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Geo-Pilot 7600 – 9600 Theory

Geo-Pilot Training

A Little Bit of History
Remote Controlled Dynamic Orientating System-RCDOS

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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Remote Controlled Dynamic Orientating System-RCDOS

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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0 4.38°/100' Build Rate 92.0 88.0 89.0 5.0 0 20 40 60 80 Measured Depth (Feet) LowSide FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY HighSide 4 . Dec. 18/98 64’ Concrete Block Drilled Inclination (Degrees) 93.0 90.0 87.2°/100' Drop Rate 86.Build / Drop Performance in Concrete Drilling Test.0 91.

GEO-PILOT 7600 AND 9600 SERIES TOOLS 7600 SERIES 9600 SERIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 5 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 6 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 7 .

6 5/8” Reg. 7 5/8” Reg 7600 . 4 ½” Reg Solid through bore one piece shaft.Geo-Pilot Driveshaft Pin Down Driveshaft 9600 .4 ½” IF. Nickel-based precipitation hardened super-alloy forgings (Alloy 718) FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 8 .

Geo-Pilot Driveshaft FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 9 .

Geo-Pilot Driveshaft Radial and Thrust Bearings FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Compensator Bearing Cantilever Bearing 10 Eccentric rings Focal Bearing .

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 11 Tension Shaft Catcher Thrust Ring Eccentric Rings Cantilever Bearing Compensator Bearing Octagon Locknut Driveshaft Tension-Compression Compression .

 Driveshafts are manufactured from a nickel-based precipitation hardened super-alloy forgings (Alloy 718) FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 12 .  100 to 200 psi pressure drop through tool.  Highest stress point is at the thrust plate where the shaft goes from tension to compression.  Octagon insert transfers torque to driveshaft from drive sub.Geo-Pilot Driveshaft  Solid through bore one piece shaft.  Upper driveshaft remains in tension to prevent buckling.  Shaft ID is 1-5/8” (7600) & 2 3/8” (9600). there is a shaft catcher below this point.  Shaft OD (upper) is 3” (7600) & 3.8” (9600).

Octagon FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 13 .

Tension and Compression Locknuts Compression Nut FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 14 Locknut .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 15 .

Reference stabilizer provides resistance to rotation. typically 5-10 rph. 9600 .Reference Housing Decoupled from the drillstring. Rotates slowly.7 5/8” OD FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16 .9 5/8” OD 7600 . Provides a stable reference for toolface control.

Reference Housing Reference Stabilizer Lower Housing Intermediate Housing FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 17 .

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 18 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 19 .

Rotary Seal Assemblies  One at top of housing and one at bottom.  Seals are designed to pump 1 ml of oil per hour at 60 rpm out of the tool. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 20 .  Kalsi seal is the primary seal between rotating and non-rotating interface.  Rotary seals are designed to keep drilling fluids out of the housing and keep lubricating oil in. Action flushes the seal face and protects it from damage from fines thus prolonging operating life.

Upper and Lower Rotary Seals FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 21 .

Rotary Seals Diaphragm Debris Seal Barrier Seal Kalsi Seal FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 22 .

and an abrupt circular exclusionary shape on its environment side. This unique geometry dramatically improves seal life by lubricating the dynamic seal-to-shaft interface while excluding environmental contaminates. When the shaft rotates.  The dynamic sealing lip has a wavy shape on its lubricant side. the seal remains stationary and the seal to shaft interface becomes dynamic.Kalsi Seal  The Kalsi Seal is installed in a housing that compresses it against the shaft eliminating clearance and establishing static sealing in the same manner as other interference type seals. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 23 . such as o-rings.

the hydrodynamic action stops and the static seal is reestablished.Kalsi Seal  As rotation occurs. This hydroplaning effect lubricates the seal and shaft surfaces.  The hydrodynamic wedging action causes a controlled lubricant leakage rate during rotation. and differential viscosity. Leakage rate is dependant upon rotary speed. the waves cause the rotational velocity to hydrodynamically wedge a thin lubricant film into the dynamic sealing interface. When rotation stops. lubricant viscosity. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 24 . This prolongs seal and shaft surface life and makes higher speed and pressure practical. and prevents the typical dry rubbing wear and high friction associated with conventional seals.

