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,Electronics

TRANSISTORS OR TUBES FOR HI -FI?
Five leading design engineers discuss the problems.

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NON- DIRECTIONAL STEREO EFFECTS
Simple listening tests prove stereo is superior.

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SERVICE TRANSISTOR SETS WITH V.T.V.M.
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The most dependable capacitors of their type. Built to "take
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The smallest dependable electrolytics designed for 85 °C operation in voltages to 450 WVDC. Small enough to fit anywhere,
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Tiny, tough, dependable in practically every application. Low
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researchers who staff the largest reand who back up the darts of
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*The "Hidden 500" are Sprague's 500 experienced

Handy Hanging Wall Catalog C -457 gives complete service part listings. Ask your Sprague Distributor for a copy, or write Sprague Products Company, 51 Marshall Street, North Adams, Massachusetts.
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CIRCLE NO. 149 ON

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SPRAGUE
THE MARK OF RELIABILITY

READER SERVICE PAGE

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ELECTRONICS WORLD Is published monthly by 21R-Dada l'ubllehlnc Comorinyy at 434 South t/'ab:1.11 Atenue. Chicago
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. Inc. Amplifier kits require no laboratory instruments for perfect balancing. 'Audio . N. 50 wmgold Ave.. L The new Scott Warrantee Performance Plan guarantees that your kit will work perfectly when completed. SEND ME FREE STEREO record plus 20 page 1963 "Guide fo Custom Stereo ". Each full color illustration is accompanied by its own Part Chart . There are no oversized sheets to confuse you. Maynard. Pages 54 -56 SC OTT H. To insure accuracy all wires are pre -cut and pre. Y.February 1961." and have "Engineering of the highest calibre"* 4271` . Much of the uninteresting mechanical assembly is completed when you open your Scott Kit -Pak. Toronto CIRCLE NO.. And when you turn your Scott Kit system on you'll know for yourself why the expert editors of leading high fidelity magazines like Audio say . All the terminal strips and tube sockets are already permanently riveted to the chassis.. FM front ends and multiplex sections are an example... Mass. C. and thoroughly tested by Scott experts. Export: Mathan Exporting Corp. Tuners are aligned with the unique Scott Ez -A -Line method using the meter on the tuner itself. This assures perfect alignment without expensive signal generators. The actual parts described in the Ilustration are placed in the exact sequence in which they are used. You can't There are certain areas in every professional high fidelity component where wiring is critical and difficult. new Scott kit brochure.10.. 146 ON READER SERVICE PAGE r . 111 Powdermlll Road.. To make the instruction book even clearer. 158 Broadway. each of the full color illustrations shows only a few assembly steps.Here's why Audio Magazine says Scott' Kits are "Simplest to build... "only the most sophisticated engineering thinking could design a kit as simple and foolproof as this . another Scott exclusive. If you have followed all recommended procedures and your kit fails to work Scott guarantees to put your kit in working order at the factory at minimum cost.stripped to proper length. Scott. FREE STEREO RECORD fiZji demonstrating new FM Multiplex Stereo and explaining all im portant technical specifications. assuring you a completed kit meeting stringent factory standards. 160. ` The exclusive Scott full color instruction book shows every part and every wire in natural color and In proper position. H. Dept. ." . Canada Atlas Rada Corp.. In Scott Kits these sections are wired at the factory. possibly make a mistake. Name Address City When you finish your kit you'll be delighted by its handsome good looks. State Include names and addresses of any interested mends..

All rights reserved.T. California CRestview 4 -0265 Western Advertising Manager Bud Dean FOREIGN ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVE D. Hirsch distortion when two charnels are used.Current Power Sources -Their Characteristics & Applications Transistor Sine -Wave Generator EW Lab Tested (Precision ES -150 Oscilloscope) 101 HI -FI AND AUDIO EW Lab Tested (Eico ST84 Stereo Preamplifier. A. A.W4TWV Industrial Consultant WALTER H.. A.40 Angles Quiz Calendar of Events 7A New Products and Literature.s/race 41 less Results Of stereo prorirlrs reduced cancellation of loues and reverberation effects. B.V.OCTOBER 1962 /VOL. Illinois WAbash 24911 Midwestern Advertising Manager Gilbert J.. Close Talking with a Ribbon Mike Norman Kramer Lee Beeder 55 64 Art and Drafting Dept. and the control of blood (luring surgery. STOCKLIN. Smith 60 Thomas J. Should You Pull the Chassis? Adjustable Current Fuse Short History of Semiconductors ZIFF -DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY Editorial and Executive Offices One Park Avenue New York 16. 52 Gene H. 48 Recent Developments in Electronics Neon Bulb Flip -Flop Circuits Publisher PHILLIP T. Barmore 72 Maurice E.'hrrbanve. J. Elect i'oiì Ìcs \%oil d 68 NO. rocket furl measurement. SNITZER. Jr. MORAN GENERAL Our New Look (Editorial) Electronic Aids for the Blind Service Transistor Sets with a V. C. New York ORegon 9. 1962 3 www.. Stroughn 50 56 When the receiver goes dead.1). W2QY1 Service Editor SIDNEY C. BUCHSBAUM Art Editor MILTON BERWIN TEST EQUIPMEN Scherer. Leichner 8 K.. Several different electronic principles and devices are used to accurately gauge liquid /I rte.7200 MIDWESTERN and CIRCULATION OFFICE 434 South Wabash Avenue Chicago 5. Goodall Ltd.M. Non -Directional Stereo Effects More music is reproduced frith Charles J. HOEFER Editorial Consultant OLIVER READ..com . Shure 245 Series "Uniplex" Microphones. London. Unique Output Circuit in Transistorized Hi -Fi Amplifier. Technical Editor MILTON S. B. D. -1 Constant. October. 11'e discuss each and its application in industrial processes. easily duplicated experiments and listening tests . SILVER Associate Editor ROBERT D. Jorgenson WESTERN OFFICE 9025 Wilshire Boulevard Beverly Hills. this single instrument can be rived for many clerks und also provide u voltage source for di. W. Fisher MPX -100 Multiplex Adapter) Charles Transistors or Tubes for Hi -Fi? (EW Symposium) S. Rymsha 37 Buchsbaum 45 Alvin Walter H.in an Open drh(1tr exclusively for readers of ELECTRONICS \\'0111. HEFFERNAN Editor WM. Copyright 9J i 03 110 112 1962 by ZnlDavis Publishing Company.technirtue tests-. FREED Associate Editor P. Kaufman Don COM MUNICATIONS "Telstar" Communications Satellite (Cover Story) R H..Sc. A. .americanradiohistory. B. S. England 59 94 Taylor 104 Art Margolis Michael H. Tepfer 22 29 Five of the country's leading hi -fi component design engineers offer their answer. GOLANEK Advertising Sales Manager LAWRENCE SPORN Advertising Service Manager ARDYS C. 4 CONTENTS INDUS RIAL I Operational Amplifiers Flow Measurement -Electronic Techniques & Devices F.simple. Stocklin 8 J. Coaxial Cable Communications Systems Shennum Lee Craig 34 38 MONTHLY FEATURES Coming Next Month Radio & TV News a Letters from Our Readers Electronic Crosswords 12 Mac's Electronics Service Technical Books .

Michigan Please send my free needle and cartridge catalogs plus name of nearest distributor.F.THE INDUSTRY'S I:It t II COMING NEXT MONTH ONLY COMPLETE "LOOK. the series covers the entire gamut of radio. as well as new -enclosing it possible an address label from a recent issue. V. And the industry's greatest array of sales tools cross.ALIKE" LINE OF BOTH NEEDLES initsllrüi Special AND CARTRIDGES! Feature Integrated Circuits -A Revolution in Electronics -Details on an exciting new manufacturing technique in which an entire circuit is fabricated without the use of conventional components. today. low -cost transistorized circuit that anyone who plays a musical instrument will want to add to his own amplifier or hi -fi system to impart an interesting and unique vibrato effect. Breeding Circulation Director W. - - Since "white noise" is a term frequently used but not always understood. Sarbin SIcreyicz All these and many more interesting and informative articles will be yours in the November issue of ELECTRONICS WORLD on sale October 25th Vice President and General Manager Charles Housman Financial l'ire President R. HIGH GAIN V. Of interest to hams. What is more. service high quality and complete compatibility of needles and cartridges. hand -held unit using inexpensive transistors. u. Chicago 5.tecutire l'ire President Hershel B. as well as v. and everyone concerned with circuit techniques. A 150 Exact Replacement Cartridges 300 Exact Replacement Needles DESIGN FOR A a white-noise generator and its uses in testing hi -fi components and systems are also covered in this article.. SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE: All subscription correspondence should be addressed to Electronics World.h. 1027N Buchanan. T.H. Phoenix. 434 South Wabash Avenue. A modulated oscillator and superregenerative detector are used in order to keep the circuit simple to build and operate. low -power.. with superior directivity. Eventually reduced circuit costs will expand their applications in electronics. Chairman of the Board (1946 .f.sident Stanley Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 1111:11 t'1Ut:l. develops the theory in detail.reference catalogs. Inc. photographs or manuscripts. Lon Edwards of Solitron Devices. wall charts. THREE-TRANSISTOR CB TRANSCEIVER compact. A simplified adaptation of the log. greater reliability. and longer life are only a few of the advantages claimed for these components. Ariz.periodic concept provides exceptional pick up from 54 to 890 mc.S.VOICE. Circulation Department. Include your old address.h. VIBRATO SIMULATOR Here is a simple. Extremely small size. Inventory and handling costs are cut to the bone. Pat.H. ATTIC ANTENNA VERSATILE PROGRAMMED TIMER You Build this handy multi. with a single antenna. service technicians.Electronic Engineering Trademarks Reg. No license is needed to build or use this unit. Greenfield Vice l're. Dept. Bradford Briggs E. or send coupon for profitable details. ELECTRONICS WORLD .receiver design..1953) Vire President and Treasurer William B. can pull in weak signals nicely on all TV channels. Ask your E -V distributor. EVOLUTION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER Part 1 of a 2 -part series tracing circuit design trends in amateur communications receivers from the very earliest crystal and regenerative sets up to the present -day sophisticated unit. and FM transmission too. FM STEREO MULTIPLEX ADAPTER simple switching -type adapter you can build requires no special coils or critical components and uses inexpensive general -purpose "p -n -p" transistors.. A -it WHITE NOISE Speeds your phono assures consistent . Off.purpose thyratron timer which can take a lot of boring waiting and watching tasks from your shoulders. Illinois. EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTIONS must be accompanied by return postage and will be handled with reasonable care: however publisher assumes no responsibility for return or safety of art work. INC. Name Address CITY Slate CIRCLE NO. William Ziff Robert President P.-U.l. An exclusive story from Motorola Semiconductor Products Division. The construction of ELECTRO. Birmingham.l"l't Radio & TV News Radio News Radto.. ZIFF -DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY Ziff M. Please allow at least six weeks for change of address.F. 116 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 4 . you can assemble it of wire and wood and then hide it in your attic.. Jr. displays and merchandisers is available to suit your requirements.

III. position. $ enclosed (check) (money order) Name ILIA. See why there's nothing like the KG-60 for quality and value. ". Maximum compactness. -60 db Inputs: Tape Head (NAB). 8 lb. minimum current -drain.95) (Wood Case for KG -60. using 20 transistors and six diodes. transistors. cool operation.illustrated -5 lbs. 1962 50 City Zone State 5 ..yearsahead all -transistor stereo hi -fi circuitry featuring 50 watts of music power directly coupled to your speakers There is no other amplifier kit like it.ALL . with black. virtually no hum or noise.000 cps at full rated output Harmonic distortion. 60 cycle AC. even in the extreme low.. only $9. Pall. Ceramic phono. Plays instantly no warm -up time.wt. how long at present address.frequency range. -90 db. $7995 - (less case) (Metal Case for KG -60.transistor KG -60 0. develops a full 50 watts of IHFM music power. For 110 -125 volts.. Western Ave. Order it today -no money down (just check coupon). SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR YOUR MONEY BACK typical of the quality and value of over 100 other great KNIGHT-KITS manufactured by OKNIGHT ELECTRONICS CORP. no microphonics. Less case. Ship me the following: Knight -Kit KG -60 All. Tuner Separation exceeds 40 db on all inputs For use with 4. solder and famous Knight Kit step -by -step instructions. below 100 at 50 watts Hum and noise: Tuner. Chicago 80. Precision -look styling. rent or own home. monthly salary.. 5 lbs. 1 __ db from 20-20. give age (21 minimum for credit account). Mag phono (RIAA). how long employed. wire. only $4. 8 or 16 ohm Speaker Easy -to -build modular design Handy plug -in transistor sockets Specially engineered printed circuit board With all parts. No transformers or DC blocking capacitors are used..to -theminute audio technology. A DIVISION watt stereo amplifier kit Here is the amplifier of the future-yours today. Know the enjoyment brought you by every advance in up. true and pure reproduction. handsome Sierra Gold panel.accented selector and volume escutcheon. Address OF ALLIED RADIO October. The precision circuit.. magnetic phono.ganged volume control for virtually linear operation at all levels Dual concentric clutch -type bass and treble controls Independent recording outputs Regulated power supply Separation control for optimum stereo effect Separate channel balancing control Rumble and scratch filters Tape recording outputs Response.95) ALLIED RADIO 100 N.$79 95 (less case) NO MONEY DOWN only $5 per month on Allied's Credit Fund Plan PROOF OF SUPERLATIVE VALUE Features direct -coupled output -no transformers or DC blocking capacitors in output stage 4. only 24 x 11 x 9'/. Shpg.Transistor Amplifier Kit Metal Case 83 YX 644 D Ship No Money Down on 83 YU 659BN Wood Case 38 YX 645 Allied's Credit Fund Plan New Credit Customers Only: Send name and address present employer. Outstanding value at only.TRANSISTOR STEREO AMPLIFIER 50 WATTS DIRECTLY COUPLED TO YOUR SPEAKERS incomparable a knight -kit first! all. This engineering breakthrough gives you unbelievably clear. Check the incomparable specifications (box at left). Aux.

. Winegard COLORTRON EVOLUTIONARY -The finest TV antenna design ever engineered is the time proven Electro -Lens all channel Yagi. improved Electro -Lens Yagi has evolved -the NEW WINEGARD COLORTRON-bringing this acknowledged design to a new peak of perfection.S. This patented basic design. (VSWR 1..off" on end of hands accurate 300 ohm impedance match. - 4 COLORTRON MODELS $24. no "suck.95 .90 MODEL C -41 GOLD ANODIZED S34. NEW FOR COLOF. They are SUNFAST RUGGED CONSTRUCTION GOLD ANODIZED.5 to 1 or better) . num..289 Canada 511.95 MODEL C -43 GOLD ANODIZED $51. most corrosion -proof and permanent Gold finish known for alumi- the only outside antennas that carry a written factory guarantee of performance with full factory hack-up of consumer satisfaction. devised r . electronically and - mechanically. through continuous research and product development. This quality of construction will satisfy a perfectionist! Insulators have a triple moisture harrier to insure top performance.. tubing for rigidity and stability..COLORTRONS are built to Imt made of high tensile aluminum PERFECT COLOR . with its cross phased driven elements and intermixed director system. Every COLORTRON is GOLD ANODIZED the WINEGARD way for the best looking. Nos. was introduced by Winegard to the industry in 1954 and has never been surpassed.934 Others pndhng.DESIGNED FOR COLOR TV PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE IN WRITING 100 MPH WIND TESTED SUNFAST GOLD ANODIZED 'Pas. - POWERFUL ELECTRONIC ANTENNA Because the CoLon'rnoN and the NuVISTOR amplifier were designed to match each other perfectly..95 There are 4 new COLORTRON vagis to ANTENNA COLOR -rcoxs have an almost flat frequency response (plus or minus lie DB across any 6 MC channel). setting new industry standards for reception results and mechanical construction. from suburbs to distant fringe areas .700. New locking devices keep the elements aligned-straight as a die. rain or shine. a new. 2 055.COLOR or BLACK AND WIIITE.. 159 ON READER SERVICE PAGE WIN 1 MODEL C-44 GOLD ANODIZED $64. 1. CIRCLE NO. They deliver today's finest TV reception.95 to $64.. cover every reception need. Now.outs" or "roll. unilohe directivity for maximum ghost and interference rejection. together they make the most efficient electronic TV antenna yet . U.105.95 MODEL C-41 GOLD ANODIZED $24.

No.. CLEAR COLOR PICTURES.USES 2 LONG LIFE NUVISTORS STRONG SIGNALS CAN'T OVERLOAD IT COMPLETELY WEATHER -SEALED ANTENNA and COLORTRON AMPLIFIER REVOLUTIONARY -Now a revolutionary nsw circuit...530.. and no phase distortion... `'y Input. - sharp and bright without smear.americanradiohistory. SPECIALLY DESIGNED AMPLIFIER CLAMP SNAPS ON COLORTRON ANTENNA IN SECONDS.It'ESAVEI: circuit has been designed to give the rugged LONG LIFE NUVISTORS an that of tubes. it will effectively reduce snow and interference.. AMPLIFIER WORKS ON ANY ANTENNA. The COLORTRON NuVISTORS will operate perfectly for years..220.com r Write for technical bulletins ANTENNA SYSTEMS 10 KIRKWOOD BURLINGTON..11 stations.:.. IOWA .ohs of signal input wihout over oat This is 3 times the input of other transistor antenna amp ifio rs.oiloble. For instance. 20 ^. $39. FOR FM -super sensitive 2 Nevistor.' -The PERFECT COLOR TV AMPLIFIER ('uLURTRUN amplifier has what it takes to give CLEAN..95) also a. strong signal overloading and cross modulation picture interference are not problems with a COLORTRON AMPLIFIER because it will take up to 400.sealed! Nothing is exposed to corrode and cause trouble-even the terminals are protected. AN -220.. (Mod...000 FOR TV 1 Microvolts Write for information . 20 times more signal than other antenna amplifiers.000 microvolts of signal input. This amplifier is so powerful.. On weak signals.. The COLORTRON NUVISTOR Amplifier is the only antenna amplifier that can du this. No. COLORTRON POWER UNIT WITH BUILT -IN 2 SET COUPLER. oscillations. Everything possible has been done to eliminate maintenance problems. often making the difference between a very good picture and a poor one It has an ultra low noise circuit . The COLORTRON amplifier will give trouble free performance for years. .-. AT...SEALED POLYSTYRENE CASE -. You can use it to amplify weal.. high amplification .95).. CORROSION -PROOF-Tbc (' LOItTI. $39. rlTs `.95. www. and superior to transistors in similar use.. Install it and forget it OTHER ANTENNA AMPLIFIERS -2 Transistor (Mod. It comes complete with an all AC power supply with built -in 2 set coupler. it can easily drive G sets at once with gain to spare! operating life many times WEATHER..5 to 1 or better. UNRETOUCHED PHOTO OF AMPLIFIER GAIN CURVE -FLAT RESPONSE ALL CHANNELS. signals from far-away stations even though you have strong local signals from TV and F. WiII toko up lo 80.000 micro. accurate impedance match (VSWR 1. input and output) . You can be confident it will improve color and black and white TV reception in any location. A rubber boot over the twin -lead keeps moisture out... flat frequency response . using two NUVISTORS enables the WINEGARD COLORTRON amplifier to overcome the limitations of other antenna amplifiers. .. A built -in heat sink controls temperature of NUVISTORS.ii "LIFESAVER" CIRCUIT GIVES NUVISTORS 4 TIMES THE LIFE OF ORDINARY TUBES A special "l. 5IIw NUVISTOR amplifier is completely weather.. .

plastic with just a quick. In the past. but we believe the results arc worth it. This does not preclude future use of photographs.column page as we did twenty gars ago. most meticulous lettering in the world transfers from the carrying sheet to your prototypes. electronic panels. hi-fi. 212 now all of our readers have been exposed to our different covers.. The decision to make a change wasn't just an overnight inspiration. glass. or engineering drawings. But in view of the availability of more modern typefaces and improved art techniques. the room would look entirely different. there have been no major changes in Our appearance in all the years we recall -and that has been some twenty years. \Ve hope you agree. There is a psychological lift.95 4. This. most of the letters were quite cvnnplimentary. and October covers are good examples of what we are doing. but a lot more time and effort on our part. August. twhether it be a service. new layouts. There is absolutely no need for any publication. the task has become too great and we would like to devote this space as . is not new as many of our old -time readers trill recall. but everyone appreciates good looks. but the emphasis will be more toward the technical presentation. In place of our usual 4 -color photographic covers. as a surprise to our readers. 958-Black 959-White WRITE - WIRE 94.to BELIEVE it _ _ _wo will send ijou a FREE sarnplo . We have also changed from a 3column page to a 2-column presentation. metal. we are now using technical illustrations. anti therefore makes it easier for the reader to assimilate the information contained in our articles. for By the Record W. This type of presentation takes not only a good artist. People's tastes vary to a degree. to be unattractive and difficult to read. wood. Similarly. LtA LEFT L LEVELING LIMIT LIMIT LIMITERS Lt IMtTING LINE NEARITY LI N E4RITY Lt IN EAR LIN LINKAGES L LOADERS LO LOCAL LO LOCKING L FOR PROTOTYPES AND ELECTRONIC PANELS -- Imagine lettering that transfers DRY to almost any surface paper. when eye fatigue is reduced. J.Because you've got to SEE it . The response has been most gratifying and. Up to our July issue we were still using the same typeface and the same 3. which. in itself. experimenting with different layouts. 201 -UN 4 -6555 9 N. ELECTRONICS WORLD . in itself. there was no reason why we should not give you a more attractive and impressive package. in full color. No. We feel that there is so much that cannot be shown in a photograph. our editorial content remains the same and we trill continue to keep our readers up -to -elate on the newest circuits and developments in areas of interest vocationally or avocationally.. The change in our covers should come.95 - PHONE FOR FREE SAMPLE! THE DATAK CORPORATION 63 71st STREET GUTTENBERG. we have reserved this type of presentation for special issues or special articles. We do not believe that any single photograph could have presented the subject more clearly. Certainly our July. with one thought in mind -can we improve our magazine? We came to the conclusion that the editorial content should remain the same. We will also continue our efforts to publish the most authoritative material available on any given subject. 114 ON READER SERVICE PAGE N. resulting in greater appreciation. light pressure! Not just any lettering but the finest. it is tbc vane paper. looks better. although we originally hoped to answer all your letters personally. September. -LA 4 -0346 CIRCLE NO. or any other type of magazine. NOT A DECAL -NO WATER -NO TAPES SCREENS - GOES ON INSTANTLY JUST PRESS AND IT'S THERE MAKES PROTOTYPES LOOK LIKE FINISHED EQUIPMENT! COMPLETE TITLE SETS Set contains 24 Sheets with thousands of preset words and phrases researched to give you the greatest variety and flexibility. N. as we had planned. J. but yet. As we had hoped. and this May lead SONIC to believe that our editorial content has chauiged. STOCKLIN Editor Our New Look 4i 10 KC NG K K K 1 KW VA K KW - 41. has done more to alter the appearance of our publication than any other change %vc have made. Enjoyment and comprehension are in an inverse ratio to the amount of eyestrain of the reader. This situation is quite similar to putting up vertically striped wallpaper. Y. Certainly a service technician and an engineer can both appreciate neatness and attractiveness. It is our hope to convey a photographic image along with our own thoughts on the subject. \Ve don't think anyone would disagree with us in that this type of layout is much easier on the eyes.t kind of "thank -you note" to all who have taken time to send us your comments. A. Our typefaces have been modernized and made a little larger with the idea of making our editorial material easier to read. No. new typefaces. typefaces and art tvork. but there were a fete who posed the question: \\'hy DRY TRANSFER TITLES NO HAS been three months since our ITJuly issue was distributed and by it change? Outside of our naine change from RAIN() & TV NEws to ELECrnoxtcs \VonLO. Were this paper to be hung horizon- tally. We had been planning for over a year.

.americanradiohistory. I am interested in the course checked below. Radio-TV.than -average opportunities in Electronics than in any other field. using special training equipment.com '\ .doing" method. NRI catalog pictures and describes equipment you get. In short. Mail the postage-free card for more facts about NRI training and opportunities awaiting you in Electronics. Then. up -to -date home study training at a cost most everyone can afford.openings for which you could qualify through NRI training. C. includes special equipment at no extra cost. Train With The Leader is the time -proved way to assure advancement or to turn your hobby into a new and profitable career in the fast-growing field of Electronics. We show you how to apply your knowledge to make extra cash in spare time doing Electronic repairs or servicing radios and TV sets for friends and neighbors. in monetary gain. Turn Page For Facts On NRI Courses Cut Out and Mail -No Stamp Needed NRI is America's oldest and largest home-study Radio -TV. NRI training can help you step up your income soon after you enroll.. easy -to -grasp manner.UM. For nearly half a century NRI has maintained the confidence and respect of students. EM Please send me your Electronic. PLEASE PRINT. in usefulThe NRI "train -by. Radio -TV catalog without cost or obligation. All NRI courses. ness.) INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS FCC LICENSE RADIO-TV SERVICING COMMUNICATIONS The Amazing Field of Electronics Age Name \ddress City /one State ACCREDITED MEMBER NATIONAL HOME STUDY COUNCIL Approved for Veleron's under Korean GI Bill www. You build circuits and work experiments. Theory you study comes to life in an interesting. If desired NRI assists you in job placement when Equipment You Get Makes Training Faster. in prestige. C. Read the capsule descriptions of NRI courses on the other side of this page. Washington 16. D. except FCC License training. graduates and the Electronics Industry by constantly supplying practical. mail the postage -free card today for the FREE NRI CATALOG. complete. National Radio Institute. (No salesman will call. Electronics training school. NRI is well qualified to help you grow in your new career . NATIONAL RADIO INSTITUTE WASHINGTON 16. There are more better. Thousands of men like yourself have stepped up to good money in Industrial Electronics.2giT by Practicing at Home in Your Spare Time Electronics is the outstanding career field of the 1960's. Make More Money Soon If you decide to be a Radio -TV Service technician. D. Ill@ Elgg 11. Radio and TV Broadcasting and Radio and TV Servicing with NRI training. whatever branch of Electronics you select. Easier you're ready.

C. hi -fi. Job counselors advise. FM stereo multiplexing are some of the subjects covered.) Washington. government. Train with the leader. course you get actual experience NRI prepares you for your choice of Communications fields and an FCC License. Job Counselors Recommend 1 Today. National Radio Institute. Special training equipment included. Your NRI training is hacked by nearly 50 years of success. marine. and you the only student. business.C. stereo. Computers.3R. "There is no more interesting and challenging occupation in American industry. D. navigation devices. get into Electronics. color -TV. this new NRI course trains you quickly for your Government exams. Servicing not only trains you to fix radios.. No need to give up your job or go away to school. BUSINESS REPLY MAIL NO POSTAGE STAMP NECESSARY IF POSTAGE WILL NRIO National MAILED IN THE UNITED STATES BE PAID BY Radio Institute 3939 Wisconsin Avenue Washington 16.americanradiohistory. telemetry. A Service Technician is required by law to have an FCC License to work on C -Band. From Simple Circuits to Broadcast Operation. etc. rockets all employ the same basic principles and that is what this NRI course stresses with illustrated lessons. study when you want. You pick your own study hours. microwave. radar. missiles. with this NRI course in Electronics-.9.PICK THE CAREER YOU WANT IN THE WONDERFUL FIELD OF ELECTRONICS TRAIN AT HOME WITH THE LEADER SERVICING INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS TELEVISION -RADIO(INCLUDES COLOR TV) Prepare for a career as an Elei NRI's time -tested course in - tronic Technician in industry. 34. D.L. Washington 16. a career in Electronics offers unlimited opportunity. other transmitting equipment." The National Association of Manufacturers says." When you train for a career in Electronics through NRI home -study methods your home becomes your classroom. facsimile or mobile communications.Principles. Commercial methods and techniques of Radio and TV Broadcasting. automation. microwave. "For an interesting career.. aviation. Practices. . P.com . as long as you want. as teletype. 20 -R (Sec.making opportunities in your own spare -time or full -time business or working for someone else. facsimile. Mail Postage -Free Card www. means money. And there are no special requirements of previous Electronics experience or education. TV -RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FCC COMMERCIAL LICENSE In the NRI Communications For men with Radio -TV experience who want to operate or service transmitting equipment used in broadcasting. TV sets.C. D. You work with special training equipment. t SEE OTHER SIDE FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. Fast growth in number of sets. Maintenance. the military. special training equipment.. but also shows you how to earn spare -time money starting soon after enrolling. Mail the postage -free card. mobile and marine radio.

N.Y.. the experience of hearing music as you've never heard it before.. +0 -1/4db from 1 to 1. It is totally new in concept. design and performance.!044 ...000 cps.. .. Inc.. Harman -Kardon. .... Citation A represents a towering achievement for Stewart Hegeman and the Citation Engineering Group... 1962 CIRCLE NO. . you will share the experience of its creators -the experience of genuine breakthrough and discovery. trol Center. When you hear it.. Plainview. October. It will change all of your ideas about the reproduction of sound... For more complete technical Citation A information on write to the Citation Division. Visit your Citation dealer now for an exciting premiere demonstration. . EW -10.000.That's the bandwidth of the new Harman -Kardon Citation A -the world's first professional Solid State (transistorized) Stereo Con-. harman kardon 125 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 11 . Dept..

. C:. perhaps by a factor of 7). This sloes not mean that there will not be someone called a "technician" or "engineer ". there was a very fine article entitled "Test Equipment for Communications Servicing". These two things taken together paint a black picture for the technician and the engineer.' It is quite true that one -half of the voltage falls across the dead part of the coil. I am beginning to have my doubts. GREEN Burbank. TRANSISTORIZED TV COMPENSATOR To the Editors: This letter is in referents to the Colnmolts of Mr. -Editors. however. however. DONALD A." the statement is made: "To throw away half of the voltage is to throw away three quarters of the power since power varies as the square of the voltage. The idea of using the unbvpassed cathode of the output stage to feed audio to the hi-fi system is a reasonable and sound idea.EFFICIENCY SPEAKERS To the Editors: I am a great booster of \Ir. First. Villchur and of the speakers he designs. 124 ON READER SERVICE PAGE .se(1 for decreased (H40'1 1011. Ill. There is a very real clanger that the technician and perhaps even the engineer will oie clad find they are no longer in demand.. ifoswever. This was one of those statements that sounder[ so logical that no one stopped long enough to figure it out. CARTER... Our organization has been in this business for sixteen years and we are constantly setting up and working with service stations that handle mobile 2way radio. The newer machines are much faster than the machines nnule five years ago (in some cases. Franklin Park. the speed of the computer. Asa matter of fact. 11r. California Automation does produce some cutback in employment in certain areas. service. Illinois Reader tl(Gookin is quite right. While the comments of sIr. Dallas. LOW. However. TECHNICIANS AND AUTOMATION To the Editors: \Ir. Martel are true to a certain extent.. The pure sound of Grommes faithfully reproduces the mood and expression -with the elusive quality of "presence" You are there! J Model 24PG 24 watt stereo amplifier. The other view being that all is not rows with the technician. it is evident that he has overlooked one fact. after reading his article on speaker distortion ( "Distortion in Loudspeakers" ill the June issue). 9101 King St.At any one moment . We would like permission to reprint this article and pass it out to some of our service stations in order that they will have a better idea of the test equipment required and its use.. ANTHONY MCGOOKIN Chicago. tchieh is u. but this voltage is being developed across one -half the impedance which gives us one -half and not three -quarters of the power being thrown away. involves a major sacrifice in effìeieney. President Carter Communications Corp. Inc.. I understand that the Naval Ordnance Test Center (HOTS) has a machine that clocked 10. This seems evident from two things. We feel that as equipment becomes more automated there will be a greater not a lesser need for technicians to operate.95 TEST EQUIPMENT FOR 2 -WAY RADIO To the Editors: On page 44 of your June issue. in order to be completely fair to the people who might like to become computer technicians though.s and our government are presently much concerned." which appeared in your June 1962 issue..-Editors. this sloes not take into account the poor quality of the stages that precede it. still valid. THOMAS F. . . or the poor lowELECTRONICS WORLD 12 F CIRCLE compauic.000 hours without a component failure. W. you must present the other view. $129. This means that there will not be a need for as many. Jones' article "Technicians in the Computer Industry. Model 70PG 70 watt stereo amplifier. and maintain it. This is an important problem and manly creased employment and raised the lerel of the 'corker.95 GROMMES Division of Precision Electronics. the reliability. All we ask is that the source be credited. automation has invariably in- NO.. was true enough as far as it went. were it not for automation a good many of t1w technician and engineering jobs would not even exist today." which appeared in your March issue. In the paragraph On page 68 which starts ".The sweep and magnificence of a full orchestra . Martel (Nile "Letters" (Annul) concerning my article "A Transistorized Television Compensator. In the long run. Villelucr's conclusion is. Transistors are now very reliable. Texas We are always glad to grant such permission.. 36PG 40 watt stereo amplifier. and second. namely that voice -coil overhang. FROM OUR READERS $ 89. the intimacy of a lovely voice.95 $199. e-m sn L sets the scene.Editors.

intermittents.A. This one instrument.. 107 ON READER SERVICE PAGE www. U. Toronto 19. and make more money. while you watch the generated test pattern on the picture tube of the television set itself. Demonstrates to customers correct color values. or facilitate installation. ANY TV TROUBLE TELEVISION ANALYST BLACK & WHITE AND COLOR Just As Easy By Easy Point -to -Point Signal Injection.f.sim Model 960 Transistor Radio Analyst Sr V O Matic Automatic VOM Model 360 Ymir l3&K Distributor or Write for Catalog r1P2tJ-N October. Generates white dot. audio.f.americanradiohistory. Canada: Atlas Radio Corp..S. ILL.. $29995 Available on Budget Terms. crosshatch and color bar patterns on the TV screen for color TV convergence adjustments.Making Instruments Used by Professional Servicemen Everywhere ^tNIANN Lp-r_. As low as $30. Export: Empire Exporters. enables any serviceman to cut servicing time in half . B a K Model 700 Dyna -Quik Tube Tester Model 440 CRT Rejuvenator Tester MANUFACTURING CO. INTERMITTENTS . 277 Broadway. BELLE PLAINE AVE. with its complete.. Checks any and all circuits.. service more TV sets in less time satisfy more customers . 196'2 'P Model 375 Dynamatic Automatic VTVM Aar CIRCLE NO. i. Didsion of DYNASCAN CORPORATION CHICAGO 13. you inject your own TV signals at any time. .solves any performance problem.com 3 .. r. at any point.. Time-Saving.. Ont. With the Analyst.00 down. 50 Wingold. 1801 W. New York 7.. align color de- - modulators. sync and sweep sections of black & white and color television sets including intermit tents.. No external scope or waveform interpretation is needed.. to Use As a VOM! SIMPLIFIES COLOR TV SERVICING. accurate diagnosis.. TOO Enables you to troubleshoot and signal trace color circuits in color TV sets. check range of hue control. - Generates full color rainbow display and color bar pattern to test color sync circuits. Net. and general TV troubleshooting. pinpoint. You see the Trouble on the TV Screen and Correct it -Twice as Fast and Easy! Simplified technique stops lost hours never recovered on "tough dogs "..And it and Fix it in 1/2 the time! EASILY SOLVES "TOUGH DOGS 1076 ". Money. This makes it quick and easy to isolate. and correct TV trouble in any stage throughout the video.. Gives you today's most valuable instrument in TV servicing proved by thousands of professional servicemen everywhere.

In Canada: Tri -Tel Associates Ltd. IBM White Plains. In addition to this firm..change plug -in shells for all standard cartridges -and best of all The braking action when the arm is raised which eliminates the danger of broken or bent styli caused by free swinging arms.000 -ohm dual linear taper potentiometer rather than the audio-taper control specified. and were happy to see it selected as a feature story in your June issue. 118 ON READER SERVICE PAGE P.emphasis networks having time-constants greater than the normal 75 .- Editors. and providing excellent quality for connection to high -quality systems. o To the Editors: I was especially interested in the article "Reducing Citizens Band Ignition Noise" which appeared some time ago in your magazine although at that time I didn't have a need for the shielded ignition system described by the author. Los Angeles. easily installed. Ohio ELECTRONICS WORLD 14 www. or write for complete specifications.grants program to educational institutions. We were glad to be able to contribute an article to your publication. Where can I get the Hallett shielded ignition system mentioned? PAUL BRADFORD New York.com .. New York THOREN5 Mr. D. Acting The Bendix Corporation Cincinnati. is located at 5910 Bowcroft St. the college will be eligible for an equivalent amount from the IBM Co. THORENS DIVISION ELPA ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES. In some cases the roll -off due to these small capacitors could be 16 db at 100 cycles. N.. still the top high fidelity transcription turntable for more than four years. For example The almost frictionless bearings of instrument quality The exclusive Thorens cueing device that raises and lowers the arm. Y. you'll find that Thorens has thought of everything in the BTD -12S. Like the incomparable Thorens TD -124. on all pivots - - transcription turntable of "TD" quality! ThorensTD-135-$11O net. F. Potentiometer R= should be a 250."-Editors. North Adams.." appearing in the July 1962 issue of your magazine.. Minn. o TECHNICIANS IN COMPUTER INDUSTRY To the Editors: I have recently seen the cover of your June issue.. Ont. It is a very excellent color-reproduction job. some TV sets have excessive high frequency roll-off due to the use of de. Jones was the author of the article "Technicians In the Computer Industry. New Hyde Park. BTD -12S Tone Arm e The new Thorens BTD -12S stereo tone arm will outlast and outperform them all.Y.frequency response obtained because of the use of small coupling capacitors. As in turntables. -Editors. Willowdale. The compensator was designed with the express intent of eliminating these problems by providing an alternate audio path properly compensated. See and hear it at your franchised Thorens dealer's today. I have endorsed your check in payment for the article over to the general scholarship fund of the Student Aid Association at Broome Technical Community College in Binghamton. New York. N. nonmagnetic e SHIELDED IGNITION SYSTEM e e e ANODE. JONES Director of Personnel General Products Div. making it unnecessary to touch the arm while it is in contact with the record The specially designed pivot that maintains continuous vertical stylus position no matter what the height adjustment The balancing that makes the arm independent of leveling The accurate gram -calibrated stylus force adjustment The quick. Perhaps these contributions 1vill aid some deserving young man to graduate as a qualified technician. and Sprague Electric Co. ltfass. Now I do. Under the IBM matching. Inc.speed. RONALD H.americanradiohistory. are offering such shielded ignition system kits through their regular distributor outlets. Johnson Co. - Now! The BTD -12S in an integral unit! The Thorens TD -135 is the only integral unit to combine a truly professional arm the BTD-12S with a 4. CHARLES CIRCLE NO. This is important so that the channels are balanced at the mid -position of the control.FOLLOWER PREAMP To the Editors: There is an error in the parts list in my article "Anode Follower Stereo Preamp. Illinois Reader Martel suggested that Author Wagner's TV compensator was an unduly complicated and expensive way of getting good TV sound since all one had to do was to remove the bypass capacitor across the cathode resistor of the audio output stage and pick up audio here. BOEGLI Director of Engineering. $50 net Guaranteed for One Full Year. N. E. 8-1b. the BTD -12S is a product of Thorens engineering skill and unsurpassed Swiss craftsmanship.ace. WAGNER Franklin Park. hi addition to the loss of lows mentioned above. Hallett Manufacturing Co. Waseca.

