))
(f,
is partially differentiable with
+ iv)
is, f(u
partial

inequality
h <
<
\342\200\2246(e)
That

w)
M(z,
that /M(w) = (/,
derivative
=
fv(w)
= /(w
/(w)
to be
seen
is
Mu(z9
w)\\\\
AfM(z,
w))
^
H/ll
\342\200\242
vSEfi,
in
is continuous
partially differentiable with
(/, My(z, w)) a continuous
+ to) is a continuously
differentiable
W.
1form
<p
e
in Theorem
\302\243<j>,
occurring
6.16, has the
following properties:
(i)
cp
=
ip +
on TZ such
function
(ii)
rjoo
is a
twice continuously
that </J7oo<
differentiable
+\302\260\302\260>
= K,
Mo
(iii) if
where
drj009
is
r]
supp^H
twice
\\o\\
=
on
differentiable
TZ9
such
that
\\\\drj\\\\
<
+oo,
0, then
(cp, drj) = 0,
(iv)
cp
is
a harmonic
1form on
TZ
with
the
same
singularities
as d<&.
6A Dirichlet's Principle
311
Proof:
(i)
the
on
form
\342\200\224
to
a twice
cp
continuously
\\p
whole of 1Z. Denoting this 1form
differentiable
extend
can
We
also
by
1
\342\200\224
ip9 we
cp
have

\\\\cp
If

ip
an
is
\302\243
=
drjn\\\\
arbitrary
support
compact
=
(dVn,
*\302\243)
Jrc

\\\\cp
n
\342\226\272
0,
(pn\\\\
\342\226\272
oo.
differentiable closed 1formwith
continuously
on 11, we have by Corollary2 to Theorem6.14
=
drjn A
**\302\243
= 0.
a drjn
Jn
Therefore

(<p
=
v,
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
(<p
*\302\247)
*S)I
^i.,
v^
and hence
Therefore,by
form on
Since
I
I
n
For
on
\\Wn
d^oo
for some
as
Since
7\302\243.
cp
\342\200\224
is
ip
continuously differentiable
^
w>lk

exact differential
\\Wn
<p\\\\iik ^

<p\\\\
+
0,
\342\200\224
^11\342\200\224^0
\\\\<pn
have
\342\200\224\342\226\272
we
00,
+ (IMk*)2 =
= llvolli
real
an arbitrary
Since
cp
+
continuously
* cp) = 0
conclude
that
= 0 by
Jye^rf
support such
that
=
+ dirjoo
=
k2.
+
(iii).
rj
Since
we
have
2X(cp9
drj)
1form
rjd *
TZ
with
6.11.
cp
=
\342\200\224
\\o ,
+ Xdrj\\\\^
^
+ X2\\\\drj\\\\2
\\\\cp
and supp
is compact
0. Since this
rj C
+ Xdr,\\\\%.
Xrj),
Theorem
* cp =
supp
\\\\cp
Hence,
0.
by
= k2.
Bm
H^Hi
n\342\200\224\342\226\272oo
by (6.82)
differentiable
d(v
(cp9 drj)
have
X2\\\\dti\\\\2
that supp
rj such
Selecting
we
X
dti) +
Xdrj = xp
+ 2X(cp,
\\n
^
IMk*l
\\\\<p\\\\%
is a
ip
cp
r]^

^ Ikno
while by (ii) \\\\<p\\\\%
therefore, (cp, drj) =
(iv)
ip
\342\200\224
pVll <+oo.
IMkl

Ik/ilk/:
IMI*
(iii)