Kalsi Seal Single Kalsi Seals Dual Kalsi Seals Mechanical Seal – metal to metal seal FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 25 .

Seal Covers FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 26 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 27 .

Lower Housing Focal bearing ABI-ABG Bias unit FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 28 .

 Acts in 360 degrees to allow toolface to be oriented in any direction. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 29 .Focal Bearing  A spherical acting bearing assembly that acts like a fulcrum permitting the shaft to pivot the bit in the opposite direction of the shaft deflection.  Also is the location of the shaft catcher.

Focal Bearing Split Thrust Ring (Shaft Catcher) Spherical Bearing FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Thrust Ring Focal Bearing Spherical Bearing 30 Mounting Adapter .

Focal Bearing FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 31 .

Focal Bearing FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 32 .

Built specifically for the Geo-Pilot by JAE.At Bit Inclination  Same control electronics as a Series II ABI commonly used in SperryDrill Mud Motors  Utilizes a 3-axis quartz-hinge accelerometer stack.1 degrees accuracy 2 sigma. similar to the kind used in PCD probes but packed in a ¾” frame. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 33 .  Sensors located 3 feet from bottom of Geo-Pilot.  +/-0. 0-180 degrees.

 Allows for toolface control down to .  Highly accurate and much more stable in comparison to motor version.2 degree of hole angle.At Bit Inclination  Monitors inclination and highside of hole relative a scribed reference point on lower housing.  No magnetic toolface at present. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 34 .

The ABG sensor is available for both the 7600 Series and the 9600 Series Geo-Pilot® system to cover hole sizes from 8-3/8 inches to 26 inches.ABG .At Bit Gamma The closest to the bit gamma-ray measurement in the industry Azimuthal measurement. 1m FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 35 .

Image quality dependant on roll rate of housing. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 36 .At Bit Gamma Image can be generated realtime and recorded. sample rate etc.ABG .

 Assembly is braced against the lower housing of the tool to prevent it rotating FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 37 .  The bias unit braces against the lower housing’s inner diameter to push the shaft off of the center line of the housing. Understand this and you know what’s going on.Bias Unit  It is core to the tool’s design concept.  It is referenced to the scribe line on the lower housing for a reference position which the ABI uses.

 This activity controls the toolface and % deflection.Bias Unit  Fundamentally the bias unit pulls rotational energy from the shaft by engaging electro-mechanical clutches which transmit the torque from the shaft through a gear box to the eccentric rings to make the eccentric rings move from their current position relative to the housing. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 38 .

Bias Unit  There are 7 core elements to understand: – – – – – – –  Eccentric Ring Assembly Home Sensor Harmonic Gear High Speed Counter Clutch Assembly Oldham Coupling Taper Lock Ring Has 2 halves. Upper half controls outer ring. Lower half controls the inner ring. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 39 .

Eccentric Ring Assembly  It is an eccentric ring within a ring. 7mm for 9600. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 40 .  The eccentric ring is a core element made in Japan. Each ring deflects the shaft 2mm for a maximum shaft deflection off of the center line of the housing of 4mm for 7600.  The home position for the outer ring is 0 and the home position for the inner ring is 180 .

3.Eccentric Ring Assembly Full Deflection Cams in line Zero Deflection Cams at 180 deg Outer Eccentric Cam C L Inner Eccentric Cam 7600 .5 for EDL 7600) 9600 .5 mm deflection per ring for a total of 7 mm FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 41 .2 mm deflection per ring for a total of 4 mm (4.

For example Outer = 40 and Inner = 40 FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 42 .Eccentric Ring Assembly  When ever the 2 rings are exactly 180 different in angle the shaft has 0% deflection. For example Outer = 60 and Inner = (60 + 180) = 240  When ever the 2 rings have exactly the same position the shaft has 100% deflection off of the center line of the housing.