GET YOUR First Class Commercial IN 12 WEEKS! LICENSE F. tea iirgRIL FIRST CLASS PAgit - Is the course complete? . it does this by TEACHING you electronics. Even though it is planned primarily to lead directly to a first class FCC license..C.. Intensive FCC license training is our specialty not just a sideline._.R 15 . (Phone: lE 1. Calif. D.classes in F. Washington 6. I FIRST CLASS F... and new evening classes begin four times a year.C. The emphasis is on making the subject easy to understand. I understand there is no obligation and no salesman will coll. - THE GRANTHAM FCC License Course in Com- munications Electronics is available by CORRESPONDENCE or in RESIDENT classes.com State am interested in: Home Study. you want a course that is right to the point not a course which is "padded" to extend the length of time you're in school. For further details concerning F C. New day classes begin every three months.7727 408 Marion Street Seattle 4. - Is Is it a "memory course "? No doubt you've heard rumors about "memory courses" and "cram courses" offering "all the exact FCC questions.C. licenses and our training. you receive an FCC type test so you can discover daily just which points you do not understand and clear them up as you go along.. If your main objective is an FCC license and a thorough understanding of basic electronics.6320) )Mail in envelope or poste on posto) cord) To 821-19th Street. The weakness of the "coaching service" method is that it presumes the student already has a knowledge of technical radio.. it would be much more difficult to memorize this "meaningless" material than to learn to understand the subject. With each lesson. N. Resident Classes 26. the Grantham course "begins at the beginning" and progresses in logical order from one point to another." Ask anyone who has an FCC license if the necessary material can be memorized. Even if you had the exact exam questions and answers. 122 ON READER SERVICE PAGE www. Phone: MA 2-7227) 3123 Cillham Road Kansas City 9.°. (Phone: ST 3-3614) GRANTHAM SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS OFFICE 50 5 N. All of the instruction is presented with the FCC examinations in mind. Is the course proven? A high percentage of our fulltime resident students FEDERAL COM M l'NICATIONti COMM Leit+iIO\ get their 1st class licenses within 12 weeks from the time they start the course. NII1 rOM :.. On the other hand._.. but they are not necessary to obtain an FCC license.. 1962 CALL I CIRCLE NO..Phone: HO 1.C.:: Is the course "padded "? The streamlined Grantham course is designed specifically to prepare you to pass certain FCC examinations. Calif. Is the school accredited? Accreditation by the National Home Study Council is your assurance of quality and high standards.W. Age Name Address City MAIL COUPON NOW -NO SALESMAN WILL October. C. The study of higher mathematics or receiver repair work is fine if your plans for the future include them. The Grantham course covers all the required subject matter completely.americanradiohistory. . Western Ave.. . Hollywood 27. Wash. 1 Gentlemen: Please send me your free booklet telling how con get my commercial F.. ... send for our FREE booklet Accredited by the National Home Study Council Grantham Schools 1505 N.C. license preparation are offered at all locations..C.C. Grantham is accredited.. LICENSE IN 12 WEEKS Grantham resident schools are located in four major cities.. it a "coaching service "? Some schools and individuals offer a "coaching service" in FCC license preparation. Mo.. C. Western Ave. Choose the school that teaches you to thoroughly understand choose Grantham School of Electronics.. Every subject is covered simply and in detail. license quickly.C.. Los Angeles 27.

and at a more moderate price? Could University now bring the pleasure of uncompromising big system high fidelity to a broader range of music lovers? The challenge has been answered with the new Classic Dual -12. a woofer /mid. but in a more compact size.Vought. strident sounds in ordinary systems and provides flawless mid -range performance.speaker arrangement. Its range. even when compared with the so. transparent highs soaring effortlessly up to 40. posed this immediate challenge: Could University now create a speaker system with the essential qualities of the Mark II..called "world's bests.. "x15' /2 ".. Inc.. created by a totally new approach to the design CIRCLE NO.americanradiohistory. the Classic Mark II won instant and unanimous acclaim as the most exciting new instrument in the world of music reproduction.000 cps! Power Requirements: 10 watts. Oiled walnut finish. Division of Ling. removes the peaks and valleys that cause harsh. Size: 233/4"x 31!x. reinforces the woofer. or write Desk S -10. University's Dual -12 incorporates two 12" speakers.com SOUTH KENSICO AVE. this would be the finest speaker system of them all- the three -way system with two 12" speakers -plus! From the first moment of its appearance. 157 ON READER SERVICE PAGE (UNIVERSITY LOUDSPEAKERS 80 uu A www. its presence. $229." Its reputation. N.If not for University's Classic Mark II..Y.Temco.. Instead of the conventional 3. s . the other. however..95 Hear it at your hi -fi dealer. WHITE PLAINS. plus the Sphericon Super Tweeter! One 12" speaker is a woofer specifically designed for optimum reproduction of the ultra -low frequencies (down to 25 cps). The renowned Sphericon is included to assure silky. its spaciousness and dimension are truly outstanding. of speaker systems.range.

BOX 7842 PHILADELPHIA 1. Void After 10 Oct.O. Simply circle the number on the coupon that corresponds to the number at the bottom of the advertisement in which you are interested. 1962 TOTAL NUMBER P. BOX 7842 PHILADELPHIA ELECTRONICS WORLD PA. PRINT your name and address on the coupon and mail it to: ELECTRONICS WORLD P. 31. 1962 ZONE STATE 17 .O. PA.READER SERVICE PAGE Please use the coupon at the bottom of this page to obtain more information about products advertised in this issue. OF REQUESTS 1. Additional information on items mentioned in "New Products & Literature" can also be obtained by following this same procedure. Please send me additional information concerning the products of the advertisers whose code numbers I have circled. 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 NEW PRODUCTS & LITERATURE 1 2 3 4 5 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 (Key numbers for advertised products also appear in Advertisers Index) NAME ADDRESS CITY October.

how will your success in electronics compare with this man's? Will you have a rewarding career. There's something wonderful about understanding how a circuit works or what a filter capacitor does. This is for study at home. a complete program in electronic engineering technology designed to prepare you for a rewarding. engineering aides. project engineers and technical representatives. This excitement may have led you to a job in electronics. CREI equips you with a practical working knowledge of advanced and up -to -date electronic developments that will put you on the level of specialization where men are most in demand. if you understand "why" as well as "how. But the glamour fades if you are stuck in the same job year after year. ADVANCED TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE IS THE KEY to success in electronics. If electronics is the "field of opportunity. In any career field. as have many men. S. You are guided and assisted by CREI's staff of experienced instructors. electronics offers many opportunities. well -paying career in electronics. If you have a practical knowledge of current engineering developments." how is this CREI MEN LIKE RICHARD S. field engineers. With such qualifications. particularly true in the fast moving field of electronics. Conway? Or will you never get beyond a routine job? It's up to you. Conway the technical background to deal with Engi- neers as Supervisor. LET'S LOOK AT THE FACTS. you study courses to which a number of today's leading engineers and scientists have made substantial contributions. you can expect to move ahead. You'll be bored with routine and unhappy about prospects for future earnings. from manufacturing to research. possible? No question about it. If you've ever fixed a TV set. They work in every area of electronics. You'll discover.. but only to qualified men. it is how much you know that counts. that simply working in electronics does not assure a good future. CREI Home Study preparation gives R. Even men with intensive military technical training find their careers can be limited in civilian electronics. . CREI OFFERS YOU. like Richard S. built a radio or used a voltmeter. CONWAY hold positions as associate engineers. You study texts that are specifically prepared for home study use." you have what employers want and pay for. The man without thorough technical education doesn't advance. Electronic Test Dept. Wilcox Electric Co. you've tasted the thrills of electronics. ELECTRONICS KNOWLEDGE YOU CAN USE. WHEN YOU ENROLL IN A CREI HOME STUDY PROGRAM.

let us check your qualifications for you.. D. Washington 10.C. If in doubt. FIELD OF GREATEST INTEREST: Technology tronic Engineering Technology Electronic Engineering Technology Li Nuclear Engmeenng Technology Aero and Navigational Engineering Technology Employed by Type of present work Education: Years High School Other Electronics Experience____ Name Age Address City Zone _ _ Check r Home Study Residence School G. Bill State . 3224 Sixteenth St. I'leeee send me details of CREI Home Study Programs and Free Nook. "Your Future in Electronics and Nuclear Engineering Technology" My qualifications are noted to obtain immediate service CHECK Servo and Computer Engineering ri Automation and Industrial [IN. Fill out and Mail Postage -Paid Card. send for CREI Catalog at no cost.W.I. N. MAIL COUPON TODAY FOR FREE 58 -PAGE BOOK THE CAPITOL RADIO ENGINEERING INSTITUTE Founded 1927 -ECPD Accredited Technical Institute Curricula Dept. E1110K.»Q there is a CREI home study program to meet your need If you qualify.

D.C. BUSINESS REPLY MAIL No Postage Stamp Necessary II Mailed in United States Postage Will Be Paid By CREI The Capitol Radio Engineering Institute 3224 Sixteenth Street.W. 288 -R Washington. .this card is for the convenience of men who want to improve their opportunities in electronics.C. 1 FIRST CLASS Permit No. Include full particulars on Reverse Side. N. Washington 10. D.

For those who can attend classes in person. C.. field of electronics: INSTRUMENTATION SERVOMECHANISMS RADAR COMPUTERS TELEVISION COMMUNICATIONS AERONAUTICAL AND NAVIGATIONAL AUTOMATION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY NUCLEAR ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . increase his income. Feended 11/ V E se. Quality Control Manager Ray V. Richard Conway is shown relaxing in his yard with his children. Northwest Telephone Company. Cynthia and David. Smith of Wilcox Electric Co. INCREASE YOUR PROFESSIONAL STANDING. Such companies are National Broadcasting Company. or write to: YOU CAN QUALIFY se-p1T . Pan American Airways. where CREI students and alumni attain positions ranging from engineering technicians to engineers to top officials. 111 ON READER SERVICE PAGE www. CREI maintains a Residence School in Washington.. you have a choice of programs covering every painstaking skill and care that CREI put into its electronics courses for the Army Signal Corps. and its group training programs for leading aviation and electronics companies. such as engineers. N. Washington 10. Above. its special radio technician courses for the Navy. share Richard Conway's success. M. write for FREE 58 -page book describing CREI Programs and career opportunities in advanced electronic engineering technology. Conway and their two children. Federal Electric Corporation. Through CRET. if you have basic knowledge of radio or electronics and are a high school graduate or the equivalent. Examining a complex installation with Conway is R. Mrs. Programs are available for men.EMPLOYERS GIVE YOU SPECIAL CONSIDERATION for advancement with CREI Home Study preparation. YOUR WHOLE FAMILY SHARES YOUR SUCCESS. explains this to CREI alumnus Conway. D.W. Florida Power and Light and many others. They not only recognize CREI Home Study educational qualifications but often pay all or part of CREI tuition for their employees.com 1927 Dept. A CREI Home Study Program helps you gain new authority and respect. Living is better for everyone when you get promotions and advancements through CREI Home Study. PREPARE FOR A SECURE FUTURE in electronics with a CREI Home Study Program. Á`20A . who is currently studying a CREI Program at home. as well as for men with limited technical training or experience. CREI HOME STUDY PROGRAMS are the product of 35 years of experience. Soldanels. who already have extensive technical knowledge. 1110 -K 3224 Sixteenth St. Use coupon provided. NEW 1963 edition is now available. CREI helped further his career. D. Mackay Radio. - CIRCLE NO.A D C 2 The Capitol Radio Engineering Institute REU . If you meet these qualifications. Each program has been developed with the same for a CREI Program. C. a technician at Wilcox Electric Co. The Martin Company.americanradiohistory. THE HIGH CALIBRE OF A CREI HOME STUDY EDUCATION is attested to by America's biggest corporations.

l 2KC. We measured -38 db u 1 kc. II 6KC. Hum and Noise (re.000 cps y 0.5 db (tone controls mechanically centered). leaving the middle range unaffected. They can control the frequency response at the limits of the audio spectrum. The preamp makes extensive use of negative feedback. High -level inputs go directly to the level control.8 db at 50 cps. out): phono 1. These functions are handled by a row of slide switches across the upper part of the panel. and + 15.5 ips. Stereo crosstalk: not rated by the manufacturer.. Tuners or tape decks usually have their own output level controls and Eico power amplifiers have input level controls. monophonic settings with either input going to both outputs. and tape playback equalization for either 3. The tone controls use feedback circuitry.1 ¢ s _ ( -50 DS) u `reA ilid -30 35 20 +5 o 50 IOO 200 500 ILL IKC. and 29 db Gc 10 kc. high -level inputs 170 mw. The ST84 has three high -level inputs -for tape amplifiers. as against 2 mv. for mono record playing -the sum of both inputs going to both outputs.000 cps ± 1. The specifications listed below include the manufacturer's ratings (listed first) and our measured performance data as run on a kit which was assembled for us - Iii l FREQUENCY RESPONSE (TONE CONTROLS MECHANICALLY CENTERED) Ì m o IJ m 0 -20 -25 LOUDNESS CONTOUR LL m I. it may be necessary to insert level controls between the preamplifier and the power amplifier. high -level input 75 db versus -62 db and -83 db.3 db (tone controls electrically flat ) versus 20. There are no individual channel or input level controls so that all system level adjustments must be made externally. so that the following stages cannot be inadvertently overdriven.) NNE est 41 AUDIO PRODUCTS TESTED BY HIRSCH -HOUCK LABS Eico ST84 Stereo Preamplifier Shure 245 Series "Uniplex" Microphones (page 26) Fisher MPX -100 Multiplex Adapter (page 26) Precision ES -150 Oscilloscope (page 101) (construction time: about 18 hours). styled to match other Eico audio components. and 180 mv. A two -stage (12A \7) amplifier with over -all negative feedback supplies the required gain. One of the treble tone control knobs also operates the power switch. where it is most likely to be required. The preamp has rumble and scratch filters.5 db.CS1= FREQUENCY -CPS ELECTRONICS WORLD .12A \71.20. I . Harmonic distortion: rated . tape heads. and finally. 1 volt): low -level input -65 db. and 50 cps as against our figures of + 17 db. with sliding inflection points. loudness compensation. or multiplex FM tuners. The feedback loop from the plate of this stage includes the tone-cont cire tits.\o. respectively. highly flexible unit.051 (> 2 volts as against approximately 0. FM -AM tuners.75 ips or 7. IOKC. Concentric knobs are used for the two bass controls and the two treble controls. 22 Tone-control range: rated ± 15 db at both 10 kc. It has low level inputs for microphones.6 mv. ry1HE new Eico ST84 stereo preamplifier is a deluxe. The "Balance" control has a limited range. Frequency response: 5. -4 db to +8 db on either channel.06% (below the residual distortion of our test Eico ST84 Stereo Preamplifier For copy of manufacturer's brochure. 1 v. 5T cul - coupon (page 17). equipment). circle . IM distortion: .s. The ST84 manual gives instructions for doing this. -14. If this preamplifier is used with other power amplifiers.25. and two independent phono cartridges. balancing settings with the sum of both inputs going to either output. tapemonitoring facilities. The "Mode" selector allows all possible combinations of inputs and outputs.RIRA PHONO EQUALIZATION ERROR -: 1111Ci11C1111111Q11C. The tone -control circuits are in the output stage (1.06% (below the residual distortion of our test equipment) . There are settings for stereo (normal and reverse). Sensitivity (at 1 kc. The balancing function is particularly useful for matching channel gains. -15 db at 10 kc.. Phono and tape -head equalization is by means of feedback networks around the 12AX7 preamplifier stage. 2OKC.04% qi 2 volts rated versus approximately .

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h tuning -eye travelling along it to indicate the exact center of each broadcast channel. AFC Defeat. WABC -FM.com . New York 13. 1. 7:15 -8 P. Ultra.ArAn Wired $149.Y.. 1 -EZ80 Power Source: 117V.95 i rtrr 4 ) : .12AU7. 6 signal diodes. Transistorized Stereo /Mono 4 -Track .sensitive. Indirect gear drive is backlash -free and eliminates possibility of microphony. 3 . Stereo -Mono. Y. 431 Greenwich St. rectifier. ex. IHFM IM Distortion: 0. both in mono and stereo. N. Rugged plated steel housing for protection and shielding. Y. IHFM Harmonic Distortion: 0. filterless detection circuit Includes Metal Cover a line: one. L. you simply mount and solder the components on a high quality circuit board.95 Carrying Case $29.95 Includes Metal Cover 40 -Watt Integrated Stereo Amplifier ST40 Kit: $79. 2-7. While signal levels as low as 2. N.' -" " -''I Send free 32 -page catalog & dealer's name. Size (HWD): 51/4' x 15v/e" x 111/4 ". 1. FM Tuning. The stereo output signals are so clean that there is not a sign of the l9kc pilot carrier or the re. EICO. :- . *Actual distortion meter reading of derived left or right channel output with a stereo FM signal fed to the antenna input terminals.inserted 38kc sub -carrier visible on a scope presentation. stable. The sharp selectivity you need when a tuner is that sensitive is here also (a strong local station and a low -power station 100 miles distant separated by only 0.I. Stereo Harmonic Distortion: less than 1. 5. 115 ON READER SERVICE PAGE ELECTRONICS WORLD 28 www.12AT7. covery.. are entirely pre -wired The two most and pre. Complete rejection of storecasting interference. the other a logging dial with an automatic stereo indicator lamp travelling along it in tandem with the tuning -eye to indicate when the station tuned in is broadcasting Two slide -rule dials in THE LOOK Massive extruded aluminum panel and side rails.americanradiohistory. clarity.6 %.M.C. PERFORMANCE field tests brought back the report a fringe -area stereo tuner. Most EICO Dealers offer budget terms. the heart of the stereo demodulator. a station frequency dial with the famous EICO "eye. Wide -band design. 60 watts drain. 3300 N.E ='ll. The rest is non -critical and easily accomplished with the clearest pictorial drawings and most thorough -going step -bystep procedure in the industry.5 uV. with baked epoxy brown." which is simply the meaning of our laboratory measurements. Output Impedance: low impedance cathode followers. 1. Precise temperature -compensation for freedom from drift without AFC. 95. extrac tor post fuse.95 Wired: $399.95 Includes Metal Cover 2 MILLION EICO Instruments in use. Y.8 e C Co. 60cps. Sensitivity for phase-locking (synchronization) in stereo: 2. Over . the front end and 4 IF's through to the detector. CIRCLE NO. each had its own sharp tuning -in point on the dial).95 Rack Mount $9. IHFM Capture Ratio: 3db. the stereo demodulator Ten stages for unequalled performance capabilities.5uV will produce phase. Inc. Designed with the utmost practicality so that the simplest alignment is also the alignment for highest sensitivity and practically lowest distortion. perforated steel cover.5 MC.ECC85.'1 :i i': ri: 70 -Watt Integrated Stereo Amplifier 5T70 Kit: $99. Listen to the EICO Hour.95 Semi -Kit $99.95 Wired: $64. Weight 17 lbs. Pre aligned coils eliminate all adjustments.95 Wired: $129. 1.-Fri. IF Bandwidth: 280kc at 6db points. OCT. 1-6010 (triple triode)..1 %. Channel Sepa ration: 30db. all pre -wired and pre -aligned.: Tape Deck RP100 FM -AM Stereo Tuner ST96 Nit: $99. Separation. sharp cut-off 15kc low pass filters in each output channel. Mon. N. THE OPERATIC:- THE CIRCUIT stereo. Meets FCC radiation requirements. Export Dept. (patents pending) eliminates loss of separation due to phase -shift in the stereo sub -channel before re.5%. Tubes: 1. 2. L. IHFM Usable Sensitivity: 3uV (30db quieting). IHFM Signal -to -Noise Ratio: -55db. VISIT EICO ROOMS 518 & 522..95 Wired: $129.locking for full stereo separation. for example. 3300 Northern Boulevard.8 volt. Controls: Power.4 mc.6AL5. Full limiting sensitivity: IOuV. I. 1 neon lamp. the IF strip Four IF amplifier -limiter stages (all that will do any good) and an ultra -wide -band ratio detector. and low.5uV for 20db quieting. (Important to you if a service alignment is ever required.6AU6. Ratio Detector Band. Roburn Agencies Inc. - Address City _Zone -State 1962 EICO Electronic Instrument -- . 1 -DM70 (tuning -eye). width: 1 megacycle peak -to -peak separation. Output Audio Frequency Response: ±1db 20cps -15kc. that full limiting is achieved at lOuV input signal. Audio Output: 0.95 BUILDING THE SEMI critical sections. 1.95 Includes Metal Cover and FET - FM Multiplex Autodaptor MX99 (Patent Pending) Kit: $39.aligned for best performance on weak sig- nals (fringe area reception). and freedom from grating harshness that results from absence of distortion. very strong local signals will proPre -production "Definitely AND FET duce no higher output from the FM detector than a lOuV signal and will not be degraded in quality by overloading the stereo demodulator. meaning that the low distortion and noise specifications (the full benefits of FM) will apply to all but the most distant and difficult -toreceive stations. Send new 36 -page Guidebook to HI -FI for which I enclose 250 for postage & handling. For the the front end Consistent and reliable printed circuit.95 Cover Optional $2. SPECIFICATIONS Antenna Input: 300 ohms balanced.) Output is flat to the limit of the composite stereo signal frequency spectrum to eliminate any need for roll -off compensation in the stereo demodulator.95 (Patents Pending) Sem kit: $299. NEW YORK HI -FI 8 MUSIC SHOW. Distortion is very low. Audio Bandwidth at FM Detector: Flat to 53kc discounting pre -emphasis.. Cathode follower driven. Name -.Uncompromising engineering + moderate price = best buy 'rimer ST 9i New Eico st-. N.95 Wired: $149. We know.. C. so that the sound you hear has that sweetness. EICO's brilliantly -engineered zero phase -shift. third most critical section. AFC provided with defeat for convenience.. Blvd.noise.tronic ".. quisitely brushed and anodized pale gold.

has not made a significant dent in the marketplace. These additional comments and rebuttal are on page 33. then. Where. ELEcrrovres WORLD asked five top designers in the high -fidelity components industry two questions: "What role will the transistor play in component highfidelity? "Will the transistor replace the vacuum tube?" Their answers to these questions and the comments each made on the answers of his colleagues follows. in fact almost any electronic item he uses. EDITOR'S NOTE: Will transistors replace vacuum tubes in hi -fi equipment? To answer this question and to tell our readers the present and future role of the transistor. And indeed. H October. except for high fidelity. He's heard testimonials to their indispensability in our space exploration program. from all manufacturers. the sale of all transistorized high-fidelity components combined. The potential buyer now has transistors in his portable radio.americanradiohistory. Laboratories' scientists threw a bombshell into the electronics industry with the announcement of the transistor. 1962 www. To date. auto radio. Now. the conflicting answers given us by a large sample of design engineers indicates that there exists a hotbed of controversy behind the calm facade of the laboratory. tachometer. salesmen could sell transistorized high -fidelity components if they had them to sell. that is. we solicited the viewpoints of a number of audio designers. Bell It was evident from the beginning that the answer was not to be found with the marketing people -they would welcome transistor equipment because the market is ready for it. intercom. the number of manufacturers who have used transistors in their high -fidelity components can be counted on the fingers of one hand.An EW Symposium Conducted by CHARLES S. Why? This is what ELEc-rnoxres WORLD set out to answer. The fallout has not All settled yet. he was asked to comment on or rebut the views set down by the other engineers. To date. but the revolution in design nurtured by the transistor and its semiconductor cousins has touched all aspects of electronics -all.com . N 1948. After each man presented his case. depth finder. is the bottleneck? All evidence pointed to the design engineer. TEPFER TRANSISTORS or TUBES fo ? Five of the country's leading high -fidelity component design engineers offer their own answers in an open debate exclusively for the readers of Electronics World.

Ever since the tuner -amplifier combination was introduced. power transistors which do not possess this drawback. With some of the newer types of output transistors.52. interference. A properly designed class B transistor amplifier generally requires a little less feedback for a given amount of distortion in the output than is required by tube amplifiers. increasing the price of the tuner. as well as the millions of transistorized pocket radios in use.4. requires transistors capable of handling currents of at least 1 ampere. due to lack of transistors which both perform the task well and are economically feasible to use. for only he can afford the price of diffused. Use In Amplifiers Let's start at the low-level input stages of an amplifier. Transistors are not inherently more nonlinear than vacuum tubes.transistor front ends can be made equal to that of today's highly sensitive tube front ends. Whereas in amplifiers the output stages present a major problem. I do not mean to imply that transistors now solve all of the design problems in producing improved high -fidelity components.voltage devices. TRANSISTORS are now available. and consequently. in turn. such as the drift -field type. The use of transistors in the power amplifier is particularly tempting. and repeating of the same station at several points on the dial. One further disadvantage of transistors is their low input impedance at the high FM frequencies. usually by a factor of 10:1. in tuners it is the front -end which imposes limitations. but obviously this is not a disadvantage if the maximum distortion at any power level is low. and adaptability to printed circuits encourage tight packaging and component size reduction. Transistors do not exhibit hum or microphonics and can be operated as low-noise devices. for which transistors are ideally suited. for an average power amplifier. however.efficiency speaker systems must deliver a minimum of approximately 25 watts per channel. and harmonic distortion of less than 0. when matched to low -impedance signal sources such as magnetic tape heads and magnetic phono pickups. These transistors are now available at low enough prices to permit their use in high -fidelity equipment.f. Overload. Their large junction areas. Output stages with power levels considered adequate to drive today's highly damped and low. This. However. Germanium alloy -junction power transistors can perform this job easily and are obtainable at prices comparable to those of the bigger power pentodes. The solution to all these problems is readily available -but only to the designer of military equipment.. push -pull output stages. the heat dissipation by about 55 per-cent. does not look as bleak as it would seem.emitter configuration drops to 70 per-cent of the maximum gain available at lower frequencies. in turn. This can be done using very low noise transistors. demonstrate the economic feasibility of using transistors. their small dimensions. Elimination of the output transformer greatly improves the transient response as well as the over-all stability and power handling capabilities of the amplifier at higher audio frequencies. if this is desired. Use in FM Tuners Turning now to transistorized FM tuners will reveal quite a different picture. consequently. because manufacturers of the germanilnn diffused junction (drift -field) power transistors are on the verge of solving the problems of stability and a phenomenon called secondary breakdown. for equal power output.junction silicon power transistors. low. It is not too difficult to design a transistor amplifier for multiplex operation with a flat frequency response to 75 ke. but do not eliminate it completely. A class B power amplifier design may at times show greater distortion at lower signal levels than at maximum power. Replacing the output tubes with transistors would. The remaining sections of a tuner (including any multiplex circuits that may 32 ELECTRONICS WORLD www. In addition. which are definitely capable of supplying high power outputs combined with low distortion at frequencies considerably higher that those obtainable with even the present-day highly refined vacuum-tube amplifiers. excessive phase shift can render any feedback amplifier unstable. a transistorized power output stage makes it possible to eliminate the output transformer. Unfortunately. greatly increases for frequencies higher than 5 to 10 kc. Greater emphasis must be placed on incoming inspection and quality control in order to assure the utmost in reliability and performance. and mixer stages of FM front ends due to strong antenna signals. it is not difficult to obtain full power rating at frequencies as high as 50 kc. We can therefore expect to find amplifiers in the near future using these new transistors. but they are not yet as reliable and stable as the vacuum tubes used today. Mergner Vice-President Director of Engineering Fisher Radio Corp. To prevent this. the sensitivity of FM.matched to the low -impedance voice coils of speaker systems rated between 4 and 16 ohms. Application of forward a. but the distortion. Recent advances in production techniques have resulted in diffused-junction r.present. a voltage stabilized power supply must be used.f. reduce the power requirement by approximately SO watts and. permitting the design of practically any type circuit presently used in tube-type high-fidelity components. low heat dissipation. New and different techniques arc required for the design of transistor amplifiers. based on 40 volts and 63 percent efficiency. Transistors. stray capacities. one particular problem has plagued the design engineer: the great amount of heat generated by high -power. In addition. As transistors are basically high -current. results in cross modulation. greatly reduce their "Q. which are now available at fairly reasonable prices. exhibit a high capacitance and thus reduce the available power gain at higher audio frequencies. conversion of the output stages -the biggest step forward. where leakage inductance.com .g. dual-channel. and antenna signal attenuation alleviate this problem greatly. It is true that transistors create some new problems to plague the design engineer. they can easily be load. This change in capacitance alters the frequency of the associated oscillator circuit. the transistorized high -fidelity components on the market now.) Circuit refinements permit extension of the useful power range beyond this frequency. in general. Amplitude distortion clue to nonlinear device characteristics cannot occur in an FM tuner except in the stages after detection. are more prone to overload than are tubes. always a problem child and the weakest link in any amplifier. thus causing detuning and frequency drift. at fairly reasonable prices. Fred L.americanradiohistory. Strangely enough." resulting in image and spurious response rejection figures substantially lower than those available from comparable vacuum -tube front ends. The situation. One property inherent in transistors-their change of base collector junction capacitance with a change of the collector voltage -is particularly bothersome in FM oscillators. the greatest problem. (This is the frequency at which the current gain in a common. and consequent distortion in the r. at the same time. Power matching this impedance to the tuned circuits to achieve the highest possible gain will. Germanium alloy -junction transistors normally have a cut -off frequency of between 3 and 10 kc.c. however.

or else severe operational restrictions. The aim in the conversion to transistors should be part of the over -all search for increasing quality and refinement in design rather than a desire to "cash in" on an inviting promotional gimmick. The reason for this seemingly anomalous situation is that although as much as 100 watts of wasted power may have been saved over an equivalent vacuum-tube design. in this more sophisticated design. von Recklinghausen Chief Research Engineer. due to junction capacitance change with temperature and voltage. The example of transistor pocket radios is not indicative of the economic feasibility of conversion to transistors in high -fidelity equipment. Inc. although their very high price precludes their use in high -fidelity applications. but of secondary All 1.c. This process will probably take a few years. Fred L. In the meantime. when continuously added to a 100 degree F ambient. in cooperation with some of the major transistor manufacturers.be used) do not present any particular design problems. completely hum -free transistor equipment operation is possible only from batteries. 4. the problem of heat dissipation remains one of the greatest design headaches. which is sufficient. there is an over-all net gain in linearity. Scott. 1962 Ihave followed with considerable bemusement the wide range of opinions expressed in this symposium. to offer trouble in the more sensitive low-level transistors. Nevertheless. is at this time at least 30 db poorer than in a well. 1. the near future could see the introduction of hybrid designs in which transistors and tubes "co. production transistors have equaled or exceeded the uniformity of the best tubes. Transistor tuner drift. 3. economically feasible transistors. Since today's market calls for higher powered designs. because this would reduce the amount of heat generated and allow the elimination of bulky and costly output transformers. Harman -Kardon. but without advantages in performance. in developing and defining appropriate parameters. 3. importance. such as dual 30 -. As we have seen. the output transistor heat sink soon rises above the maximum design range of the low -level transistors in the same chassis. Inc. FM front end cross modulation. However. on the whole. Reduction in size is desirable and possible. there still remains 50 or more watts of power being dissipated directly as heat. is more than an order of magnitude higher than with tubes and remains a serious problem. we must consider them as well.exist" side by side. will have to operate and be capable of installation with existing components and temperature rise caused by the other equipment. This may be increased to somewhat higher values if collector current is reduced almost to the point of instability. Miller Vice -President Sherwood Electronic Labs. Lower noise devices are needed and the field effect devices are promising. Edward S. Perhaps in this case. We have been successful. FM front ends should be able to handle more than 100. Our experience and also evaluation of existing equipment on the market seems to indicate that in designs up to dual -20 -watt music power. Furst Vice -President. or even 50 -watt amplifiers. designed basically for switching applications. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS & REBUTTAL Daniel R. as new and better transistors become available at lower prices. due to the very low r. are applied to audio circuits. OPR research at Sherwood has brought to light several idiosyncrasies peculiar to transistor high -fidelity amplifier and tuner design. We measured signals as high as 1 volt in many different places in the New York City area. Robert E. with resultant improvement in stability. designed to equal in every respect the performance of presently available tube equipment. Inc. Through formal and informal standardization of voltages and impedances. such as amplifier power output stages. if performance equal or superior to existing tube front ends is required. The over-all reduction in heat is an important factor in designing long -life and stable equipment. Lack of transistor uniformity occurs only when standard transistors. lowest noise results if the optimum source impedance. 33 . power line. Here are some points on which I am in disagreement with one or several of the participants: 1. are beyond the reach of presently available. the situation at present is one in which transistors might be used in certain restricted sections of high fidelity equipment. the heat dissipation problem can be adequately handled by practical heat -sinking techniques (usually mounting tightly to an aluminum chassis or laminated or extruded aluminum -finned heat dissipaters). Fisher Radio Corp. new linear devices are sorely needed. Transistors in preamplifier front ends are less noisy than tubes. magnetic induction is the major cause of hum in tube and transistor equipment alike. plus unknown signal conditions (will it he operated for a long duration with a continuous -tone test record to check out its high. enclosed bookshelf near a vacuum -tube tuner?). H. Ahigh -fidelity music system is generally assembled from com- ponents coming from three or more different manufacturers.designed tube tuner. 2. As a result. No difficulty was encountered in accurately matching any commercial loudspeakers between 4 and 16 ohms to the same transform erless output circuit. participants in this symposium seem to agree on several points: Transistors would be preferable to tubes in power output stages. the most obvious one is when the comparative (Continued on page 114) October. the design engineer will be forced to resort to a small cooling fan. The specific applications in which transistors would be clearly superior to vacuum tubes. since they lend themselves to application of greater amounts of feedback with the same stability margin. Inevitably. II. it would be extremely unfortunate for the industry if hasty designs were to flood the market in the rush to get on the transistor bandwagon. Here. Our experiences are not in agreement with many of the arguments raised and I should like to mention some important ones. a cut-out thermostat.. This will present a problem even if not tuned to such a high powered station. 2.000 microvolts of signal without intermodulation distortion.President. Ultimately. when compared to its vacuum -tube counterpart. Mergner Vice. all. Engineering. is used. 4. Transistorized equipment. 2. we now find the additional heat load presented by a transistor regulator in the power supply. It is true that high -input -impedance transistorized amplifiers can be designed. plus unknown load conditions ( will it be called upon to drive multiple lowefficiency speakers somewhat mismatched to the amplifier ?). When the unknown environment (will it be mounted in a poorly ventilated. of Engineering. selectivity necessarily found in transistorized front ends. Despite the fact that transistors offer one of their greatest advantages over vacuum tubes in high -powered audio amplifiers (their lower heat dissipation ).frequency performance ?) are all taken into consideration. over comparable vacuum -tube circuits. because of nonlinear transistor input impedance. As long as high-fidelity equipment is operated from an a.transistor designs will dominate the high fidelity field. Therefore. There is no doubt in my mind that transistorized equipment. must be much more expensive. 40 -. all this equipment operates well together.f. on the order of 1000 ohms. Of the varied reasons offered for the superior sound of a transistorized amplifier. We have not found transistors to be more nonlinear than tubes. However. for the foreseeable future. frequency and transient response. Dir. The FM front end still defies transistorization.