is an
\342\200\224
cp
7700 is twice
by (6.78)
\\Wm\\\\k
if
function
differentiable,
and H^ooll =
2,
Corollary
can represent
we
i.e.
7\302\243,
continuously
(ii)
same
the
differentiable
continuously
= o.
= fo>V>*D
Afo>vO
I
6/(77
drj
\302\247n
\342\200\224
is true for
we conclude
A *(p,
drj
all
rj with
that
cp
hence
support,
compact
* q>)
=0,t]*
r}C\\\\o\\
Further,
^ k2,
0 and
A *(p =
we
compact
0 on
rf * <p =
Riemann surfaces
312
1Z\342\200\224
\\o\\.
cp is
Therefore,
Uq
\342\200\224
\\o\\9 where
such
d *
that
cpo
the same
This completesthe
determined
\\p because
by
for an
by (6.85)
Remark
twice
cp
arbitrary
Let us denoteby
1:
cp
continuously
cp
*rfO)
d * (po
=
\342\202\254
\302\243<&.
cp
\342\200\224
d&
cpo on
function on Uo
on
\342\200\224
Uo
\\o\\,
 \\o,while
on C/o,and therefore
0 on Uo
0
1form on
harmonic
</> is a
Principle.
=
<^7oo
k: is
uniquely
+ drj.
on
of functions v
collection
the
T<&
differentiable
=
function
=
\342\200\224
satisfying V +
=
cp\\
So
since
as JO.
singularities
ip + dr]^
we have
\\o\\
\\o\\.
on C/o Hence
of Dirichlet's
proof
=
=
is harmonic
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
harmonic
d(*cp
on C/o Hence
is continuous
with
7\302\243
The 1form
continuously
0. Since 4> is a
0, henced * cpo
1form
on TZ
differentiable
is a
cpo
=
dcpo
d$> =
rf * cpo
the
other hand, dcp = 0
a harmonic 1form on TZ
the
On
\342\200\224
\\o\\ and
TZ
are
that
the following two
satisfy
conditions:
(i)
=
v
O +
Vo
on
\342\200\224
C/o
on
i;o is
where
o*,
differentiable
function
\\\\dv0\\\\2K
+ (\\\\dv\\\\nK)2<+\302\260o
a twice
continuously
C/o
(ii)
For y 6
T\302\256,the
expression
the Dirichlet
is called
we obtain
Dirichlet's
from
the
Principle
integral of v.
above
If
Dirichlet's
v
then
\342\202\254
\302\243<*\302\273
D(y)
for 1forms
Principle
There exists
a
Uo
^o\342\200\224
\\o\\9
rfy^,
the
hence
following
for functions:
Dirichlet s Principle
v G
=
function
u
This function w is harmonic
where
uo is a harmonic function
that
such
\342\202\254
T$>
on
on
TZ
\342\200\224
Uo.
\\o\\
D(u) ^
and
(Weyl,
D(v)
w = O
+
for
wo
all
on
1955)
can
be simplified
The above proof of Dirichlet's
Principle
by
A
method
of
1form
(Weyl,
1940)
orthogonal
projection.
invoking Weyl's
=
tp2 are
\\p
rj)\\dx + ipidy is called Lebesguemeasurableif tp\\ and
x
the
localcoordinates
and
measurable
functions
of
us
y. Let
Lebesgue
Remark 2:
denote
Lebesgue measurable
of all
collection
H\302\256the
by
Principle 313
Dirichlet 's
6.4
1formsxp
on
1Z,
satisfying
= IVolli
.Ml*
+oo,
is
=
Vo
V
the collection of
of orthogonal
projection
extended
from \302\243<j>to
method
the
By
consideration
+ (llVlk*)2 <
Since
?<j>.
\\\\(pm
 </*
1forms
under
\342\200\224
is
<pn\\\\\342\200\224>0
existence of an element cp e Jfy\302\256such
that limw_^oo(p\342\200\236
immediately from the completenessof
is now
to show that
this
the Hilbert space pfo. The difficulty
cp is
be
Let
a
twice
differention
differentiable
Uq.
rj
continuously
continuously
(6.85), the
\342\200\224=
0 follows
cp\\\\
m
\342\200\224\342\226\272
\342\200\224\302\273
oo and
oo by
\302\253
able
with
7\302\243
on
function
((p, ^77) =
then
lim^oo
0
*drj) = 0 if
(cpo,
lemma,
following
(<p, *drj)
that
\342\200\224
0;
77 H \\o\\
supp
= lim^oo^,,,
*drj) =
((p0, drf) =
6.11. Similarly,
supp77 c C/o by (6.87). Hence, in order to
which now takes the place of our Lemma
6.4.
=
d(rj(pn)
\\n
and
(6.86)
by
such
support,
compact
0
Theorem
by
the
prove
Weyl 's Lemma
be
Let /
rj with
functions
continuously differentiable
then
< +oo. If for
= ^If^dxdy
/ is continuously
supp
on
differentiable
rj
C
the
defined on
function
measurable
Lebesgue
/2
satisfying
U,
a
all
U
times
three
we
disk
unit
have (/,
=
Arj)
0,
U.
Ee(z,
It suffices to prove that
is continuously differentiable on
/
\342\200\224
<
:
1
for
a
with
0 < a < 1. Let rjE(z9
w\\
arbitrary
{z
\\z\\
a}
If w \342\202\254
6.4.
W9
w) and M(z, w) be definedas in the proofof Lemma
then
supp
Proof:
=
W
C
?/\302\243(z,w)
Therefore,
w)) =
Arje(z,
(/,
0 by our assumption.
(6.91)
by
</,
hence
\302\243/,
\302\243^(z,
w))

(/\", M(z,
w)) =
0.
i.e.
=
(\302\243f/)(w)
Since \\{Mf)(wx)\342\202\254
W9 we
sequence
of
{/\342\200\236}
 /
lim^ocll/,

\\\\EEfn
is a
Since /\342\200\236
uniformly
^
(M/)(w)
(A/jf)(w) is a
have
 0.
Mf\\\\F
if e
=
\\\\EBfn
function,
\342\200\224\342\226\272
0. Therefore
we