Home Sensor  The outer and inner eccentric ring each has a home sensor. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 43 .  Each time the home magnet goes by the hall effect sensor the electronics updates it’s position counters for the particular eccentric ring that sensor is responsible for. The sensor provides position information for each ring.  In this manner the electronics maintains a running reference point for each eccentric ring.  At home position the outer ring is at 0 and the inner ring is at 180 and the deflection is 0%.

 Home is a very specific position of the eccentric rings at zero deflection.Home Sensor  Home is always zero % deflection. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 44 .

Home Sensor Home Position Inner Home Outer Home Zero Deflection IH Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY H H II OH 45 OH Sensor .

Home Sensor Outer Home Inner Ring 180ºoffset 100% Deflection HI IH Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 46 OH OH Sensor .

Home Sensor Inner not Home Outer not Home Outer Home Position Rings Home 180º offset Inner Ring Home180ºoffset Zero Deflection 100% Outer Home Deflection NOT HOME Zero Deflection OH Sensor IH Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 47 .

Home Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 48 .

Harmonic Gear  The Harmonic gear is a core element that is built in Japan. This means we put 180 right hand turns into the input side and we get 1 left hand turn out.  This gear reduction enables a large mechanical advantage in moving the eccentric rings.  The gear provides a 180:1 gear ratio. Again. there is one for each side of the bias unit. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 49 .  The output side is attached to the home sensor magnet hub and the associated eccentric ring.

Harmonic Gear FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 50 .

each complete revolution of the Wave Generator causes a two tooth displacement of the Flexspline in relation to the Circular Spline. the two-tooth-perrevolution displacement of the Flexspline will be in a CCW direction and vice versa Harmonic Gear Animation FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 51 . Since the Flexspline has two less teeth than the Circular Spline and because full teeth disengagement is made possible by the elliptical shape of the Wave Generator. This causes the meshing of the external teeth of the Flexspline with the internal teeth of the Circular Spline at their two equidistant points of engagement to progress in a continuous rolling fashion.Harmonic Gear The wave generator imparts a continuously moving elliptical form or wave-like motion to the Flexspline.g if the Wave Generator is rotating in a CW direction. This displacement is always in the opposite direction of the rotation of the Wave Generator (see diagram)e.

High Speed Counter

Consists of 2 hall effect sensors to track counts as well as direction of movement of
the clutch armature and a 16 magnet hub.

The sensors remain stationary with the housing while the hub spins underneath it.

On the high speed side of the harmonic gear.

Similar to the home sensor but more frequent and finer measurement to allow
accurate toolface control. This is the primary position indicator for the eccentric
rings and thus toolface and deflection.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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High Speed Counter

The 2 sensors keep track of which direction the hub is moving and sends the
counts to the control electronics which keep track of how many counts the eccentric
ring is away from the home position.

There is one set for each half of the bias unit to keep track of each eccentric ring.

The counters count from 0 to (180 x 16 x 4) = 11520 counts max. 180 revs of the
high speed = 1 rev of the eccentric, 16 magnets on the hub, 2 hall effect switches,
counts both edges of the signal

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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High Speed Counter

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 55 .  When on the armature rotates transmitting torque from the shaft through the gear box to the eccentric ring.  When off the armature rests on a brake plate preventing the eccentric ring from moving relative to the housing.  There is one clutch for each half of the bias unit.007” to enable movement of the eccentric ring when turned on.Clutch Assembly  An electro-mechanical clutch moves an armature approximately 0.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 56 .Clutch Assembly   Each clutch pulls about: – 500 mA of current at 20V for 7600 tool – 300 mA of current at 20V for 9600 tool The initial turn on is with full current but after engagement the current is feathered to conserve battery power while still maintaining proper clutch engagement.

Clutch Assembly FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 57 .

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 58 .Oldham Coupling  Allows for X-Y movement (cross axis) of the shaft inside the housing while still transmitting concentric rotation to the clutch. This means the shaft can be off of the centerline of the housing without binding the clutch.

Taper Lock Ring  Locks the ends of the bias unit rotating parts to the shaft to couple rotational energy from the shaft into the oldham coupling. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 59 .  Basically a Morse taper that compresses the ring onto the shaft to grip it.

Bias Unit FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 60 .