S. Carried in the nose cone was a satellite that. was seen in millions of American homes after having been relayed by the satellite. These historic.11it is shown here mounted on a laboratory test stand. and from the English ground station 6394 mc. a giant "Delta" rocket roared away from its launch stand at Cape T Canaveral. Bandwidth for the broad -band TV channel is about 3 mc. New Jersey. Bell Telephone Laboratories. TV networks was beamed to Europe by way of the satellite." Its primary purpose is to receive broad -band microwave signals from a ground station. made possible the transmission of television pictures and telephone messages between the United States and Europe.deviation FM is used to impress the desired information on the microwave carrier. On July 23.. and re. and England.S. Maine and Holmdel.million for these expenses by the system sponsor. the center frequency is 4170 mc. American Telephone and Telegraph Co. Bell Telephone Laboratories designed and built the satellite and the ground stations at Andover. SHENNUM/ Head. data. are employed for each direction. or any other service commonly handled by ground microwave circuits. and initial tracking for "Telstar. if telephone conversations are being carried on between the U. 60 of which are covered with 3600 solar cells that provide the charging current for the nickel. facsimile. Both of these signals are received by the satellite. H.S. a live television program prepared jointly by the three U. Complete technical details on the experimental microwave repeater satellite and the system that is now relaying TV and telephone signals between the U. amplified. is employed. Wide.broadcast so that both ground stations receive both signals. separate carrier frequencies. in the late afternoon.S. ground station may be 6384 mc. Inc. A few hours later. a center frequency of 6390 mc. From satellite to ground. launching facilities. 3:35 on the morning of July 10th." NASA was paid back some $3. spaced 10 -mc. the carrier frequency from the U. Usable bandwidth of this audio channel is 8 kc. and re.. with a peak -to -peak deviation of 14 mc. amplify them.COVER STORY COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE By R. The microwave signals can handle TV. before the day had ended.cadmium storage battery that is used to power the electronic equipment in the unit. voice." it is possible to carry on 12 simultaneous two -way telephone conELECTRONICS WORLD . 34 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration provided the rocket. Satellite Design Dept. When used for two -way telephony. The satellite has 72 facets. The "Telstar" communi- cations sat. The satellite has been called a "microwave tower in the sky. through the facilities of Eurovision.transmit them so that they can be picked up at another ground station thousands of miles away. In the experimental set-up used with "Telstar. and Europe. highly successful feats were called by some the first steps in establishing a world -wide communications system via space by way of a station that is orbiting in space. Sound for the TV program is handled by a separate subcarrier which is frequency modulated and then multiplexed onto the main carrier. apart. For example. From the ground station to the satellite. a live European TV program.

excited cavities which are opened at the satellite's outer surface and produce omnidirectional radiation and reception patterns. 50 -mw. the satellite has several electronic subsystems: (a) microwave beacon. center frequency of 90 mc.f. France has a station at Pleumeur -Bodou which closely resembles the Andover station. telephony.h.f. farthest from earth) of 3502 miles. The satellite receives wide -band communications signals at one microwave frequency and transmits them back to the ground stations at a different microwave frequency. aiding the ground station in its tracking operation. These outputs are fed through transistor frequency multipliers a Cutaway drawing of satellite interior. i. and providing qualitative and quantitative experimental data. to beat with the 90 -mc. Maine and at Holmdel. is at Goonhilly Down. although satisfactory operation has been achieved at distances as great as 6100 miles. To prevent larger variations of the input signal.com . The Andover station is the control point. and (f) radiation experiment.f. and the other to transmit these signals to the ground at 4170 mc. at 4080 mc. and can both transmit and receive. amplifier is 80 mc. (c) v.) . ± 225 cps is used to amplitudeTELEMETRY MODULE SOLAR CELLS TRAVELING WAVE TUBE AMPLIFIER EQUATORIAL ANTENNAS NICKELCADMIUM BATTERY The Satellite The " Telstar" satellite is roughly spherical in shape.9 and 17. it receives coded pulses from the ground at 120 mc. 102 minutes a clay. A microwave beacon transmitter (using the 4080 -mc. The belt of smaller antennas around the equator of the satellite receive broad-band TV signals from the ground at 6390 mc. The "Telstar" satellite orbits the earth approximately nine times a day. With one -way. Technicians mating satellite to third stage of the "Delta" rocket. up to 600 voice circuits or their equivalent could be carried if suitable ground equipment were installed. beacon transmitter.3 mc. Pulsed FM at 3 kc. and varactor diode multipliers to give the necessary frequencies -6300 mc. This transmitter puts out a signal of about 50 mw. ruggedized traveling -wave tube amplifier. designed and built by British engineers. Two foreign stations are in operation and both can transmit and receive. 60 of which are covered with solar cells which keep the storage batteries that power the electronic equipment charged.f. The local oscillator frequencies are produced from two relatively low. Two or three of these passes have periods in which "Telstar" is also visible to Western Europe. - 35 October. which means that the nine passes are completed in just under 24 hours. The tube provides an r. closest to earth) of 593 miles with an apogee (highest point. The bandwidth of the i. This is the only vacuum tube in the entire satellite. The orbit has a perigee (lowest point. New Jersey.. At a range of 5000 miles. The helical antenna atop the satellite transmits telemetry information and a coarse beacon signal at 136 mc. It is then converted up to the output frequency of 4170 mc. and mutual visibility with Europe. power output at the ground is about 2000 watts.f.versations. oscillator) permits precise tracking from the ground. it is "visible" from the ground station at Andover. Total visibility at Maine is as much as 250 minutes a day.frequency crystal oscillators (15. The telemetry transmitter operates at 136 mc. These are the two stations which have been used so successfully with Andover for demonstrating transatlantic TV. (b) telemetry system. An automatic gain control circuit in the satellite holds the output constant with input signal variations of as much as 20 db. for 2 command receivers that control communications and telemetry transmitters. Maine. when the traveling -wave tube is on but no communications are being sent. Total amplification of the communications channel is 10 billion times. broad-band transmission. which also uses 1064 transistors and 1464 diodes. and amplified in a broad -band solid-state i. or to carry an equivalent amount of data.f. It has 72 facets. Much information on the space environment on and in the satellite is transmitted back to the ground station by means of the telemetry system which is located in the satellite. In addition to the communications repeater. Narrow -band PCM -FM -AM is employed in the telemetry system. Holmdel can receive only. to beat with the incoming signal and 4080 mc. precision beacon signal is also transmitted. These systems provide ground control of the satellite. The system was designed to be operative with the satellite as far as 5000 miles from the ground station. 1962 www.8 degrees with respect to the equator. A helical antenna is used to radiate this signal. England. (d) command receiver. with an output power of 200 mw. The incoming signal is converted down to an i. For a short time during four or five of these passes. The British station. at the 1 -db points. It is provided with an automatic gain control to hold the output constant with input variations. amplifier.americanradiohistory. The over -all bandwidth of the complete repeater is 50 mc. Two broad -band microwave antennas girdle the satellite one to receive the communications signals at 6390 mc. (e) solar power plant. output of about 234 watts. with diameter of 34% inches and a weight of 170 pounds. and other data. or a mixture of all of these. The belt of larger antennas retransmit these signals with a power level of 21/4 watts at 4170 mc. or facsimile circuits. and give the output of 4170 mc.8 minutes. the output of the ground transmitter is varied according to the distance to the satellite. teletypewriter. A 4080 -mc. These antennas are actually 2 belts of probe. In addition. Ground facilities for the "Telstar" project are located at Andover. this power automatically decreases when the satellite is closer. The period of rotation is 157. when communications are being sent through the satellite and 80 mw. with an inclination of 44. and fed to a special broad -band.

tenor of the satellite. some radiation damage is expected and the output will gradually decrease with time. This battery is kept charged by the 3600 silicon solar cells mounted on the ex36 The principal ground station is at Andover. providing a total output of close to 15 watts initially and about 13. The driver for this output stage consists of modified microwave radio -relay equipment. station.v. The entire electronics package. beacon and telemetry and transmits commands on about 120 mc. sending commands.e. Maine. One is a quad -helix which picks up the satellites 136 -mc.2 watt to 2000 watts. Both the communications transmitter and telemetry equipment are normally turned on when the satellite becomes "visible" to the Andover ground station. are monitored to determine the degradation with continued exposure to Van Allen belt radiation. an eight -foot dish. is about 50° K when the antenna is pointed 4. through the helical antenna to assist in acquisition and tracking. a special high -power traveling -wave tube was developed. and condition of electronic circuits. or the power output can be adjusted automatically to compensate for the distance to the satellite. Maine. is suspended by nylon cords to provide thermal isolation from the frame and for protection from shock and vibration. As mentioned previously. A total of 115 different items are measured once each minute. the over -all noise temperature. Cornwall. beacon transmitter radiates a constant 200 -mw. To get the necessary 2000 watts of r.7° above the horizon.beacon signal at 4080 mc. The planned duty cycle is more than adequate to keep the equipment performing properly and to prevent the batteries from becoming discharged. condition of battery. carrier.. With all electronic equipment in the satellite turned on. Typical measurements include density and energy of electrons and protons.f. In fact. two identical systems -each consisting of a receiver and a decoder -are employed to improve reliability.HORN ANTENNA AUTO TRACK COMMAND PRECISION TRACKING AND TELEMETRY ANTENNA rANTENNA Artist's drawing of the earth station near Andover. the total drain on the batteries is about 34 watts. the storage batteries would become completely discharged. The same horn is also used as the ground transmitting antenna.J.v. southwest England.25 m. including losses in the radome and antenna. Several transistors are used to measure the effect of radiation on their short -circuit current gain. Another elaborate ground dish antenna is located in Goonhilly. The Ground Station Inside the huge radome at Andover A similar installation is located the 177. using a large parabolic is France. a very weak incoming signal and a very powerful outgoing signal are kept from interfering with each other. Other equipment at the ground station includes two tracking antennas. if this equipment were to be left on for a prolonged period of time. reception is possible at Holmdel. The main (Continued on page 931 ELECTRONICS WORLD . The other antenna. which has the ability to amplify very weak signals while introducing a minimum amount of noise. N. This transmitter is equipped with a timer which will turn it off after two years to avoid interference with future satellites operating on this frequency. It is covered with an inflated radome to protect it from wind and weather. computing its orbit. and sky noise. showing some of its operating systems as used with the "Telstar" satellite. Three solar cells. and weighs about 380 tons. The minute energy picked up by the horn antenna (perhaps a fraction of a billionth of a watt) is first amplified by a ruby maser. and are turned off just before the satellite disappears below the horizon.foot -long horn antenna. tracks the microwave. Power for all of the electronic equipment is obtained from a 19 -cell nickel -cadmium storage battery. By means of suitable diplexing equipment. is 177 feet long. Therefore. These receivers operate in the neighborhood of 120 mc. and serve to turn the equipment on and off by means of properly coded signals from the ground. with its components protected by foamed plastic. A number of radiation experiments are being carried out by "Telstar" and these will produce valuable information about the effects of Van Allen belt radiation on various electronic components. The same helical antenna which serves as the radiator for the telemetry transmitter also serves as the receiving antenna for the command receivers. at Pleumeur -Bodou in Brittany. and carrying out broad -band communications experiments. temperature of satellite skin and interior. and two foreign stations are in operation. Six pre -irradiated solar cells are mounted in such a manner that the outputs can be used to determine the orientation of the satellite spin axis with respect to the sun. the largest horn antenna ever built was constructed. modulate the 136 -mc. power for the transmitter. and to keep out unwanted radiation.h. Several p -n junction particle detectors are employed to measure protons with energies from 2 to 80 m. It includes a means for tracking the satellite.2 to 1. receiving telemetry information. The v. It has a mouth opening of about 3600 square feet. Various thicknesses of shielding are employed on the transistors. To scoop up as much of the energy radiated by the satellite as possible. These cells are divided up into 50 parallel groups of 72 cells in series. a command receiver is provided to turn these circuits on and off as desired.5 watts after a number of weeks of operation. Although these solar cells are shielded with sapphire. signal at 136 mc.e. but we will confine our discussion to the Andover site. Power can be adjusted manually from . It tracks the satellite smoothly to a precision of better than a fiftieth of a degree.f. also with various amounts of shielding. Actually. and electrons with energies from . To conserve power and to operate the communications transmitter and telemetry equipment only when they are useful.

' +15V. range a decade amplifier with gains of 0. x ' +15V. R. R.R. Now 1.. it has become an all. AND ' -20V. A typical two -tube operational amplifier. by making R. is comparatively small (say. 1.1. and the ratio R... the input current. THEN '-35V.. 3. 1962 37 . the equation can be written: E. how does the amplifier do its job? Let us draw a block diagram of an amplifier. Leaving. whose output polarity is inverted with respect to the input. and a drift of possibly ]0 millivolts (or less) per day. applications of small plug -in direct -current amplifiers that are . 3). is very small. less than 100 or possibly 1000).. the problems involved in designing an amplifier with a gain of over a million. =+15V. 1:. or in other words. the gain may be increased or decreased (Fig. = E0 IF E. without loss of gain. the gain can be changed without affecting input impedance. /R1. 4. amplifier of very high gain.OPERATIONAL AMPLIFI h. By Ohm's Law: E..c. or (E. as a cathode -follower would. By changing ratios. JT is comparatively easy to block-diagram a control circuit.. Transistor amplifiers operate in the region of 10. Originally developed for computer application. with a feedback loop between output and input (Fig.RS By ALVIN F..widely employed in industrial control circuitry. E2 tMEG R. a variable. Of course. R.. U ing amplifier to add voltages. The high gain of the amplifier reduces the error to a negligible value. 1. the integrator. the input will be an open grid. but filling in the blocks could be a real problem but for one simplifying component.) The two equations can be combined: E. Of what use is an amplifier with a gain of one (or rather.000 ohms. one megohm being the common "gain -of -one" resistor.F.= -AE. It can add two sources: in Fig. will rise at a uniform rate for a step input.. Not only can we easily arOctober. _ Ei E1 + X E2'-E01 E Fig. for all practical purposes it is zero. E.. for this article. 2 the output is the algebraic sum of the inputs. (In a vacuum -tube amplifier.000 cps (or more). MEG IF E. a response from d. If we substitute a capacitor for R. 2. or 100.. ANO ' +20V.. minus one)? For one thing. x Eo c-17V.. amplifier circuit diagram..c. Fig. A is shown as negative because the amplifier inverts the signal. but its response will go clown to d. /R. ) ( 1+ (I X Rf and if A (gain) is in the range of 10' to 10'. it can provide a high input impedance. Now we come to the most interesting (and useful) of applications.= -A). de(Continued on page 80) What It Is Defined briefly. Fig. RYMSHA Description.THEN E.purpose electronic tool. E2 Eo IMEG 1+ ( r1 R. an operational amplifier is a d. 10.c... E2 Fig. - IMEG IF E. The gain of the amplifier is . E0 and A (gain) is: E.000 ohms to 10 megohms. Changing resistors alters gain. THEN ' +5V.. Schematic diagram of a typical operational amplifier. Need a decade amplifier? A slow sweep? Comparator? Want to add two voltages in different ratios? This is only a partial list of possible functions.. ANO Ez'+20V. the output (E.. the output E.) is strictly determined by the ratio of the input and feedback resistors times the input voltage. the operational amplifier. Basic E.. Applications Vacuum -tube amplifiers will commonly use resistors in the range of 100. to 250. /E. 1).

it can be tapped at any point. IN AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER H _L BELOW (A) }I IN 12 OUTtREPEATER (I M1-Ft REPEATER IIMC -a-W- X\ -1. A major university. IA) Two -cable and MI single -cable dup ex system. At regular intervals. route them through the single amplifier. one cable for each direction of transmission. pass from the cable through low -pass filter LP -1 into the amplifier and through LP-2 into the cable on the other end of the repeater. . is planning a two -way. ABOVE IIMC. signals appearing at the output of the amplifier are passed through HP -2 around LP -1 to the cable leading west. an amplifier is inserted into each Now. Simultaneous two-way transmission through a single coaxial cable is made possible by means of a unique cable repeater amplifier. Duplexed Single Cable OUT _T_ OUT r AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER ABOVE AMPLIFIER INC. -+ IN cable circuit to make up for the cable transmission losses. Recent developments make coax more versatile and less expensive than many present microwave systems. L> -e- 2 BELOW I INC.- BELOW IIMC. until recently the cost of coaxial cable systems was so high that only major telephone companies could afford to use them. Recent developments make coaxial cable systems less costly than microwave in many cases and far more versatile. for instance. and express highway authorities because the need for off -line microwave repeater station sites is eliminated. Eastbound signals under 11 mc. Furthermore. When submarine Fig. The amplified 12 -22 utc. Westbound signals between 12 mc. or suspended in the air when aerial cable is used. Since it can be totally encapsulated.000 miles of coaxial cable are in use. Filters within the cable repeater assembly separate the eastbound and westbound signals.circuit TV transmission system utilizing coaxial cable buried along the right-of -way of a railroad. Coaxial cable systems Nvill appeal to railroads.coalax A single coax cable can carry two -way multi -channel communications as well as TV and data information. are transmitted in the opposing direction. COAXIAL cable looms on the horizon as a formidable competitor of microwave systems. a right -of -way is needed. as illustrated in Fig. maintenance is confined to the right -of -way. Signals below 11 mc. and are routed through high -pass filter HP -1 to the input of the amplifier. A large manufacturer is looking into the possibility of utilizing the right -of -way of three railroads for a long -haul coaxial cable system which is to be used for two-way T\' transmission.F "N ABOVE IIMC. and 22 mc. intercity closed. however. Most of the existing coaxial cable transmission systems employ two cables for duplex transmission. P-I BELOW IIMC. A single coaxial cable is capable of simultaneous two -way multi -channel communications and TV and data transmission. But. The use of coaxial cable systems is not necessarily limited to organizations possessing a right -of -way. it is possible to transmit in both directions through a single coaxial cable.. and feed them back into the cable in the appropriate direction. and 22 mc. 1. A community TV antenna company is considering the installation of a coaxial cable along a railroad right -of -way to pipe TV programs from a mountain -top TV receiver to the community it serves. Only a single amplifier is required for providing 20 db gain in both directions simultaneously. 1 ABOVE IIMC. More than 500. to use a coaxial cable system. rapid transit systems. pipe lines. A cable repeater of this type can be built into a tubular casing less than a foot long. Unlike a microwave system. Fig. But. depending on the attenuation characteristics of the cable used.41 OUT REPEATEI+ L_. are transmitted in one direction and signals between 12 mc. One of these repeaters is inserted into the cable at intervals of one -half to several miles. as shown in Fig. (B) 38 ELECTRONICS WORLD . 1. the cable repeater can be buried with the cable. are blocked by LP-2 from entering the output of the amplifier. 2. Single -line duplex cable repeater block diagram. 2.

552 MC. Fig. 3. Telegraph. data. The loss in the cable increases with frequency and varies with temperature. Voice.IIMC.c. Simultaneous voice and TV over a single cable. when equipped in this manner. I t3 f3 I G a ROUP MOD UATOR = o D: f W f2 CNANNEL F 2 CARRIER pTRANSMITTER o Á2 CHANNEL 2 CARRIER TO OTHER CHANNELS n TO RECEIVER 'CHANNELS'. Recent cost studies reveal that the over -all cost of a coaxial (Continued on page 76) ZERO LOSS CABLE SECTION Multiplexing plexing Conventional single -sideband suppressed carrier telephone multiplex equipment may be utilized to derive in- dividual telephone channels. TV SIGNAL IN 0-B > MC. Cable costs vary from a few cents a foot to more than a dollar per foot depending on the type of D. eastbound signals (left) f. trenching it in the ground to a depth of only several inches makes it easier to retrieve the cable when repairs are required. 4.c. The voltage drop across each repeater is about 12 volts d.-41- Cable Types MC. E- Many kinds of coaxial cable. Since only a part of the available transmission band is utilized by even a 600-channel SSB multiplex system. the video signal may be transmitted above or below the voice channels. RC -11 /U. power supply circuit in simplified form. GROUP DEMODULATOR 21- 21. teletypewriter. While ordinary antenna lead -in type coaxial cable may be buried. Equalization and Regulation Equalizers are included in the cable repeater to offset the frequency characteristics of the cable.f2y f3-V 11.division multiplex equipment. 6 shows only two duplex voice channels. Block diagram of the multiplexed single coaxial cable transmission system. CARRIER TELEPHONE GROUP 10. 5. and other digital information may be transmitted by employing frequency -shift keyed or "on -off" tone transmitters and receivers. coaxial cable (similar to RC -8 /U. Instead. 6. data. The transistorized repeaters are connected in series for d.SIGNAL INPUT REPEATERS 12 VOLTS 12 VOLTS 12 VOLTS CABLE Because of the wide transmission band. At the east terminal.c. and RG -58 /U) is available equipped with a steel messenger. FILTER 0. While cable may be buried to a depth of several feet. 3. A simplified block diagram of a single coaxial cable transmission system. including foam types. and f. Consideration must be given to the effects of modulation products of the multiplex voice signals and TV signals on each other.552 MC. For aerial suspension. there is ample space for a TV channel or high -speed data channels in each direction. 4 shows the equipment requirements at one of the terminals. are fed into the other end of the cable through a group modulator. CHANNEL I CHANNEL CARRIER RECEIVER CHANNEL CARRIER fl I CARRIER TRANSMITTER I TRANSMITTER fl CHANNEL CARRIER RECEIVER I f3 GROUP DEMODULATOR CHANNEL 2 CARRIER TRANSMITTER 12 CHANNEL 2 CARRIER RECEIVER 12 fl. SIGNAL INPUT OUTPUT ANO OUTPUT CONSTANT CURRENT POWER SUPPLY VOLTS 12 12 VOLTS SHIELD Fig. Power Circuits Unlike a microwave system. Changes in cable characteristics due to temperature variations are corrected by the automatic regulators and mop -up equalizers. 0-eMC. 1962 1 20 De LOSS MOPUP TERMINAL EQUIPMENT DUPLEX REPEATER IONE EVERY S 20 DB GAIN REPEATERBI MOP -UP REGULATOR EQUALIZER IADDS O GAI N SUBTR EQUALIZER - -lnT- 'CRA.12 \-s . the incoming signal f:: is fed through a group demodulator to convert them back into f. a local source of electric power is not required for operation of repeaters. and power consumption is about 12 milliwatts. Fig. NAL EOwGMENT TR S IONS EVERY 25 REPEATERS) Fig. Cost can run much higher when pipes have to be installed to run cable under roads which are intersected by the right -of -way. the repeater may be submerged with the cable. appears to have zero end -to -end loss over its intended transmission frequency band. T TV SIGNAL 0 -BMC. Cost The cost of burying cable varies greatly.' CABLE 12. Sometimes an additional wrap of steel is provided to insure magnetic shielding. October. and b.c.10. And. Up to 18 tone channels may be transmitted over a single voice channel. MODULATOR MULTIPLEX TERMINAL 60 -552 KC. To maintain constant signal levels.22MC. 60 -552 KC. the incoming signals f. it is possible to employ other types of frequency. As shown in Fig. The cable. - cable selected.C. The cable is suspended by clamping the messenger to poles or other supports. are available for use in coaxial cable transmission systems. and TV signals may be dropped and inserted at any point along the cable by providing suitable blocking filters and multiplex equipment. d. automatic regulators are also inserted in the cable at various points. cable is used. OUT GROUP DEMODULATOR 12-20 - COAXIAL t. Westbound signals (right) f. as shown in Fig. While Fig. such as FM and double -sideband AM. from a constant -current power supply at one end of the cable. are fed directly into the carrier telephone terminal. mop -up equalizers are inserted in the cable at various points as required. 5. The d. special cables with an additional wrap of copper alloy over the insulation covering the shield braid outer conductor are sometimes used. To further improve the frequency response. Estimates run as low as $500 per mile. These signals are thus transmitted as f:: at frequencies above 12 mc. Fig. as shown in Fig. and b from a carrier telephone terminal are fed directly into the cable. When TV is to be transmitted. several hundred channels can be handled in this manner. 6. is transmitted through the cable itself. and f. The copper alloy tends to keep vermin from eating through the cable. at the west terminal. 39 .

A mole accurate method was to check the time elapsing between mile posts. "When slid this thing start ?" "Last Armed Forces Day when I attended the open house out at Bunker Hill Air Force Base. " \o. yes. "What's the matter? Einstein's theory giving you a little trouble ?" Mac asked sympathetically.1 me. transmitter of \V \\'V. "that's better. The 10 -roc. "This doesn't sound like you at all. the upper limit of frequencies you can measure with the 524C ?" "With the basic unit. For example. and show the total number of cycles taking place in that second. Some of it is over my head. controls display time.. The oscillator is stable to within 5 parts in 10' per week or within 3 parts in 10' for a short term. Counting pulses and adding them. I wrote Hewlett-Packard and asked for some clope on the operation of the 524C. even up to ten million a second.1 mc. for one thing. and one of these was the electronic booth. The accuracy is still that of the basic unit. The time -base section generates accurate reference frequencies 40 for frequency and period measurements. I'm just being tortured by my new love affair. but three additional frequency converter units extend the range to 500 Inc. Measuring the time involved precisely was cohere error was likely to creep in.o. Doppler frequency shifts caused by atmospheric conditions reduce the accuracy. I fell head over heels in love with it. delay lines. or roughly 100 feet apart. and I've spent most of my spare time since trying to understand it. you might suppose it would bee perfectly safe to adjust the counter oscillator so a harmonic fell precisely on \V\VV. Maryland. He knew that on his division these poles were set . The gate section opens and closes the signal path to the counter units." Mac said with obvious relief. The counters total signal cycles or pulses applied to them and display the total on the front pummel.. This accuracy makes the output frequencies excellent secondary frequency standards. but this is not the case unless you are within 150 miles of Beltsville.Packar(! Model 524C Electronic Digital Counter in operation. When i saw a Hewlett. so that the difference between the signal and the harmonic is not more than 10." "Is 10. she doesn't even know about this new affair. By cump:uing the oscillator with the 20 -mc. often by several parts in 10'. etc.1 me. "The electronic circuits for doing all this are pretty hairy xvith Schmitt triggers. I never came in contact with anything like that. but i believe !lye got a toe -hold on the theory behind it all by recalling how my retired raihv:alinc uncle used to check the speed of his old steam locorrotk c that had no speedometer.MAC S ELECTRONICS SERVICE By JOHN T. complicated affair with dubious end results-especially when the frequency measured is in mega cycles. and 10 roc. frequency of \V\VV. Warm weather lingered.. any error in the 524C is multiplied twenty times.sitting evenings. 11e had a chart that translated seconds. In a frequency converter unit. Counting the poles or mile posts was easy. He counted telegraph poles whizzing past his cab window for six seconds. Since W\VV frequency is maintained within several parts in 10 "' at the transmitter. difference frequency would be counted and displayed.m. 100 kc'. a gate section. But with this counter all you do is nm the unknown frequency into it and watch the display read -out." \tae said with a frown." "Well. They had displays of various equipment used on the hase. In my sheltered service technician and radio amateur life.between -posts into miles -perhour. is easy for those eight lightning -fast cascaded counter units. FRYE The Thing that Counts ' [NESS . in the Hewlett. but I think I've managed to grasp the basic operation of the gadget. and eight cascaded counter units. his assistant. but they were not worrying about that yet. to the 90 -me. Adding this 10 me. measured frequency. 120 seconds was 30 mph. oven. The accuracy would be plus or minus 8 cycles in the week following calibration or plus or minus 13 cycles in the second week. To this must be (Cos/tinned on page 113) 1 ELECTRONICS WORLD . But making sure the signal gate is held open to the counters for a precise number of seconds or fractions of a second is something else.. Frequency dividers and multipliers operate on this kc. Barney. When passible. Frequency measurement in my experience has always been a tedious. and folks were taking full advantage of the dwindling number of porch. etc. in one sect and it will actually count the cycles of any frequency from 10 cps to 10. harmonic frequency would produce the 100 -mc. All too soon the cold would drive them indoors to start their winter TV watching. harmonic gives the measured frequency. \lac was cleaning up the bench. Adding the displayed count to the known 10 -mc. to measure an input frequency of 100 me. "Interesting testimony to the stability of this oscillator is contained in the instructions for checking it against W \VV. painstaking." "But how accurate is the result ?" 'Before going into that. Measuring a frequency with this instrument is as easy and quick as taking a voltage reading with our v. "Hey! \Chat's this? You mean you and Margie have split BI "Oh no. Sixty seconds cc us 60 mph. and in general getting ready for the influx of cvork he knew cvould start with the first kw frosty nights." Barney reel ied. The difference frequency is counted and displayed.regulated 1 -mc. You can average out these Doppler shifts by comparing the 524C saitIi \ \\ \'\ for several clays running and plotting the results. and resets the counter units to zero. to produce available frequencies of 10 cps. was frowning as he doodled on a scratch pad. readings should be taken when noon or midnight is midway between \V\VV and the receiving station.Packard counter." Barney replied smugly. Beyond the range of this ground wave. beefing up the parts stock. and they sent me a lot of literature. the time base reference is a crystal-controlled. "The same is true with the electronic counter. as minimum Doppler shift occurs then. oscillator. \\'hat fascinates you so about the counter ?" "The precision and speed with which it works. where on can receive the ground wave from the 5-mc.was a little dull in the shop. the input signal is mixed with a selected harmonic of 10 mc. ph:uitastron frequency dividers. you would tune the ninth harmonic of 10 mc. with a frequency converter unit and mix this with the input frequency. "Actually it consists of three major parts: a time -base section. A count of a little better than five poles in the six seconds meant the was going 60 mph. let me give you a rough idea of how the thing works.52 to the mile. checking and calibrating test equipment.

Stereo is better because it reproduces more of the music with less distortion. The stereo reproduction of music played by a large orchestra is so much richer than the best monophonic reproduction that it appears to be played by an orchestra having a greater number and variety of instruments. enjoy stereo. For the purpose of this article. who cannot hear the highest notes of mono hi -fi. or by stereo. High. even when its range of tones and intensity are limited. which play more completely in tune. more experienced listeners. the superiority of stereo was attributed to a mental image which helped to locate each instrument among many.directional STEREO Effects By CHARLES J. These effects are stressed because they have been appreciated and understood only recently. our knowledge of stereophonic reproduction was limited to its directional effects. Non .1 Broadcast Television Systems Committee and the IRE Television Systems Committee.yö. Yet lovers of orchestral music prefer stereo. this explanation is believed to be an incomplete reason OUR AUTHOR mas chairman of Panel I of the National Stereophonic Radio Committee. its ability to create a spatial image. and thereby gave the ambience of being in the concert hall. and independently of. Stereo is not necessarily hi -fi. While stereo can create such an image. Music heard in the concert hall. Older.President of Hazeltine Research Corporation. They are largely responsible for the more complete reproduction of all tones and for the 41 . although they are at least of equal importance. but hi -fi can add to the enjoyment of stereo.. and as high a ratio of fortissimi to pianissimi as the ear can perceive. the non -directional effects of stereo are those which are produced in addition to. HIRSCH / Corporate Staff for Engineering. easily reproduced experiments and listening tests indicate that stereo reproduction provides reduced cancellation of tones and reverberation effects._. This superiority occurs because some of the tones heard on stereo are annulled when reproduced monophonically. In the recent past. Results of simple. Department of State delegations to international meetings on color -TV standards.S. he is chairman of both the El. which is enjoyed by many music lovers who never go to concerts and who cannot tell one instrument from another.. The term ambiophonic was coined to describe this effect.. not because stereo reminds the listener of the concert hall.fidelity phonographs can reproduce as wide a gamut of bass. Osteber. UNTIL very recently. Prior to his present position as Administrative Engineer on the Corporate Staff of the Vice -President for Research and Engineering of RCA (with special interest in home instruments). He was also chairman of uthe U. The superiority of stereo is also evident in large orchestras where the ability to locate instruments by their sound is blurred or even absent. is superior to its monophonic reproduction. its non -directional effects were largely unknown. produced a sense of direction to the reverberation. which examined and recommended various systems of stereo broadcasting to the FCC. often to good advantage. At present. Radio Corporation of America More of the music is reproduced with less distortion when two channels are employed. middle. 1962 for stereo's superiority. and they can do so with negligible distortion. while the stereo listener is able to hear the two instruments separately. and treble tones. but because the same desirable effects occur in both cases. to the best monophonic hi -fi. wiTn7 MONO 11 The mono listener hears a composite distorted sound. r. he mas Executive Vice. The greater enjoyment provided by the concert hall is not due to technical limitations in the quality of sound reproduction. in a hall with better reverberation.

gave very poor monophonic reproduction when the outputs of the left and right tracks were added to produce (L + R) . the reduced dissonances. because of the non -directional effects. well -known orchestras. if the violin reveals its position too blatantly. The advantages of stereophony teere lost when one car was closed or when the distance between speakers was greatly reduced. the monophonic music. The independence of the two ears from each other prevents the cancellation and interaction of two sounds heard by them individually. reproduces more of the recorded music with less distortion. who are unconscious of the instruments. Notes are heard by stereo which are unheard monophonically. or amplitude. listening tests were made on a stereophonic phonograph to compare: (1) a stereophonic disc reproduced stereophonically. Differences in the time. The test setup is shown in Fig." The location of voices or instruments is important for music that tells a story as. made in the early days of stereo recordings. To determine the nature of this independence. More notes were heard. 2. the monophonic reproduction seemed to consist of fewer. experiments made long ago and half forgotten were repeated. Investigation revealed that the left and right tracks were recorded accidentally with opposite polarities so that the combined signal became (L R) instead of (L + R) and tones on the two tracks partly cancelled each other. Only those who know an opera or a play well can distinguish one actor or singer from another on a monophonic recording. it is almost impossible to tell who is talking. "The Scheherazade Suite" in which each instrument symbolizes a different person. especially for people who listen intellectually to discern the structure of the music and to evaluate the virtuosity of the performers. One gets all mixed up when several people talk on a party telephone line. The non -directional effects are due to the physiological properties of hearing in a manner to be described later. and the instruments were more clearly identified. the bass and recorded reverberation were richer. the fuller reproduction of all tones. Little. Stereo receivers intercept both signals and can reproduce the original left (L) and right (R) signals in many ways such as by adding and subtracting the transmitted signal as follows: (L + R) + (L R) = 2L. ELECTRONICS WORLD 42 www. Since both the mono and stereo were produced from the same stereo disc. some music lovers who have been exposed only to the more spectacular directional effects of stereo. the listener often objects to exaggerated directional effects.superior reproduction of the reverberation in the record. The more complete reproduction of musical tones by stereo is especially desirable when listening to large orchestras where the sense of direction is unimportant and often disturbing. of the reception of a sound by the two ears are interpreted by the brain and produce psychological clues to the location of the source of the sound. for example.americanradiohistory. seemed to come from a hole in front of the listener. The error was not discovered earlier because the discs were only tested stereophonically. Switches allowed the listener to select at will any one of the three forms of reproduction. The listening test setup that is discussed in the text. For this reason. Stereo. but more powerful and less readily identifiable instruments. and (L + R) (L R) = 2R. For this kind of music. the reduced quality of the mono version must be due to the cancellation of some tones and of the recorded reverberation which are reproduced when the disc is played stereophonically. The first experiment is illustrated in Fig. difference could be detected between the monophonic disc and the stereophonic disc played mono- RIGHT LEFT LOUDSPEAKER LOUDSPEAKER S2 LEFT STEREO RIGHT MONO DISC DISC STEREO PICKUP ONO PIC UP Fig. his attention is diverted from the sheer abstract beauty of the music to the practical mechanism of its creation. The instruments are more clearly identifiable and the reverberation of the recording studio is superior. the signal intended for reception by monophonic receivers consists of the sum (L + R) of the left (L) and right (R) outputs of a stereophonic pickup or of two directional microphones. 1. \Vhen listening to "absolute" music. 1. and whole instruments were occasionally missing. for example. both were excellent. and the deeper studio reverberation are provided by the non -directional effects of stereo. It enhances the pleasure of hearing small orchestras. such as ping -pong games. The outputs of all pickups were reproduced by the same music system consisting of two amplifiers and two loudspeakers. or doing. a violin is at the left or right. A spatial image is desirable for operas and plays because it reveals "who is saying. as is the case in stereo. They are very mistaken! "Live music" or stereo adds greatly to the pleasure of listeners who are happiest when they feel totally immersed in the pure abstraction of disembodied music. However. such as by placing one speaker above the other. That this might be the case was first suggested by the results obtained from field tests conducted by the National Stereophonic Radio Committee (NSRC). and who don't care where they are. on the broadcasting of stereophonic programs by the FM.com .multiplex system later adopted by the FCC. of the same selection recorded from the same tapes as the stereo disc. the tone was abnormally thin. He may not care if. phonically. while the stereophonic music was spread out over the entire distance between the speakers. Stereo is freer of these cancellations because the two ears are independent of each other and produce two non. if any. reproduced by a monophonic pickup. In this system. By contrast. (2) the same disc reproduced monophonically by interconnecting the left and right outputs of the stereo pickup. a second signal consisting of the difference (L R ) of these outputs is also transmitted. Directional effects are wanted when it is important to know the approximate location of performers on the stage. Yet the stereo reproduction of the same disc was acceptable. An audio frequency generator produces a single tone in two earphones. Both the directional and non-directional effects of stereo are caused by the independence of our two ears. Stereo separates one voice from another by making each appear to come from a different direction. The selections chosen were symphonies recorded by large. when heard individually by each ear. and (3) a monophonic disc. The monophonic reproduction of a round -table conference or a house party is confusing. They are desirable for all kinds of music. In addition. often state that stereo is a musical sacrilege. It was soon found that a sizable number of stereo discs. although reproduced by two spaced speakers. The field test suggested that tones which can cancel each other when mixed into a single (L + R) signal do not cancel - - - - - ER Listening Tests YONG In order to establish in what way stereo reproduction is superior to monophonic reproduction. what to whom.interacting channels directly to the brain. and. the stereophonic reproduction of the stereophonic disc was so superior to its monophonic reproduction that it seemed to be played by another orchestra. most of the reverberation was lost. such as chamber music. For stereophonic receivers.

A F GENERATOR A F GENERATOR first experiment. as when the two speakers are placed close together. (2) In addition. as shown in the drawing on page 41. which shows that pitta is not the same as excitation frequency. 1962 completely annul each other when their phases oppose. Interpretation The result of these experiments is used to explain why stereo reproduces more of the tones on the record with less distortion and with better reverberation. as in Fig. 3. as in Fig. 4 and produces two results: (1) A single note of constant frequency applied to one ear produces a subjective pitch whose apparent frequency depends on the intensity. 4. The second experiment is shown in Fig. many of which oppose each other in polarity and tend to cancel. 2A. is heard. from each other. two instruments. GENERATORS A. Two audio -frequency generators are connected to individual earphones and ¡oo o) ¡o A. such as a violin and a clarinet.F.F. A tone picked up exclusively by one ear does not acid or subtract. 43 . A difference of path length of only two feet in the distance of two instruments will completely reverse the phase of "middle C" (261. no beat note is heard. The third experiment. The The polarity of the input to one earphone can be reversed with respect to the other by a switch. GENERATORS 4 (A) 11. In most cases. As the intensity is raised. It does not matter if the single channel is produced by a single electrical path. such cancellations are numerous. For a large orchestra this alters the continuous nature of the music. a single note can produce a subjective pitch in the left ear which is different from the subjective pitch it produces in the right ear even if the intensities are equal. The second experiment which concerns itself with beats. or in any way interfere with the tone picked up exclusively by the other ear except that the two tones give the sensation of traveling between the two ears at the rate of one complete round trip for each phase change of 360 degrees. A tone picked up by one ear may produce in some listeners a sensation of pitch which is different from the sensation produced by the same tone in the other ear. instead. IB) indicates that the pitch perceived by the left ear may be different from that perceived by the right ear. 3B. Two sine waves of equal frequency and amplitude can only double their intensity when their phases add. Moreover. The phase also depends on the distance of the instrument to the microphone. this difference amounts to only a few cycles. When playing the same note over a single channel. The third experiment is shown in Fig. but they can (e) (A) Fig. When both earphones are applied to the same ear. may cancel their fundamentals and leave only their overtones. When the two earphones are applied to a single ear. 2.6 cps) . the pitch is lowered. (A) (B) Fig. 2B. In (Al a constant -frequency signal is applied to one ear. or when the outputs of several microphones are added to produce a single output. and obviously two musicians cannot synchronize this instant within the millisecond or less required to reverse the phase of a 500 -cycle note. (BI Fig. 3A. say 5. reversing the excitation to one of them causes the intensity heard to increase or decrease as the two polarities are made to add or subtract. The phase with which the sound of identical instruments playing the same note reaches the microphones is random with frequency changes because the phase for each instrument depends on the instant of attack. whose frequency is equal to the difference in the original frequencies. When several waves are transmitted over a single channel. Since the phase of each instrument varies frequently and randomly. or by a single acoustic path. there is a sound of constant intensity which travels within the skull between the two ears at a rate equal to the difference -frequency. as in Fig. Experimental Results The result of these experiments can be summarized as follows: October. no matter whether the polarities acid or subtract.A GENERATOR F A F GENERATOR REVERSING SWITCH 1. 0 to 3 to 4 cycles. showing result of phase reversal. as in Fig. When the earphones are applied to separate ears. When the two earphones are applied to separate ears. The result is neither violin or clarinet. 2. or a single aural path as when one ear is closed. 3. even though the same frequency and intensity are used. . such as the moment of application of the bow to a string. In some listeners. the result is the sum of all the instantaneous values of the waves. the intensity does not change. one ear produces different harmonics than the other so that true comparison of pitch is not possible. a strong beat note. or modulate. their frequencies adjusted to differ by only a few cycles. as when a single microphone is used to pick up disseminated sounds. but an emaciated composite of the two which sounds like neither. the difference in subjective pitch between the two ears does not produce a beat note between them.

In the case of stereo. even if the difference in their frequencies (3. or acoustic. to that extent.called "three-channel stereo" phonographs mix the bass tones. Beat notes of very low frequency are especially rough. which should result in tonal improvement and maintain a fair sense of direction is at the apex of a 120 -degree (or greater) isoceles triangle formed by himself and the two speakers which. many people find binaural listening with earphones distracting because the whole orchestra seems to move when the head is turned. of superior orchestral reproduction. it should be possible to write special music which would be harmonious when heard binaurally with earphones but which would be discordant. can and will cancel each other when mixed into a single channel but will be unaffected if each is heard respectively by one ear. or right.called "three. This difference produces the tonal difference between mono and stereo re- - production. For this reason. A compromise position for the listener. when they differ slightly in frequency. stereophonically. This one -channel system cannot give as good a stereo service as two -channel systems which make fuller use of the independence of the ears to reduce the cancellation of tones and the number of dissonances. The tonal (non-directional) improvements of stereo reproduction are maximized when the listener locates himself midway on the line between the two speakers which are made to face each other. Because the two ears are independent. stereo suffers appreciably fewer annulments of tones and creates appreciably fewer beats. which is demanded vociferously by hi -fi enthusiasts. and conferences. channels for stereo because we have only two channels from the ears to the brain. results in the maximum binaural separation. no matter what their phase happens to be. 6. each ear picks up sounds from both loudspeakers to some degree and. this position results in an impaired sense of direction. preferred in Europe. In the case of stereo. stereophony uses binaural hearing to produce two unrelated effects. for example. The harmony in each ear is consistent with itself and with that in the other ear.channel stereo" mixing of bass results in poorer bass than does the usual twochannel stereo. and less fully reproduced. parties. so that one is heard mainly by the left ear and the other mainly by the right ear. the tones of a bass viol and contrabassoon.6 = 3.0 very unpleasant. This effect is only a part. A distorted spatial image may result in better music by providing more binaural separation and therefore fewer cancellations and less distortion. However. Extension of the tonal range into the highest register. been 44 evaluated solely for their ability to create a spatial image. to a lesser degree. It is true that all tones heard simultaneously by the left. In that case the spatial image is actually distracting. When one ear receives two notes which differ in frequency.4 cps) is small. they are perceived individually as 261. Discords are unpleasant because they produce such beats.6 cps. The fundamental. For example. However. The tones heard predominantly by the left ear cannot cancel or produce beats with those heard predominantly by the right ear. of the contribution stereo makes to the pleasure of listening. The spatial image is only incidental when listening to the stereophonic reproduction of orchestral music. which is beat whose frequency is 265. A stereo system recently proposed in Great Britain consists of a monophonic signal which is differentially proportioned in amplitude and in the time of arrival. Pairs of these tones at the same frequency often cancel each other and.0 cps) are heard by the two ears respectively. the tones add or cross. 5. overtones. Spaced microphones are favored in the United States and are claimed to give better music. The other effect is physiological. it prevents interference between tones by separating them until they reach the brain. can be achieved with less distortion and dissonance with stereo because it produces fewer beats. although it is essential for the reproduction of operas. do not produce unpleasant beats when they are heard by the two ears separately. Stereo systems and equipment have. 3. and chords heard exclusively by one ear do not interfere with those heard exclusively by the other ear. the reproduction is partly monophonic. However. the practice of so. and reproduce them by a single loudspeaker located in the center. between two spaced loudspeakers to produce directional information. two identical notes. and not the cause. One effect is psychological. Binaural reproduction by means of earphones should result in better tonal reproduction than stereo because it results in even fewer cancellations and beats. the difference in pitch produces no beat note. at 261. two instruments slightly mistuned. a single note may produce a different subjective pitch when heard by one ear than when it is heard by the other. In the case of stereo. Therefore. Except for greatly enhanced directional effects. The use of coincident microphones. 2. 4. Since the two ears do not cross -modulate. are made to face the listener. perhaps the least important. Stated another way.4 cps.0 cps and do not produce beat notes with each other. The addition of stereophonic sound to television was not considered practical because the small screen does not provide (Continued on page 66) ELECTRONICS WORLD . The cause of the difference in the tonal quality of monophonic and stereophonic reproduction can be summarized as follows: In monophonic reproduction all tones occurring simultaneously are added together in a single channel. This point may be at the bottom of the controversy between coincident and spaced microphones. together they produce a 261. However.modulate each other to produce a beat note whose frequency is equal to the difference in frequency of the originals. up to now. The directional effect is only a byproduct. Thus a violin on the left and a clarinet on the right are clearly heard as individual instruments with their character undisturbed even when they play the same note. Inferences The foregoing discussion permits us to make the following inferences: 1. 7. do not cancel when their phases oppose. is claimed to give a truer spatial illusion. there seems to be no reason to use more than two electrical. produce beats which may be rough and unpleasant. Studio reverberation is preserved more fully by stereophonic reproduction because those sound waves that are reflected out -of-phase from opposite walls reach the ears separately and therefore do not cancel each other. some so. but let one instrument be off tune and play 265. because this position. when heard monophonically and. In stereo the music is divided into left and right channels that are applied to the left and right ears respectively. The difference helps further to separate identical notes coming from the left and right. it isolates individual sources of sound from each other by providing clues about their directions from the listener. They are heard individually and the relation of the fundamental to the overtones is not disturbed.0 cps instead. as in the case cited. differing only in phase.6 and 265. let two instruments attempt to play middle C. As stated previously. Because the direction from which very low tones are heard is not readily perceived. theater. although not critical. in this case. if the two tones (261M and 265. ear can and do produce the effects just mentioned. it must not be exaggerated into a stunt. occurring on the left and right channels. 8.