 M(z, w \342\200\242
for
/
of
on
functions
(6.93)
By
\\\\M(z9 Wl)
continuousfunction
continuous
continuous
to fn
w G FT.
(M/)(w),
w on
U such
fF. There
that
w9
lim^ood,,
have
EJ\\\\W
^ dn.
the function
\\\\fn

sequence{E\302\243fn}
Mf\\\\w ^ dn,
hence
wx
exists a
converges
=
314 Riemannsurfaces
11/as
i.e.
is
it
it
orthogonal
projection.
remembers
that
told
Weyl
the
that
method
of
the foreword
(See
on
differentiable
him:
\"Maybe
of orthogonal
it
is
I am
because
author
The
1955).
Weyl,
oldfashioned,
projection is not satisfactory.\"
In
have somethingto do with Weyl's
opinion
the \"crisis\" in mathematics, about which he wrote:
this might
author's
We
it for
had
have
hamper our daily
nearly
work,
considerable practical
directed my
fifty
yet I for
and
influence
one confessthat
my mathematical
on
I considered relatively
Weyl: Gesammelte Abhandlungen,
attitude
not seem to
it does
Outwardly
years.
to fields
interests
W.
a relatively simple proofof Dirichlet's
of
Weyl did not like the method
to give
that
seems
possible
However,
towards
Therefore, / is continuously
(6.97) holds.
Principle.
the
0,
A// w*ddn^
\\\\f\342\200\236
oo,
In this way
think

+
fn\\\\
\342\200\224\342\226\272
n
equality
but I
/ 
*
*
Mf\\\\
it has
life:
\"safe
a
had
it
\"...
Band IKp. 279)
I first
to prove Dirichlet's Principleusing the method
of
planned
in this book. However, I did not like to have
the
to use
orthogonal projection
of
the
for
of
Dirichlet's
Lebesgue measurability only
concept
proof
Principle and therefore I rewroteit in such a way that I did not have to.
(Hermann
c.
Analytic
functions
of curves in a regionQ C A is based
be applied to a Riemann
only on continuity of mappingsand can therefore
surface
1Z without
idea
of a 1chaincan be
the
any change. Similarly,
can
be
so that also the definition of homology
surfaces,
appliedto Riemann
used in the case of a Riemannsurfacewithout
any
change.
Let po \342\202\254
71 be a fixed point, p \342\202\254
71 an arbitrary
point, and y : t \342\200\224\342\226\272
y(t),
0 ^ t ^ b, be a piecewise
in 71 connecting
and
Let
curve
smooth
cp
po
p.
be a continuously
differentiable
closed 1form on 7Z and consider
cp.
Jy
Let Z4 = {Uj} be a locally
finite
covering
consisting of coordinate
open
diskUj,where Uj
disks Uj of7\302\243.
6.3, cp = duj on eachcoordinate
By Theorem
on Uj. Since
is a twice continuously differentiable function
by
\\y \\ is covered
to
partition
finitely many Uj GK it is possible
y into m curves
The
yn
: t \342\226\272
yn{t\\
each yn
have
of homotopy
concept
tnx
is contained
^
t ^
in one
=
f\342\200\236,0
disk
t0 <
tx
<
t2 <
: y\342\200\236
CZ
Uj(ny
\302\243//(\342\200\236)
tm =
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
\342\200\242
<
Putting
6,suchthat
pn =
y(tn\\
we
Dirichlet's
6.4
in
p
=
<p
\\
in
p
=
duJ'w
Yy11^?\")
YL\\
315
Principle
~~
um^Pn\\))
m\\
=
Obviously, pn =
component of
cn =
Ufa)
+
U/miPo)
Ufa)
n
Ufa)
C\\
\302\243
y(tn)
\342\200\224

+ Uj(m)(p).
Vn denote the connected
= 0,
Since
pn.
dufa) \342\200\224
diifa+\\)
Let
Ufa+\\y
containing
on Vn. Therefore
Ufa+\\)
is constant
Ufa+i)
Uj{n+\\)(Pn))
$^(\302\253J(ii)(.P\302\273)
m\\
1
=
cp
uj{m)(p)