Bias Unit Home Sensor Eccentric Rings Harmonic Taper Lock Oldham Clutch High Speed Hub FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 61 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 62 .

Intermediate Housing Electronics Cantilever bearing Battery Compensator EM Coupler FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 63 .

Electronics   Consists of 4 key boards. – Controller Module – Interface Board – Clever Board – Power Control Board Contains 6 capacitor banks for driving the clutches. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 64 .

. Contains 2 megabytes of memory. Controls the Geo-Pilot and interfaces with the FEWD. rpm.. home. 65 . – Same board as used for ABI Receivers. Interface Board FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY – Controls all the interfaces to sensors in the housing: Quadrature position counters. oil level and ABI – Routes commands from CM board to Clever board to turn on and off clutches. Most firmware upgrades deal with software in this board. PWD. SLD.Electronic Control Insert   Controller Module (aka CM board) – The brains.

Electronic Control Insert

Clever Board
– Called “clever” because it was 10 years ago when it was first made.
– Turns on and off clutches.
– Uses stored energy in capacitor banks to assist in kicking on the clutches.
– Same board used in MPT Pulser to control valve solenoid.
– Also feathers clutch on current after initial kick.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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Electronic Control Insert

Power Control Board

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Takes power from the battery insert and converts it +5, +14, -14 Volts DC

Common board used in other tools.

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Cantilever Bearing

Radial bearing that prevents the shaft from bending above that point. Acts as
upper end of bowing point of shaft for the 3 contact points (Cantilever Bearing,
Eccentric Ring Assembly, Focal Bearing)

Located between the battery and electronic control insert.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

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60 Ahrs.2 g of lithium per battery Offers 200 hours+ of steering time.  9600 Tool .Lithium Battery Insert  Similar in design to the CIM Battery  7600 tool .8g of lithium each for a total of 115.Consists of 24 CC lithium cells containing 4.5 grams in the 12 ¼” tool . De-rated for 48 Amp Hours.139. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 69 .

(Only at level 2)  Exception is “Battery on Top” Tools.NOT rigsite serviceable/changeable. MUST NOT USE PASSENGER PLANES  Must have hazardous goods declaration accompany tool.  Located inside housing . FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 70 .Lithium Battery Insert  Certified for cargo plane transportation.

This encourages the rotary seals to pump 1 ml of oil/hour across the seal face. This allows the rotary seals not to have to deal with the high pressure of the hydrostatic head.  Contains 2 oil level sensors. – The second sensor is No Oil which means 100% of the oil compensation volume is gone and the rotary seals no longer have a 40 psi bias pressure across them. – Spring adds to the internal pressure of the oil about 40 psi.Hydraulic Compensator Assembly  Has 2 fundamental functions: – Balance piston allows the oil system inside of the housing to be the same pressure as the hydrostatic pressure on the outside. – First sensor is low oil which means 90% of the 2 litres of compensation volume is gone. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 71 .

Hydraulic Compensator Assembly Balance Piston Travel Stop Point for Piston Oil Level Sensor Drilling fluid fills this area to exert circulating pressure on piston Vent Port FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 72 .

Oil Level Switch FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 73 .

Piston Position 3” Normal Full 1” 2” 3” 6 ¾” 7 ¾” PP1 PP2 4” 5” 6” 7” Mud Piston Oil Measuring Stick Downhole FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 74 Oil Level Switch .

 RPM is presently calculated by checking the counts every second and averaging the last 15 seconds worth of counts. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 75 . which is decoupled from the drill string in the rotational sense only. The sensor is mounted in the housing and is a hall effect sensor. which is coupled to the drill string and the housing.  If the housing rotates at the same speed as the shaft then the RPM is zero even if you have 60 RPM on surface.Shaft RPM Sensor  The RPM sensor measures the differential speed between the shaft. In such cases there will be other indicators that this is happening  Consists of 16 magnets mounted on a hub that is attached to the drive shaft.

Shaft RPM Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 76 .

RPM Sensor RPM Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 77 .