Industrial Consultant. the measurement of flowing liquid had to be more precise and controllable by an electrical signal. Turbine meters are available in a wide range of sizes from the miniature version shown in Fig. 1. one of eight. The magnitude of this difference. A 14 -inch turbine flowmeter controls rocket -motor fuel. Understanding how a particular type of flowmeter works will enable you to at least determine if it is working correctly or not. Another mechanical -type flowmeter is the differential diaphragm type shown in Fig. ALTHOUGH not spectacular devices. A survey of the flowmeters now in use shows that there are two types that employ electronics: those which are really mechanical and convert a mechanical motion into an electrical signal and those that use electronic principles to measure the flow as well as indicate it with an electrical signal. The troubleshooting and repair of some specific flowmeters require special training in this type of equipment. electronic flowmeters are found in such widely divergent applications as regulating the fuel flow to the rocket motors of the "Nova" super. BUCHSBAUM. A sensing coil is located outside the pipe to pick up the magnetic flux variations due to the motion of the propeller vanes.rocket is shown in Fig. 4. would affect the propeller speed and result in false. With the advent of automation. ELECTRONICS WORLD Precise gauging of liquid flow is essential in many industrial processes and in such diverse applications as control of fuel to rocket motors and of blood during surgery. A 14 -inch turbine flowmeter which controls the fuel going to the F -1 engine. the propeller turns rapidly and the frequency of the output signal is high. but one of the more spectacular applications is measuring the flow of liquid oxygen ("lox") to missile engines. Another is that they are limited in their applications to non-corrosive liquids because their bearings and the propellers will corrode. 1.missile and in the delicate control system that governs the flow of human blood during an artificial heart -lung operation. One obvious drawback of turbine flowmeters is that the vanes and propeller obstruct the flow of liquid. 2. They are used in many industrial installations. the propeller inside the pipe is turned by the liquid or gas flowing through it. Flowmeters are not new devices and do not necessarily employ electronics. When the flow is fast. As shown in Fig. 2 to units several feet in diameter. 1962 45 . Turbine flowmeters combine a mechanical motion with an electronic sensing device to produce an electrical signal output. which determines the position of a sensitive Fig.V2 vl FLOW MEASUREMENT ELECTRONIC TECHNIQUES & DEVICES By WALTER H.section of a length of pipe. The stationary vanes at both ends of the metering section are necessary to prevent the swirling effects of the liquid which October. making one section narrower than the rest. a pressure difference is developed. of the new "Nova" super. Many technicians who work in industrial electronics will come into contact with these flowmeters as part of an electronic control system. however. Mechanical Flounieters eit The most obvious way to measure the flow of a liquid is to insert a propeller or turbine into the stream and measure how fast the flowing liquid turns it. By varying the cross. low readings.

the liquid. 4." (Fig.C. The simplest configuration of ultrasonic flow measurement Fig. such as salt water. a voltage E will be produced at right angles in that portion of the liquid moving through the field. Human blood. In this area there are several different designs and many meters in the field are custom made rather than mass produced. Ultrasonic techniques have been applied to flowmeters only recently and it seems too early for standardization.) Flow determines the position of the float and. Typical flowmeter application. In order to be effective.. differential amplifiers. and other conventional devices. such as liquid sodium. a higher frequency will produce a greater signal voltage.frequency pulse techniques are not involved. \ \'hen the conducting liquid V moves through this flux. flowmeters has been in nuclear reactors where the flow of liquid metal is to be measured. milliammeters.2 F LOW ME TER Fig. excitation field. must have a relatively high electrical conductance. Signals from flowmeters are compared to generate a control signal that adjusts valves 1 and 2 which maintain desired flow into mixing vat. 3. For poorer conductors. In another type of mechanical flowmeter called a "rota meter. The creation of an area of pressure difference means that the flow itself is reduced.f. Principle of operation of a differential flowmeter. and is generally called a magnetic flowmeter. this voltage will be proportional to the speed of the liquid flow.c. With a fixed conductivity and cross. is an electrical conductor and is monitored by magnetic flowmeters during artificial. installation. field and is found in many liquid -flow control systems in the chemical industry especially where strong acids are used. 6 uses an a. 5) a specially shaped float rides within a tapered tube in which the differential pressure determines the position of the float. The principle underlying any of these meters. is basically the same: a flowing liquid produces changes in a beam of ultrasonic energy.section. Fig. One type is used for electrically conducting liquids. Cutaway drawing of typical small turbine flowmeter. Another type uses ultrasonic techniques.heart -lung operations. magnetic flowmeters there are also some that use a d. FIXED Electronic Floumeters VANES AAA. The electronic portions of the control and indicating systems usually contain a servo amplifier. there are three basically different types of electronic flowmeters. An arm is attached to the diaphragm and the position of the arm is measured electronically.1 FLOWMETER MOTOR DRIVEN VALVE NO.OUTPUT CONNECTOR PICKUP COIL- FIXED VANES 1 PROPELLER metering and in relatively small -diameter pipes and tubes. The magnetic flowmeter's operation is based on the principle of the electric generator: when a conductor moves in a magnetic field. In order to measure a voltage across the liquid.c. INPUT LOW PRESSURE LIQUID FLOW ELECTRONICS WORLD . The flowmeter illustrated in Fig. for example. depends on the flow rate. the amplifier output will be an a. the inside of the pipe must be insulated over a short length to avoid shorting out the small induced potential.a Fig. 2. diaphragm. a current will be induced in the conductor. The second type of electronic flowmeter uses ultrasonic techniques to measure flow.c. in electronically sensed rota meters. One of the more recent applications of d. The most frequent method of measuring the arm displacement is by connecting it to the movable core of a differential transformer. which means that transmission over ordinary cables is possible and r. however. usually produced by permanent magnets. A magnetic flux B is produced between the upper and lower coils. the float controls the inductance of an external coil so that either the frequency of an oscillator or the output amplitude of a transformer will be proportional to the flow rate. The rotameter is widely used for non-corrosive liquid 46 Although many types are in use and more are being developed.c. (The float guide -rod assembly is held in position in the pipe by perforated discs. 6 shows the elements of a magnetic flowmeter. or high. SERVO MOTOR DRIVE AMPLIFIERS MOTOR DRIVEN VALVE NO. The Teflon or fiberglass pipe lining and the lack of internal obstructions makes this flowmeter ideal for such applications. Signals are either 60 cps or below 10 kc. and servicing.c. If each of these windings is connected to the inputs of a differential amplifier. Surprisingly many liquids are sufficiently good electrical conductors to be measured with an a. This type of meter is suitable for non -corrosive liquids and gases. and the third type is really a temperature -sensing device.c. DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT SIGNAL SEAL H DIAPHRAGM MOVING IRON CORE I HIGH PRESSURE A. flowmeter. signal whose magnitude is proportional to the diaphragm displacement or to flow of material in the pipe. Different circuits are in use but essentially they just measure the output -voltage variation between the two windings. In addition to a. This greatly simplifies system design. The frequency of the excitation field Nvill depend on the conductance of the metered liquid.

Electro. Inside the pipe are three thermocouple junctions two of which. 5. are corrosive.americanradiohistory. Because the transit time changes over a distance of ten inches are relatively small.caloric or boundary-layer type and is little more than a thermocouple and a heat source. Circuit of schematic of the ultrasonic flowmeter. a more sophisticated arrangement than the one shown in Fig. 7.difference RR ultrasonic flowmeter. the difference signal is proportional to flow in the pipe. changes which are due only to ambient temperature. The difference in signal amplitude between the two receivers is then a measure of the flow. In actual practice. TRANSMITTER 2 I AMP October. All ultrasonic Ammeters suffer from one major drawback: The liquid must be homogeneous because air or gas bubbles or particles of any kind alter the sound transmission characteristic of the liquid and cause considerable inaccuracy. including pneumatic systems. These Ammeters are especially useful for gases. C. Note that the two sets of transmitters and receivers are opposed in direction so that one pulse rate will increase as the other decreases. typical of those used in small pipes.Caloric Flowmeters The third type of electronic flowmeter is generally referred to as an electro.c.c. most ultrasonic flowmeters do not have internal flow obstructions and can be used with any liquid irrespective of its electrical conductance or viscosity. Flow of human blood. a conductor. in fact. and special metering installations. Element C is at whatever temperature the metered liquid or gas is and is therefore not part of the actual flow measurement. nor will they be found in industries where the liquids contain coarse particles. DIFFERENCE METER RECEIVER RECEIVER 2 I (r(((rr i FLOW rirr(/' t TRANSMITTER r. shown in Fig. They have not yet found universal industrial acceptance. Fig. They are not suitable for outdoor piping where large temperature variations can occur. If we measure the amount of this cooling effect. 10 shows the basic circuit of a widely used thermal-flowmeter. 11 shows a complete thermal flowmeter. F. The measurement of flow is a function of the difference between the two pulse. this is measured with flowmeter. magnetic ' FLOAT GUIDE ROD FLOAT TURBULENT VELOCITY FLOW PROFILE -- \ - AWNR vELOC!T L FLOW PROFILE TAPERED GLASS TUBE TOP VIEW FLOW Fig. pulse. 1962 A o P o START PULSE 47 www.repetition rates. and are found mostly in laboratory. ation of electronical y 'NIL. any change in ambient temperature will have the opposite effect on C and tend to cancel d. If the liquid flows in the direction of propagation then the transit time is modified by adding the velocity of the flow to the speed of sound. a measure of the flow is obtained. source. with the pulse -repetition rate dependent on the transit time since each received pulse starts a new transmission. A heated element is cooled by the flow of liquid or gas which itself has a lower temperature. This is somewhat similar to the well known Doppler principle and. The transmitted and the received signals are compared in frequency. ultrasonic flowmeters have so far been used mostly in defense applications and special purpose industrial installations. Since it is is MrOFET ML unheated. Schematic shows principle of operd rotameter. The transit time is simply the distance divided by the speed of sound in the particular liquid.FLOW Fig. Still another configuration is shown in Fig. Simplified Fig. the measuring circuits are similar to those used in Doppler radar systems.com . is unheated and is included to compensate for slight changes in ambient temperature. This closed loop oscillates at a frequency dependent on the transit time through the liquid. The third element. This system is pulsed. voltage across the meter. pilot plant. Fig. On the other hand. The cooling effect of the gas or liquid in the pipe causes a change in the temperature of thermocouple A and B and therefore causes a change in the d. (Continued on page 85) INPUT d TRANSIT TIME OUTPUT SPEED OF SOUND IN LIQUID - \ VELOCITY OF FLOW- d TRANSMITTER FLOW +V RECEIVER 11111HIIIIf )))) Fig. 8. are heated by the a. Naturally this arrangement will be most effective in larger diameter pipes. or where large pipe diameters are used. 8 is typical of a more complex measuring system. 7 is usually used. Fig. 7. Each received pulse is fed to an amplifier which drives the transmitter. 6. An ultrasonic signal is beamed from the transmitter to the receiver. A and B. 9 where one transmitter feeds two receivers.c.

tropical temperature extremes.M. This laboratory is part of a new 132. Albuquerque. Walls are more than five feet thick. 1 -inch plaster. The supply is silent so that it cannot be located by enemy sound -detection devices. Signals originating in Phoenix.Dead Room Used to Check Car Radios An anechoic or "echoless" room is being used here to check the performance of an automobile radio. walls also have 2 -inch dead air space. portable thermoelectric generator which runs on ordinary gasoline is being developed by General Instrument Corp. supports both off -the -air pickup equipment (top) and a microwave transmitting antenna.therm" is a Minneapolis . 48 Microwave TV Relay Tower Microwave tower in the network TV relay system used by KOAT -TV. and 12 -inch concrete blocks. provides the heat that is converted to electricity by thermocouples. 12 -inch concrete blocks. the new unit will produce 45 watts of electricity for 12 hours on 11/2 quarts of ordinary gasoline.S. 4-inch fiberglass. The room is air -conditioned with four ducts equipped with special noise silencers. The fisherman sets the dial for the proper temperature and then lowers the line into the water until the indicator comes on. Ariz. In addition to the wedges. are received at this station on 7850 -foot Pinal Peak. and sent along to another mountain peak relay station 305 miles away..000-square -foot research and engineering building opened by Delco Radio at its headquarters at Kokomo. Designed as a compact power source for field applications. The device consists of a temperaturesensing element at the end of a line marked to show depth. used for sound isolation. 70 miles away. A "floating" floor. ELECTRONICS WORLD .pound). amplified. The system was designed and built by RCA in conjunction with the station's engineering staff.. All room surfaces use 30 -inch fiberglass wedges to swallow sound reverberation. A specially designed burner. used to avoid lead fouling. supports the entire 100 -ton structure.Honeywell electronic instrument that locates for the angler the depth at which he is most likely to find the type of fish he is after. and it will operate at arctic -to. for the U. The repeaters have automatic fault reporting and standby switching equipment. N. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS in ELECTRONICS Gasoline -Run Thermoelectric Generator light weight (10. Army Signal Corps. Ind. A Thermometer for Fishing The "Fish -o.

October. The cameras are housed in the tubular superstructure of the spacecraft with apertures for each camera. Electronic Drafting Machine Drawings for aircraft and missile parts and assemblies are produced automatically by this new numerically controlled engineering drafting machine recently put into operation at General Dynamics/ Fort Worth. developed by General Dynamics for the U.S. where it is undergoing tests and evaluation. able to point the dish at any spot in the sky. six-camera television package that will provide close-range pictures of the moon's surface. The truss structure. are all shown. you may be able to make out the tiny figure of one of the workmen atop the pedestal at the extreme right. Lunar TV Satellite Pictured is a model of a "Ranger" spacecraft with 350-pound. The TV sub-system was designed and manufactured by RCA for the Cal Tech Jet Propulsion Lab satellite.Y. To be used as a massive source of sound in antisubmarine warfare research.Underwater Sound Source Experimental six-ton hydroacoustic transducer is hauled from the waters of Seneca Lake. 200-Ton Radiotelescope Antenna Workmen put finishing touches on the new Phi !co-built 85foot radiotelescope antenna at the University of California's radio astronomy laboratory in Hat Creek.S. the device can make design and fullscale drawings more quickly and accurately than can human draftsmen. the first of which is to be launched in 1963. The project is largely supported under a contract with the U. If you look closely. Calif. Office of Naval Research. N. From information fed into it by punched paper tape. employs pressurized hydraulic fluid to produce vibratory energy which is transmitted through water as acoustic waves. 1962 49 . and polar-axis drive. the new device. Navy. and at less expense.. mounting ring.

did Requirements While Ruth the guide dog and cane are a great help. familiarly associated with our sightless citizens may soon be replaced by small. hand -held electrt!II( devices that will accurately locate obstacles rind puts ide a greater degree of safety and freedom for the blind traveler. and doorsteps tansy considerable apprehension in the blind traveler. shape. fire hydrants. ELECTRO\ICS \ \'ocum attended the Congress and witnessed the operation of three aids and examined a number of electronic test instruments designed especially for use by blind electronics technicians. quickly obstacles get in your way and how cs \thing suddenly closes in. Perhaps their greatest difficulty k ttatcling confidently on their own. Guidance . in New York.117 are over 65. Exact figures aren't available. mailboxes. in laboratories. such as walls can he easily detected by auditory sensing. posts. and considerably less of a problem. Recent demonstrations at the International Congress on Technology and Blindness. THE XVIIITE cane and heavily harnessed guide (log. Electronics has made great strides as a medium of entertainment and in helping to restore hearing and the voice. showed that several guidance aids hohl promise for the future. safer. should be able to locate many different obstacles and indicate their distance. Now there are devices on drawing boards. and n(cr 7. the dog cannot be used by the very young cvho are not mature enough to assume the responsibility of working with it. Ideally. or by older people who may not have the physical stamina to undertake the training program or to maintain the normal walking speed of the clog. an electronic guidance aid./ ift í\. you might get an idt . but chairs. to be of any help beyond that of a cane or clog. Larger obstacles.000 blind people in 11w country today. j ( ELECTRONIC' AIDS FOR THE BLIND Ultrasonics and photoelectric techniques are used in new guidance devices.i of it h blind/I 1. The cane cannot warn the blind person of obstacles beyond its length. how folding yourself and walking in a strange yin /III. and direction with respect to the user. but it has hccu estimated that there are about 370.ttt lur \ l 50 the blind freer. It is difficult to know s( hat this problem is really like. However. and in the field being tested which will someday make t. The :tit should also ELECTRONICS WORLD . Auditory test equipment can open jobs for blind technicians. Roughly 10% are under 21 years old.

is now being evaluated by several blind people. Pa. say. in the instrument's handle. Mr. England. 2. Mr. Thus. a two -inch diameter post at ten feet. and cellarways. among other things. The system is silent until an echo is received. Operating principle of infrared obstacle detector is optical triangulation. curbs and holes. diodes is amplified to actuate a stimulator. the guidance aid must encourage the blind person to develop strong psychological factors such as courage and the desire to travel independently. Cunderson. such as stairs. The character of the audible signal indicates the distance and direction of obstacles. or a one -millimeter wire at four feet. normal hearing is not affected. continuous FM system was superior to a pulsed system. and other pedestrians. The circuit transmits a signal that sweeps from 60 kc. a signal warns the holder. The detector. who has been blind since birth. but not least. it do so in a way that will not interfere with his normal hearing. Hand -held prototype is shown below. which pokes the holder's finger. Birmingham.o.diameter plastic tube is used to feed the sound directly into the outer ear. it will detect ascending and descending steps. In addition. Infrared. The principle of operation is based on the fact that a beat note. Bob. The aid can detect a smooth wall 30 feet away. whose operating principle is based on infrared /optical triangulation. to 30 kc. The handheld device (Fig. Another very important consideration is that if the aid is to provide auditory information about the surroundings to the user. Inc.frequency audible tone of 3 kc. bats produce an inaudible tone and employ a system similar to radar in which an echo determines the distance to nearby objects. it must be able to operate well in noisy or crowded environments where other normal auditory cues are absent or useless. If the distance is less. 1) contains. Obstacles of different shape and size produced what could be called a "sound picture. and produces a maximum.or 30 -foot detection range. If the obstacle is. will have a pitch proportional to the distance of the reflected object. By depressing a switch in the handle. Several blind people have used the aid after only a short training period and found no difficulty in determining the distance of an object by the frequency of its echo. M. resistance (B) bridges in auditory v. The output of the photo October. Ultrasonic Guidance Aid One of the demonstrations at the Congress was conducted by Leslie Kay of the University of Birmingham. Kay has made a study of the guidance methods used by bats and has applied his findings to the design of a guidance aid that operates on similar principles. Benham of Haverford College. As is well known. The Electronic Cane An experimental "electronic cane" was demonstrated by Robert J. Current IAI. Ordinary hearing -aid phones are worn but instead of placing them over the ears. Special Test Equipment In the area of special test equipment. the upper photo diode will be struck by some of the reflected light. the reflected light strikes the other photo diode. and J. IAI (el 51 .. Gibson of the Franklin Institute. Kay found that a wide -band. The guidance aid transmits a 10° beam at one of two sweep rates to provide a 10. Also. Some of the light rays striking an object are reflected back and are concentrated by a lens on one of two photo diodes. It is adjusted so that when its tip is two inches away from the ground it does not produce an auditory signal. won the 1955 General Electric Edison (Continued on page 102) LIGHT SOURCE LENS SOURCE OBSTACLE AT CLOSER RANGE OBSTACLE p - PHOTO RECEIVER LENS DETECTORS Fig. of Bionic Instruments. 1. A. Information about the surroundings ill the form of simple and complex sound patterns produced by the instrument can be interpreted or made into a "picture" by the blind person. a lamp drive circuit and a xenon lamp which produce bright pulses of light that are focused on the ground ahead of the person. A shortcoming of this guidance aid is that it cannot detect step-ups or step -downs. As a result of laboratory experiments. Jr. The reason is that the human ear can discriminate between signals that differ in frequency more easily than it can between signals that arrive at different time intervals. the far -range photo diode is removed from the circuit to facilitate traveling in crowded areas. an instructor in electronic theory and practice at the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind. If the ground drops away more than two inches at a curb or a hole. the light e ill strike the lower photo diode.m. however. Both ears are used to maintain auditory balance and normal binaural perception. If the obstacle and the detector are brought closer together. edges of train platforms. must still be done before the aid can be marketed.be able to detect step -ups and step -downs. Last. a small. 1962 Fig. open manholes. shrubbery. Benjamin. produced by heterodyning the transmitted signal with that of an echo. Philadelphia. Robert W. has designed special auditory test equipment that can be used effectively by blind electronics technicians.Optical Guidance Aid An infrared obstacle detector was described and demonstrated by T." Further work. 30 feet away.

numerical converters (binary-to. since the frequency of a specific flip -flop stage as a counter or an accumulator is lowered below the input frequency as a negative exponential function of the number of preceding stages. However. the last few stages operate at a comparatively slow rate. E is the minimum firing voltage and E: is the cut -off voltage. Since the firing time measurement setup also measured bulb current. operating at a maximum frequency of 20 kc. and the trace was externally triggered so that the resultant curve would show bulb current versus time for any desired time interval.circuit version of a basic neon bulb flip -flop counter constructed by author from circuit shown at the left in Fig. IN commercially built flip -flop circuitry. cover quite a wide range. This data is not available to the required accuracy in manufacturers' bulletins. produced by the active lamps is suitable even for direct panel display in such permanent gear as counters. ±0. At 85 volts the same bulb would fire in 5 psec. at voltage around 10 volts above cut -off. several characteristics of the easily obtained NE -2 were investigated. Jr.decimal. which are simply the differences (E. Beyond this frequency the energy of the input pulses was not enough to ionize the neon and allow the bulb to conduct. and quite economically if performance at high frequencies is not important.03 ma. Firing time was measured with a Tektronix 545 scope by pulsing the bulb under test with the horizontal sweep output through a series resistor. Bulb Characicristics To determine the exact limitations of the neon bulb in an unbuffered bistable circuit.). Such arrangements may be put to various slow. but the circuits are complex and costly). At 100 volts pulse voltage across the bulb a typical NE -2 could fire in as little time as 4 psec. the bulb was considered to be "conducting" and the firing time was read directly below this point from the horizontal axis. consisting of neon bulb flip -flops supplied with transistorized gates and pulse inverters (gating and pulse inversion can be accomplished using only gas -bulb and diode networks. these saine small indicating lamps can be used as flip -flop circuit elements themselves. of course. are easily constructed and provide inexpensive units for digital computer experimentation and game theory mockups. the reader will want to determine 32 ELECTRONICS WORLD . etc. Inexpensive. and current drain. The vertical input was connected across the resistor. In order to construct neon bulb flip -flop circuits having predictable specifications. A large sampling of NE -2's showed surprisingly little current variation from bulb to bulb. when the curve reached 80% of its maximum value. as well as to fix circuit parameters. on the other hand. 2.NEON BULB FLIP -FLOP CIRCUITS By MAURICE E. Careful testing proved a random collection of fifty lamps to be rated at 0. and accumulators. but could operate only up to a frequency of 200 cps. E could be called the "operating" voltage because it is the potential across the bulb after it has started drawing current through a load resistor. they require no external indicator lamps because the glow Printed. a precision resistor was used in the circuit and the current read directly from the scope. readily available neon glow lamps can be employed to construct simple counters using design data collected by author. at 10 kc.E) and (E. For example. Hybrid logic circuits. As an arbitrary standard. However. most bulbs fired in 10 f sec. firing and cut -off voltages. In these applications the bulbs rival their transistor counterparts for compactness and low current drain and. so it was determined experimentally in the lab.4 ma. neon bulb flip -flops are particularly useful in combination with conventional circuits. will be seen later. and tb. octal -to. The use of neon lamp flip -flop counters in the last permissible stages is quite practical since they perform adequately and cost little more than the indicators and diodes for the other stages alone would cost. at firing voltage. as shown in Table 1.E) respectively. The importance of d. Voltage characteristics..counting tasks or may also be slightly modified and used for storing binary information either permanently or as self -erasing devices. When designed with transistor compatibility in mind. Important among these are firing time.binary. the familiar fractional -power neon lamp is often used merely to indicate the conduction state of the tubes or transistors which are the active elements of the bistable circuit. SCHERER.

m. 3A. similarly.C. each stage firing the next every other time it receives an input impulse.o. but these usually require flip flop circuits with additional inputs. If a regulated d. Attempting to recharge. and bulb A goes out. 2 will count negative input pulses in binary. the voltage difference between the circuit which is conducting and the unloaded "open" circuit of the unionized bulb.. charges the capacitor C. Now if a sufficiently large pulse is fed into the flip -flop input." Other counting circuits are similarly devised using one or more feedback loops and gates. 2) is conducting. and a polarity alternating as first one and then the other bulb conducts is developed at the output. =5 v. This drop holds bulb B below firing potential.o. C. As soon as the bulb starts to conduct. in turn. bulb B remains on since the other bulb is no longer conducting and it. 1. the v. as shown in Fig. and E are indicator lamps for the binary registers. =5 volts) tional current drain through R. is the voltage registered by the v. a potentiometer voltage divider connected across a 90 -volt battery can be used. 2. Other combinations produce insignificant voltages which appear in the waveform photo as a number of random pulses. keeps the potential of bulb A below firing. Bulbs A. Therefore. Each time the flip -flop state is shifted. The addi8+ TO A VARIABLE SOURCE OF REGULATED D. the instant before the bulb fires and is determined by trial and error by increasing the supply voltage very slowly until the bulb fires. The Circuit In the flip -flop configuration the bulbs are biased so that only one of them can be "on" at a time.div. The functions of these inputs (see "Computer Registers and Accumulators." ELECTRONICS WORLD. a standard negative pulse fed into the set input will fire bulb B. Another potential difference.000ohm load resistance. causes the voltage across bulb A to fall below cut -off.1 Output of series of neon bulb flip-flops counting in binary. but the negative pulse acts as a trigger. reading will fall to the level of E with no change in the supply voltage because of the voltage drop across the 27. 11 cm. However. an exponentially damped impulse of initial magnitude equal to d. where I is the bulb current. The set and reset pulses are simply fed to appropriate sides of the flip -flop. and d_ for purposes of bulb matching and capacitor selection. Test setup for checking voltages. Irrespective of the previous state of the circuit.c. E. A simple testing arrangement is shown in Fig. and the process can be repeated every time a suitable pulse is fed into the input. or do not glow to indicate a "zero. October. Suppose that bulb A of the fundamental counting circuit (Fig. supply is not available. Neon bulb flip -flop circuits em- played in binary counting arrangement. 1962 53 . E:a. E. November 1961) are easily obtained by a slight modification of the basic counter circuit. 11 cm. C. draws current for an instant from the circuit of bulb A. Note small positive pulses which leak through to the output from preceding stage. INPUT Fig. A more sophisticated flip -flop device has "set" and "reset" inputs as well as a single "trigger" input.. E. 1. the state of bulb A is con- and d. discharging C. they glow to indicate a "one" in that register.div. charges again. this time in the opposite direction as before because the bulbs' states are reversed. Negative pulses from preceding stage cause the flip -flop to change state. raising the potential difference across bulb B and causing it to fire. S+ e+ 27K E-4ouTpuT NE -2 UNDER TEST VOM Fig. although the results will be slightly erroneous because of imperfect regulation. C.Output of "nor" gate gives high positive pulse (center) when flip -flop inputs are simultaneously negative. the circuit shown in Fig. The load resistor common to both bulbs (R:) has a voltage drop across it equal to E =1R:.m. The positive output pulse will not affect the following stage. bulb B starts to conduct. & may then be found by decreasing the supply potential until the bulb flickers off and noting the meter reading at that point.

the bulb in the circuit which feeds the output capacitor.. From these equations it is seen that for higher frequency work. simply because the capacitor is too small to do its job in the circuit.. As in neon bulb units fairly small. 65 63 64 56 55 55 56 57 56 55 54 55 55 54 54 53 54 56 55 53 50 52 52 54 52 9 9 10 8 9 11 9 61 64 60 63 63 62 60 59 71 70 70 70 70 69 69 69 68 68 67 67 67 67 67 66 66 66 64 60 60 60 60 58 58 55 57 57 57 57 56 56 55 51 51 52 5 7 8 8 4 8 7 9 8 10 5 12 7 9 9 9 9 8 5 6 7 10 3 9 12 10 10 10 9 10 10 9 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 6 4 5 3 Table 1. the (Continued on page 89) circuit changes state and generates an Fig. t is the reciprocal of the desired frequency (1 /f).E. All figures given in table are in d. The other circuit ( Fig. author especially for use with neon bulb devices are shown in Fig.c. IB) Circuit of a self -erasing neon bulb memory circuit. physical layout is not the set -reset flip -flop.t /3d.. epoxy resin was used for additional comthe self -erasing memory unit shown in Fig. When the transfer pulse arrives. After C. 4B) is a "nor" gate which generates a positive output pulse if and only if it receives two simultaneous negative input impulses. (Note that an inverter -follower connected to the output of this "nor" gate would convert it to an "and" gate. and R. and d. Although this type of construction has good mechanOther modifications of the basic bistable circuit include ical strength per se. E. All the neon bulb circuits described will operate at a maximum frequency determined essentially by their RC. One circuit is a pulse inverter (Fig. 4 as models for interested readers. The Raytheon 2N662 is one possible substitute. although going into details of their operation would be straying from the topic. d. A pulse to be ponent rigidity and insulation of the printed -circuit backside.E. the diodes CR. as the capacitor must be large enough to cut off the appropriate bulb completely when it charges. If t is smaller than T. d. what the polarity of the stored pulse was. This is: C. The values the ease of interchangeability and mounting convenience it of R. depending on its polarity.e. found by experiment. the bulbs are biased so that it is impossible for both of them to conduct at once. has been calculated it is substituted into: T =RC.. and therefore fully compatible with transistorized circuits. especially since the voltage pulses which the neon bulb circuits generate and to which they respond are on the order of 10 volts. less -rare prototypes may be used just as well as long as biasing conditions are met. Depending on the choice of bulb for INPUT "output bulb. (A) Neon bulb flip -flop with "set" and "reset" inputs. 4A) which merely changes the polarity of an input signal with very little delay. the author was able to keep the is fed. the appropriate bulb fires and remains important and the reader has complete freedom to expand on. either positive or negative (high level or low level) By using tantalum capacitors. are desirable if not necessary. 3B. 4. trolled by the reset input. suitable for accumulator construction. the circuit cannot possibly work. will generate electrical garbage which is unintelligible to following stages." i. And keep in mind that circuits pulsed at rates greater than their allowed frequency of f =1 /RC.) The transistors used by the author were a special computer edition which will probably be unavailable to most readers. in the set -reset flip -flop these diodes keep Modular printed -circuit design was preferred because of the set and reset signals from getting mixed up. (el IB) Fig. and CR. INPUT 31525 (SEE TEXT) Additional alterations of the neon flip flop for numerous flip -flop applications are limited only by the ingenuity of the experimenter. networks. Characteristics of random sampling of G -E NE -2 neon bulbs. Construction Hints prevent instability and oscillation caused by small backwash voltages. bulbs with low values for d. to bulb A or bulb B. where Io is the current drain of the bulbs. but speed must be compromised for the sake of reliability. Obviously smaller values of C. IA) Transistor inverter circuit and IBI transisoutput signal whose polarity depends on tor "nor" gate circuit for use with neon bulb flip -flops. Two such circuits designed by the Olyf. however. but limited by the characteristics of the bulb.. This equation checks the feasibility of the calculated capacitance. is E0. afforded. However. (B) 54 ELECTRONICS WORLD . Do not try to increase the operating frequency of a neon bulb flip -flop by increasing the value of R.= 2I. stored. and It as this will upset the approximate transfer impedance match inherent in the author's suggested circuits and cause poor performance. In the basic counter. But as in the counter circuit. however. are increased to prevent resistive feedthrough. 3. 74 73 73 72 72 72 E. the memory unit will store pulses and reOUTPUT O lease pulses of the same polarity as the input pulse or automatically invert its RAYTHEON "memorized" binary bit. will increase the frequency capability of the systems. Calculating the optimum value of capacitance for a given circuit involves an exercise in integral calculus which can be reduced to a simple formula for finding approximately values of C. volts.

Both transistors are in common. to avoid crossover distortion. If R. however. equal and out -of -phase voltages are fed from the driver transformer secondaries to the base of each output transistor. In view of these limitations. Since the transistor is a current amplifier and power would be needed to drive the output circuit. In actual operation. reasonably balanced transistors and supply voltages balance the bridge and no current flows through R. Description of some of the unusual circuitry that is employed in an 18.c. transformer steel was better than that usually found in driver applications.frequency performance.transistor stereo amplifier unit. Class B transistor output circuits require some quiescent collector current to flow. In addition to this. (A) Basic circuit of half -bridge single -ended push -pull (B) Circuit modified for d..fidelity equipment. and low heat dissipation have already been demonstrated in a wide variety of transistorized equipment.watt -per. Actually. Some variations eliminate the use of the output transformer while still others omit the driver transformer as well.. The purpose of the design used in the "knight-Kit" KG -60 amplifier was to show that medium to high power is possible at low over-all cost in a complete stereo unit which provides all the versatility and functions required by the audiophile. Thus each transistor is driven to conduction on alternate half cycles of the signal. It was further decided to use the driver transformer. This parallel condition with respect to the load means that the load impedance necessary to match the transistors is only a fraction of that required by a conventional push -pull circuit.emitter circuits and appear in series across the split power supply. such as reduced low -frequency performance due to nonlinearity and the adverse effects on high frequency due to leakage inductance and intenvinding capacitance. When a signal is fed to the amplifier. In the field of high. This permitted considerable copper losses and allowed many primary turns. transformer efficiency of less than 50% was all that was required to drive the output circuit. Some of these advantages are: negligible phase shift with frequency response practically to d. the bridge becomes unbalanced and current flows through the load. with no signal applied. Fig. low power consumption. FROM DRIVER FROM DRIVER IRI LI 55 . The use of a center -tapped voice -coil could not be considered from the standpoint of compatibility with existing hi-fi speakers. hence better low. is replaced by the speaker voice -coil. It and RI establish bias voltage for V. the effective gain of the primary -to. SMALL size. while R. however. Proper choice of the output and driver circuitry circumvented the usual design problems inherent in the use of a driver transformer.. RI and R_ provide d. The value of this idling current is critical because too low an amount could cause severe distortion in the crossover region while too high an amount could result in excessive transistor dissipation with the likelihood of permanent damage. and the elimination of the output transformer. the real advantages of solid -state components have been very slow in coming to the surface.c. 1962 pull output -transformerless amplifier.U \IQUE OUTPUT CIRCUIT in TRA \SISTORIZED HI -FI AMPLIFIER By NORMAN KRAMER /Project Engineer. output arrangement. 1. The transformer employed was a special dual -secondary unit with a 66 -ohm primary and a 6 -ohm secondary impedance. Capacitor coupling to the voice -coil was ruled out because an extremely large coupling capacitor would be needed to insure frequency response down to 20 cps. Allied Radio Corp. IA shows the basic circuit of a single -ended pushOctober. They are.half -secondary tunes ratio would produce the gain which would otherwise have had to be obtained elsewhere in the amplifier. Since conventional class B operation requires both output and driver transformers. bias V.. Both transistors see their driving signal from base to emitter and deliver their output signal from collector to emitter. it was decided to use half -bridge circuitry. If an input signal causes either transistor to conduct more than the other.channel all . Bifilar winding of the transformer greatly reduced the leakage inductance and the undesirable effects on high.frequency response. always one of the primary limiting factors in amplifier performance. very low hum levels because of the reduced pick up in the inherently low -impedance circuits of transistors. and R. stabilization. Output Circuitry The amplifier design began with the choice of output circuitry. the incoming signal will be faithfully re(Continued on page 92) Fig. in parallel across the single -ended load. stabilization and set the transistors' operating points to levels where they are fairly independent of their individual characteristics and ambient as %veil as junction temperatures.c. it was to be avoided.

was seldom of any avail. On the other hand. the 1. Some form of signal tracing. When transistor sets became popular. ELECTRONICS WORLD .t. although it dates back to the mid 1920's. to locate the defective stage. Circuit impedances were too low for such methods to disturb circuit behavior. the battery. By J.m. US have ever tried to skin a cat by any method. With a signal tracer. a multiple.t. but this method was too tricky for fast work. then check to see whether it has arrived at the output. Preliminary Checks First the instrument is used to measure the battery voltage. Again. The v. The ohmmeter battery had changed the transistor's forward bias. the resulting sharp change in plate current would send a pulse traveling through all operating circuits to the loudspeaker. there are certain preliminaries that should always be followed. could not damage a transistor. 1. 1 highlights the signal. The Disturbance Technique Perhaps the least familiar to the modern practitioner is the third method. including stage isolation.5 volts internally available divides between the external circuit. the author once inadvertently left his v. was already being used for such static checks as voltage and resistance. you observe signal first at the input of the receiver or stage.m.v. Whatever the ultimate technique.m. This meant that a rapid method for making a comprehensive series of checks on the receiver was possible with nothing more than a single piece of equipment -the v.v.. when it was only necessary to remove and replace the top cap to cause the required disturbance. When the external test leads are touched across a circuit. there is a quick visual check to make certain that all tubes light. somewhere along the line you will pass from a point where injected signal produces output in the loudspeaker to another where no output results. When it comes to transistor radio troubleshooting. alone can go through a receiver. S6 / touching the control grid with the metal shank of a screwdriver produced the desired click in the speaker.m.000 -ohm resistor in series with the battery on the "R x 1000" ohmmeter range permits only a very small and safe portion of the battery voltage to reach the transistor.m. if possible.output generator.injection technique on a semi block diagram of a transistor radio circuit. is used. Even when single -ended tubes became popular. Stage localisation by signal injection requires a service -type generator whose output signal must be adjusted. in a transistor set.disturbance testing.V. where the voltages are considerably higher. for amplitude and for modulated or demodulated signal. the author has his own pet system. - Injection and Tracing Fig.v. touching the base of a stage. The possibility suggested by this occurrence was analyzed.t. A further step was shorting the grid of an amplifier tube to ground. or even the volume control.t. and the ohmmeter's internal calibrating resistor. or circuit-disturbance testing is used.Ar SERVICE FEW OF l 1RANSISTOR SETS WITH A V. Shorting the base to the emitter would produce the desired click by changing collector current.powered ohmmeter circuit of the v.v. you know you have just passed through the defective stage.t. Fig.T.t.v.v. The tracer itself must be adjusted as you proceed from point to point.m.t. amplified or otherwise altered in the way it should be. a method must be chosen to localize trouble to a section or stage of the dead receiver. signal injection. When this change occurs. 2. particularly when the receiver is dead. As shown.m. STRAUGHN National Radio Institute When the set goes dead. In a tube receiver.M. The method used by the technician is the one he has found consistently successful. The signal tracer and signal generator came to be the accepted methods for localizing dead stages. Some early genius discovered that touching the grid of a grid -leak detector would produce a sound in the speaker or headphone if everything following the detector was in order. B. this single instrument offers a comprehensive set of checks. set to its ohms function and. the internal 10. whose output must be adjusted from point to point. With the preliminaries out of the way.v. The same is true in servicing. producing a sharp pulse in the collector circuit. Each of these systems is based on the fact that a normal stage will act on a signal in a specific way -that is. Let us see how the v. without damage to the v. touching the instrument probe to the base of a transistor. Check the typical v. the load current is observed. particularly if a high enough resistance range were used. Plate current would not always change and results were therefore uncertain until the advent of tubes with top cap connectors to the control grids. By introducing an appropriately chosen signal successively from points 1 to 8. Since transistor circuit impedances and resistances are low. yet it is known that there are many different techniques that may be employed successfully. Here was a means for introducing positive circuit disturbances in a transistor stage to localize troubles. circuit. amplify it or change its frequency and then pass the signal on to the next stage. certainly the instrument could not be damaged by the low voltages in a live transistor set. the battery voltage is measured under load and. While preparing to take voltage readings on a transistor set. noted a loud click in the speaker. Similar oversights had occurred many times in the past on tube receivers. ohmmeter circuit in Fig.