+
w/(i)(/?o)
(699)
Ylc\"'
if y is not piecewise
The righthand
side
of this equality is also meaningful
as the definition
of the integral
smooth. Therefore,(6.99)canbe considered
of cp along the arbitrary curve y connecting po and p. It is easy to verify
that the value of the righthand side of (6.99)is independent
of the choice
of open covering Zi and
the
of y. Since the constants
partition
=
^
^
m
1
n
of
cn Ufa)(pn) Ufa+^ipn),
1, are independent
p\342\200\2369
of the integral does not changeif y is transformed
the value
\342\202\254
Vn,
Pn
in such a way that po = y(0) and p = y(b)
remain
fixed
and
continuously
each yn remains
within
Ufa). Hence we have proved
6.18
Thorem
able, closed
po
and
1formon 1Z.If
p of 11,
that
y\\ are
and
y
consider
want to
disk
coordinate
u = u(p)
du = duj
be
differenti
a continuously
connecting the points
on 7\302\243,
then
two curves
y\\ are homotopic
y and
Jy cp
as
a function
= ff cp is determined
[f cp. Since w(/?)
general
u(p) is a multivalued function
one
cp
Jy
Jy
Jyt
ty\\
If we
such
Let
Theorem).
(Monodromy
[//,
then u(p)
of the
end point p
of
y,
we
write
by the homotopy class [y] of y, in
of p. If we limit the domain of p to
= Uj(p)+ a constant,
by
Hence,
(6.99).
is a twice continuously
differentiable
function
= cp. For the sake of simplicity, we will write
satisfying
\\,
If
TZ
is
simply
connected,
all curves
homotopic and hence u(p) =
Writing
ff
(p
is
connecting po
dependent
and
p
in
1Z are
only on p, not on
y.
Riemann
316
surfaces
u(p)
u
cp
=
u(p)
=
rfw.
Jpo
twice continuously differentiable function
a region Q C TZ as a Riemann
Considering
is a
right, we get the following
Corollary. If cp
then
Q,
region
twice continuously
Hence, if the 1cycley
lq> =
is
as
represented
=
cp
such that
then
c_ 0,
y
\\ycp
=
u is
a
Theorem 6.18.
0 by
to 0, then
homologous
(6.100)
y~0.
0,
simply
du, where
function.
differentiable
a closed curve,
If y is
cp
be
can
in its own
to Q.
closed 1form on a
differentiable
a continuously
is
connected
7\302\243
satisfying
surface
this result
by applying
corollary
on
Jy
are necessary in order to
=
the harmonic
+
C<& be
cp
ip
drj^ \342\202\254
\342\200\224
=
\342\200\224
*
d
6.16. Sincedcp
0 on 1Z
cp
\\o\\, both
above
The
section.
preparations
Let
u =
are
cp +
harmonic
/ * (p is a
each point q G
(p
v =
\\(p9
* cp
(not necessarily singlevalued)functions
holomorphic 1formon
+ i * (p =
f(p) =
+
cp
=
Therefore,(po
+
iv(p)
=
/ = u+
i.e.
on
cpo
i *
<Po
=
C/o
\342\200\224
cr,
is a
<p
i.e.
<p
(^ = </S(z) +
=
the local
\\o\\.
a neighborhood of
coordinate zq around
u(q) +
holomorphic,
iv(q)
but
not necessarily
\\a\\.
where
cpo
is
1form on
a harmonic
holomorphic 1formon C/o,
C/o.
hence
CZ(P)
<Po)
=
h0(z)dz
singlevalued holomorphicfunction
+ i *
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
is a
ho(z)dz
(<Po + i *
=
a
is
iv
CP
Mp)
TZ
as
hq(zq)dz +
on 1Z
function
d$> +
i * (p
of
function
Jo
singlevaluedanalytic
Now
a,
on
hq(zq)dzq
u(p)
holomorphic,
i.e. on
\342\200\224
7\302\243
can write (p +
1Z \342\200\224
cr  we
where /^(z^) is a holomorphic
q. Hence
is
continue the preceding
1form of Theorem
dO
+ i
dfo, we have
rfW
+
C/o. Since
on
<po
+
/ = S(z)
*
*
<Po
+ /0 + c0 on
C/o