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 78 .  It echoes the lower sub bus signals of the FEWD tool to and from the Controller Module board inside the Geo-Pilot rotation resistant housing. The shaft rotation does not affect communication quality.  Not present in Battery on top tools.Electromagnetic (EM) Coupler  It is a coil within a coil providing a short-hop for comms.  One coil rotates with the shaft while the other coil is fixed inside the housing.

Electromagnetic (EM) Coupler EM Coupler FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 79 .

Compensator Bearing FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 80 .

Power Unit FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 81 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 82 .

Reference Stabilizer Provides resistance to rotation Roller carriage assemblies Upper radial and thrust bearings FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 83 .

 The rollers hold back about 75-150 ft-lb of torque from the shaft through to the bearings.Reference Stabilizers  Rollers are designed to allow easy movement in and out of the hole but inhibit the ease of rotation of the housing.  The rollers completely tuck underneath the blades if required by hole diameter. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 84 .

Fixed FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 85 .Reference Stabilizers .

7600 Reference Stabilizers .Pads 7600 Standard Reach Pad 7600 Extended Reach Pad FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 86 .

9600 Reference Stabilizers FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 87 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 88 .

Drive Sub Drive Sub Transfers torque to driveshaft Octagon insert Tension and compression nuts FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 89 .

Contains mating kelly like hole to connect to the top end of the shaft.Drive Sub  Acts as interface for torsion and weight on bit load transfers from the shaft and housing respectively.  Facilitates 2 wires from the EM coupler to be transferred from the shaft to a repeater insert in the sub above it. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 90 .

 The radial bearings are not designed for large bending moments from the collars above so care must be taken in handling them on surface and how the BHA is configured.Upper Radial and Thrust Bearings  These take the 90% of WOB load from the housing and transfer it back into the drill collars. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 91 . The radial bearings keep the shaft top end centered in the housing.

Drive Sub FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 92 .

Upper Radial and Thrust Bearings FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 93 .

Octagon FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 94 .

Tension and Compression Locknuts Locknut Compression Nut FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 95 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 96 .

Repeater Repeater Repeater insert passes MWD comms Booster tube interfaces with driveshaft Sleeve stab for 9600 FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 97 .

 Normally made up to flex prior to shipping.  Battery On Top Tools will have an extended repeater sub to accommodate a BAT battery.  The flex collar assembly is screwed onto this. Box has a CIM hanger. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 98 .Repeater Insert / Sub  An electronic board that isolates the lower communication bus of the FEWD tool from the high inductive load of the EM coupler coil.

Repeater Insert FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 99 .

Repeater Sub 9600 FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 100 .

7600-9600 Main Components FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  Driveshaft  Reference Housing  Rotary Seals  Lower Housing  Intermediate Housing  Reference Stabilizer  Drive Sub  Repeater  Flex 101 .

Flex Sub Flex Sub Decouple Geo-Pilot from the rest of BHA Electrical connection with MWD Optional location of DM survey sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 102 .

The dummy DM has a single wire running inside it to make up the communication link from the FEWD lower bus down to the repeater insert.  Also decouples any BHA bending from above.Flex Collar / Dummy DM  A standard 9ft PM/DM collar is flexed. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 103 .  Has a PM adapter tip type connection on top.  The collar will contain either a “Dummy DM” or a Genuine DM  Dummy DM is a sonde dimensionally the same as a DM probe with the same electrical connections on the top and bottom.  The flex collar protects the upper radial bearings in the Geo-Pilot from being over stressed.

Flex Collar / Dummy DM FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 104 .

Electronic Functional Schematic FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 105 .

SDC or P4M HCIM FEWD String Directional Module Dummy DM / FLEX Repeater Board / Sub Geo-Pilot Non-Rotating Housing EM Coupler Electronics Insert Lithium Battery Power Control Board CM Board Clever Board 6 Capacitor Cans Interface Board Inner/Lower Eccentric ABI Insert / GABI Insert Outer/Upper Eccentric Hall Effect Sensors RPM Sensor FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Low Oil No Oil Outer Home Inner Home 106 Outer HS Quad (2 Hall sensors) Inner HS Quad (2 Hall sensors) .

Questions? FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 107 .