don't be afraid to unsolder or resolder transistor leads. The collector has the most negative voltage of each transistor. A 20 per-cent variation is within limits. If you have a noisy power line and the supply is not adequately filtered. You can flow solder over this break later. The transistor may be defective. L::. can also kill oscillation. reverse probe connections. a short in Ca.c.06 volt indicates 6 ma. First. Remember that a shorted turn or two in an oscillator coil.v. suspect open conditions in C. is being drawn. measure current with no signal applied for the most reliable indication and compare with the minimum current given in the service data or anticipated in the type of circuit. This change will be small. Where If a click is produced at the V. while .. The click should be louder than the preceding one. C.1 . 2) to receiver chassis and touching the positive probe to the transistor base will decrease forward bias.m. To check. scale. short out the oscillator tank while monitoring emitter voltage. A change in reading indicates the oscillator was working before the tank ( tuning capacitor) was shorted out. October.f. (A positive collector means an n -p -n type.t. with the set on and the ohmmeter on its "R X 1000" range. the stator of the tuning capacitor.t.ra MG 100 "p -n -p" circuit. across the voltage input to the receiver. 2. Read this voltage and move the decimal point two places to the right to obtain current drain in milliamperes. . normal current through the transistor is indicated.transistor iia 2 0214 103 . which will not show up on an ohmmeter test.15 volt read across the resistor means 15 ma. touch the positive probe to the base of V. as long as you keep solder or the iron off the case itself.m. Ohmmeter circuit of the Conar 211 v. opening the collector lead provides effective removal. probe or check with a scope. More on this check later. Before replacing V. No click indicates the V. you can insert a 10 -ohm. If it isn't. unless the voice coil is open. If current is still excessive. suspect the following: an open condition in C. o POWER SUPPLY O- a chassis is not employed. This will produce a sudden change in collector current. A large drop in current when one transistor is removed probably indicates collector. a value change in R7. If it is normal. If it is present.v. To increase forward bias. base.m. Now touch the probe to the V. you can usually work on the leads without a heat sink and do no damage. is typical.f.The set is then turned on. If the power supply is normal and there is no sign of excess current. one at a time. : o.r1 m 10 0 S 100 100 f. If you have an unmetered supply. voltage. If no wiring or circuit board shorts are noted. for a short. base.::. measured by touching the probe to wc 2N<08 OS 10 22d CI CZ CS Al <OK :: loll A5 ^AT fO. and the secondary of TR. stage should be checked.. 3. extends far enough to read oscillator frequency. sistor. for continuity. line and the supply. Oscillator Troubles Fig. or the TR. you can use an r. check the loop for continuity and the r.v. simply cut the foil of the lead cleanly with a razor or knife. With wired -in types. C. touch the probe to the V. the battery may be used during subsequent tests before replacement after repair.americanradiohistory. you can make a direct. C. For example. Check emitter voltage. CS CO CT CO 1011 SO 01O .t.. 1962 57 www.. 3. L..f. ( How this may be done with wired transistors will soon be noted. with the v. reads about 2 volts in most sets. or TR. If the oscillator is working. 1 -watt resistor in series with one lead of the supply and the transistor set. or L. PM 1sa 1 CI a CIO CO d . If the set is not dead.. If v. move to the V.v. section of the tuning capacitor for a possible short.com . obtain a commercial filter or make one up to insert between the a.) Always turn off power before removal. Re -or a faulty transistor. If the output stage clicks properly. 2. Next measure the drop across the 10 -ohm series re- 1+ V. Sometimes lead reversal in a replaced coil will prevent oscillation. as will an improperly installed replacement loop. A normal click here will be less loud than at the V. positive check on a low a. response is not adequate. and then V. base. If the high. the click is louder than at the output stage. R. The author simply connects a replacement temporarily. suspect oscillator failure. If drain is excessive.it .) With a p -n -p type like those shown. The next point for the probe is the base of V. there is no problem with plug -in transistors. "remove" transistors. In wired circuits. trouble is between input to the push-pull stage and the speaker. If this stage is normal. primary may be open. No change in current at all suggests an open base..frequency response of your v. With no click. or a short in the oscillator section of the tuning capacitor. base but the set seems dead. proceed to defect localization. The frame of the tuning capacitor can also be used. if one is available. like the one shown in Fig. connecting the ground or common (negative) clip of the ohmmeter (like the one shown in Fig. frlrc V. If the stage responds.. An example of the popular 6. a defective detector diode. to produce normal voltage. Despite contrary notions.emitter leakage.. there is no open component from this point to the supply. Check the following: collector voltages. Tank r. it is then time to check base and emitter voltages.. If battery voltage is low but within 20 per-cent of normal... C. it is good practice to use a separate power supply. Deteriorating solder joints often cause oscillator failure.T VM. If output is too low. On printed boards.. use the positive terminal of the supply as the ground point. A metered supply that can read either voltage or current output is preferable. The last check should also produce a click. to provide a load.c.m. A click in the speaker should be heard in each case. 11H. there may be a wiring short or a transistor is drawing too much current. so they are all p -n -p types. You should always be able to check current drain.. As to removal. Then adjust your supply.PH-1 Fig. R. Check the values of R. check collector voltage. If there is none.t.11.. base. If there is no oscillation. Finding the Stage Consider the radio whose schematic is shown in Fig. go over all circuit connections with a hot iron.

Refer to Fig.. Take a stage whose normal voltages are as shown in Fig. or V... a "diode" check of the transistor (described later) is in order. 5A). There are various ways of proceeding from this point.. e. however.8 volt in this case. Very low volume on strong signal. maintains a slight voltage drop across emitter resistor R::. causing collector voltage to drop -unless no collector resistor is present. There may be another cause for slight deviation from the - Table 1. Changes due to open conditions in the base (B) and emitter (C) circuits are shown in boxes. with volume control at maximum. which can only be measured outside the transistor case.. For example. or V. Open L. Prodding them may restore normal signal intermit- L tently. Since this bias controls emitter and collector currents. it also determines emitter and collector voltages. there can be no collector current. Stations tune in only on high frequency end of dial. with the p -n -p types shown) than base voltage... increased in value. 4. Under such conditions. 5C). resulting in a dead stage in disturbance testing. the base is floating.5V. The normal forward (base. if the base lead opens internally (Fig. or unbalanced. and internal leakage (C). Audio distortion. no random noise Open base in V. No signal. in which the abnormal readings at collector and emitter are similar. speaker with volume control at maximum. (A) (SI -e.. Open base lead in the transistor: A defect in the transistor itself can also disturb electrode voltages. voltages normal. 5. V. the collector potential goes to -6 volts. d. Every deviation has its own meaning. or disconnected from its voltage source. 4A. eIV. Low or no voltage at battery terminals. Readings at the latter two electrodes show that the transistor is not conducting even though it seems that it should because base and. there is no emitter or collector current flowing through R: or R. Stations tune in only on low frequency end of dial. and collector and the ability to interpret these can be most helpful. open or has high power factor. The floating emitter assumes the base voltage. That will be done with the ohmmeter section of the v. One side of TR. Circles highlight type of fault.v. which means that there will still be no need to involve any other instrument. abnormal readings in Fig.. along with a lack of forward bias between base and emitter. or C. Relative changes rather than typical abnormal voltages are indicated in Fig. will be useful when checking transistor voltages: 1. Since there is no drop across R. These simple rules. Since the transistor's internal base.. This reverse bias will cut off the transistor as far as signal is concerned. through R. weak spring contacts. If a base -toground reading is taken. C. emitter voltage may go several tenths of a volt higher (more negative. Dirty or corroded terminals. Leakage in the transistor: Sometimes excessive leakage develops between emitter and collector (Fig.emitter resistance is low. This clue distinguishes the defect from the case of an open condition in the external circuit of the base (Fig. reduces the voltage across these resistors so that the emitter goes nearly to zero and the collector rises nearly to the supply voltage. 5C because actual readings will depend on the degree of leakage. or C. 1. in V. The stage is dead because collector current cannot flow. Some common symptoms and causes. Increased collector. 58 on stations with full C.m. POSSIBLE CAUSES SYMPTOM defective. an open base lead (B). then. 4B. V. Nevertheless. Typical electrode voltages (A) In a transistor stage.. Open in emitter circuit: See Fig.1 volt.v.. In fact. Although base and emitter are not far from normal (forward bias is still present). defective. the open base (bias removed) causes a reduction in collector current. C. Normal electrode voltages are compared with altered readings (in boxes) for an open condition in the collector circuit (A). Watch for proper relationship (Continued on page 113) ELECTRONICS WORLD . Voltages will thus tend to be as shown in the boxes of Fig.t... - (C) Fig. With bias removed. Weak batteries. This is a good argument for using a v. 4B. The open collector element takes on the emitter voltage. meter loading may produce conditions close enough to normal so that the change can pass unnoticed. Open in base circuit: If an open develops in its external circuit (Fig. 3.emitter current produces a larger than normal voltage drop across emitter resistor R:.emitter readings indicate forward bias. now passing to the emitter. emitter.t. V:. As described. weak batteries. throws suspicion on the emitter circuit. here. Transistor Voltages Suppose your disturbance tests have brought you to a suspected stage. random noise in speaker V. C R Speaker defective. that base voltage. which is about -.c.lv. the highly abnormal collector voltage and its correspondence to emitter voltage provide the clue. the floating base will take on the potential of the emitter. Note. No signal. the preceding conditions may be difficult to remember. however. The small base current. 4B). 4C. leakage maintains high collector current. or R. Open in collector circuit: NVith the collector floating (Fig. One way is based on the fact that there are three critical voltages involved -at base. Motorboating volume... primary open. 5B).emitter) bias is normally .-5. Tuning capacitor plates shorting. is not far from normal. with a meter whose input resistance is low enough. although base voltage is fairly normal.ev. open. A small amount of emitter collector leakage current will flow. The absence of normal current through RV and R. The incorrect collector voltage. Check for open leads or broken connections. causing the emitter voltage to rise. Open C:. poorly matched. not oscillating.. SV (B) (AI IC) Fig.m. 4B).

The "experienced" customer nodded emphatically and said. There are circumstances in which we will change components in the home. the flyback was found to be arcing out of its insulation -a clear -cut symptom. 1) showed the contrast control was open. Can you imagine pulling this monster." Since there was nothing else to do. The set has been fine ever since I installed a new picture tube. I was out servicing a 23 -inch Sylvania whose owner had experienced bad CRT's before. There are others in which a TV set is pulled when tube replacement appears to be all that is necessary. the 25 -volt bias was almost enough to cut the CRT off. as the fault had recurred. In the broadest terms. Somewhere between these two considerations. this arcing drew enough excess current from the flyback to induce gradual breakdown. fuses. Sure enough. where we are surrounded by a more favorable repair environment. But that job may cost considerably more than would be the case if it were confined to the customer's home. BRIGMTNESS IMEG. SHOULD YOU PULL THE (. I had to install it. The "Monsters" e Many sets simply do not lend themselves to easy transportability to the shop. Turning the brightness control from one extreme to the other had no effect whatsoever. The voltmeter showed that this fault left 30 fixed volts at the cathode. since he rarely goes out. With any inducement to pull them. Streaks resembling ignition noise. the decision to pull the set is made.voltage cage open. Admittedly we can do a better job in the shop. I checked tube condition with my CRT tester and could find nothing wrong. announced the job could best be handled in the shop. I restored the high -voltage lead and inspected the picture. Others will be influenced by the type of set under consideration. Picture quality seemed good except that it wasn't bright enough. consider the many compact models around today. Let me show you how this works. 'cause that's what it is." the owner suggested. I knew.22 FROM VIDEO AMP. In such cases. but not quite. The owner's last call for service was handled this way: getting a description over the phone that sounded like highvoltage arcing. 25K Portables Pull Easily On the other hand. system we use for pick -up and delivery avoids building up the charge to the customer. as it comes apart into six sections. 1 shows. 59 . The open condition of the latter blocked any effect the former should have in changing bias to control brightness. "Those machines are sometimes wrong. Reinstallation requires soldering. But was some other defect causing flyback breakdown? Now alert to the possibility. Symptoms suggesting a defective picture tube were actually caused by a fault in the contrast control (circled). Originating in the CRT itself. A call to the shop established that the replacement was in stock. These include color sets where you have to pull the CRT assembly as well as the chassis. installed it. The cause of transformer breakdown would not have become more obvious if the set had been brought in to begin with.HASSISf' By ART MARGOLIS Whatever general policy you have laid down on home and shop repairs. also "home theater" units that have a power supply and other circuits in common. but I didn't feel like making an extra trip for a picture tube that might be unnecessary and which would involve still more follow -up. On the bench. returned.11. during a house call.installing it twice? It was easier and more sensible to handle it as we did. but dimly. in step with the ticking sound. you can't rule out the need for judgment based on the special circumstances of each case.22 e0K 470K +205V. Since the first replacement might have been defective. As I entered. About two weeks later the owner called again and described the same symptom. lugging it to the shop. It has a common power supply. With 5 volts on the grid.T WHAT POINT and after how much effort. Let me show you what I mean. The picture came up. As Fig. 14. and break the sad news that the chassis must go to the shop for further repair? The TV service technician is caught in an ethical bind between trying to charge no more than is necessary and wanting to do a job he is proud of. 1. With the high. we pull all jobs that need more than tubes. A routine ohmmeter check of components in the CRT cathode circuit (Fig. and left with the receiver working. but there was no sign of gas or other indicative symptom. "See? Fixed brightness!" He had a point. . . Hence the dark picture. I nodded and turned the set on. and adjustments to complete the repair. I took another flyback with me. There are inevitable exceptions to this rule. I noticed a low. Some of these exceptions are dictated by common sense. We do so because the October. Their physical design does two things: it makes them harder to work on but easier to carry. With suspicion thrown on the picture tube. and re. It belongs to an elderly fellow on the third floor of a walk -up. based on a peculiarity in the individual case. (Continued on page 86) Fig." Take this three -way combination we service. "Hope you have a picture tube with you. and many connectors and switches. do you rise to your full height. we go out of our way to avoid a "pull. and. I tested some other tubes. 1962 CONTRAST ieyNr. sigh. While this was a legitimate shop job in any case. I took the schematic with me when I left for his place. you know. it is his main companion. ticking sound in the high -voltage area when I turned the set on. could just be perceived. it illustrates how transportability can cut costs to the customer. the job went smoothly. and carried the compact set out with one hand. the brightness and contrast controls are in series in the cathode circuit. I picked it up. The ticking would stop only when the second -anode lead was disconnected from the CRT. separately mounted CRT. we yield. he said.

Then. sufficiently different loads are attached to cause. D.C. Constant -current source prevents jumping (dotted lines) from one point to another when plotting curve of negative.c. so that high -performance. As an example suppose the tube has a mu of 75 and that V is 100 volts. a constant ELECTRONICS WORLD . of course. 5. The basic circuit for producing a constant current. constant-current sources.C.follower voltage source.c. the cathode voltage must change by two volts or 2% of the 100 volts across R. and causes to be held constant. Practical example of single -stage current regulator. The regulator amplifier measures.resistance devices.. any diode which has its knee at too low a voltage will probably be damaged by excessive current and the resulting dissipation. the voltage across a series resistor (R). as shown in Fig. the tube will adjust its operating point to keep the current near a fixed value. Consider first the problem of checking the reverse voltage rating of semiconductor diodes. but to whatever value may be required to keep the voltage across resistor R constant. That is. 2. say. 3. not to a fixed value relative to some reference. In this simple case there is only one stage of amplification. Leichner Mfg. However. 4. it can be improved as much as desired by using more stages of amplification. Since mu = 75. a 150 -volt change in plate voltage requires a two -volt bias change to fully counteract it. Since the load current through R directly Fig. However. We will describe a number of these as specific examples of situations where it is advantageous not only to consider current as the independent variable. If the rated reverse voltage (Fig. 150 volts variation in terminal voltage. The value of the current is controlled by varying R. but even so. approximately equal to V /R. LEICHNER. the use of electronic regulator circuits has made it possible to attain even better approximations to a true voltage source. the circuit performs remarkably well. let's look at their applications. E CONSTANT. situations and two -terminal devices. While most technicians are somewhat familiar with current sources. POWER SOURCE Fig.current source which so often proves useful in analysis need not be confined to that application. While this performance is not astounding. probably because batteries and the a. C.C. A specific circuit based on this elementary configuration is shown in Fig. they can just as easily be made to regulate output current instead of terminal voltage. Several of these are shown in simplified form in Fig. POWER SOURCE R 60 affects the tube's grid bias. line are essentially constant voltage in character. it is worthwhile to study some of their basic properties and applications. have several interesting and practical applications. there has been a tendency in the past to concentrate on the ideal voltage source in analysis and design. 3. being essentially equivalent to a cathode. 5A) is applied to verify the reverse current specification. SMITH. 2 shows a circuit for producing a constant current. which are available as commercial instruments. the circuit is a very simple one. From a practical viewpoint this means that the constant. constant -current power supplies can also be built. Now that we have shown that constant -current sources aren't hard to make. The current therefore changes only about 2% for the assumed load variation.1 Fig. but to make it so.current sources involve d. D. Instead it is now available as a physical device for which there are many interesting and time -saving applications. 1. r Not restricted to just circuit analysis. and K. Applications The simplest applications of constant.current sources. University of Illinois SINCE constant-current power supplies are becoming readily available as commercial instruments. Fig. Several others will be described in detail here to indicate the reasons as well as the procedures for using constant.CURRENT POWER SOURCES THEIR CHARACTERISTICS ¿ APPLICATIONS By GENE H. Co. The terminal voltage of the supply is consequently adjusted. The performance of the circuit can be evaluated by determining the variation in output current when D. once electronic regulator circuits are introduced.

applied current set at the maximum reverse value allowed
not only protects the diodes from excessive current, but also
allows them to be sorted according to reverse voltage with
only a single v.t.v.m. measurement on each one.
Another important point when choosing between voltage
or current sources in data taking is also shown in Fig. 5. If
data points are to be taken beyond the knee of the curve
where the slope is steep, current readings would be very
dependent on the exact setting of a voltage source. Smallsetting errors could cause intolerable variations in current
readings. The use of a current source reverses the sensitivity
situation, however, and permits accurate voltage readings to
be taken without precise current settings.
One further observation may help clarify the nature of
constant -current sources. The IMn. line on the graph in
Fig. 5B can be thought of as a load line describing the
source to which the diode is attached. When considered in
this way, a constant- current source is seen to be equivalent
to an infinite resistor in series with an infinite voltage. In
fact a common way to simulate a true current source is to
use a large resistor with a large voltage. It is thus natural
to describe the performance of constant- current regulators
in ternis of their equivalent resistance. The limited range
of voltage over which the regulator can simulate a large
resistance is called the compliance voltage and must be given
to complete the description of the source.
An exploitation of the large effective resistance of a current
source is shown in Fig. 1 where it is desired to trace out
the negative- resistance characteristic of some device. In
order to be able to trace out the curve smoothly, without
jumping from one portion to another, it is necessary that
the load line of the driving source always intersect the curve
at only one point. An adjustable voltage supply, V, with a
series resistance R would, as shown, lead to the jumps indicated by the two dotted lines depending on the direction
of travel. To avoid jumps on this particular curve it would
be necessary to use a rather large resistance, and therefore
a large voltage, with the consequent dissipation of considerable power. A constant -current source solves the problem
nicely without requiring the large voltage and power to be
generated, even internally.
As an example of a more sophisticated application of a
constant -current regulator, consider the design of a precision
voltage standard. Fig. 6A shows a possible circuit in which
a temperature -compensated zener diode is to be used as a
reference element. In this simple circuit, however, the inevitable variation of the a.c. input will produce a variable
voltage across the dropping resistor R, with corresponding
variations in the zener diode current. Since the diode has a
small, but not zero, dynamic impedance the output voltage
will also vary.

Rather than regulate the input voltage, as might be considered, the diode current may be established directly by
means of a constant -current source, or rather a current regulator to convert the available source. In this way, the diode
current is held nearly fixed and the non -zero dynamic impedance of the diode causes very little error. The effect
of using the regulator, illustrated in Fig. 6B, is to simulate
Fig. 5. Diode reverse -voltage
E

APPLICATION

PROCEDURE

SEMICONDUCTOR
DIODE TESTING;
FORWARD, REVERSE,
ZENER CHARACTER-

ISTICS

COMMENTS
NO DANGER OF EXCESSIVE
CURRENT IN CASE DIODE

SE77pQ

QpEAD
ZVTVM.
FORWARD

CURRENT

OR

OPERATING
POINT

IN CURRENT SETTING
CAUSE VERY LITTLE CHANGE
IN OBSERVED VOLTAGE

READ SMALL
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
TESTING: VR TuBES, VARY CURRENT
OVER OPERATING VARIATIONS
GLOW TUBES, NEON
RANGE
BULBS

O%

VTVM
BUCKING

+

SOURCE

SMALL VOLTAGE CHANGES CAN
BE OBSERVED AS CURRENT IS

VARIED USING DIFFERENTIAL
OR POTENTIOMETER METHODS
IF DESIRED

LIMITING DURING
C
CURRENT
URIN LNG AUTOMATICALLY
ACCOMPLISHED BY CURRENT

FOR HIGH
ACCURACY

SOURCE

CURRENT AUTOMATICALLY
LIMITED IN CASE CAPACITOR

ELECTROLYTIC
CAPACITOR
LEAKAGE TEST

IS EXCESSIVELY LEAKY

VT.V,M.

CAN RE -FORM CAPACITOR, IF
IT HAS NOT DRIED OUT, BY
TERMINAL
IT ATTACHED UNTIL
VOLTAGE LEAVING
VOLTAGE RISES TO NORMAL

//O

/

OREAD

SET TO
SMALL VALUE
AND INCREASE
AS NECESSARY

RATING WITH ONLY SMALL
APPLIED CURRENT

CURRENT IS AUTOMATICALLY
LIMITED REGARDLESS OF
RESISTANCE OF MOVEMENT

METER MOVEMENT

SENSITIVITY AND
RESISTANCE TESTS
ADJUST TO REDUCE READING
FROM FULL TO

HALF SCALE.
IS

START
LOW VALUE
AND
INCREASE
METER DAMPING
TESTS

VOLTAGE CAN BE READ ACCURATELY SINCE SLIGHT VARI-

REVERSE ATIONS

VOLTAGE
FORWARD OR
REVERSE AS REQUIRED

_.

VOLTAGE IS LOWER THAN
EXPECTED

R

THEN EQUAL

CAN USE PRESET SWITCHED
CURRENT SETTINGS FOR RAPID
ACCURACY CHECKS, NO CORRECTIONS NEEDED FOR METER

TO MOVEMENT

RESISTANCE

RESISTANCE

RESISTANCE TEST USES MOVE MENT ITSELF AS AN INDICATOR

SET FOR 2/3 TO

SWITCH TO IMPEDANCE
OF CURRENT
INITIATE
RESPONSE SOURCE IS SO HIGH IT CAN BE
IGNORED. EFFECT OF DAMPING
DAMPING
RESISTOR ON SENSITIVITY
CAN ALSO BE SEEN DIRECTLY

3/4 FULL SCALE
DEFLECTION

O

I

O

PRODUCTION TUBE

TESTER

METER NOT DAMAGED BY
HIGH PLATE
VOLTAGE INDICATES LOW
EMISSION

W=

VTV M. SHORTED TUBES.

,T,¢

0IV

PLATE

VOLTS BIAS SET BY R NO DEGENERATION EFFECT SINCE CURRENT IS FIXED BY SOURCE

R

fi1PREAD

Fig. 4. Examples of d c. applications of constant -current sources.

a very large series resistance between the points X -X so that
the input- voltage variations now cause almost no current
change. The advantage, as in the previous example, is that
this large resistance, with its large d.c. drop, is not actually

inserted. Thus the input source does not have to be made
excessively large to obtain superior stability over the original
design.
A.C. or Incremental Measurements
Even more interesting than the d.c. applications are those
where a.c. measurements are to be macle. If the current
source is built in such a way as to retain its usual high impedance properties over a reasonable range of frequencies,
it can be used to superimpose d.c. during a.c. tests. Such
measurements are quite awkward to accomplish using voltage sources.
As an illustration, consider the second example in the a.c.
applications summarized in Fig. 8, namely the measurement
of inductance and saturation effects. The a.c. impedance of
the current source, in most cases, will usually be of sufficiently

rating tests. Voltage source (A); current source (B).

VRE VERSE

VMAX

RATINGS

E

i

//

/'MAX

i
MAX

/
/

DIODE

(A)

October, 1962

VARIATIONS

I

(B)

I
61

A.C.
INPUT

Z ENE R

DIODE

(A)
CURRENT
REGULATOR

(8I
Fig.

6. Example of

precision voltage standard application.

lating signal. Even if the highest modulating frequency that
can be used is that of the a.c. line, the result is most useful.
Suppose, for example, that the current source in the second
example of Fig. 8 has a 10% a.c. modulation. That is, suppose
the output varies sinusoidally about the d.c. value with an
r.m.s. component of 10% of the d.c. value. It would then be
necessary to measure only the a.c. component of the voltage
across the choke to determine its impedance or inductance
at the chosen operating point. The a.c. component of current
can be calibrated by substituting a known resistance in place
of the inductor. Such an arrangement is actually doubly rnnvenient since a.c. v.t.v.m.'s are readily available and make
voltage signals caused by applied currents easier to measure
than currents caused by applied voltages. A d.c. measurement
in this case would indicate the d.c. resistance and would
modify the impedance calculations if it were large enough.
Increasing the test frequency would make X,. larger and
might allow R to be neglected.
The use of a modulated source greatly simplifies all dynamic- impedance tests. For each of the devices in the first
two examples of Fig. 4, dynamic impedances can be determined simply by using an a.c. v.t.v.m. to measure the a.c.
component of terminal voltage. However, there are even more
advantages to be gained in the case of three -terminal devices.
Fig. 9 shows a simple and accurate way of measuring the
most often needed transistor parameters, both d.c. and a.c.,
using a single test circuit. Suppose the current source is set
to I ma. with 10% r.m.s. modlation. It will then be equivalent to an a.c. and a d.c. source in parallel. Under this
condition a number of parameters can be found as follows:
0.1/
h.r:

=ßac

h.b =

Fig. 7. Complete source with meter, vernier, and range switch.

high value that it can be neglected, while the low impedance
of a voltage source would completely upset the circuit. To
use a voltage source successfully it would be necessary to
insert a series resistance between the source and the inductor
in order to make the source impedance high enough to be
neglected. Usually a compromise must be reached between
the error introduced and the power which must be dissipated
in a large resistor. Since the current source dynamically simulates the large source voltage and series resistance, without
actually using them, it is much more naturally suited to
the job.
The ability of a current source to exhibit a high a.c. impedance depends on two factors: the capacity across the
output terminals must be kept small, and the regulator must
maintain its usual high gain over a reasonable bandwidth.
The circuit in Fig. 3 has these properties inherently since
the only capacity contributed by the circuitry is the relatively
small plate -to -grid and cathode capacity. if carefully con structed, the source can have a terminal capacity as low as
10 to 20 ftttf. and thus would exhibit a high enough impedance to permit measurements up to several kilocycles.
One word of caution is necessary here. Current- limited
voltage sources, such as the new solid -state supplies, seldom
exhibit a high a.c. output impedance unless the output filter
capacitor is removed. Even then, this type of supply is not
usually suitable for several reasons. The total shunt capacity
is probably large since there is no reason for making it small
for voltage -source use; the regulator may oscillate when the
output capacitor is removed; and the regulator does not
usually have an adequate bandwidth since it sloes not need
it in normal use with the output capacitor in place.

Modulated-Source Applications

-

-- ¡IVI,,1,/R
111.5

=

1

V:I

(measured with

0.11

1

lV.../R
R

shorted)

and VbA = V_,.. (measured with R shorted) where: V,,.. is
the d.c. component of V.; V..tc is the a.c. component of 1 %.
(Continued on page 84)
PROCEDURE

APPLICATION
DYNAMIC FAPEDANCE TESTS
OF DIODES: FORWARD, REVERSE

ZENER

Vt

V2

A.C.
©
OV.T.V.M.

+,
Ro

VI -F 0
INDUC70R5

BLOCKS D.C. FROM ENTERING
A.C. SOURCE; SHOULD HAVE
NEGLIGIBLE REACTANCE AT
THE TEST FREQUENCY
C

C

VI

SET
TO
DESIRED
OPERATING

POINT

SATURATION
TESTS OF

COMMENTS
R

A.O.

R

Zak

CURRENT Ark

R CHOSEN ABOUT EQUAL TO
E EXPECTED VALUE OF DYNAMIC

C

IMPEDANCE FOR MAXIMUM
ACCURACY
VI

AND V

CAN BE USED TO

EVALUATE XL FOR THE IN-

A.C. VI
V.T.V.M.

DESIRED
RANGE

-

RESISTANCE

V2

VARY

S.

R0 :BODE DYNAMIC

©

QUENCY. D.C. READING AT v2
GIVES R OF COIL

A.C. SOURCE
VARIATION OF V2 WITH APPLIED DC.
INDICATES DEGREE OF SATURATION

DISTORTION

A.C.

WITH D.C.

o O
Li

BLOCKS D.C. FROM ENTERING
A.C. SOURCE
C

C

SOURCE
TESTS OF
TRANSFORMERS

SUPERIMPOSED

AZ. SOURCE SHOULD

1111

VARY CURRENT OVER
DESIRED RANGE

ANALYZER

EIE

CHECKED FOR HARMONIC
LOADED)
CONTENT
(WHILE
CO

VALUES

Fig. 8. Examples of the a.c. applications of current sources.
Fig. 9. Transistor parameter measurement

with current source.

SET TO DESIRED :E
WITH lO
MODULA-

TION

/

Once the current source has been designed with adequate
regulator bandwidth to retain a high impedance to a.c. signals, it is often possible to arrange for the injection of a modu62

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CIRCLE NO. 145 ON READER SERVICE

Zone

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_J
63

" the proximity effect is still troublesome. Fig. So. it worked so well it was never changed. 2. 1 shows graphically how the bass frequencies are changed by an average LE OUIETRU TV boosted bass frequencies produced by this type of mike.. ELECTRONICS CO. This circuit was placed across the bon." Blri+r - Simple circuit that can be employed to roll off the 'K Tuners ribbon microphone as the sound source is brought closer and closer to the rib- 11 Oz. radio and electronics instruments. smoothness. First. 2.15 µf. "warmth. switch allowed the selection of a flat response or a response corrected for close talking. It consists of a piece of nylon hose pulled over a small wire cage approximately 4 inches in diameter. Voice reproduction was natural. This article will deImprovised wind screen for the microphone. 4. AGOOD ribbon microphone will usually have low distortion.STANCE a -FEET e o Fig. This can be clone by selecting the proper values of capacitor and resistor for the circuit shown in Fig. Since the impedance of the mike was 50 ohms. N.. So successful was this experiment that the author decided to modify two other preamps. And the FREE EXThe TENDER TUBE makes those once pesky places easy to reach. Neither does the author feel it necessary to suggest possible sources for discarded nylons. in one transistor preamp used by the author. CIRCLE NO. CIRCLE NO. A d. Fig. 8 oz. However. KEY 120 LIBERTY STREET NEW YORK 6. at very close distances. but other values giving the same slope would he okay. a value of . The cage was made from doubled =20 wire which was soldered to give added strength.Y. was selected for the capacitor and 5000 ohms for the resistor. a ribbon microphone also exhibits a characteristic known as "proximity effect.SPRAY PACK CAN (with FREE Exton derTube) 6 Product of 1 1 I 40 reduced. The same values were employed for the capacitor and resistor in the network. tuners. it is quite easy to effect such corrections. Thus the slope started at about 210 cps and was clown around 16 db at 50 cps. Fortunately. Waterloo. and a characteristic that can best be described as However. it is possible to use a ribbon mike for good reproduction of a close-up sound source. tape recorders. When such corrections are made. with quality. 2A. Fig. Bottles (with Dropper) QUIETROLE COMPANY Spartanburg. an extended frequency response. even when speaking at a distance of 6 inches or less from the mike. South Carolina in Canada: CROSS CANADA ELECTRONICS 12 Laurel Street. speakers. So it is necessary to attenuate the bass response at the rate it rises as the distance to the ribbon is shows how to connect the very simple circuit and suggested values for the components. This circuit turned out very well. This serves the dual purpose of keeping the sound source at least 2 inches from the mike and shielding the ribbon from the explosive 'p" sound. etc. to Circuits used INPUT(Ci attenuate boss. Now while this screen corrects for "windage." A sound source closer than 4 to 5 feet (although some manufacturers claim the "proximity effect" is not bothersome at over 2 feet) will accentuate the bass frequencies unnaturally. scribe a two -way attack on the problem. It was decided to attenuate the signal at 50 cps to about -16 db.t. Ontario Because of this it is usually impossible to talk or sing with the lips 6 inches frdm the mike unless some corrective measures are taken. a wide dynamic range.ON OFF Turn ON the QUIET CLOSE TALKING WITH A RIBBON MIKE Turn OFF the NOISE By LEE BEEDER QUIETROLE.d. SIGNAL OUTPUT INPUT FLAT wCLOSE 1O'e SIGNAL OUT (B) ELECTRONICS WORLD . proved lubricant for effective silencing of noisy controls and switches on TV. 129 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 64 -200 B -100 A C- 470 -ohm output impedance of the pre amp. This operation is obviously so simple that no further explanation is required. 2B CPS CPS 50 CPS 2 8 á 5 ó 2 4 D. the explosive "p" sound hits the ribbon with a great (leal of force. It doesn't look very elegant as it was a first try.p. The photograph shows a perfectly adequate screen. 1. some sort of screen is indicated for the microphone since. a network was placed across the input of the two additional transistor preamps. Bass boost produced close to mike. Put quality QUIETROLE in your repair kit and see how quickly and easily you satisfy more of your customers. 138 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 15 YOU SAVE MONEY! RUSH US YOUR LIST OF HI -FI COMPONENTS FOR A SPECIAL QUOTATION WRITE FOR FREE AUDIO DISCOUNT CATALOG A -15 New low prices on amplifiers. another approach was indicated. As their output impedances were much higher than the 470 ohms of the first transistor preamp.

.. C. Even though the Mighty Mite weighs less than 8 pounds. maintenance men and experimenters. NEI 74DEALER . And it does all this by merely setting four controls labeled A. Mighty Mite II will test every standard radio and TV tube that you encounter. auto radio tubes (without damage) plus the new GE Compactrons.. Check these plus Sencore features: Meter glows in dark for easy reading behind TV set Stainless steel mirror in ad- October. A real money maker for the serviceman and a trusty companion for engineers. Then too.. RCA Nuvistors and Novars and Sylvania 10 pin tubes.. 147 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 65 ." ADDISON. Mighty Mite II also has larger. less than one foot square. Sentore Som says . GE Compactrons and Sylvania 10 pin tubes. ... B.... all steel carrying case and easy grip handle Smallest complete tester made. go. new circuity by Sencore enables you to use a meter to check grid leakage as high as 100 megohms and gas conditions that cause as little as one half microamp of grid current to flow.. 8 lbs. . Size: 101/4" x 91/4" x 31/2" Wt. and technicians who now own a Mighty Mite tube tester? Tube substitution is becoming impossible and costly with nearly 2000 tubes in use today. Why don't you join the thousands of servicemen. MODEL TC114 .. Portability and Price M i G HTY MiTE I[ They're shouting from the hill tops. engineers. there is only one Mighty Mite A complete tube tester that is smaller than a portable typewriter yet outperforms testers costing hundreds of dollars."They all agree the Mighty Mite is the real answer for the man on the SEN CO R E 1962 CIRCLE NO.. 50 Remember justable cover for TV adjustments Rugged. Technicians. Ask your authorized Sencore Distributor for the New Improved Mighty Mite. five star. including foreign. Tests all of your present tubes plus the new RCA Nuvistors and Novars. it checks for emission at operating levels and shorts or leakage up to 120.WORTH SHOUTING ABOUT! . easy -to -read type in the setup booklet to insure faster testing. ILL.000 ohms between all elements.Mp. engineers and test labs all say that the original Mighty Mite finds the tubes that large expensive testers miss. & D. This analytical "stethoscope" approach finds troublesome tubes even when large mutual conductance testers fail. tGNryEw . . 4% e Reaching New Peaks in Performance. nearly 2000 in all.: v E:. And now here is the new improved Mighty Mite! Designed for the present and far into w the future.

two channel stereo is a good approximation of the music heard in the front -center seats of the theater. result in each tone being reproduced several times and in being heard repeatedly by each ear. To protect the speaker fr this. Dept.) CIRCLE NO. or plan to in the near future. Chicago 5. reverberation reduces the number of cancellations because reflections. A TaleMoST speaker Stale State Mail copies to new address starting with _. Since most music is meant to be heard in concert halls by people with only two ears. The more complete and superior reproduction of orchestral music which stereo provides. issue. 158 ON READER SERVICE PAGE .APPLEBEE CO. from different parts of the \valls. The music hall provides the psychological clues to direction which assist in the identification of performers and. reits mounting and place a move it f piece of polyethylene or other thin plastic over it before replacing. to keep them separated in his mind and minimizes the interference between them. There is still considerable cancellation between the tones heard by each ear. the g bolls will pierce the plastic and hold it firmly in plate. should increase the enjoyment of the most discriminating listener. Kansas City 6. 434 So. 109 ON READER SERVICE PAGE Name OVINGE! ©O O If you've recently changed your address. "(Your Account Number appears directly above your name on the mailing label. It is now possible to explain the superiority of music heard in the concert hall over its monophonic reproduction. We'll make the necessary changes on your mailing plate. *Account No. Orchestra conductors have learned from experience where to place musicians to obtain the optimum effect. although the spatial illusion may cause the instrument to appear to be off the screen. individual tones which arrive from opposite walls in opposite phase are heard separately by the two ears and do not cancel. AUTO RADIO HINT Old Address City By CHARLES ERWIN COHN New Address City zone Ici cars have the radio d horizontally tinder a grille at the top of the dashboard. It helps him. be sure to notify us at once. Upon replacing.. 631. Illinois. and see to it that your subscription continues without interruption. Wabash Ave. Roth roe Now 1963 B-A Catalog No. in addition to the spatial illusion. CITY 1 CIRCLE NO. In addition. rousing considerable deterioration. in addition. The central position of the conductor provides him with a maximum binaural separation for those instruments which are played in the same register. The non -directional stereo effects will result in better musical quality. In some orchestras first violins and cellos are located on one side of the stage. M. dust. However. - U 66 Please PRINT! enough room for spatial separation. Here dirt. while the second violins and violas are on the other side.Non -Directional Stereo (Continued frosa page 44) I BURSTEIN. Music heard in the back seats of the concert hall resembles monophonic reproduction because any one sound directly transmitted from the stage is more likely to affect both ears equally. Me. and grit tend to fall through the grille :nul get into the speaker. Right now print the information requested in the spaces below and mail it to: ELECTRONICS WORLD. through the physiology of binaural hearing. 1 RUSH COUPON TODAY.. permits more of the music to reach the brain. in addition. "1 ' 1012 -14 McGee St.