a, where
c0
6.4 Dir[chiefs Principle 317
is
constant.
a
where /0 is holomorphic
c0 as fo,
/0 +
Rewriting
(70, we
on
have
f =
on
S(z) + f0
\342\200\224
[fo
\\a\\9
(6.101)
/ is an
i.e.
as S(z).
Let
6.19.
Theorem
analytic
S(z)
\342\200\224
and
iW
+
O
on
function
1form mentionedin
be the harmonic
the same
11 with
ip e
C\302\256be
connectingpo
po G
Let
without
TZ\342\200\224
\\o\\
1Z
on
curve
let (p
and
given,
6.16.
Theorem
point and let y be a piecewisesmooth
and
an arbitrary
point p eTZ\342\200\224\\o\\
a fixed
be
singularities
cr.
intersecting
Putting
=
fip)
we see that
the
with
same
df=
f
=
<P
Now
(6.102)
i*<P)
in general
as S(z).
multivalued,
function on K
If y is closed,then
(6.103)
f xp.
q>=
Jy
Jy
proved already that / = f(p) is an
the same singularities as S(z). Since cp =
on
function
analytic
we
ip + drjoo,
have
Jy Vcp
identically
C/o \342\200\224
a.
is
a
on
function
harmonic
Q\342\200\224
\\o0\\
to this
u =
L =
p0>
D
\302\243
+ r/oo
on
function
1Z
\342\200\224
\\o\\,
thus:
take d(pO) for V, the real part u =
= f(p) is a singlevaluedharmonic function
If we
/
region
ip, then
singlevalued harmonic
Corollary.
some
for
= 1
function
p with
Selecting a C\302\260\302\260
suppp C Q such that
p
\342\200\224
= d(pO),
we have xp0 = ip
d\302\256= 0 on
on i^ and putting
^
=
Hence
\302\243o If
<p
d(p<I> + t/oo) is the harmonic form
V \302\243
corresponding
function
+
(<P
Jy
We have
^ = [f^o]
is a
=\\
analytic,
singularities
Jy
Jy
is an
= f{p)
/
Ref
Proof:
11 with
+ i*Kp)
<P)
Re/
of the
analytic
onTZ\342\200\224 \\o\\.
That
is
rf(/TT(ff
s))dT(t, s))
d(f(T(t,
s))dT(t9
= 0.
From
it
is
obvious
Letting
K be
that
s))
=
a holomorphic
the rectangle
f'(T(t9
s))dT(t9
s)
A
dT(U
function f(z) of z satisfies
s) =
this
0
equation.
318
Riemann
surfaces
+ is
K={t
: a^ t^b,0^s^l}
Theorem6.2
yields
JK
the lefthand
and
member of this equality
0)dt +
0))r,(f,
f(T(t,
ia
f
=
f
f
Ja
l))Tt(t,
f(T(t,
1form
f(z)dz+
f
(6.44).
0
can be
that
form. Since<&/w
differentiable
that
s))Ts(a,
f f(T(a,
s)ds
=
represented as 0
0 by
satisfying
exact
d(p
u
with
du
form.
called
statement
u a
continuously
A continuously
a closed
is valid
differential
form
exact
differentiable
too.
differentiable
on
the
c be an aritrary
of Q and choose
point
Then there exists a twice continuously
such that <p = du on the disk \302\243/r(c).
0. Let
C Q.
Ur(c)
function
=
(6.3), every continuously
=
d<p
Jay
differential
\342\200\224
0 is
Let the 1form0 be continuously
that
f f(z)dz
f f(z)dz
Jyl
Locally, the converseof this
Theorem 6.20.
region Q such
such

\\)dt
f(z)dz
is calledan
differentiable 1form 0
r > 0
s))rs(b, s)ds
[f(T(b,
J by
differentiable function
0 is closed.
equals
JO
JyO
A
0
JO

This yields
d{f(T(t9 s))dT(t, s)) =
s) = f
s))dT(t,
f(T(t,
f
JdK
7
structure
The
7.1
Planar*
surfaces
Riemann
Riemann
Planar
a.
Let 1Z be a
surfaces
ofRiemann
surfaces
surface:
Riemann
by
a connected
1Z is
definition,
Hausdorffspace.
7.1.
\342\200\224
7\302\243 C is
either
one
Let Zi
Proof:
smooth Jordan curve
region or the disjointunion of two regions.
C be
Let
Theorem
=
a piecewise
=
of (6.59).By
(6.61),
divides
into two regions
of
right
U(C)
C. If
\\JqjecUj
a connected
is
fF
is a region containing C and C
to
C/+(C), the left of C, and U~(C), to the
\342\200\224
PF
C, then
component of the open set TZ
=
U(C)
one boundary point, (becauseif W
as the disjoint union of the opensets W
has at least
written
of
connectedness
the
WD
at
empty.
C
C
Hence
W.
W D
Suppose
Tl 
[/
and
\302\243/+(C)
are
U~(C)
CW9WD
(3) c/(C) cw9wn
In
case
*
(1),
\342\200\224
7\302\243 C =
The
author
benefiting
proved
then
ff is
and
C
[/(O
D
then
11\342\200\224
W,
C
C/\"(Q
of
could
TZ
be
contradicting
W
are
on
C,
JF n C/\"(C)is not
W since C/+(C) C
^ 0, then C/\"(Q
W,
= 0,
c/+(Q = 0.
one region. In case (2),we
write
W+
for W
and
we have termed planar, this terminology
used schlichtartig, which
the fact that such surfaces can only exist in the plane, as will be
from
later.
C/+(Q
Similarly, if fT
only three possibilities:
(1) U+(Q C JV,
(2)
^ 0;
is connected.
there
[W],
boundary
points
of W D C/+(C) and
one
least
U+(Q
=
the
Since
TZ).
C/(C) ^ 0, hence
Then
1Z.
locally finite open covering
be the
UrU)(qj)
{\302\243//}, \302\243//
on
The structure
320
denote
exists. We
have
c = w+ u
w9
Case (3) istreatedsimilarly.
1Z
If
say that
consists
If each piecewise
smooth
Definition 7.1.
two
into
then
regions,
7.2.
Theorem
A
1Z into
in (6.71)
so
while supppj
=
p\302\243
be a
A(l/2)
<
t
in 1Z
TZ
is called
to
prove
two regions.
is
p\302\243
C
class
of
\302\243/+(Q
Jordan
that
a piecewise
Let dp~\302\243be
There
\342\200\224
C
by
a smooth
closed curve.Since\\X\\
f
Jy
<*pj
of one
consists
C
l.lflZ\342\200\224
=
f
Jyi
1Z
is a
planar.
smooth Jordancurve C on 1Z
1form of class C\302\260\302\260
used
closed
the
on
C\302\260\302\260
U+(C)
U C.
divides
on 1Z
curve
surface 1Z is
Riemann
1 identically
on (U+(C) UQPiV.
smooth Jordan arc crossingC at
=
if 0 ^ t <
9, A(0 G C/+(Q
^
0.
planar.
connected
simply
Proof: It suffices
divides
=
w~
n
w+
case,
hence
C = W+ U W~, we
disjoint open sets, i.e. 1Z \342\200\224
W+ and W~.
C divides 1Z into the two regions
curve
Jordan
the
= 0,
in this
of two
\342\200\224
C
C which,
component of 1Z\342\200\224
W n U+(Q
c W~,
U~(C)

n
connected
another
W
by
ofRiemann surfaces
and
on
continuous
neighborhood
Now, let X : t \342\226\272
A(f),
V
q
from
left
of
\302\243/+(C)
C
to right,
such
0 ^
f
such
and A(0 G t/\"(C) if
then
we connectX(l) and
region,
1/2
U C,
that
^
1,
that
1/2
A(0)
A is then
a piecewise smooth
curve y, and y = y \\ \342\200\242
=
C V and dp^
0onF, we have:
</pJ
=
pJ(A(0))pJ(A(l)).
Since A(0) G
we have pJ(A(l))
\302\243/+(C)
=
n
V, we
have
Riemann
Planar
7.1
=
p\302\243(A(0)
1 and
since A(1) G
U~(C),
0, hence:
(7.1)
f dp%=\\.
On the other hand,
Jy
=
0 (by
dp\302\243
since
1Z is
connected, we
simply
Theorem 6.18) and
so C doesdivide
complexplane C is simply
C divides
smoothJordancurve
piecewise
Since the
regionsis
other
the unbounded
into two
divides
C
exterior
of C.
We
All
now
want
regions
to prove
Hence a
One of those
planar.
The bounded region is calledthe
is
the
exteriorof C.
region
smooth
Jordan curve
on the
hence:
sphere are planar.
Riemann
the converse
are planar,
the
is planar.
it
connected,
C
of Corollary
2,
to)
equivalent
for
form
is, a
that
arbitrary,
schlichtartig
a region on the
i.e. not necessarily
the theorem
is known as the
Theorem.
set F G
A closed
0. Hence
is not.
Riemenn surface is (biholomorphically
Riemann sphere. This result is alsovalid
piecewise smooth,Jordan curves.In that
Jordan Curve
it is
~
two regions.
two regions.
into
Since the Riemann sphere S is also simply
Riemann
surface
Obviously, regions on a planar
Corollary 2.
y
TZ into
connected,
C
have
C in the complexplane
regions: one called the interior, and the other
A piecewise
1.
Corollary
the
bounded,
of C,
interior
321
surfaces
S is saidto be connected
if it
is
impossible
to find two
that F =
U F2. Denoting
F\\
disjoint, nonempty closedsets F\\ and F2 such
union
all
F
the
of
connected
closed
subsets
the point
by Fp
containing
of F. We call
p G F, Fp is also a connectedclosedsubset
Fp the connected
o
f
the
F
F
is
union
and
of
or infinitely
containing
component
p
finitely
disjoint connected componentsFp9 Fq, Fry
= O + iV =
a planar Riemann
surface,
S(z)
1/z + z,
function
d(p&) and consider the analytic
many mutually
Let 11 be
=
ip
/ =
(compare
f(p) = Kp)iv(p) =
Theorem
#0, i.e. z(<7o)
6.19).
Here, z
f\\cp
Jy
:p
+
1*
(7.2)
q>)
a local
\342\200\224\342\226\272
is
z(p)
and
coordinate around
/ has the same singularities as 5(z). Considering
of
function
the
local coordinatez = z(p),we write /(z), that
as
a
f(p)
on the coordinatedisk Uq with center go, we have
=
0 and
is
322 The structure ofRiemannsurfaces
f(z) = z
z +
+
holomorphic on
fo(z)
/o(z),
(7.3)
C/o
\342\200\224
f(z) is holomorphic on 1Z {qo} and has a pole of
qo. Hence (by the Corollary of Theorem6.19)u = Re/
the
singlevalued
i; =
Thus
\342\200\224
1Z
on
function
{#o}
a harmonic singlevaluedfunction
v =
is singlevalued
J*(p
showthat
*
Jc
qo. Since
through
pass
W+.
\342\202\254
<7o
JC
*
Since
<P
*w
rj
=
>
\\\\drj\\\\
=
6.17,
on
for this function,
7.3.
in
F
is
The
the
function
supp
\302\243
a = qo,
We
open
shape
F for
some
v=
77
dr] =
dp J;
J*(p is a harmonic
proved
\342\200\224
{qo}
a
with
is a
biholomorphic
mapping of
= 00. If 1Z is
compact,
Q is a boundedclosedset
constants
for arbitrary
= {p : Vo < v(p) < V\\}
of G near the pole qo off.
singlevalued
+ iv is a holomorphic,
f
of
the first order at qo and
pole
theorem.
following
/(/?)
/:/?\342\200\224\342\226\272
that
hence
= u
that
= CU {00}while
prove
and
0
QcS
f{qo)
is not compact,then F = S either a point or consistsof connected
Proof: (1)
the
achieve
we
C\302\273
<7/ \302\243
D
[PT+]
segments parallel to the real axisof C.
set G
=
Uj
cp).
S. If 1Z
=
Q
C;