-

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The Most Trusted Name in Electronics
71

Transistor output trans. the output is taken from across R. .cC IoRC z III I IKC FREQUENCY -CPS 72 IIRll 100 - e I a °1 2N398 I Ioo é V GI R9 RIO C3 R6 111111E-' IIIII R13 r II RI IV. BARMORE Construction of a compact. R:. I'. I Rn.I o 'VALUE OF 7E14714'TING I vate IO ...005 µf. R -68 oho.2 ohms (Thordarson TR27 or equiv. 5 -pos. o R1 TI 2R R.. a loading resistor (R:.) is about 20. diodes SR. R:. res. R. C. . C. will feed a 10 -volt p -p signal to V..-8200 ohm. . R.) and through S. Since the voltage Fig.-33011 ohm. res.. and R. eler. C. "p -a -p" transistor (RCA 2N398) I'. these frequencies are arbitrary. R. is coupled by R.. '111979 R. an emitter -follower.) V..-22 ohm.. Its output is calibrated. 50 v.. 50 v. meter (. selected by switch S_..01 pl.transistor.3 ohm. Ra...follower output stage. -180 ohm. C. If the fact that the generator requires a 45 -volt supply seems strange.. to improve the waveshape. and V. -.. í w.33. V.. sine -wave generator produces five fixed frequencies determinable by the builder. res. RI.6 %.11111. sec: 3. to 3 v. and coupled by C. an amplifier. However... elec..-.002 pl. to 300 mv. -..' 5O v. res. R. rd. SO v.c.t. 10 v.. V. to ground. res. -390 ohm. 1/2 res.. R:s R:. were selected for frequencies of 400 cps. R. S.. and terminating at 1 mv. also determines the oscillator operating frequency by connecting a capacitor (C C:. four..560 ohm.. R. I ( 6 2 VI ( N N EI C6 R. SR:-. R:. capacitors C.. is provided by R:. operating in push -pull class A. capacitor C.. Bias for V. T HIS compact.. res. the maximum output of the generator. ! í w.-220 ohm.. re. I á w. In addition to C. in conjunction with R.m. -0. switch (part of R.. a class A amplifier. However. R27 2oU7UT 2 I !í R:. Bias is furnished for each transistor by resistors R. \ SRI 003V SR2 + aI 02v. C -.. 100 v. The output impedance is 600 ohms from 1 mv.. R:. R o-2200 ohm. Transistors V::.. the output appears across emitter resistor R. level of the signal from attenuator potentiometer R. output of 3 v.000 ohm.ere test) SR. capacitor Co-10 pf. r.. to the base of V:I. to an eight -step attenuator network comprising R.) . The Circuit 033 The generator consists of a push -pull oscillator... 8-pos... in grounded. Harmonic distortion does not exceed 0..TRANSISTOR SINE-WAVE GENERATOR By THOMAS J. rotary switch S. rotary switch ( "Volts F.. R:..01111 ohm.9. ! j w. the final output will be about 9 volts.0 to the base of V. ! i m. and 3 v. res. pri: 500 ohms. is provided by Ro. R:. R. res..s. elec. -33 ohm.Germanium diode (Sylvania 1N69A) B. rr. and V: is about 80 volts p -p.i. linear -taper pot R:..-"p -o -p" transistor (G -E 2N190) v.. res. amplify signal generated by V. R. 50 v. and 160 kc. The oscillation level is controlled by potentiometer R. R a CR722 E J ohm.) between the collectors of V. 80 kc.-4100 ohm. 184-470 oh. caparitor 10 pf. R2. 1/2 m. 6 .: were selected to give a 10 -db attenuation to the output at each switch position starting with an r. From this point the signal goes to two places: the meter-bridge network (R. this is reduced to about 0..000 oha. The oscillator uses two 2N190's..-10. ") S -pole. capacitor. res.others may be chosen.. -R. and Co provide feedback. re.s.p. SO v.1 R2 01 d- S 03 w. RU.S.. capacitor C-I pf. Since V...-1000 ohm.02 pf. in parallel) TI. four -transistor instrument with five output frequencies within the range of from 20 cps to 160 kc. res.1S INN ra N lI 4NN 1 V_ . and variable from 1 mv. ! W.s. 4 kc.. = w. 2. through R.I -Ra). res. res. R.. C44CiA : _ . res.r -3.. I = w. V:.000 ohms at 1 v.1 ma..0010. I RI R.. is connected from the secondary of T. 9í 0001 001 w0.. Capacitors Co-C. raparitor pf.000 oho. it is for this reason: the voltage developed by V. and I I' R:. and R. The bias for V:.. capacitor C. capacitor S. capacitor pl. . For audio work you Fig. metered. . and SR.. blocks the d.. -1500 w.1. Nine volts p -p is about 3 volts r. I í m.liiniature coax connector (BNC) AI. res. The signal at the secondary of T. I 012 C.s. whose secondary is tuned by a . Relationship of Cr.. -45 -volt battery (taro Burgess A'301' -A' or equiv. has a gain of about 0. "p -u -p" transistor (Raytheon -2 - CA'7 22l ELECTRONICS WORLD . 40 kc. res. i oo0.m. -R. capacitor C: -.S..5 volt by the stepdown ratio of T.c R R.R..m. and Ro.. and an emitter. The output of the oscillator is coupled to the amplifier stage by transformer T.. linear -taper 1 "Alt") pot I% ¡ m. 1. and series -dropping resistor R.56. and 10. 20 v.. gain of the amplifier stage (V.. INII I 000 1/2 w. to the frequency.30110 oh..emitter configuration. res.:. y m. ! w.05-4.-3 -pole.

.. in water. adjust R3 for a clean.v.m.50 Fixed communications or mobile..m.priced communications model in shatterproof plastic case features excellent intelligibility in 60 to 7000 cps frequency range at 49 db sensitivity. Supplied with spring -spiraled.50 mobile communications Models "CM -30M" and "CM -31M" lets you place the mike almost anywhere on or around the dashboard. S. to 1 v. 4 -conductor shielded cable list $16. 10 ohms. to the 13-v.conductor coil cable. The phenolic board and front panel are held together by two aluminum spacers and two 6 -32 machine screws. securely to your car's dashboard. SEE SONOTONE CB CERAMIKES WITH MAGNET MOUNT Sonotone? Corp. position. While sending. determined from Fig. until the v. High sensitivity from from 60 to 7000 cps. Toronto Batteries Cartridges Speakers Tape Heads Electron Tubes Hearing Aids Microphones CIRCLE NO. The ceramic transducer is neoprene encased.. To calibrate M. S_. to output jack J. or even a crushed wad of newspaper in the palm of your sending hand. Model "CM-31"list $13. Lightweight. 1100 ohms. Inherently immune to extremes of temperature and -" With dashboard mounting bracket instead of Magnet Mount.. maintenance-free performance. 1.might want 30 cps. Model ''CM -30 list $14.. humidity. are mounted on the recessed front panel. Continue this procedure for each of the remaining positions of S.06 tá.'s scale. Magnet Mount eliminates the need to drill holes for dashboard mounting brackets.t. fatigue and cramping of "glass arm" the hand and muscles of the forearm. S. infinity. It I The trick Is like it on the air so is to keep the fingers curved and the wrist relaxed and free -moving like a hinge-don't use the elbow for this pur1 pose. 148 ON READER SERVICE PAGE . no need to take your eyes off the road.. good way to develop the proper grip. N. indicates 1 v. using the Here is a forearm as n "rust ' This is also a good technique for the traffic man or others who do a great s f dead of sending and suffer . shatterproof plastic case. ..6 Iaf. SONOTONE CERAMIKE "CM -31M" The Ceramikes have far more to recom- mend them than just this amazing mounting device. W70E during their MANY ham novices. . until the v. 400 cps. So easy to handle and control with convenient "Push -to -Talk" Kerchunk Kerclmnk means no more groping when you return your mike to its dashboard mounting bracket.. connect an accurately calibrated v.m. Adjust R.00 Budget." provide loud and clear reception." unsurpassed. 10 kc. Canada: Atlas Radio Corp.t. LOOSEN UP YOUR "FIST" By HOWARD S.proof.v. $16. PYLE. Further. Ruggedly built to take the punishment of mobile use. hold a small orange. and 20 kc.. mark this point on the scale of Aft." A heavy duty magnet on the back of Sonotone Ceramike button. from car or truck. Greater output voltage may be obtained by eliminating the meter circuit or by using a higher -impedance meter circuit.. 1 iaf. Child's small! rubber ball.. Sensitivity curve favors voice fre db quency range. SONOTONE CERAMIKE "CM -30M" - Intelligibility 49 Responsible for this boon to those who rely on CB or mobile communication. have a strong tendency active opera to grasp the knob of the sending key as II gh they had a "bear by the tail" and were afraid to ease off. J. The related terminating resistor values would be infinity. Calibration With an oscilloscope connected to the output.t. The oscillator. Mike has a 2. A a Kerchunk! sound of safety new is the sound made by the heavy duty magnet on the back of a Sonotone CB Ceramike as it mounts firmly. Construction The author's generator was built in a 2" x 3" x G" welded aluminum case. Fingers and wrist all tense and stiff make the manipulation of the key resemble driving nails with a hammer. symmetrical waveform at all frequencies..Y. since this one tends to load the output of V. a golf ball. is an important Sonotone development called "Magnet Mount. they will operate even if immersed Kerchunk says: "Message to home base completed easily. This is an old trick with professional radio and telegraph Operators and it works every bit as well for the ham.025 rf.. Set S.00 no switch list Available with dashboard mounting bracket instead of Magnet Mount. Code learning period and generally during the first several months of . would be 12 uf. Rest your forearm on the desk and let your lurid and wrist handle the movements with used in code character form: ' scle of your the sending key. and M. 1000 cps. Elmsford. indicates 3 v.v. safely. Again. Ltd. Sono tone Ceramikes provide topflight longterm. and output stages are mounted on a piece of 2" x 3" phenolic board. and . "CM -30M" and "CM-31M. and 5 ohms. and adjust R. amplifier. and set S. rendering it shock and impact . Electronic Applications Div. The corresponding capacitor values. The quality -engineered mobile communications models. Make a mark opposite the point of needle deflection on Af. About half of the space is used for batteries (two Polaroid "wink -lite" 45 -volt batteries in parallel) and the other half is used for circuitry.

"Golden Overcoat.C.Crossfire . stops cross -arm bounce and horizontal wind -whip.com . plus the same high front -to -back ratios... advanced DB Director System with "Phase Control. each director -on the high band -functions as 2 half -wave co.americanradiohistory.... the Telstar Crossfire Antenna (Model 3606) . Now..NEW SPAuhe By CHANNEL MASTAR All new Telstar Crossfire Electronic Antenna combines unequalled performance of new Super. plus the extra -powerful gain and low noise -figure of the brand new Telstar Booster (see right). In Exclusive New! Both Telstar and Super. Thanks to a unique Phase Controller.Crossfire Antenna with new built -in Telstar Booster ... In the Crossfire Antenna. Exclusive! All Channel Master outdoor antennas are fully protected against corrosion by E..Crossfire feature still another Channel Master first: New 2 -way boom bracing. .linear elements with in- Crossfire-an antenna with phase current distribution... : sum IN RUSI CURRENT DISTRI- IUTION ON DI DIRECTOR World's most powerful antenna features exclusive. simplified directors make it possible to use more directors -for increased effectivenss... you get all the outstanding features of the Super. in the Telstar Crossfire. The DB (Dual Band) Director System -exclusive with Channel Master -enables each DB Director to receive both low and high bands on a single element.... available separately) .. the Telstar consists of our brand new Supera brand -new Director system. In effect.P. Basically." Gives up to 82% more gain -plus tremendous added gain of Telstar Booster.element Crossfire. Result? .. you get up to 82% more gain than the 28." www.. we've teamed this principle with two new exclusive developments -to make this far and away the most powerful antenna in the world.. No other antenna even comes close.In the Super-Crossifire Antenna (Model 3607. Channel Master gave you Proportional Energy Absorption -the most effective principle yet for achieving top picture power in picture -poor areas.

See your Channel Master distributor for literature CIRCLE NO. 112 ON READER SERVICE PAGE C ioczCMC .linear half -wave dipoles without manual adjustment.Power " switch and impedance.PERFORMING OF ALL ANTENNAS AND BOOSTERS! AND MOST PROFITABLE FOR YOU! BEST FOR BLACKAND -WHITE AND COLOR TV. "Aim the beams" for top power. Smartly -styled. Perfect figure-8 reception pattern. electronically rotated in 221/2 degree steps. Model 3720 BRIGHT -MITE.matched output to eliminate standing waves.AGE TRIUMPHS . Has balanced system with 300 -ohm impedance. Model 0023 Handsome New TV/ FM STEREO ANTENNA Unique " Pix. (No rotator needed). The revolutionary tiny miracle light that outshines big flashlights. Powered by the Permanent Energy Cells that power the Satellites. or 4 sets! The latest circuitry and advanced low -noise transistor result in highest gain and highest signal -to -noise ratios yet.KILLER EXTRAORDINARY! A brand -new outdoor antenna with directivity electronically controlled by an indoor switch. On high band -Greatly increases gain by functioning as 2 co. CANAVERAL FIRST INDOOR DIPOLE ANTENNA WITH TRUE ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY. 4. . Special "Duo. The Telstar Booster is especially engineered to pour more 2. on all these products. Laboratory-tested by 250. too - because circuit utilizes the lightning rod principle to prevent transistor burnout caused by induced atmospheric lightning. Ask about our terrific Display Pack deal. "aim the nulls" for top ghost and interference rejection.Twin" Transmission lead prevents mutual coupling. Deep side nulls. 2. Solves most common problems of metropolitan and secondary signal areas with these important ex- clusives: 1. TOO! NEW Telstar -COUPLER BOOSTER features peak -power plus lightning resistant circuit! TV and FM Stereo get the biggest performance boost yet with a booster New OMNI -RAY GHOST. 3. Has the longest elements anywhere (96" tip to tip) for greater pull -in - ratio. with tremendous merchandising possibilities. Model 3622 NEW! Rechargeable power.resistant. FM STEREO. A completely preassembled stacked antenna. 2. that is miles ahead of the "second best" booster. 10:1 rejection usable power than any other booster to 1. 3. Lightning. On low band -resonates on all channels (even 2 and 3) by electronically lengthening or shortening elements -without need for manual dipole adjustment.000 lightning volts! Beautifully styled in blue.compensating circuit give you these exclusive advantages: 1. 3.and -white. BEST .

Dig -in angle 8. Phase angle NAME_ CITY_ a particular instant in an alternating current cycle.37 $2.D. on striking the surface of a liquid. students. hobbyists' to a right -of -way. These technicians. Wave angle CIRCLE NO. level stability is achieved by use of regulators. with microwave.FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS .35 $1.166 -10 WAVE PROPAGATION #166-11 ' SUPERHETERODYNE CONVERTERS & AMPLIFIERS .17 DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS . The coaxial cable repeater described here is an analog device. -ZONE.31 $1. Enclosed is $ Please send me postpaid the books I have checked. With millions of miles of railroad. Electric power costs twill be substantially lower since the cable repeaters consume extremely little power and there is no requirement for tower lighting and repeater station shelter heating. The first column below contains a listing of terms pertaining to both the concepts and the application of angles in the field of electronics. Another development under way is a digital cable repeater which will permit use of PC\f (pulse code modulation) multiplex. and highway right -ofway available for exclusive and shared use. Division of Hayden Publishing Co. bookstores or write.50 By JOE TERRA "angles" involved in the understanding of electronics are as numerous as they are interesting. power line.direcELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY SERIES tional single coaxial cable transmission systems make cable highly competitive edited by Alexander A. Since this type of repeater regenerates the pulse signals at every repeater.166.00 dtelectronic distributors. N.166 F -M LIMITERS & DETECTORS #166 -2 $ .90 mission. The practical transmission distance of an analog-type coaxial cable system is limited by the channel loading and the amount of distortion and phase delay of the system.80 MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM . Angle of radiation 5.LOW- Coax Cable Communications rstoutN(Y (Continued front page 39) AMPLIF7tR SYSTEMS A cable system is approximately the same as for a microwave system of lesser channel capacity.166 -28 $1. New York 11.166 -7 $ . pipe line. and the required flat.35 $1.25 used within large buildings and ships A -M DETECTORS #166-5 $1. There these modern. 142 ON READER SERVICE PAGE . The angle between the stylus and the record surface.166.3 $ . The portion of a cycle during which plate current flows in an amplifier or an electronic tube.80 VACUUM TUBE RECTIFIERS . the angle at which the electron stream deviates. Many thousands of successful engineers and technicians have speeded their progress in Since the use of cable is limited to electronics with the famous Rider Electronic' Technology Series. Electrical angle 10. best suited for use with frequency. Operating angle 12. In cathode -ray tubes.50 $ .25 for distribution of TV signals.166. $1. The probRF TRANSMISSION LINES 166.80 LOW. and communications. 116 West 14th Street. Of course. experimenters. A means of specifying $2.15 II RESONANT CIRCUITS $1.. J.24 1.166 -20 $1.166.50 . A I 2.25 $1..80 LOW-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS . G.90 communications. Angle of divergence 4. A cable system can be shared by two or more users without the restrictions imposed by the FCC on shared use of private microwave systems.166.6 $1.19 ANGLES QUIZ $1. will be totally reflected downward. In cathode -ray tubes. Critical angle 6. The angle at which radio propagations leave a transmitting antenna or arrive of a receiving antenna.9 BLOCKING OSCILLATORS . or access gineers.90 $1.23 . C. Schare Ph. B.25 $1.166 -25 o $2. the future of coaxial cable systems is indeed bright. the angle formed by the edge of the electron stream and a longitudinal line drawn through its center.166. 143 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 76 3. Angle of deflection M-.- ADDRESS .frequency characteristics of the transmission medium can be obtained through the use of mop -up 11.8 $1. Rider Publisher Inc. D. $1. In optics.166 -22 $1.166. cost can be greater in difficult terrain.166 -16 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS .25 ELECTROSTATICS . The digital -type system is considered to be superior for long -haul purposes.166.166 -33 $1. Can you match them? (Check your answers on page 891 THE VACUUM TUBE CHARACTERISTICS .80 IMPEDANCE MATCHING GAS TUBES .30 $1. Each tems employing both microwave and subject has been selected as one with which Iyou must have more than a casual undercable to permit serving both on -line and standing to advance your career $ . coaxial cable can be CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS .166 -12 L -C OSCILLATORS . The angle measured between a beam of radio energy from an antenna and the earth's surface.166 -18 A-C by use of simple cable repeaters. F.division multiplex. Operating cost of a coaxial cable system should be lower than for microwave because there are no expensive klystrons to replace.166 -14 INVERSE FEEDBACK . The second column contains their definitions.80 FILTERS AND ATTENUATORS #166-36 $2. Y.STATE__ CIRCLE NO. K.90 SEMICONDUCTORS AND TRANSISTORS o o equalizers and properly designed repeaters. Represents voltage lag or lead with respect to current. E. Amplifier operating angle A.166.25 lem of signal attenuation can be licked RIDE I I ' I ' AMPLITUDE MODULATION #166. low -priced books.25 TRANSFORMERS .166. Proportionate part of the exciting grid voltage cycle during which plate current flows.80 PHOTOTUBES . microwave will still have increased their know -how by digging deeper into specific areas of electronics with find an ever -expanding market.50 RF AMPLIFIERS . Inc. Opposite of dig -in angle. A stylus cutting angle such that the point is driving into the disc.21 $1..26 $2.. that angle from the vertical beyond which a beam of light from below. data transLIMITERS L CLIPPERS .rr -1 -. I. The transmission capabilities of both analog and digital coaxial cable systems are so great that a single cable can accommodate the requirements of more than one typical user. enthose twho have right -of -way. bi.25 $1. 10 -DAY MONEY -BACK GUARANTEE John F.1664 $1.25 I -F .90 off -line points. Cutting angle 7.13 ANTENNAS . RC & RL TIME CONSTANT .90 ADVANCED MAGNETISM & ELECTROMAGNETISM .25 MULTIVIBRATORS .40 VIDEO AMPLIFIERS . each book in this are many possible applications for sysseries deals with a specialized subject. Written at the intermediate level.90 In addition to intercity and interplant ' FREQUENCY MODULATION -^166.166. L.166. the quality of the signal at the far end of the cable will be almost as good as at its insertion point. Drag angle 9. N. `DEEPER LOOK' at the vital individual phases of electronics New Era in Communications While one -way transmission through coaxial cable is old hat to telephone companies and CATV operators.166 -27 $2.

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no money down. and quality . minimum distortion.no money down. resistance and decibels. Tuner and amplifier are separate for installation ease. no money down. $89. 88 to 108 me FM coverage. Heathkit IM -11 10 Transistor FM Car Radio This easy to build kit brings you FM car radio entertainment at lowest cost. $69. now an even greater value! Measures AC volts (RMS). - _ è.no money down. no money down. AC) $84. a stereo phase control for maximum separation. Also features sensitive superhet receiver with RF stage. 5 lbs. 12 lbs.95 Kit IM -11 . 7 lbs... high efficiency transmitter. $9 mo.25 microvolt sensitivity. Just $24. Slim. AC volts (peak -to.95 Assembled AJW -12 . no money down.. and broad band circuitry for truc hi -fi performance..... no money down.peak). Kit GR -41 .95 market! Now. 16 lbs.. DC volts. $7 mo $64. circuit board assembly and built -in circuit breaker protection.. Features 10 transistor circuit.95 New Heathkit Special CB Transceiver Most advanced CB unit on the Permits New Special -Value Price. Heathkit 4 -tone selective -call circuitry and five crystal -controlled transmit and receive channels. for versatile CB operations. selection. push -pull audio output. Component circuit board assures stable circuitry and easy assembly. $9 mo.95 Kit AJ. $5 mo 78 $24. adjustable AFC for drift -free reception: bar -type "eye" tuning indicator. . ELECTRONICS WORLD .12. it provides up to 20 different switch selected tone calling and receiving no extra channels. $5 mo. NOW Assembled 1MW -11. Up to 92 combinations are possible using various CB crystal frequencies.. Kit GW -32A (117 v. AFC for drift -free FM reception. Styled in black & chrome. : - Send for FREE '63 Heathkit Catalogs for you & your friends New Heathkit New Heathkit FM /FM Stereo Tuner FM and I M Stereo In a handsomely styled low -cost package. Has 41/2' 200 ua meter. Less battery. OC).95 Kit GW -32D (6 or 12 v. precision I% resistors and 11 megohm input.. better than 1. built -in squelch and automatic noise limiter functions: improved push -to -talk circuitry and more. illuminated slide -rule dial and special filtered outputs for stereo tape recording.. with exclusive Famous performance.. all built -in wiring. E11 mo Big Volume of World's Largest Selling VTVM.For 35 years kit builders have preferred HEATHKITS the recognized leader in value. Features a stereo indicator light to show when an FM station is broadcasting stereo. factory assembled and aligned tuning unit. Easy to build with circuit boards and factory assembled and aligned tuning unit. $7 mo $119.75 .. all -purpose test probe provides switch selection of AC -ohms or DC functions.95 $46. Test leads included.

Send for full details and LP demonstration record today or reserve your Heathkit organ now! . HEATH COMPANY Hear the New Heathkit Version of the Thomas SEND Organ for Yourself Transistor October. no reeds.. chapel or school. but true organ features and sound! The new transistorized tone generators on circuit boards assure clear.. undistorted tone.95. offers you a real two - manual organ at the market -shattering low price of just 5329. correctly positioned overhanging keyboards: built -in 20 -watt peak power amplifier and speaker system. More than 100 new electronic luxuries have been added since the last issue more than 250 in all.95 (less bench) The exclusive Heathkit version of the all -new Thomas Transistor Organ now.Over250 different electronic servants at savings up to 50% Another Heathkit First! A Real Organ in Kit Form! only $329. beautiful factory assembled and finished walnut cabinet and optional bench no chords. Michigan -PLEASE SEND MY FREE 100 PAGE 1963 HEATHKIT CATALOG -PLEASE SEND THE ORGAN DEMONSTRATION RECORD: ENCLOSED IS 50e -PLEASE RESERVE MY HEATHKIT ORGAN FOR NOVEMBER 15 SHIPPING FOR DEMONSTRATION RECORD (SEND NO MONEY NOW).. for the first time. Send for your free copy today! . 127 ON READER SERVICE PAGE ZONE STATE 79 .. 15.. manual balance control. Organ Kit GD -232 will be ready for shipping Nov. expression pedal. 35th year of kit pioneering Benton Harbor 15.232 -3. An ideal instrument for family fun. FREE 1963 HEATHKIT CATALOG Fill in and mail the coupon below or the card above to receive this new Fall & Winter edition of the world's biggest electronic kit catalog.. . Compare these fine features that until now have appeared only on organs costing up to S400 more two 37 -note keyboards: IO true organ voices. listen to its beautiful voices. I3 -note bass pedals: variable vibrator. CIRCLE NO.. Ask for Record GDA. long life. variable pedal volume. and easy assembly (they're warranted for five years). completely described and illustrated. 1962 . rich mellow NAME tone and astounding range of expression. Use the coupon at the right and enclose just ADDRESS 50c to cover handling and postage on this CITY 7' -33t/s rpm demonstration record..

1= EG o® E¡ recording studio in a suitcase. and E. Sensitivities of a millivolt or so may be achieved with high -resistance diodes. Basi CONTINENTAL '400' 4 -Track Stereo Tape Recorder R WILL EQUAL -E integrator circuit diagram. produce a sine. Input E may be connected to a reference voltage through a potentiometer. 6B. at prices from $22 to $150. INC. divide. or perform many of the other mathematical functions required in an analog computer -but any or all of these functions may be equally well applied to industrial control uses. or triangular wave. In Fig.. rises to a value only slightly in excess of E. the gain simultaneously rises...5 volts to reduce heater -to-cathode potential difference.contained. will remain at the last value applied to IC when the switch is opened.. Generally speaking. If it is desired to compare two voltages of like polarity. and the output E. By inserting a diode between A and B the circuit may be used to remember the highest peak reached at IC. dual power amplifiers.01 of. under normal conditions. Hgti Fdeihty Products amplifier (summing junction) will be at a potential slightly negative. Hicksville. or any other desired value. is the opposite polarity and slightly lower in absolute value than E. The input of the It is IO MEG. In computers.contained stereo tape recorder. N. two heater lines. CIRCLE NO. AUDIO FACILITIES: completely self. or even millivolt. a unity gain inverter is used to reverse one of them. at any of its 3 speeds. 10 MEG 6. with specialized instrument amplifiers at higher prices. a VR -tube regulator using four 0A2 regulators may suffice. A variation of this circuit may be used as a peak -holding. therefore. The diode will. 230 Duffy Avenue.01% regulation are commonly found. /RC... or the output may be used directly. to zero. x e or E. %yill string negative. an input of one volt. while for the opposite polarity it twill approach the open -loop gain of the amplifier. depending on model. to that of the amplifier linear operating range. Power supplies for operational amplifiers have been rather well standardized at 300 volts regulated with. therefore. as well as 4-track monophonic recording and playback. with an output of ± 100 volts at 3 ma.. then E.. In the meantime. and 10 tif. A relay may be connected from E. is connected. /day. When the output has reached the maximum value allotted by the amplifier. (Continued from page 37) termined by the value of capacitor Cr.. If a voltage is applied to point IC and no resistor R. stereo matched speakers (one in the detachable lid) and stereo dynamic microphone... In a computing application. If a diode is substituted for R1. and the operating point adjusted as desired. Fig.. often useful to determine when a voltage E1 reaches a certain value. A zener diode may be used to limit the absolute value of E. for one polarity of E. For this purpose.Operational Amplifiers World's Only Portable Recording Studio:. 100. = ( very smalHO) to E. If E. the gain will be near zero. Contrnercial Units Operational amplifiers are available from commercial sources. ¡ ¡2 Fig. Even with a garden-variety capacitor. The relationship is simple: volts. the complete circuit being shown in Fig. 135 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 80 operational the diode will be reverse.. RI IMEG amplifier acting as a peak -reading voltmeter. value constant for many minutes while the amplifier is delivering this voltage into a load.c> NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS COMPANY. A typical two -tube plug -in amplifier costing $35 and with a gain of about 30. or a starting value known as the initial condition. THE INITIAL CONDITION OF GO IF R.. clamped. or memory circuit. To obtain a rise of one volt.I the all -in -one ore R Rt IC Rf. see and hear the Continental '400' at any leading Sound or Photo Dealer. Commercial amplifiers can deliver from 3 to 50 ma. A high -quality capacitor may hold the one R. IA) Circuit arrangement employing an Fig.. monitoring and sound -onsound facilities.per -second. L. returning E. including dual recording and playback preampliA fiers. L.= F.. 5.17.. value of a few ohms. will be slightly positive. with a one. or 10 volts. one megohnt. E. usually. -R_.I. to ground to operate when the desired condition is reached. Typical drift characteristics average 15 Inv. extract a rcxit. ca g a very sharp swing from E.biased and assume a very high 'aloe R. 5. it is necessary to discharge the capacitor.V.that's how NORELCO '400' owners describe this most advanced (and most popular) self.000 ohms.. due to the summing network R.mcgohm input resistor and a one microfarad capacitor may be used. Another circuit use is as a comparator. 6A illustrates a simple peak -reading voltmeter using this principle. For complete specifications. convert to log or antilog. one at ground and the other biased to about -.000 is shown in the drawing on page 37 and schematically in Fig. and 0.. MI Circuit used as comparator. or equals another voltage E.. the output E.. 4. R2 IMEG (41 3' ELECTRONICS WORLD . It is beyond the scope of this article to detail the methods by which operational amplifiers may be used to multiply. will be grounded during reset to provide a constant input impedance. a switch or relay is used. square. two NORELCO wide -range. 100 to 150 volts in most cases. write to NORELCO. PROFESSIONAL EXTRAS (at no extra cost): mixing. a variation of less than 17 in 15 minutes is not unusual. be forward -biased and have an effective R. R. the junction of R_ and C. electronic regulators capable of 0.per -second = E. for simple applications. VERSATILITY: 4 -track stereo recording and playback.

new 144 -page S &H Catalogue. 1962 LVANIA^ GENERAL TELEPHONE & ELECTRON/CS 81 . So does customer good will when you stay with Sylvania quality. Ask your Distributor for a copy. ELECTRO .. S &H October. That's why we say you can profit and save at the same time through the many Sylvania distributors offering S &H Green Stamps with Sylvania Receiving Tubes.Look for these signs at your participating Distributor YOU GET 491 GREEN STAMPS WHEN YOU HUNDREDS OF GIFTS FOR YOU FAANO R THE YOUR MILY WHEN YOU BUY SYLVANIA N RECEIVING TUBES BU SYLVANIA RECEIVING TUBES AN YOV Sil.4 < Get in ) on Sylvania's big. Select gifts from a big. new Service 'n Save Stamp Plan Green Stamps add up in a hurry when you buy Sylvania tubes.

pair of standard test leads for all other services. Checks all modern tubes including 7 -pin miniatures.T. -10 Pilot light indicates when unit is "on. for.. 41 /2 inch permanent magnet speaker.00 to $70. 1.E10. can each of the two units be used separately as well as in conjunction with each other? In the case of this versatile combination instrument. Checks for shorts and leakage between of elements. tests for filament continuity. oscillator. octets.F. OHMMETER: Ranges 0 to 1. YOUR RADIO PARTS JOBBER a combination. in the $30. 400. 75. SIGNAL TRACER Model 153 comes complete with all necessary probes. damping chamber. Ready to use! Don't let the low price mislead you! with the knowledge that the only way to meet "imported" tester competition is to turn out a bet er product at a lower price. at 1. a combination Signal Generator and Signal Tracer priced at only $28.00 price range. Makes all necessary tests. for the first time ever.911 Foils Street.40 COMPLETE The true test of the claim "two instruments in one" is. New York 59. Only $29. Streamlined * tf- * * TUBE T E S T E R kit. amplifier output available at front panel jacks for use with VTVM. All popular and most used frequencies marked on panel in color. Comes housed in a beautiful portable carrying case with slip -on cover.T.95 COMPLETE! Not 151 is a a completely Wired and Calibrated Tester. The Model 151 was designed and produced Model 151 comes completeabsolutely no extras.C. V.Y. Accuracy: Resistance: Model 152 comes complete with D.85 Tests over 1." Housed in beautiful grey high -impact case. The Model 152 was designed and produced D. 30. VOLTMETER: R. DECIBEL METER (for all audio measurements): Ranges to +5.M. domestic or foreign. Input Resistance: 11 megohms. detailed instruc- tions. and Audio circuits. 9 -pin nova) miniatures and new T -9 types.95 Not á kit.000 Tube Types. Input megohms. 7 and 9 pin tube straighteners permanently mounted on front panel. 10 megohms. Ranges: 0 to 3. 100. for unlike any standard signal tracer. N.. 150. -r-6 to +25.. Peak to Peak Ranges: 0 to 8.M. 150. or for complete detailed catalog write to: ACCURATE INSTRUMENT CO. lock -ins. Compare the Model 152 features and specifications below with any wired V. High stability electron coupled R. 30. Separate R. Attenuator used on both R. A. with color matched etched aluminum panel.. Speedy operation assured by use of a new Improved circuit which enables us to use a single rotary switch in place of the one -at-a -time slide switches previously used.000 megohms (5 overlapping ranges): Center Scale Values: 10. ZERO CENTER VOLTMETER (for discriminator ment): Ranges: 0 to 1. To the best of our knowledge every unit is priced substantially lower than any equivalent tester affording the same services. 300. 1. the Signal Generator will function as a full service instrument with a range of 250 kilocycles to 120 megacycles and the Signal Tracer will follow any signal whether generated by a broadcasting station or injected by the Signal Gener. AT 82 Pre.T. INC.5. in the $50. Model 151 Modern. 800 volts: Accuracy: -2:3% of full scale. and Audio Signal tracing probes.0 -Or * THE ALL -AMERICAN MADE * ACCURATE LINE!!! Compare the features and specifications of each model on these pages with any similar instrument. Streamlined SENIOR V. indicates the quality (emission) of all tubes. 150. Only $ 95 PICTURE TUBE ADAPTER DESIGNED ESPECIALLY FOR MODEL 151 ONLY. the Model 153 first injects its own signal then traces that controllable signal to locate the source of trouble whether due to component or cir cuit by standard signal tracing technique... 750 $2995 alignvolts. 300. Designed and produced with the knowledge that the only way to meet "imported" tester competition product at a lower price. Low distortion triode output stage.C.the Only $21. Probe and cable.. Employs a rugged. ±3% of full scale.C.M. 15.00 to $50. the answer is emphatically yes.. highly damped meter movement Wien sealed air. domestic or foreign. Model 153 COMBINATION SIGNAL GENERATOR pHO SIGNAL TRACER Now. When used in SIGNAL GENERATOR Covers from 250 KC to 120 MC in 5 bands.M. These are not kits but completely wired and calibrated testers . Only ator section of Model 153. is to turn out a better . in its price range. Accuracy: ±3% of full scale.. with no dependence on outside signals..500 volts. +26 to +45 decibels. Compare the Model 151 features and specifications below with any tube tester.V.000 ohms.pt. Only 11 0 to 3.V.* * * . Hi -gain cascode pre.. amplifier. accurate...F.000. VOLTMETER: Ranges: 1. ready to use! All Accurate products are guaranteed for a period of one year.F. 100.V. Five (5) Year Free Tube Data. Ready to use! Don't let the low price mislead you! with the knowledge that the only way to meet "imported" tester competition is to turn out a better product at a lower price.the 152 IANT 6'AT METER COMPLETE! is a completely Wired and Calibrated Tester.. Model 152 Modern. oscilloscope or phones. D. 80.00 price range. ELECTRONICS WORLD ..S.500 volts.73 volts on 500 ohm line. domestic or foreign. $3. Audio Attenuator provided to prevent high signai overloading. All based on zero db. the compatibility of Model 153 provides ideal service.

Y. and F.000 Ohms per. Complete with all instructions and leads.3000 Volts. SELENIUM and SILICON RECTIFIERS.M.C. All Selenium Rectifiers All Silicon Rectifiers All Germanium Diodes All Silicon Diodes The it on the bench -use it on calls. lar standard equipment for servicing Color TV. 6 A. EW-10.300'750.001 to 1 Mid.M. 2. has been the one "must have" tester for all Radio and TV technicians since 1935. 0 to 1. the one addition which is a "must" is a Dot Pattern Generator.. 5 D. 600 Kc. a stable cross -hatch effect.O.35 to 7 Henries.000 Ohms per Volt): 0 to 15/75/ 150/300/750'3000 Volts.. 5 RESISTANCE RANGES: 0 to 2000 20. Signal Generator for F. AGE RANGES (at 5. to 1000 Mfd. 1600 Kc. (2) R. Streamlined 20. VARIABLE AUDIO FREQUENCY GENERATOR: In addition to a 400 cycle fixed audio tone. and at an unbelievably low price.M.000 cycle peaked wave audio signal. 0 -6 0 to 7. Reactance: 130 to 2.M.38 db. Megacycles on powerful harmonics. F.579 Mc. 0 to 20 Megohms. DOT PATTERN GENERATOR (FOR COLOR TV): Although you will be able to use most of your regu- AT Receiver Screen. Signal Generator for A.F. CROSS HATCH GENERATOR: BAR GENERATOR: The Model 156 Genometer will project a cross -hatch pattern on any TV picture tube. only 52795 FEATURES GIANT 61/2" METER COMPLETE! NOTA KIT.MORE TO COME! Model 154 Modern. 3 DECIBEL RANGES: db to +18 db.5 Mc. The Model 156 comes ab- solutely complete with shielded leads and operating instructions.. YOUR RADIO PARTS JOBBER ACCURATE INSTRUMENT CO. +30 to -} 58.579 Mc. horizontal and vertical lines The Model 156 projects an actual Bar Pattern on any Interlaced to provide bars.5/15/75/150/750 /1. CURRENT RANGES: 0 to 75'750 Micro.. D. Only GENOMETER (7) SIGNAL GENERATORS IN ONE (1) R. N.5/15 Amperes. +10 to +38. A versatile all -inclusive GENERATOR which provides all the outputs for servicing: A.5 75 Milliamperes. amperes. Two separate BAD GOOD scales on the meter are used for direct readings. SILICON and GERMANIUM DIODES. The pattern will consist of non -shifting. (7) Marker Generator. the Model 156 Genometer provides a variable 300 cycle to 20. VOLT. READY TO USE! The 20.600 Ohms to 2. +14 db to .000 Ohms. Street.000 200. 456 Kc. New Model 156 SEVEN following components are all tested for QUALITY at appropriate test potentials. (6) Color Dot Pattern Generator. 4.000 D. and now . we proudly announce the most recent. (4) Bar Generator. Selected resistors are used as multipliers to assure unchanging accurate readings on all ranges.Volt-V.C. Mirrored Scale permits fine accurate measurements where fractional readings are important. 1962 CIRCLE NO.`° VOM. The following markers are provided: 262 Kc. 911 Foil.000/200.C.000 Decibels: -10 to +18.6 Megohms. 100 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 83 . RADIO F.. Resistance: 0 to 2. Volts: 0 to 7.. 3. -{-28 db to +52 db. 1 to 20 Mid. INC. A.C..600 Ohms...C..5/15/150 Ma.. stream- lined edition of this all. alignment.500 /3. The Dot Pattern projected on any color TV Receiver tube by the Model 156 will enable you to adjust for proper color convergence.M..M. 6 D.7 Mc.. F.000 Ohms.. 1000 Kc. Only $ 50 or for complete detailed catalog write to: Dept. Capacity: . 2500 Kc. 0 to 2 20 Meg ohms. 7 to 7.. New York 59. October. Generates Radio Frequencies from 250 Kilocycles to 45 Megacycles on fundamentals and from 35 Megacycles to 120 R. Inductance: .5 Amperes. All Electrolytic Condensers from 1 Mid. REACTANCE. VOLTAGE RANGES (at 20. (5) Cross Hatch Generator.THE FIRST SIX MODELS IN THE NEW 'ACCURATE" LINE . INDUCTANCE and DECIBELS.. Volts: 0 to 15/30/150/300/1.000 °":a.M. 10. (3.C. New Model 155 - to 7. the 154 is a completely Wired and Calibrated Tester .around useful stand ard with a 61/2" meter.. Henries.500. Pattern will consist of approximately 4 to 16 horizontal bars or 7 to 20 vertical TV MARKER GENERATOR: The Model 156 includes all the most frequently needed marker points. (3) Audio Frequency Generator... Current: 0 to 1.000 Ohms per Volt): 0 to 15/75'150. RADIO AMPLIFIERS BLACK AND WHITE TV COLOR TV SIGNAL GENERATOR: The Model 156 Genometer provides complete coverage for A. Model 154 comes corn- plete with operating instructions and test leads $2995 Only SUPERTESTER WITH NEW 61/2" FULL -VIEW METER A Combination VOLT -OHM MILLIAMMETER plus measurements of Also Tests CAPACITY. Use Model 155 comes com- plete with operating instructions and test leads. is the color burst frequency).