we have
a region
onto
then
TZ
on
qo
TZ,
= (cp, drj) =
have
We
function
TZ
on
Hence
(iii).
{qo}
singlevalued
Theorem
{\302\243/,},
pew~,
((P, dp^)
\342\200\224
1Z
if
t/y
C, p% = 1 identicallyon
Since in this case,
+00.
Theorem
function
= (dp%9
dp^A*<p
function
C\302\260\302\260
*<P
by
90 ^
TA
assume
may
(6.71),
\\i,
is a
rj(p)
open covering
=
C. Putting:
V of
neighborhood
JK
W+ U
=
[W+]
=\\
we
that
way
that
regions PT+ and
1Z into two
C, if necessary,
finite
locally
such a
by
hence,
p\302\243,
supp
^
the
of (6.59) in
Ur(j)(qj)
of
is also
6.14, Corollary 1, to
Jordan curves C that do not
divides
C
Imf
to prove
order
Theorem
smooth
piecewise
harmonic
is a
that
In
{qo}.
by
suffices,
orientation
Choosing
\342\200\224
TZ
on
1Zis planar,
W~. By changingthe
qo
it
\342\200\224
0 f\302\260r
all
<P
we prove
Next,
at
order
first
is
connected
Since
components,
Vo
and
in TZ. We
V\\(v0
first
which
are
<
the
V\\)
investigate
Planar
7.7
1 _ 1
+ zi
neighborhood of
around
coordinate
323
z
Ap)~f(z)l+zMz)
in a
Riemann surfaces
#0
by
qo
(7.3),
possible to
it is
of z
instead
= z(/?). So
use 1//(/?) as a local
we
define
a
new
local
coordinate by
Then on a neighborhoodof 90we
closed
the
contains
>
* =
*/>)\342\200\242
of the
singlevalued,holomorphicfunction
disk {z : \\z\\ ^ a}, a> 0, we redefine C/o
the range
that
Assuming
+ to(/0= ;
/(/>) = <P)
/ =
have
z(p)
as
C/0 =
to investigate the shape of G on C/o, we first
consider
we
consider
the
Uo
{z:
\\z\\
a} as a disk in the zplane and
function w=u+iv=l/zon
the zplane. The fractional
linear
z = 1/w
transformation w \342\200\224>
maps the line 0 = 00 of the extended
wplane onto
0. Hence
To, which is a circleor a line of the extended zplane through
{/? :
<
\\z(p)\\
a}.
In order
<
\342\200\224
u
1
\342\200\224>
z =
w
+
/#o
<
\342\200\22400
,
w <
+00,
If vo ^ 0, then u = 00
parametric representationof To \342\200\224
{0}.
\342\200\224
=
=
=
=
to z
and u
0 to z
hence
00 to z = (1 \342\200\224
0, u
corresponds
i/i;o
i)/2vo'9
\342\200\224
and
Its
center
is
the
To is the circle through
0, \342\200\224i/vo,
(1
point
i)/2vq.
on the imaginary
with respect
axis. Since 0 < \342\200\224i/Vo
< (1 \342\200\224
\342\200\224i/2vo
/)/2^o
to the natural orientation of To, the point z, starting from 0, moves along To
in the positive
direction if Vo > 0 and in the negative directionif Vq < 0 as
the parameter u increases
to +00.
If Vq = 0, then To coincides
from
\342\200\22400
real axis of the zplane. The part of the curveon 1Zdefined
with
the
by the
=
in C/o is Io D C/o Similarly,
Vo contained
T\\ is defined in
v(p)
equation
terms of V\\. If V\\ 7 0, then T\\ is the circle through 0 with center
in
\342\200\224i/2v\\
=
the zplane
and if V\\
0 then T\\ is the real axis. The part of the curve
in C/o is T\\ D C/o. Therefore
defined
the
by
equation v(p) = V\\ contained
between
G n C/o is the part of the disk C/o contained
To and T\\.
= x +
R > I/a.
we
have u = Re(l/z) =
Assume
that
z
Putting
iy,
^
\342\200\224R
the closed
defines
disk K with
+ y2), hence the inequality u
x/(x2
K
in
the
center
and
and
radius
c
C/o
qo
zplane. Obviously,
\342\200\2241/27?
1/27?
is on the circumference of K. We put
is a
GR
=
GK=
Now, let us assume that
connected.
There
is only
{p\\u(p) > 7?,
v0
<
v(p)
< vi}.
set G is not connected.Then Gr is not
open
one connected component of GR with qo as a
the
The structure ofRiemannsurfaces
324
U0
u=R
exists a connectedcomponent W
of u and h(v) of v
g(u)
so there
boundary
point,
\\W\\<7o \302\243
Determine
of
C\302\260\302\260
functions
g(R)
=
= g\"(R)
= g\\R)
Gr
such
that
satisfying:
o9
{ \\g(u)\\<UO<g'(u)<l,ifu^R
and

r
0<
^
if v
0,
A(w)
=
A(U)
< 1,
1, /?'(y)
A0>) = 0,
I
*\302\243
Vo
if
v0
if
v 25 i>i
v <
<
vx
respectively and put
fg(\"(\342\226\240Kp))Wp)),
>7(/>)
to,
p$W.
r]{p) is a twice
Now r] =
easily seen as
11 \342\200\224
{qo},
pzw,
u
Since
is a
g(u)Kv)
u(p)
7?.
on
C\302\260\302\260
function
=
u(p)
boundary of
\342\200\224R
or
fT.
g(u(p))h(v(p))
y
\342\200\224
y(p)
\302\260f
Ptwe
_^
\342\200\224or
v(p)
V\\(p)
v0
Thus,
since
as a
function
470
of
of
the
Gr
boundary
boundary point of
= 0 on the
g(u)h(v)
\342\200\224
hence
v,
local
the
is a
on H.
coordinates
Considering
x = x(p) and
nave
(g(u)h(v)) =
g'(u)h(v)ux
d2
=
^(g(M)A(U))
+
g'(\>\302\273(u)*%")
g(u)h'(v)vx,
+
+ g\"(u)h(V)UyUx
g(H)/l'(y)l>xy
+g'(u)h'(v)(uxvy
Further,
\342\200\224
Since
{#<)}\342\200\242
is continuous
\302\2737
[PT]>
^
v =
and
\342\200\224
point p of the connected componentW
Gr :
on K: this is
are
harmonic on
v(p)
function
differentiable
continuously
follows.
+
uyvx)
+
g{u)h\\v)vxvy
since
g(R) = g'(R)
h(v0)
=
h'(v0)
= g\"(R)= 0,
= h\"(v0) 
0,
A(y0
=
h'(Vl)
= h\"(Vl) =
0,
Planar
7.1
Hence rj
of W.
boundary
Since supp
rj
C [ W\\
drj =
partial derivatives
order
second
and
first
the
is twice
q$
g'(u)h{v)q>+
= g'(u)h(v)
*drj
rj.
of g(u)h(v) vanish
differentiate
continuously
Supp
\302\243
Riemann surfaces 325
du
Further,
\342\200\224
<p and
dv
the
on
on 1Z.
= *<p, hence:
* q>,
g{u)h'{v)
g(u)h'(v)(p.
*q> \342\200\224
Therefore
\\\\drj\\\\2
Further,
=\\
iw
=
(cp] + cp\\)dx
of g(u) and h(v))9
A *(p
q>
definition
the
dVA*dri=\\
in
^2^2
Hence,
iw
*?.
+ g(u)2h'(v)2 < 2 (from
< +oo. Therefore
\\\\<p\\\\&
g'(u)2h(v)2
[W]
qo \302\243
and
= 0 while also
(cp, drj)
(iii),
\342\200\224
\\
cp
drj)
(cp,
A dy,
A
</>A*(p<+oo.
6.17
Thereom
by
+ g(ufh'{vf)q)
(g'(u)2h(vf
=
A *rf?7
g'(u)h(v)(p
A
*<p.
= 0, then
> 0 if u 7^ /? and A(y) > 0 on FF, hence
if (<p, drj)
\342\200\224
=
=
=
R
0 identically
on
constant.
If u is constant,
FT, that is w
g'{u)
then v is also constant by the CauchyRiemann equations,hencef(p) is
on
this is a contradiction, we concludethat
G
constant
W. Since
is
Now
g'(u)
connected.
(2) The
open set
V\\ >
that
such
>
\302\243;(/?)
i;o}
connected.
By
=
G+
: v(p)
{p
we have
I/a,
Similarly
it
is
V\\ by
replacing
Vo}
C
C/o,
is
it
is
for, selecting
connected,
hence
G+ =
clear
v\\
GU