50 Transistor Radio Kit Kit: $135. hi -fi. Fig. Washington 16.2 mega.C. ELECTRONICS WORLD. Superb tone and sensitivity.Constant -Current Sources INVITATION TO AUTHORS Just as a reminder. Line. 12. Home entertainment items that make perfect family gifts or test instruments for the technician who appreciates quality and high performance. Gat your FREE The connection shown avoids a common difficulty in test circuits. output. radio. $44.current sources once one gets used to thinking in terms of current in the first place. Otherwise transistors with low p. constant. for publication in this magazine. Tools. ELECTRONICS WORLD . In- stable cludescabinet. and necessary as constant.frequency modulation is adjustable from zero to an r.scale. Also since the surge from the charged stray capacity could damage a transistor if it were inserted Nvith the current source open -circuited. Since the emitter current is directly controlled by the source. but there are other situations where current is simply the most sensible thing to regulate. N. Mail coupon for new 1963 Catalog now. then. And you'll like the reasonable prices and convenient payment plans which make CONAR Kits easy to own. In general. The job to be done determines which is more appropriate. Send all manuscripts or your letters of suggestion to the Editor. maintenance. too. to p. Input imped.95 Assembled: CONAR. value of 10 per -cent of the d.50 . AM -FM and elec- O.c.. transistors with unusually high ß will not be damaged by excessive current.50 Kit: $31. This results because the drop across R adds to the V. The only restriction on the choice of parameters is that R should not be macle any larger than necessary to obtain reliable voltage readings. D. suitable voltage-limiting diodes or a normally closed push -button switch should be built into the test fixture as a safety precaution. Advanced design. At- Vacuum Tube Volt Meter Kit (6 -Inch Meter) HMS and p. Many items available in both kit or assembled form. coltronic applications.t Aaaembled:$139. New York City 16. but not necessarily completely bad. Kit: $25. NOT a portable. sync. 5 -Inch Wide Band "Custom 70" TV Set Kit Oscilloscope Kit For black-white.S. .00 printed circuits.current supplies are just as useful. made parts. No delicate tractive. will develop an unnecessarily large collector voltage.. Excellent sensitivity. supply as seen by the collector-base junction. High intensity trace. Some test circuits which use a base -drive source will damage the very transistors which have the highest P. Kit: $89. Many other applications can be found for constant. A practical consideration in produc- tion testing is the large open -circuit volt- 1963 CATALOG 1963 CATALOG "BEST BUY" KITS and fkdromc fqurpment from CONAR It's full of exciting new electronic kits of highest quality. and amateur radio are also needed. Professional performance. 10. durable All U. to make your work easier. One Park Avenue.voltage supplies. and television. such as in magnetic focus and deflection coils of precision CRT equipment. of interest to technicians in industry. 3 or. faster. Constant -current regulator with Zone_State J age which would occur if the transistor happened to be open or were removed during the test. This magazine pays for articles on acceptance. servicing.s. The examples given here have been oriented toward measurement techniques primarily. Send me your new 1963 CONAR KIT CATALOG l KB2C Name Address City 11 preset current values. We can also use short "filler" items outlining worthwhile shortcuts that have made your servicing chores easier. case. (Continued from page 62) cision or projected articles can be outlined in a letter in which case the writer will be advised promptly as to the suitability of the topic. Articles covering design.m. - 84 CONAR 3939 Wisconsin Ave. Articles on Citizens Band. and operation are especially ICS WORLD welcome.W.tube -everything.95 NATIONAL RADIO INSTITUTE Mail this Coupon GUARANTEE Parts and performance guaranteed by NRI nearly 50 years of pioneering in Electronics. New York. Transformer power supply. the Editors of ELECTRON- are always interested in obtaining outstanding manuscripts. Such articles in manuscript form may be submitted for immediate de- . a Q Extremely stages of IF. audio.

regardless of output level.receiver ultrasonic flowmeter.7 mil radius diamond .. 9. namely: the motor -drivel) valve's. or the signal comparer and control circuits.50. the servo -motor drive amplifiers. 3. SIZE . and its stylus retracts completely to avoid damage due to mishandling. New York 26. write to Weathers Industries. Fig. you should consider the system IS a whole. the slight flexing of the mourting block is passed on to the transducing ele85 ments as a stress force.b. Conventional cartridges which operate on the basis of accelerating magnets. It tracks perfectly at one gram. It is completely free of induced hum. Channel Separation: Exceeds 30 d. no heavy magnetic materials. liquid. Audiophile net price -$39. Thermal flowmeters are often used As a result.2 d. Fcr the complete story on this remarkable new cartridge. As the stylus shifts position. even down to the lowest recorded excessive mass with its unique stress -generator design.b. Dept. EC -10 50 West 44th St. 11.C.Flow Measurement cmitinued from page 47 ) hlu\nueters and their electrical out form the sensing elements for complex automatic process control s\sputt signals l'uls in the oil and chemical industry. the Weathers LDM has ideal channel separation. hut an understanding of hove flovynlcters work helps v\hcn their output signals must be evaluated. the LDM is the first cartridge in laboratories. Once the flovvinctcr is eliminated as the possible source of trouble. completely free of breakup. )ou will not' that there are several spots Io consider.. Thermal flowmeter. Flow is determined by cooling effect of gas. but the resulting stress causes the element to emit a voltage..3 milligram tip mass Output: 5 millivolts at 7 centimeters per second Frequency Response: 20 to 20 k. hardware supplied WEATH ERS Division of TelePrompTer Corporation T-12 . or ceramic elements may exert many tons per square inch during peak passages -thus literally crushing the delicate record groove engravings.the same frequencies (a major difficulty with most other cartridges). most musical sound you've ever heard. There is no meaOctober. Dual. N. In the typical lin meter application sltovyn in Pig. Several different principles are used to pleasure flow in various applications. There are no moving coils. As The new Weathers LDM eliminates operating system utilized in the faACTUA L mous Weathers Professional Cartridge.. Signal difference is proportional to flow. 162 ON READER SERVICE PAGE surable movement in the element. -. Stylus: . Here in a cartridge of modest cost is the cleanest. reproducing peak passages without break-up of the music. which is a replica of the original a result. trol circuits. \lost of the see\ icing of such s) stems is concentrated in the computing and con- TRANSMIT TER FLOW -Y RECEIVER RECEIVER I 2 METER DIFFEREN E AMPLIFIER Fig.. Input: Matching networks (ìncludec) to low level magnetic input Mounting: Standard. The LDM stylus assembly is attached to a mounting block which stresses the tiny transducing elements. VELOCITY PROBE FLOW TUBE VACUUM GAUGE TUBE Fig. for gas measurement and that can freely respond to the most rapid groove motions. no drive -arm linkages. or coils. Knowing th' application will often 'naile you to judge vv'hat kind of fluvyniet'r is proba' 1Y used and limy its signals should behave.Y. 1962 CIRCLE NO. THE NEW WEATHERS STRESS -GENERATOR LDM CARTRIDGE today's most advanced cartridge design! recording. 10.

_. No obligation it's yours free. Tough Tube Jobs The ease with which a compact set can be pulled has been noted.. Type numbers on several 1 I had disappeared. replacing only those that were obviously damaged.. It often gets its \ oltage from the daunpoutput.. Even if it's just a tube.cr of recall doesn't seem great. involving service data and the scouring out of a circuit for faulty parts. I keep the vertical.. and the dangling City. ft went into norDischarge date .compacts involving tubes not likely to be in your caddy because they are not used frequently. :DIO - COMPUTERS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING This interesting pictorial booklet tells you how you can prepare for a dynamic career as an Electrical Engineer or Engineering Technician in many exciting..._..\ en though we know the thing is open. \ \'e're not out to gouge people.. Nine times out of ten.. too. high voltage whined on and the sot \v ctrked. 1 1 - t CIRCLE NO. He dashed right over to pick up his set... I pulled the chassis..end test it to verify the open cundition. That applies especially to the "squeezed together. I feel it's right to (lo it as long as you don't have to charge any more than for a job completed in the home. diagonal cutters and snipped off its leads. Strictly speaking. but there were no other signs of life-no high voltage. Having received quick service and fair treatment. I knew I had all the data needed. surrounded by tubes all over thy place.saying house -call fee? Any general policy on home-us-shop repair must be tempered by the circumstances of each case. or others that we rim into time and time again.. this includes clear-cut familiar troubles inyol'ing such common.. Wisconsin St MS -113 Please send FREE "Your Career" booklet I'm interested in Electronics Radio -TV Computers Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering (PLEASE PRINT) I al\a s Carry a few 3l1(1 -.yourselfer blundered ahead until he fouled up his set.f. there was 110 high voltage. courses offered. I skipped it. In facet.__. dislodge the ele(truk tic. For the most part. The first thing that greeted me when I walked in was the back coyer of the set lying on the floor.. The eternal question -to pull or not to pall -. I looked into the chassis.. length of study. \ \'hell checking tubes in midi a fault.... The repair charge %could be added wherever the work was clone.. Easy Cola patient Replacement I adreaek mentioned that we (lo not molly replace components in the home. As a rule... Zone State leads were connected. Happy customer? You bet. A mirror and flashlight were used to locate the capacitor. \s long as the defect is reasonable' clean' and the d n... a mal Operation and has given no trouble __ CIRCLE NO. as scholarships. You have probably run across this trouble. but we don't want to lose money either. Hoping it was ''just a tithe" but unaware of the vertical circuit's possible involvement.. - - MILWAUKEE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING MAIL COUPON TODAY! MILWAUKEE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING Dept._.. globate and power resistors... not audio. standardized parts as selenium and silicon rectifiers....Should You Pull the Chassis? 1 Couliuor(I loom huge 59) So fan'. Sound was good. as was the er's boosted "B case here. looked at the tubes.c... One was milky. it runs about l50 "f. . Every tube socket was empty.. I turned the set on.. A quarter-it boIt was then used Name_. After I replaced the I213117 cortical amplifier. part -time work well as pictures of the Milwaukee School of Engineering's educational and recreational facilities.mttput stage in mind.. clarify that. what chance did we have of completing a repair quickly enough to be covered by a money. Milwaukee Milwaukee. thus killing high voltage too. I got the owner on the phone. Age to mount a replacement (>n the side of the upright chassis. we . -. W(vyill replace it in the house. he was satisfied.. Back on the tenet... I'm eligible for veterans education Ix-nrlits._. growing fields: MISSILES RADAR ELECTRICAL POWER AUTOMATION RESEARCH ROCKETRY AVIONICS DEVELOPMENT SALES Get all the facts about job opportunities. :\ shunt in the vertical tube can kill the boost output. we carry along a stock of the parts likely to be invoked in such cases. Only return delivery had to be considered. degrees you can earn. travel had been limited to the single pick -up trip that is included in every house -call fee.. EW -1062..tan in the home. I collected the tubes and looked for the layout sticker on the set. No hauul tools \Acre touched. no "B +. It had long since vanished: scraps of it were still stuck to the cabinet where the glue hadn't yielded. I." The fusible resistor was sound...SO working volts d. to guide you to a successful future in ELECTRONICS R. Once got the tubes hack into their sockets. the capacitor is located in a tight slut behind the chassis. Technically-and psychologically as well -I wasn't in good shape for completing a repair. the do.. there are other occasions \(hen neither ethics nor good judgment is violated by pulling sets that basically end up as tube-replacement jobs.._. 102 ON READER SERVICE PAGE. the large -value ele(truk tic capacitor in series with the -B line of the doubler has opened.. I turned the set on. I reached around with my small. letting them hang loose. the procedure is almost certain to be a waste of time.et . .must be :tslet and . . Technically ideal? l'in not so sure. No other t11/1 lhleshnnl it g nr repair Was needed. .. had one the other clay.. no raster. In this set. 132 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 86 It Ave have a definite idea Avhich component is defective.it. Ti e heaters were lighting. but there was no raster. Drum the practical standpoint. For instance. . All tubes in the borizuntal and high -voltage sections tested good..doubler power supply. However. I was checking a recent vintage Pitilco console that uses a volt age.... To hack this up.. units rated at 200 yults. Should it have been clone in the home? l'nder the handicaps. Another had a crack on the bottom. Simple tube replacement was all it took to restore order. \ye should get the chassis out of the cabinet. So were we. The ride covers componeuts best located by the troubleshooting procedures ordinarily used on the bench. I since..inswtred separately each time. 1075 N. at about I. This meant "B-I-" was being lost elsewhere..

cwoo ptl NCtton euarantd Money or Vow/ treck SEND FOR IT NOW! WORLD'S LARGEST ELECTRONICS CATALOG BIGGEST SELECTION BIGGEST SAVINGS! satisfaction guaranteed or your money back NO MONEY DOWN SEE OTHER SIDE NOW MORE BUYING POWER WITH YOUR ALLIED CREDIT FUND PLAN For your FREE 1963 ALLIED Catalog. (Please give second card to an interested friend.rAWED LECTRON1 mail now www.) SEND CARD TODAY.GILL /ED 1963 CATALOG leaturin9 the new 1963 ( pages 1 to 69) . ?P 010111 RApiO E 'A L L1. l .SEND TODAY FOR FreC 464 YOUR MONEY.5 ALLIED TRONIG e E-EG eeron fo 1963 Ell/ I /A 90 pur rou ALLIED 1963 CATALOG year 220 c%rß t 0ß LO e IMOs%: . cH. r^W`.com AI C - YOU /ILL /ED 1963 CATALOG . .americanradiohistory. detach and mail.v. fill in card.SAVING d ó mail now -PAGE .

brand records at amazing discounts. Tubes. leading makes available. L1:1 Transistor..com . including quality FM -AM portables. professional use -all PA Systems & Intercoms Top values in Power Tools. Books satisfaction guaranteed or your money back NO MONEY DOWN: Now! More Buying Power with Your Allied Credit Fund Plan! Free MAIL CARD TODAY OR YOUR 1963 ALLIED CATALOG AND GIVE THIS CARD TO A FRIEND www. Antennas. o Ham Station Equipment Test Equipment Largest selection of receivers.A ALLIED TOAY FOR ELECTRONICS "A.everything in Save on every type of instrument for home or Ham station gear. Citizens Band Radios Latest 2 -way radio -no exam required -complete selection of top value CB equipment. Hi -Fi. Hardware Biggest selection of TV Tubes. Citizens Band. Soldering Guns.M. Complete recorders. Transistors.ILL /ED o for woryone o YOUR 464 -PAGE I 1963 CATALOG WORLD'S LARGEST 1963 BIGGEST SELECTION knight-kits® BIGGEST SAVINGS Stereo Hi -Fi Over 100 great do -itVio 0000 yourself kits: Complete selection of components and systems. Instrument. tape decks. transmitters. -h1 KI' :3( .. Tape Recorders s3t .ree F SENDD CARD . antennas.americanradiohistory. famous - radios. including Walkie-Talkies. Intercom.. latest All -Transistor equipment and Stereo Multiplex FM. Amateur. recording and pre -recorded tapes at big savings.= 1963 ALLr e RADIO i* ß /. .._. latest stereo Best buys in all types of compact transistor portables. Parts.savings up to 50%. FM -AM Radios Phonographs & Records Big values in phono graphs. Hobby.

an accessny for the MFM Division. meters. Diode specifications are not critical.. please send free not CB'.Neon Bulb Flip-Flops za aM (Continued from page 54) YOUR PROFITS CAN or further miniaturize the author's version. prrtable and rugged. 131 ON READER SERVICE PAGE interstage links should be kept as short as possible.your Hi Fi dealer. Milwaukee Chicago 41. These controls ing mobile radio. which also affect the ionization of the neon bulbs but which cannot be stopped with shields. INC. 6.0025 °0 is ample for CB. up to about 100 cps.sec. G 4.0001.knish Publications 4308 N. Easy -to. tors and bulbs matched within one volt LAMPKIN LABORATORIES. Send 10 for Audio Accessory Catalog A -401 W. If neither of the flip-flop bulbs has to be used as a visual indicator.00 net. 136 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 89 . Citizens Band occupancy totals more than 200. with your Hi -fi. Ordinary -3 carbon resis4-4. North Minneapolis 27.. Small. 8. C 8127 West 10th Ave.e. the growth rate is over 8.. 1N191's were used in the illustrated counting circuit because of their small size. excellent performance and long life.. There are over TWO MILLION other mobile radios. Bulbs may be selected by matching firing voltages (E. Radio TV serviceman or camera store can check the tape heads on your recorder and supply you with the correct NOR TRONICS Replacement Heads and "Ouik -Kit" mounting hardware. H 7. The LAMPKIN 105 -B MICROMETER FREQUENCY METER is a natural for CB work. frequencies operating be used for may NEW THE PPM METER. B 3. Leads from bulbs and J CIRCLE NO. since 1938! should be provided for initial adjustment Citizens Band (CB) is just one part of boomof bias for each stage. D 10.000 installations per Only properly licensed transmitters month! and equipped servicemen can make frequency adjustments on these transmitters. Tope Reand systems designed spec& corder or Record Player. the high resolution rate of the IN 19 t is not required in circuits whose maximum pulse rise time is about O . Minnesota. optical contrivances which protect the naked bulb from bright light. A 1.purpose diode with a forward resistance of about 300 ohms may be used instead.follow detailed drawings and instructions speed up installation! Replacements for more than 250 popular models are now available. Florida Type 105-B.c.00. such a network being MAIL COUPON will show you how to start! required in the absence of a regulated TODAY! power supply. But any general.packed with information for all tape enthusiasts. Insofar as possible.. ANSWERS TO ANGLES QUIZ I Appearing on page 76. INC. Reliable . net.. AND VERSATILITY lot -(_'s are factors contributing to higher for FREE f page catalog ictus . 2. Chicago 30.. October. FLA LABORATORIES. Needless to say. 9. Your free copy of 'How to Make Money in Mobile -Radio Maintenance" the "13 " supply. pickup in one's ON SALE AT YOUR PARTS JOBBER finger in contact with the bulb glass can '. I Individual supply voltage controls Right now . 1 - tape equipment by insisting on NORTRONICS correctly matched replacement heads! NORTRONICS heads are selected by the nation's top manufacturers for use on their better recorders because of their premium quality. imbooklet and information on Lampkin Beyond this frequency care must be mediate delivery. both of them should be shielded with a ALL TAPE HEADS WEAR OUT! grounded coating of "Aqua -dag" or silver paint. SWITCHCRAFT.. Remember that strong light or even for TV-Radio Service. which after all was not deAddress LAMPKIN MFM DIVISION signed to be a particularly stable device City State BRADENTON. reliable performance up to rates of 200 cps can be obtained from the neon boll) flip -flop.. each needing regmay be part of a decoupling network for ular maintenance. in the first place. Price only $260. exercised to avoid intrinsic instabilities Name of the NE -2. Elston Ave. }fie ister indicator. use coupon below. ask NORTRONICS for the name of your nearest source. Immediate delivery. are recommended. In counting circuits where one Is head wear causing you to lose the clean. PPM Meter price: $147. Accuracy better than 0. t 5577 N. for split -channel transmitters above 50 MC At no obligation to me.111.000 . K F There's no such thing as a wear-proof tape head! Heads do wear out so get the most from your investment in E 12. Guaranteed accuracy of 0. Closer component tolerances --Mon you need us! _ Amazing "Hew Fun" and selection of bulbs with extremely GET STARTED RIGHT by writing . Calibration readings supplied free on request for all 23 Class D channels. such as masks and translucent output panels. PREPARE YOURSELF NOW FOR THIS BUSINESS IN YOUR AREA! To learn more. Write today for FREE copy of The NORTRONICS Guide to Tape Recording" . HAVE YOUR TAPE HEADS CHECKED FOR WEAR! Now . with more to come! If your local dealer or serviceman can't supply you.for the first time . INC. of the bulbs in each stage serves as a regcrisp sound which only tape can give you? 1 I I ' A . component values for individual stages should he matched. III. Bradenton.) and drop voltages (d:). at a frequency of about 200 cps.T4 Crating over 30 business forms frequency response. 5. 11. And even with interference from cosmic rays. the induced stray a. J trip the delicately balanced higher frequency circuits. 1962 CIRCLE NO.

complaints to the license department by set owners have dropped more than 90 per -cent since the law was adopted. A licensed dealer is required to render such a bill in every case. Affords up to 20 db Operating Gain voluntary. and maintain clearer communication over greater disnot so long ago. the mathematical facility of an accountant. There arc. the license board has handled close to 60 court cases. and others. with the service industry. no matter how low the cost of replaced parts may be. His bill read. dielectric plastic covering that eliminates this static interference. Yet even these will oppose some forms of licensing. ETG felt that "electricians are no more qualified to rule on our problems than we would be on theirs. "Located and replaced dual phase. It rallied imnew MARK II now make it possible to step up the effipressive representation from its various ciency of your CB operation. to this day. The forewarned dealer concluded that diplomacy was just as important as honesty and that the two were not necessarily in conflict. generally about $50 but ranging as high as $294. For example. for a start. with Static Sheath Consider the position of the Electronic Technicians Guild of Massachusetts. long Design advantages of the an exponent of licensing. a good business sense. durable. 1801 W. The latter takes into account a serious enforcement problem. and keep it on file for two years. not only while it is on paper. a large number of Detroit servicers who never had licenses or who have failed to renew licenses properly. and ask to see the man's license before allowing him to do any work. entire 11 -meter citizens made it clear that they did want a bill band. there are others who would welcome any of the types mentioned. raised doubts as to special launcher -matcher whether the law would do more good cable section for excellent impedance match over the than harm. in a lighter vein. lots of luck -and talent as a psychologist! ELECTRONICS WORLD . demand the return of all parts removed from repaired sets. whether requested or not. The bill would have tances. except for the picture tube. Improved mech- INCREASE COVERAGE anical features and extra rugged base support pipo add to its reliability. whether a "license" bill is MARK II SUPER BEACON simply a non. but the principle is sound. EW -10. A report from Massachusetts.tain requirements of the law. For one thing. Chicago 13 CIRCLE NO. The patented Mark Static Sheath' is a tough. Still hanging over the heads of many technicians is the failure of set owners to understand that honest labor is entitled to just reward. bile units. Some spokesmen. on the last job.detector crystal diode unit (imported) with silvered leads. continue to laud the healthy effects of the bill. the dealer involved learned from her why she was trying a new man. a pleasant personality. licensing. There are still questions concerning on Citizens Band who is to be granted or denied a license. who decides. how the decision is to be reached. that listed one replaced resistor at 1:5C and labor at $15. Does this mean that Detroit service dealers live constantly under a cloud of legalized persecution? Not necessarily." This factor. active associations in the Detroit area. however. While pulling the set of a new customer. Stich a one is Detroit Ordinance #110F. Tips for Set Owners The board's advice to consumers is that they try to find reliable service dealers and to stick with them. All but one resulted in fines. Simplified clamp mounting makes installation easy. it seems possible that a regulatory bill can be worked out that is acceptable to most service people involved.44 with restitution in one case.$15. For another. chapters to oppose a state license law.Radio & TV News MARK Static Sheath* Events in the Service Industry T HE LICENSING issue would not be a simple one to resolve even if that Eliminates Precipitation Statics one word. The furious set owner had received a. This proves you can still succeed in service if you have a solid technical background. without hopping about. 163 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 90 One Law in Action Despite such problems. and countless Increases Receiver Sensitivity other variations concerning which there Extends Intelligible Coverage is much disagreement. self -regulatory. which has been on the books for several years. whose membership tends to be composed of the more responsible and ethical segment of the industry. along with other Employs a full half-wave radiator voltage fed through a shortcomings. because any degree of control is considered better than the anarchy they otherwise see. Even where unlicensed dealers operate with good intent -and the board acknowledges there are some such-they are more likely to displease their customers because they do not observe cc. bill from her previous technician.regulatory fund -raising FIXED STATION ANTENNA measure. set owners are cautioned to ask for itemized repair bills. the placed TV service dealers and techniomnidirectional MARK 1I makes fullest use of the 20cians under the jurisdiction of the existfoot legal length limit. of which they may be ignorant. Provides 1 db gain over rather than create a new body to deal ground plane antennas. But there are compulsory. The Billing Problem Reluctance to present the customer with an itemized statement does not necessarily indicate dishonest intent. highlights the hazard. Low angle radiation and suggested modifications to the one insures utmost efficiency and maximum contact with moproposed that would make it acceptable.50:' The customer was so satisfied that she gave him a tip! Perhaps our hero overdid things a bit. avoid low price advertisers. 19 feet overall. Reing State Board of Electrical Examiners. quires no radials or skirts. for their own protection. Write for Catalog HW19 -EW MARK HELIWHIP Another Fine Product Line by B6K MANUFACTURING Dept. * Precipitation Static is caused by charged particles in the air impinging in a continuous stream on metal antenna radiator surfaces. During the past year. always meant the Improves Signal -to -Noise Ratio saine thing. Just as there are Easiest to Install some service people who do not want part of any plan that carries the slightest suspicion of regulation. Belle Plaine. but after the industry has had ample opportunity to feel its effects.

126 ON READER SERVICE PAGE Desk E -10. units. Commander Series Harman -Kardon gives you versatility. job. for every R A. Plainview.- *- Galaxy Series top value and exclusive features Troubador Series in each of these complete lines! Commander Series: Popular priced equipment with facilities and versatility seen only in "de luxe" amplifiers till now. continuous -duty equipment which opens a new range of applications that can now be serviced with popular priced p. and 100 watt amplifiers and a 4. 1962 harman kardon CIRCLE NO. job. rental and other applications. Get the full story! Built Ni Sound Men for Sound -Men For full details. - Get the full story! Troubador Series: Extra serv- ices and application flexibility unduplicated by any other transistorized equipment.modularized 40.. 12. October.a. A 15 watt mobile transistorized amplifier and a 30 watt portable transistorized DC or AC /DC amplifier. 35.A. I. 150 watt amplifiers. Pre give you precise amp modules equipment for any need. construction. fire.. 91 . equipment never obsoletes.For your next P.channel mixer /preamplifier. Durable. allows for expansion at any time at minimal cost. These amplifiers will find uses in police. boosters and 8 channel mixer. 75. offering the quality of custom sound with installation ease of compact equipment.a. 4111* 100. New York. L. Get the full story! Galaxy Series: A new concept in p. marine. write: Commercial Sound Div.

flows through it.145.c.. 991 SWITCHING 1TRANSISTORerm:ment Itt'A No. TO YOUR ORDER! 1 Front -panel view of the all-transistorized stereo amplifier unit.c. 27... Matchéd crystal sets for ALL CB units (Specify equipment 22 make and model numbers) $5.. Min.: 2..'peril.. O Temperature Problems O Perhaps one of the main design considerations in high -power transistor drO cuits is the limitation imposed by QUICK WAY TO WEALTH! R ave you any CRC..95 0 Mc. 69. junction temperature increases a like amount provided that power dissipation remains constant. onl' $19. 27... its life is extended thousands of hours beyond its normal 200 -hour life at 6 volts.I"--Ilr ".95 O Mc. PHONE GLadan. in turn. O temperature.95 O stabilization of the d..225.pedam. maerx) 9..045.50 Excellent condition.NTO AN /APR -4 RADIO RECEIVER AND construction.54 TUNING UNIT: Fret. 27.' o electrical considerations involved in their TEST EtSt'IPSI . 4.3" thick 250-square -inch aluminum chassis. 6. .e. Excel. the collector current can rise with increasing temperature which. However. On the other hand. TYPES ofrcornmerrlal u"'a . Se per Crystal fe e .er. It was found that the resistance characteristics of a tungsten filament bulb were ideally suited for this application.. Calif. (See Apr /112 P. odd 4%.255. conTUNING UNITS -YOUR CHOICE! o trol of the transistor current is necessary AN!APR -{ RECEIVER: t'r'l: :19 --10110 Me..995. name.1215 ate )great Mc.005. current gain) and (10 (collector current) increase with temperature. Exceeding this APXSt (ONVERISION OOKLET si 50 limit can lead to permanent loss of gain COMMAND GEAR SPECIALS.com . J. 27.10(111 device..nr t. The first method can easily be obtained by inserting resistance into the emitter lead of each transistor.49 junction dissipation as temperature rises. O O nr Excel. EXTRA) $L95 CANDLE'S SPECIAL BUYS! RADIO ANTENNA: O ft. 27.09.iullrtnent Speedy answers-fast 1f. .nn. Further thermal protection must be provided for in the heat -sinking of the power transistors. (Tills is famous Q Seri 512.95 quate heat. 27..055. Ìn crystal.and 16-ohm load connections where far less load current normally flows.1.. 509 J.255. Fort Myers. the amplifier tends to approach a constant power device rather than the more typical constant -voltage device since the 4 -ohm load current will be limited more than the 16 -ohm load current..1:15. O O O pqy.015. . 594.c.0. 1A. The larger the value of R1 and R7. LA2:m.1 Mci Marino hand. CANOES: IS HANDLE when it comes to na.125. 27. the ultimate in stabilization can be obtained without great sacrifice of total power.. On the other hand.0. . of Whitehall Electronics Corp. 2150 -40110 148. In this way the normal 200 -hour life at 6 volts would be re- 94 duced to 200/(23/6)3. my TS239 /UP OSCILLOSCOPE (Lavoie Lab. No.. Burbank..c.035. in. 27. collapsible. 4. 27. Homed by envious pltµ-In facade. 27. 2111 W. R -102 Ph. 27.: 300. CANDEE CO.0. MODEL 80 SIG. 211. the lamp with maximum design current far greater than the load current encountered at rated power in the 4 -ohm load condition would provide only marginal d. AM and .1115. meters4 9. Ill the common.PACKARD 803A VHF BRIDGE f VHF hr. if a wiring error or component failure placed the full 23 volts on the lamp. This not only provided the necessary d.95 or early failure of the transistor.185. PAC. . degeneration or by thermistor control of the bias circuit. Brand new.. mtulatian. Ex"reel:ni °n. the six power transistors are mounted directly to the . stabilization on 4 -ohm loads and virtually no protection for 8. I O O O O O O O O O O O t t r . in 6 bands.1125. .0. and R_. .95 R -2S: . 30 /Juno rcle. there is a measure of self.95 TN -19 TUNING UNIT: Freq.9 SIC. In addition to the stabilization and protection afforded by the emitter lamps. Low Impedance radio range alter. Dept. 25147M.50 to s ntc. O O prior sole.0.ii intmlvr.: 975. 27. Hence. 20. . Excellent Conditi n. WE 6 -2100 IFOR SHIPMENT VIA FIRST CLASS MAIL AT NO EXTRA COST ATTACH THIS ADVT. erl. To assure that the heat sink can dissipate sufficient energy to prevent junction temperature build-up..'"tex O $99. 8-.. Excellent $595. 27.093 Ions) All 23 megacycle frequenelea In stock: 21. 161 ON READER SERVICE PAGE EW O Send for NEW #967 CATALOG FREE with oscillator circuits $2 95 Citizen Band Class "D" Crystals CITIZEN RAND CLASS "D" CRYSTALS .7 Mc. - ser 22 27. TN -19 TUNING UNIT: Freq.. 7. With 0 limit can extend the useful life of the for operation Ill top950.0.95 O of the device will control the transistor KY65/ARA26 KEYER Automatically keys a or rvlll O current so as to prevent a rapid rise in in mode. 27.. 27.. New 506 AUDIO TRANSISTOR: 1bllco No. since as ambient temperature increases. fre.: 74 -3211 51e 34... Excel.095. Has pULw125 V. pulse 0 O produced and. 27.. .êiú"o.195. By the same formula.5. GENERATOR Freq. The temperature problems Get rich quick by selling it J. order $3. (See Fig.win. :Id .2411 0. tion which can lead to destruction of the TN-17 TUNING UNIT: Freq. stabilization can be obtained by d.95 T-19 MITTER: -4 Mc. AdeRQ6: -0 Me.005. This corresponds to approximately 70 milliseconds and provides adequate protection for both speaker and transistor.9n'73 Magazine for story) $2.0 0. condition. 26.I 14.003.395. .22011 mum collector junction temperature ratMc.ne 5 -3553 IF YOUR PARTS DEALER DOESN'T STOCK Texas Crystls. (Add 15e per crystal for . TCC or allied equipment? .0.105. Florida Dept. i 811 1 :1 411 O O O O -1 ÓMounted. ing which has been assigned by the APX6 TRANSPONDER O manufacturer and observance of this Consists of a super -het receiver and pulse trans minor Mc. 27. 1B. 3. if. However.205.215. similar to two type 1129's in a single small envelope) was chosen. 1000 Crystal Drive.0. a lamp with a desigm current rating in the range of the maximum load current in the 4 -ohm load condition would cut the 4 -ohm power capability approximately ill half. red: O For measurement O O Unique Output Circuit O (Continued from page 55) condition MEASUREMENTS CORP. as in the case of R1 and R_ of Fig. 25398.r and v ltage Rtovrator. balancing the bridge and keeping any d. Conde . RUSH YOUR ORDER NOW TO TEXAS CRYSTALS Div. ät33.. Hermetically.A) Consists of calibrating 0nl ng marker Rcnerat. 27..075.o ooo oo ooo o oo oi CANDEE HANDEE! KEEP HEWLETT.5.americanradiohistory. 27. stabilization but also provided the speaker protection of a "quick-blow" fuse. since the lamp is normally only exposed to few tenths of a volt..0. 68304-14 FILTER SPECIAL O .00 SWR.. poatan. IN CHICAGO... Excellent cond.95 0 R27: 1.1105.. kandilne) Z95 Ladd ENGINEERING SAMPLES and small quantities for prototypes now made at either Chicago or Fort Myers plants with 24 hour service. The power transistor has a maxi39. operating point T -20 ITTER: 4.95 Mc 34.95 Excel .115.90 per set _.hours in the circuit.3 Mc. ELECTRONICS WORLD www. 27.501 Sic.0 CIRCLE NO. ut'r /l' holders. New Only 996 0 O 0 3l O magnet.. since no d. 27. With matching $47. In i J.003 plins available.401 Mc.3.emitter circuit. and 16-ohm loads.95 parts unit almost indefinitely... However since hict (d. due to the oxt (ár y w t Ito x t AT. 4.075.. 0.etmtained cower trigger 511125 tor. therefore they would all provide the desired speaker protection.1113. At high temperature.balancing provided for the output circuit since they are sensitive to the current through them and seek an equilibrium with the transistors with which they are in series.tienry delrol. The bulb chosen in the amplifier is one similar to a 6 -volt automotive tail light.c. 27... At. 0 Phone: Victoria 9.. 38. The life versus over -voltage characteristic is virtually the same for all the lamps examined. of transistors are inherent.00 O O McFREQUENCb METER o . RADIO CONTROL CRYSTALS In HC6 /U HOLDERS -SIX FREQUENCIES In stock for Immediate delivery (frequencies listed In pin Ì5c per ... nder direct and send us hi.95 O to avoid developing a runaway condiTN-16 TUNING UNIT: Freq.1170 ..95 T-21 ITTER: 5.0.sinking of the transistor and 7.95. All items FOB Burbank.c.1.19 TRANSMITTER: 2.133.. Excel.dcraarc 4 all FCC requirements. pin pacing.aled 1150 pins. no distortion is introduced here. Victory Blvd. This is evident by the fact that the total maximum continuous sine -wave power is 36 watts for 4 -ohm loads (18 watts per channel) and more than 30 watts for 16-ohm loads (15 watts per channel) . having selected the proper bulb and having provided stabilization on 4 -. if a resistor of positive temperature coefficient is used for R. All Excellent! O R -23: 1911. maximum power capabilities are seriously curtailed. the greater the degeneration and the greater the temperature control and stability.) The tungsten lamp is extremely sensitive to applied voltage since the life varies inversely as the 12th power of 'tpplied voltage. lent condition . Several 6 -volt automotive lamps were investigated for their characteristics before this lamp (a special dual -filament type.:1 Mc.95 xN. 7.173. can result in increased power dissipation.5511 Kr. from flowing through the speaker. New Sob I IALS: We solicit your inquiries for all types Test E.. subject to Calif.c.

and the telemetry data so far has not shown any significant deviations from the expected results. SERVICE WHEREVER YOU WANT IT Settle for the REST in TOWERS -ROHN -today the world's largest. All of the equipment is operating normally. CIRCLE NO. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (less Earphone and Battery) Sold without limit or reserve! Order as many as you want! Rush your order! Complete as "How many leaking capacitors do you usually find with this scientific method?" October. In the control building there is an assortment of equipment and consoles so necessary for carrying out the program for which the system was designed. Regardless of your needs. micro -wave. All communication towers are engineered to EIA specifications. and other needs is available. Deterioration of special test semiconductor devices is about as expected. and "fold-over" towers. or write direct for information. contact your local ROHN salesman. - - 5 "x 2ys "x 1 illustrated. and microwave links with the outside world."Telstar" Satellite (Continued from page 36) horn antenna itself can track this beacon signal with extreme precision.. "Telstar" has been used successfully as a repeater for television. New York 7. broadcasting. N. and are proved by thousands of installations. detailed Informative c. for one-way and two way phone calls. 1962. Y. performance has been as expected. Thus it appears that our first privately owned experimental communications satellite is completely successful and is living up to all expectations. and show no signs of major damage. We Scoupid i I Each HEARING AID INSTRUMENT is a Complete AUDIO AMPLIFIER and includes -a CRYSTAL MICROPHONE.. Included are 170 foot self -supporting towers. also competent engineering service to help you. From the communications standpoint. $200 HEARING AID (as shown) -Your Price $2 :P Market on 15000 of thcs. The solar batteries are delivering ampere at 27 volts.. 108 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 93 . There are TV monitors and measuring equipment of various kinds. In all of these tests and demonstrations. ILLINOIS lial -I ROHN Manufacturing Company Box 2000 PON INDICATING YOUR Ham Towers Communication Towers Micro-Wave Towers following ROHN Products: Amateur Towers TV J AM-FM Broadcasting Towers Government Nome firm Address City Stale J CIRCLE NO. There are computers to assist in the tracking operations. UNQUESTIONED LEADERSHIP IN DESIGN AND MANU- -you get the latest in advanced tower engineering. 1. ROHN most T mous Name in TOWERS ofALL K/NOS The Here are the advantages you get when you insist on ROHN TOWERS The Results Much valuable scientific information has been obtained since "Telstar" was placed in orbit on July 10.including "-Shipping Weight I lb. and for the transmission of photofacsimile and high -speed data. ROHN can supply it. exclusive manufacturer of towers of all kinds! l'or your needs. LARGEST FULL RANGE OF TOWERS -you can get any- thing front home TV and amateur radio towers to heavy -duty communication and micro -wave towers. and is the same as the measured performance on the ground before the launching. 144 ON READER SERVICE PAGE T VALUE EVER OFFERED!. SEND THE HANDY COU- Peoria. Complete erection service for communication systems. Indeed a TOP ITEM for the Experimenter-can be modified and converted to: RADIOS-INTERCOMS -TRANSMITTERS -SECRET LISTENING DEVICES PRE-AMP & MICROPHONE for Tape Recorders MICROPHONE COMBINATION for Public Address Systems-ETC. distributor or dealer. ROHN towers are hot -dipped galvanized after fabrication -a feature ROHN pioneered! -ROHN representatives are world -wide. No other manufacturer can surpass the quality and fine reputation of ROHN. 3 SUB -MINIATURE TUBES and a Superb Beige Phenolic CABINET. Temperature inside the satellite averages about 75° F and skin temperatures range from 18° to 48° F. FACTURE QUALITY MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP-Only highest quality steel is used which fully meets the speci- fications for the job.000 foot guyed towers. 1963 a BROOKS 84 Vesey St. Illinois NEEDS Send me complete literature on the ROHN Manufacturing Company BOX 2000 PEORIA. HEARING AIDS from one of the Leading Manufacturers name withheld who switched to the Transistor Type. both monochrome and color.

LOW. pri. although a linear -taper pot will work. volts.S. the replacement of one burned out high. if a more sensitive relay and a 300 -mw. One set of contacts on RL.S. A transistorized series regulator can be inserted between points A and B and connected at C. thermal runaway will cause RL. J. without overheating. relay.frequency transistor will set you back the same amount as the cost of the parts for this unit. It does not have to be mounted on a heat sink. The circuit shown in Fig. The Circuit ( FREE ) Fig. should have a log taper. energizes RL. Placement of the components is not critical. IStancor P8130 or equiv.c.. Changers.201) ELECTRONICS WORLD .) C -2000 pl. S_ is a push. -1000 pl.505 -(:12 or egrriv. CIRCLE NO. Tubes."p -n -p" transistor (2N. SI NAME ADDRESS BRIDGE ZONE CITY If you have RE STATE friend interested in electronics for a FREE. R :- OLSON ELECTRONICS. 15 v. the smaller the current that can be drawn from the power sup- ply before RL.FIER SRI SII CHI SR: -Frill -wave brider rectifier. 5350 5" PLASTIC EXTENDER Push Button Assemhly For Pin Point FOR THE experimenter.. normally closed pets h -b atton switch . tafele switch S. it can be wound with a piece of wire from a discarded low.c.. that would be necessary to protect a variety of devices with different loads. V. power will be removed in time to save the transistor. Tuners and Brand Tools. energized. The advantage this circuit has over control cartridge fuses is apparent knob is more convenient to work with than a large stock of different size fuses -a srr AMA .Neon indicator lamp with built -in resistor (Drake type 105 or equiv. res. thousands of other Electronic Bargains. CIRCLE NO. Fusing circuit combined with 12 -volt power supply.d. is developed by the voltage drop across R. an entertainment -type transistor such as a 2N301. res. 2 includes a 12 -volt power supply and another resistor. The circuit is not complicated and few parts are required if it is to be used with an existing power supply. to energize though excessive load current is not being drawn. 6t 2 atop sec. INC. that limits the maximum current the power supply can deliver should R. adjustable allows a wide variation in current that will energize RL.) V... If the ratio of change from minimum to maximum cut -out current is 1 :50 (10 ma. it should be built in a metal case. by a set of contacts shown at the left in the diagram. freedom from the worry of destroying expensive transistors is necessary to allow wide design latitude.n. The greater the resistance of R. a11ß or egniv. to 500 ma.p. The transistor spec sheet should be consulted to determine if this is necessary...) CH. must be able to pass enough current. It prevents transistors from burning out no matter what the cause of the overload: reversal of power. 117 ON READER SERVICE PAGE Fig..c. must be determined first. the parts can be fitted in the power supply's case. the transistor may have to be mounted on a heat sink.t. is energized. is an inexpensive power transistor that controls RL.supply leads. Calibration The exact value for R. If this fusing circuit is to be added to an existing power supply. sub - a Lsend his name and address scription also.cationS -Does Not Cause Shorts ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL CORP. As for cost. 2 re. capacitor (Cornell Dabilier BRIT -1510 or egaiv. 5 ohm d.t... capacitor (Cornell Dabilirr ßßH -1520 or egaiv. R. Since it is one ohm or less. excessive forward bias.s. R. once energized. 12 v. Hi -Fi's.) T. However. See Fig. Ecorittleloes a lot! 6 ot.t. 1 is a schematic of the basic fusing circuit.s.s. latches it closed and the other set of contacts removes power from the output terminals. choke. FI ohm. V. V. d. 25 M. 117 v.button switch used to unlatch RL. elec. F: I amp "Slo -Rio" free and holder D. Rect. loe-taper pot (see test) I oha. Credit plan available. Making R. Circuit to be used wi h external supply. Conditions. (Int. to keep RL. 1200 ma. 167 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 94 T. 2 for part values. The circuit described here is a current -limiting device whose cut -out point can be adjusted over a wide range.. be set to zero ohms.Ask By Name For GENUINE ADJUSTABLE CURRENT FUSE By MICHAEL H.. -100 mhy. As a separate piece of equipment. If V. transistor are used. 12.. Cllans all electrical contacts.) S . KAUFMAN Service technicians and experimenters should use this device to prevent transistors from being destroyed by excessive current. 813 Communlpaw Avenue Jersey City 4.resistance wire2N301 Fill in coupon for a FREE One Year Sub-1 scription to OLSON ELECTRONICS FanUnheard tastic Bargain Packed Catalog of LOW. 2. 50 ohm coil (Guardian 1R.p. Stereo Amps. IS v. may require critical adjustment.) PL:.S. Fig. overheats. R. 1.) a 50 -ohm linear -taper pot set at 1 ohm to deliver 500 ma. which is kept closed. I w. DISCOUNT PRICES on - Name Speakers.p. In each case.Power trans. The control or base current of V. (see text) C. elec. or overheating due to thermal runaway.. N.6 e. L !REE ELOI Electronic Chemical new each tan ECTRONIC CHEMICAL produtts EC-44 - Lnar.

FREE 1962 high quality record.7198 -Steps of 1 KC. Founded 188. The value of R. Model 10 with heavy -duty induction motor. Model 10H with hysteresis -synchronous motor. the manual turntable you can play automatically superbly engineered unit developed especially for use in high quality music systems for faithfully reproducing high fidelity stereo and monophonic recordings.523RÁ itleno Tpke New Hyde Park.01 % TOI.'s resistance.$2. on the potentiometer dial at this setting. Mar. Low costs.. New dorms..1040. remove power. 3701 -3748 -Steps of 1 KC. Aeronautical.4825 to 13. Adjust R.AN /TRC -1.S. Become an Electronics Engineer. With R_ shorted out. . . Major enjoy higher income corporations visit us regularly to interview and employ seniors. By changing the value of the load resistor from its minimum to maximum. Mark 50 ma. 1690 KC to 4440 KC steps of 10 KC. READER SERVICE PAGE ßuaita~ll'/Wsntesei BUY NOW AND ..005°ó TOL. Mechanical. Sept. discreet twist. Calif. The actual values of R. From 3000-8750 FT -241 SSB Low Xtals 370 to 540 KC FI. Do the same for 10 other values of current. could be calculated from the setting of R. -FT -243. N.. or $2. wire R. From 3000 -8750 FT. Has a heavy die -cast.00 CITIZENS BAND METERS -. FT -243 40 Met.6125 MC. .005% .95 13. FT -243 only FT -243 ness. Inc. turn R. To calibrate R.wound resistor.D.225 MC. Then the tube itself is given a -low.. June.50 (prices are less cartridge and base).Except 1000 KC) $1. OC -34 Hold Tol. will be the maximum. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN MONTHS in Electrical (Electronics or Power major). October. depend on the gain of V. G. the slight spread (C) provides light- CIRCLE NO.96 U.O.19 NOVICE BAND FT -243 Fund.69 $2. While the socket may not be tight enough to grip straight pins (It). but this chore can be avoided.49 $1.t Frig tape.167 KC..49 $2. and the sensitivity of RL. An obc' placement of the socket. automatically or continuously. (A) iChoiCe of models from yourself organ 51750 to 55500 WRITE TODAY FOR DETAILS 4949 -L YORK BLVD.50 POLICE. Harm.50 $2. L SEND FOR FREE CATALOG DC.005°ó $3. so that the tips of all the tube pins are just barely engaged. and up to 10 records. Wsir. improves seating of a loose tube. meter across the output terminals.. Chemical... Tol... Descriptive literature at your dealer. CRYSTALS.$2. Seal. FT -243 -2 -6 Meters (Steps of 1 KC) Meters (Steps of 1 KC) 3000-4000 -from 1005-2999 (Steps of 5 KC) FT. IN 36 MONTHS a B. SPECIAL! i 6102 College Avenue Angola. Degree in Business Administration. CD. to 40 Met.50 . MINARIK S tture tubes oeeaI1f. $2. S. closes.95 AMATEUR 8 NOVICE Fundamental . ea. 26.243 -.P. La Brea Ave.005°ó r HC -6 HC -6 2.388) FT -241 FT- TAPE RECORDERS HI -FI COMPONENTS SLEEP LEARN KITS A (BI (C) twist of the wrist. If it takes 5 ohms for 100 ma. 500 ma. for example. Small classes. and R. $1. only). counterclockwise so it is at a low resistance setting. Enter Jan.852 and 1. you can obtain a complete set of calibration points for R. 3rd Over. 49 SSB Matched Pairs 241. Ind STOCK CRYSTALS -243 Holders 5700 KC to 8700 KC in steps of 25 KC's FT ARTISAN ORGAN "King of Kits" 6 The ultimate in organ ton e a styling 6 Skip dealer profits and factory labor Pay as you build a Play as you build No previous technical skill required The original hulld -It.005. Seal.KETS for ally lose their gripping power.. Cal. I. $89. If. a one -ohm resistor will be required to limit the current to 500 ma.. FT -243 15 Met. correctly adminis- tered.25 Ke. add per crystal postage. 2nd Harm.00 $ .7034 -7083 Steps of 1 KC. Sub. LOS ANGELES 42. N.75 ALL MARINE FRED.A.or Career in EnáJ giuer. .95 FT -243 $2. Campus. may he neeess.25 to 6806. Sealed) Tol. 12 -inch balanced turntable.39 $ . H.50 6741. Los Angeles 19. SC a "The House of Crystals" U. College graduates sure advancement. CiiO: . Prices suhiect to chg.50. -u that the pins are slightly spiralled rather than straight.965 to 27. CIRCLE NO. in the circuit and connect a variable -load resistor in series with a milliammeter across the output.. HC -6 (Herm.. and measure R. Partially insert the tube itself in a tube straightener or the loose socket itself. CALIF.Y. until RL.Y.042 KC.243 -.95 4. FT -243 Dbl.. Low Cost. 01% $2. with the result that the tubes are not securely seated and contact with the pins s remedy is reis not reliable... 7150.. Connect a 0 -1 a. Experimentation will produce the fast- est results. Order 52.49 91. No C. or -11 $2. as shown in part (. Ind.ieg and Lo u.721.25 Herm. With parts listed. MARS..825 (Steps of 1. adjust R.50 Include 4r's tat. when the relay trips at 100 ma. $99. the load resistor is set so the mil liammeter reads 50 ma. $ 80 Met.. ea. To!. Tol. Herrn.005% Tol. Steps of 1 KC.243 FT -243 -From FT -243 FT -243 (Steps of 1. 1342 S. for a meter reading of 500 ma.S. C. 80 Swaim St. The current /resistance products have to be equal.. Mln. or write to BEN) AMIN Benjamin Electronic Sound Corp. Operates at four speeds. Ith Harm. 3576 -3599. 156 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 95 .1. McCarthy for Catalog and "1 . Civil Engineering.34 Hold. SAVE!! OVERTONES: 10 to 30 Meg. automatically. 2nd choice. Sealed -6 Meters (5th Overtone) MARINE FRED. M1RA CORES OUTSMARTING LOOSE TUBE SOCKETS By R. mt ere'' Book. 1962 UNUSUAL VALUES MERITAPE. massA counterbalanced tone arm and 'feather-touch' pushbutton automatic controls. 166 ON engineering degree in 27 mos. 5276 -5312. Plays single record manually.L) of the illustrat' . in boxes or DRESSNER . Westbury.

Shorts and Filament Continuity Large. styling and superb sound at a low.18. BOw FROM LAFAYETTE Ittt ES' Only FM AM STEREO MULTIPLEX TUNER 1995 PORTABLE TUBE TESTER Completely Wired. Leakage. Preamps 2 -Track Stereo. Type Approval trolled No Money Down 950 VM 5995o 4 -TRACK STEREO less case TAPE DECK SLIM 9950No Money Down Plays: Record /Play Stereo 4 -Track Stereo.000 cps. Mono Tapes Records: 4Track Stereo or Mono and Sound -on -Sound 2 Record Level Meters Tape Index Counter Automatic Stop at end of tape and SPEAKER Money Down SYSTEM Advanced design.+ Impedance 8 ohms. Not a Kit Tests Cathode Emission. book -shelf or hung on the wall Frequency response 40-20. 8 crystal controlled transmit positions Tuneable over all 23 channels Direct reading "S" meter indicates RF Power Output. Supplied with Carrying Case. Versatile.. Deluxe Professional Quality Built -in Transis.DELUXE CITIZENS BAND TRANSCEIVER Now Officially Approved For use in CANADA By Dept. Checks over 1000 different tubes Slide Out Tube Chart Slide Switches 6 lbs. With crystals for channel 9. Tops in CB world 8 crystal conreceive positions. of TRANSPORT No. No Money Down Q950 o Weighs only ELECTRONICS WORLD . 96 Duplex 3Wide -band Design Highest Quality Reception. Transmitter and Antenna Efficiency and Receiver "S" readings Effective noise limiter Built-in 12 or 6 volt power supply for mobile use.Superb Styling! Gang tuning condenser provides tuned RF stage for greater sensitivity and Sensitive FM /AM Built -in Multiplex with excellent separation selectivity Smooth FM stereo Noise Filter Variable AFC control tuning Meter Flywheel Tuning. Accurate Easy -to -read meter Fast setting Accurate. 40. torized "decor -ette "TM 4 -Track .000 cps Takes up to 7" reels. 1 2 Speeds: 33/4 ips and 71/2 ips Frequency Response @ 71/2 ips. 169361029. low price 5speaker 3 -way system custom built in England to Lafayette's rigid specifications Genuine Hand -rubbed Oiled Walnut Veneer Cabinet Of Extra Heavy 3/4" Stock Only 43/4" deep -can be placed on floor.

TRANSISTOR CITIZENS BAND - *ALAI( TALKIE" Here it is the exciting.LAFAYETTE ELM ELECTRONICS FOR 1963 CATALOG NO. 110 Federal Street -NATICK.O. NEW YORK 542 E. I am enclosing S Name NEWARK. SPECIAL HI -FI SYSTEM PRICES. 630 pages 388 11101111011. and much more. Hi -Fi Stereo.assemble kits designed by Lafayette engineers for at -home construction.220 technician. Dollar for dollar the best value for your money today. NEW YORK 165-08 Liberty Avenue BRONX..f_w - New M It's Better It's Big - Than Ever It's From the "World's Hi-Fi & Electronics Shopping Center" 10. MASS. . Syosset. hobbyist. If you're not completely satisfied.. 388 giant -sized pages with thousands of different items for the audiophile. No Money Down. NEW JERSEY 182 Route 17 OPENING FALL 1962 October.. NEW YORK 100 6111 Avenue LAFAYETTE RADIO Dept. Parts. the full purchase price will be refunded..R12 -2 P. LARGEST STOCK SELECTION.saving price. - NEW MAIL ORDER & SALES CENTER 111 Jericho Turnpike OTHER LOCATIONS SCARSDALE. Rush my FREE Giant Size 388 Page 1963 Lafayette Catalog Please send me N shipping charges collect. L. up to 24 Months to Pay. serviceman . Fordnam Rd. NEW YORK JAMAICA. PARAMUS. EIECZRON\CS in Our 42. fully illustrated hundreds of manufacturers. Address LCity CIRCLE NO. N. 24 -HOUR SERVICE. I. Box 10. You always save more with Lafayette's low. all -new 1963 Lafayette Catalog.Year History It's Fedlnolrwu for Electronics.1 sat The Largest Catalog LAFMEWE :r:1 . It's the "World's Hi -Fi and Electronics Shopping Center" at your finger tips. Y. NEW JERSEY 139 W. 2 Street SYOSSET. 130 ON READER SERVICE PAGE GIANT SIZE Zone State PAGES 99 . Lafayette's 30 -day Free Home Trial lets you try-what -you -buy at home. Select a hi -fi music system and get Lafayette's special money. student. Science and . 1962 NEW YORK. NEW JERSEY 388 24 Central Avenue BOSTON.S0 SPEED PE RECORDER AYS BACK TRACK STEREO 89. EASY -PAY CREDIT PLAN. it's in the Lafayette Catalog Citizens Band. I tl 19. low prices. Radio and TV Tubes. Tape Recorders. NEW YORK 691 Central (Park) Ave. L.. The Easy Way is with Easy -Pay. EXCLUSIVE LAFAYETTE KITS. If it's in Electronics or Hi -Fi. Antennas..1. LOWEST PRICES.11.50 K -137 - LAFAYETTE'S CHECK THESE OUTSTANDING LAFAYETTE BENEFITS SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR MONEY REFUNDED. MASS.0OADCAST RECEI 40 4 MULTIPLEX ADAPTER KIT KT.W11xWl MMri. Most orders fully processed within 24 hours after receipt. experimenter. Ham and Amateur Equipment. 4-11AND SNORTWAt . Easy -to. engineer. I.SO FM -AM POLICE COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER NE 51 /1S2. 40 -WATT PURL ADDRESS AMPLIF PA 268 69.. PLAINFIELD..

I1111!. in the "Tuner" position. COMPLETE KIT! Nothing extra to buy. NOT two low voltage transistors in series with two 1 watt zener diodes. Additional contacts are used to increase the gain about 6 db to produce the saine volume from both stereo and mono broadcasts. The adapter has the Fisher "Stereo Beacon. Fort Wayne 2.megohnt input impedance. but the MPS -100 is powered and fully operating. 575. In the "Off" position. and to light a green light on the front panel. ONLY. The audio Outputs are taken from low -impedance amplifiers.95 Complete!! The AEC kit that you build uses DELCO high voltage 15 ampere transistor with a MOTOROLA 50 watt zener diode..rn I .. 300:1 coil .and right channel input jacks in the rear are connected directly to the corresponding output jacks. for factory wired units. The over -all maximum gain of the adapter is 6 db through the high -level input and 15 clb through the low -level input.515.. Position 2. with LOOP AND CABLE .aulnó . Bronx 53.000 NEW ENGINEERS A YEAR! l':. the "Stereo. after removal of any SCA program by a 67 -ke..SKMC. "in. trap..25 our ad on page 120. Washington Blvd. N.. June.. They are then passed through 15-kc.50 6161 . last. ELECTRONICS WORLD . The MPS -100 has two degrees of filtering to reduce the effects of this noise. In its "A. SORRY NO CODs See AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS 387 COMPANY Park Avenue South. The switching action effectively separates the composite signal into the original left . One requirement of a universal multiplex adapter is the ability to handle a wide range of signal input levels.2000 KC. The 19 -kc. and a pair of left . in position 1 of the "Noise Filter" knob. New York ing conditions.. FREQUENCY -CPS 2n. pilot carrier is selectively amplified and synchronizes a 38 -kc. oscillator from pilot -carrier levels of 30 mw. Imw Lr 600 ohm 2.lings: dorms. mod.ln. one switch is open and the other closed. 50 ohms Constant to 10.S.. put amplifier having a 15.n Ila ..-.95 $13.0 5KC. but reduces channel separation.. pilot carrier. the signal paths are the sanie. 'ear -round rgr: IU. DAE 3 Band... the power to the unit is removed. the "Stereo -Beacon" relay may operate erratically.00 7218 53. the adapter operates in its automatic mode. The AEC ignition coil is wound with Formvar insulated wire. One of the two operating controls of the MPS -100 is a four-position selector switch on the front panel. 6 Posit 22. there is no filtering. oscillator.50 5.P..and right -channel programs. In the "Stereo-Mono Automatic" position. the noise on the sub -carrier is filtered out.57. mfg. i =iIf11I11111m6@om==1o= ligl=NElIli1112 1 1608 E.00 NICAO Storage Batteries (Cells) 1. IOKC.Y Ï i 11v. cvhich allow synchronization of the 38 -kc. 74 Coat Switch.2v 2." position disables the automatic circuits. New York 16. RCA DIRECTION FI . "Stereo Manual.. rolls off the high -frequency response above i kc.... under weak signal cYnulitions.lnüv`ua1114 INDIANA TECHNICAL COLLEGE -35 -3 .50 3CXIOOAS 14.50 3C22 . September. NEW 1.ili oCa" --ll=_IÌIfi11i1111i1i U. 108 ON READER SERVICE PAGE MANUAL COAX SWITCH. . _4N9MP2 rated 100 watts b 3KMC. $11. In this position F \4 and AM monophonic programs from the normal tuner outputs may be heard as though the adapter were not connected. heavy duty Ballast resistor .75 BIRD MOO. . 112vde 08 METER 3t a' rd -10to+6db. Indiana 100 - --. in addition to this. Since. . 240. Comm. QUA .. %with these conditions reversing even' half -cycle.ss>RBEEN--: FILTER lF2 LEFT CHANNEL tr}ll ° 111-I®1 i8165 4 218 West Tremont Ave. Posn..reign roan. New library atorh. I. n 1n II I. ReRiEBNiN!!!!1= = = 1 6ìá_ ' 50 - =_IIBItg= IÉ®111é 200 500 00 4. -l.BUILD YOUR OWN TRANSISTOR IGNITION N EW Lab Tested (Continued from page 26) Now $29.00 8F4 acorn 1. This does not affect frequency response.95 POLAR RELAY WE 255A . a relay is actuated. The relay releases.S.BBRSEIIif . as previously described...arinI Mare.. oscillator...95 $1.=! au:a luEl . -4 0 ®E. leaving the adapter in stereo operation. when present...11111111tl B. irk t l -+ et er tr. oscillator and diode switches to normal stereo operat- Tremont 8 -5222 ENGINEERING \ SCIENCE MATH -412'12 Ì . National 1. -kc. At any given instant.lu -. heavy duty . f 'a. which are individually amplified and de.75 2C395 2K25 . 11SvaC.ITN t.. and .EI:IIF:E t Sr rue..00 NEW 2. 400:1 coil . .95 Conversion kit for positive ground. feeds two diode switches which are keyed by the 38 -kc. Caraiou. CIRCLE NO.. - l 20 Má!t=®(11'!==®m11ll1N1llü 0 W Q 30 Iull. AEC uses silver plated terminals teflon insulated and a single heavy duty bal. Please odd 75c for postage and handling.C. Each switch uses four matched diodes.e Classes start January. to minimize detector loading. is rectified and used to cut off the relay driver tube. I{EnITEI. oil impregnated and hermetically sealed for maximum insulation and cooling.. 39. but the adapter remains out of the circuit. disabling the 38 -ke. 20KC. restoring the 38 -kc. 20 -.S.. Write f '1lul. . indicating stereo operation. In this mode. . 35.emphasized. t' employed throughout the U.50 8298 9. It.95 NEED ONLY COILS 300:1 Coil ratio 400:1 Coil ratio BALLAST 8. Employment Lhelp 551 MONEY. NOT enamel insulation in a tar filled coil. 1 Wtlüa®I `. . Ola. DEGREE IN 36 MOS. K:p p - - IKC.50 VELVET VERNIER with large knob.00 Solenoid Type Bell 4'..50 SOCKET FOR ABOVE RELAY INEW) 2. low-pass filters to remove any 19 -kc. oscillator and closing both diode switches to supply the full monophonic signal to both audio outputs of the adapter.95 .. or higher frequency components. LIKE NEW $94. a fourth. .50 MONEY BACK GUARANTEE Spice ELECTRONICS CO.. This unit lias high -level and low -level inputs. Off" position.00 5150A 12. respectively. Gen. Background noise on stereo programs is always higher than in mono reception. and 10 my. diPlmna al. In . ` .00 NEW SURPLUS TUBES GUARANTEED .00 value-BRAND NEW BOXED. $29.S. There are individual channel level adjustments to set the gain to any desired value. The pilot carrier.Beacon" light is operative to show the presence of a stereo program. $32.tll\ Ar'.50 SPERTI VACUUM SWITCH for ART -13 etc.British AEC K3 AEC K4 32KV output 40KV output cars only -add $3. IIj11lIiG I 1 '\ ®®INIVE1E$ 1111I!!®l11ll111! i I!'==agg==gm :iIÌEi11rEM=_M1ltl1< il==®!l11i ®iii. Gong. NEEDS 50. The composite signal.5 ohm 75 watt RESISTORS? . In the absence of a 19. hull." which is a relay-operated switching system.Y.

1962 operating controls. compact adapter. fully flexible stereo tuners by the addition of this attractive. This circuit is synchronized by a pentode limiter amplifier. The 15 -kc. Although this could not be completely compensated with the front -panel d. graticule illumination adjustment. 0 All Sony Stereoorders are Multiplex ready! CIRCLE NO. and the last stage another pair of push -pull pentodes. October. addition to the usual controls. Because of the limiting. the amount of sync signal is just sufficient to do its job well without producing the distorted wove forms that would occur with excessive sync. Frequency compensation and direct coupling are used throughout in order to obtain wide band response. Owners of good mono tuners can convert them into top quality. A retrace blanking amplifier and high. A multi vibrator sweep generator is used to produce linear sweeps from about 10 cps to 100 kc. Missing from the front panel is a sync amplitude control. No modi. track selector switch. low-pass filters in the output amplifiers. and 5 to 7 db at 15 kc.phasing control for sine -wave sweep. The amplifier itself is push -pull throughout. In zontal waveforms. The instrument has a vertical -channel response all the way from d. The Precision ES-150 is on extremely versatile scope with just these characteristics and at quite a moderate price.and low. The separation control at the rear of the unit must be set for the particular tuner with which it is used. the first stage being a pair of pentodes. record safety interlock. California. Sun Valley. The horizontal channel consists of a single -ended cathode.The measured frequency response of the MPX-100 was flat up to about 7 ke. (p -p) amplitude for voltage checks. special fixed sweep positions for TV vertical and horimc. in position 1. circle No. there are internal bias adjustments that should take care of this. the S -inch CRT.c. the second stage triode cathode -followers. Dept.voltage rectifier tubes complete the circuit. you can add a versatile new dimension to your hi fi system. line. Approximate settings are given for a number of tuners in the instruction manual. meters. Signals are applied to the vertical amplifier through a four -step compensated attenuator. 60 on coupon (page 17). These include a polarity -reversing switch.c. the sync signal is amplified and limited and then is applied to the sweep generator in order to lock it to the frequency of the waveform or to a submultiple of that frequency. due to the action of the 15 -kc. We then proceeded to test the maximum vertical sensitivity of the scope. reduced the separation to 5 to 10 db above 3 kc. balance screwdriver adjustment. decreasing to about 30 db at 5 kc. M. microphone and of radio inputs. Unit sells for $119. There was plenty of gain to spare..W fications necessary. Two V.5 db on one channel and 13 db down on the other. Optimum adjustment requires listening to a stereo broadcast known to be on one channel only. write: Super scope. We used the adapter with several older mono FM tuners. The automatic sync worked well even with the sweep generator operating at a for lower frequency than that of the incoming signal. less cabinet.50. and a built -in voltage calibrator. To accomplish automatic sync. since we observed some variation in separation during the first hour or so of operation. There was some shift in the d.follower feeding o push -pull triode output amplifier stage. Inc. (for very. Now. The circuit is built around two printed boards on which are mounted all components except power -supply parts. with uniformly excellent results. Heads are wired to six output and input facilities for connection of external electronics to play and record four track stereo. This adjustment should be made with the adapter fully warmed up. this scope has quite a few extras that increase its usefulness. there is little loss of stereo effectiveness even with a considerable reduction in separation. Fortunately. 151 ON READER SERVICE PACE 101 . response was down 7. 15 db at 10 kc. and is quite critical. even in the horizontal channel. for less than the cost of a good record changer. This is '89" ¡y/ the same quality mechanism used in the most expensive Sony Superscope tape recorders. We were very pleased with the scope's performance on our bench.. The Sony 262-D tape deck has a 4 track stereo erase head and 4 track stereo record /playback head. so that the trace could be expanded to about twice the screen diameter and any part of the expanded waveform could be positioned on the screen for viewing. rolling off at higher frequencies. The needle -sharp trace was free from hum modulation and the sweep had good linearity even at the highest sweep speeds. Precision ES -150 Oscilloscope For copy of manufacturer's brochure. Channel separation was 35 db at low and middle frequencies. A neon -lamp circuit is used to produce a 60 -cps square -wave of 200 mv.low -frequency industrial measurements) up to about S (for color -TV and other video waveforms).c. NOT too long ago a factory-wired oscilloscope with high sensitivity and wide bandwidth would have been fairly expensive.U. and the NEW SONY STEREO TAPE DECK For literature or nearest dealer. This checked out to be NOW AVAILABLE! Complete your 262 -D stereo system: the long -awaited Sony SRA -2 stereo recording amplifier provides instant connection to the Sony 262 -D stereo tape deck for complete 4 -track stereophonic and monophonic recording. balance of the scope's vertical amplifier after a couple of hours of use. This is because the scope employs automatic synchronization of all waveforms.. The noise filter. provision for an external capacitor for very slow sweep speeds. front -panel Z -axis input and sow -tooth output.

f.95 2C39WA 4. Earl Reid of Thompson. I..S5 of sine -wave input voltages from about v. 76 Mil- lion MORE bought each year. {r'it . 1. . Washington 16. r. . E92. While work still remains to be done on the guidance aids. Too GET more because Columbia PAYS )" . many blind technicians have been able to get jobs in the incoming inspection.I.In Con.170 CARBON MICROPHONE: Brand new..1i. too. The equipment.of the `el Send pal ID6 /APN4 LORAN INDICATOR . CIRCLE NO.:. 20. is ELECTRONICS WORLD . Bob has built a phase meter. per inch. is commercially available. nee } rxelf! Get Our quote today! NOBODY PAYS MORE ' 'N COLUMBIA! x dollar fort We 1 1 -604 FM RADIO TRANSMITTER SI. pmt ohm.lY ]IV. speeds and checks your work. years of success in Inns training tion - claims response down to cps. 2.00 TUBES! ALL NEW 8 GUARANTEED! 250H 522.125A 452509 4..m.i. No experitner needed. letter { FREE LESSON NATIONAL RADIO INSTITUTE..3H01. Brand t HI Fl HEADSET: Special! With ASIIII `IA U>n:1r111e ar. - .n. current. We then took measurements through a low -C probe and were able to extend high -frequency response slightly.95 4. good times or bad..95 3. Next. MO). rrked out 1 i I. Ohio says: "\lade $510 in one month spare time. CALIF. Finds trouble. C. sensitivity of 25 mv. /jl - 1 . Full Time FREE Bt iOl: o!frtr. an in.spots. 9.1rä1 Lib With .hl matir ORDER 10 FOR we checked the accuracy of p -p measurements I BC -611 HANDLE TALKIE CHASSIS taken with the scope by applying a wide range fIr. 113119. II. has conventional ranges.400A 4.95 tions. NRI course is priceless. Because of this auditory test equipment.23 HEADSET: 4.1y - our easy.n.50 $12.291.m.0 59. NOW and will nay top of:11e'. even on your kin lien LJ ?r. response was down about 3 db.o.9.s. Fig. we checked down only to 20 cps.C. YOU make good money doing it. All in all. pin urrd inrtrnc- backed by 4. the scope measured flat from 20 cps all the way up to 2. Am interested in: Spare Time Earnings MT Own Business Metter lob Name Address City L_Acoredited 102 Zone. " .. State Member National Home Study 3. and is editor of the Braille Technical Press.95 28 popular tubes! Inn Kr. ' 24 mv. w \ 'n h.ru . At 3. 113 ON READER SERVICE PAGE Pi:( APPLIANCES PAYS $3 TO $5 AN HOUR Spare Time. Free Appliance Repair Course Lesson. r1 !nl tonuul.. you no longer hear the sound produced by the chopper. Pays $3 -$5 an hour. In some instruments a small amplifier and speaker are used instead of phones so normal hearing would not be interfered with. Reduced to only urh 'ItT.1000A 9. before a gradual roll -off began.00 a. D. slightly better than the manufacturer's specification for $75.i.95 amplitude 1 volt r. and 'L 1onelltlon A. r.1 CARBON MIKE: Fit s CRC 8 late tends down to d. Mr t:wellenl f`r mo1111rRoFlized satisfactory for the usual service -type applica.. Learn to repair Electric Appliances. just simple tools.. In addition to this instrument..00 100TH 9. the ES -150 is a most useful and versatile instrument that will be invaluable to the technician in solving some of his TV "tough dogs" or in checking waveforms in industrial gear. 111C. the accuracy was a Late model.. garage.33 HEADSET: 11 III Ohm.1 . 400 MILLION Appliances are in American homes right now.50 24.. test..m. the color -burst frequency.Ind . 6.58 mc.I he- low shows how YOU can now have a good -paying business of your own. wattmeter. The large center dial then adjusted for final balance.1. 1114148. 1 COLUMBIA 4365 WEST PICO LOS ANGELES 19." At no extra charge you even get all parts for your own Appliance Tester. E W. antenna bridge. rc.. 1 ELECTRONICS Council__ "Are you the people who called Tip -Top TV Service ?" anees the bridge. 3.s.n:nnnnr. with all the ranges of a standard instrument and a sensitivity of 20. the low limit of our oscillator. FREE BOOK Learn at Home QUICK WAY TO GET STARTED l'or less than 214.50 TCS TRANSMITTER RECEIVER I. or resistance. IIkene w. In your basement.ohms -per -volt. Lik1 11. r. is a gratifying sign of considerable progress in this area. and. Positioning the range switch roughly bal- 11 1 I\ // . Get your FREE Book and FREE Sample Lesson: Vail rml pop below.:Ilt 'cal.95 .95 7.. which is basically conventional test equipment to which has been added a bridge and tone generator.$5. Brand new . The position of the large pointer over a Braille scale indicates the exact voltage.. Any late TS or l'IIH test sets ll relal communication 'canon equipment.s. HEADSETS & MIKES BARGAINS! We then measured the frequency response of H5.000 ohms -per -volt sensitivity.95. In another type instrument a tone is produced. full .dnnle units and chamois pads.f. and assembly departments of several large electronics firms throughout the country. a v. able.' r.95 4E27 NEW 48 PAGE CATALOGUE source Mr all ...nll Clut Ix v. í. Using unshielded leads to avoid capacitive loading. right in your home. produces a null in tone when the bridge is balanced. it was down about 6 db. the frequency of which is proportional to the quantity being pleasured. and at 4..[oLuj4 GENEST 'I Aids for the Blind (Continued from page 51) PP112 /GR VIBRATOR POWER SUPPLY 'lr V. sine -wave signal to the T. progress to date has been encouraging and offers hope for tomorrow.. response was down only 11/2 db. Although the scope's low frequency ex1.95 TECHNICAL MANUAL for assn. 11. It is shown in Fig.65A 4.5 mc.rn. -I t-- Send FREE Book. At the present time. rehou. The bridge circuits that produce the auditory output for current and resistance measurements are shown in A and B of Fig. at nt. Auditory v. At just over 4 mc.95 8000 8298 832A 9. 1.circuit capacitor checker. 0110 ohm. AColu7mbia{ Special! t (69.a d.o. r. BLVD. $29. trmllr the country's hest -a e.'laertip. "58. erQ" meter. The scope is priced at $149.c.000.r r blocking capacitor switched in.95 19.1ni4.Lrh:mttrl.50 ' IT'S ONLY MONEY -COME AND GET IT! repent. .50 75. transistor checker.c. and a resonance meter using similar bridge /null circuits. t:srrl.. The instrument is operated in this manner: the function and range selector switches are positioned with the aid of Braille scales as they would be in a conventional instrument.m.. It:l0o. u1`H..95 the vertical channel by applying a constant HS. $150. People need them fixed. When this is achieved.. prepares you for lop earnings in this booming held. p -p to several hundred volts.. Appliance Division Dept. coupled with improved vocational opportunities made possible by special test equipment. per inch of deflection. even with the built -in .95 scope. Although most of our C-p1o30t6 TRANSCEIVER readings were somewhat low. the manufacturer taakr ins Amateur Award. ant HT sel. This.7 mc.95 22. BC _l !7.

64. High cyclic distortion. 23.. Fifty -one (Rom. 34. 50. . 39 49 3. 65. 17. Frequency (abbr. Type of plastic used for radio cabinets.). Type of transmission (abbr.). 11. Fled. 57. 39. Period of time (abbr.A. Cabinet or partition used with a loudspeaker. English digraph. Aleutian Island. 41. 60. Part of Alaska (abbr. 48. 49. anywhere and A 12 30 54 55 56 36 73 37 Model No. 10.). 59. 66. 28. Device for combining two or more signals.. Where the specs call for 33 38 44 63 32 31 Complete informative and technical literature is available. . 68.. 54. Familiar circuit ratio (abbr. 34. 71. 42. 105 ON t a microphone that's really built for the most extreme conditions specify Astatic's Virtually indestructible! 551 48 57 October. . 26. THE ASTATIC CONNEAUT... 28.IRTRIDGES PICKUPS NEEDLES MICROPHONES r . To such a degree.). Wheel used to transmit from motor to turntable... To make an oscillating device . of normally constant current. Hawkeye State (abbr. 37.) Legendary bird. Semiprecious stone. this is the one microphone . This thing. 24.. Indium phosphide (abbr. this microphone takes it and comes up ready. Mathematical abbreviation. 22. 74. Boon companion. matic notation). 29. Prefix meaning Born. 1. In whatever quantity or number. Otherwise. 1550 (Rom. 59. mine. Normal pressure and temperature (abbr. 40 DYNAMIC 61. 42. Large. Phonograph needles. 47. 70. 40. that's "at home" in plant.S. 14. Electronic locating device (abbr. 31. Box score abbreviation. 2 13 16 23 3 19 24 27 . Greek letter (pl. 13. Undesirable quality in a hi -fi system.). Unit of measure (abbr. numeral). Chemical abbreviation. 18.). 24. 1962 everywhere where the going is rough and tough . Greek letter. 35. 55. Young cow. "Dimensional" sound reproduction. French adverb.) Before (poetic). Means of obtaining desired fre2. Blast-proof. 58. Shaft for positioning the record on a turntable. Outside edge of turntable. come to rest. Container for magnetic tape... 36. No wire to this point (sche62.). To stuff.25 4 46 60 9. Schematic notation. numeral). 73. Those who perform (suffix). 67.). Channel for combining two stereophonic channels. willing and able.). 21. 19. Adjusted for resonance at a desired frequency. Medico. Television picture defect.ELECTRONIC CROSSWORDS By MARGARET LeFEVRE luelrrr un prig(' I 211 DOWN ACROSS 1. More than one (abbr... 65 68 70 rst and only unit especially designed for power 26 . Chemical symbol. . 45.). Charged atom. 72. the first microphone. OHIO CORP U.. 25. 30.). 69. A sudden increase in the amount 15. 13. Favorite grain in Scotland. 45. 28 34 52 61 66 Abbreviation for transverse magnetic wave. 38.).). 74 . 55. 72. Formerly.). Mu meson. 43. Symbol for target... Basic food. Frequency -division multiplex (abbr. Professional society (abbr. Five. Ovum. 20.). Southern State (abbr. 51. 12. 56. . 16. 33.. 6 5 17 18 19 29 8 7 20 9 IO II INDUSTRIAL use! highly sensitive microphone that can really take it.element tube. Piezoelectric material (pl. 53. Write for Astatic Data Bulletin #551. System of visual communications using infrared rays. General code call quency response. 58. flightless bird. members. 63. Unit. 17. for ARRL Vowel combination. Sheet on which the operating controls are mounted. 46. 35 47 53 MULTI -IMPEDANCE 15 . Prinz (foreign car). Chemical abbreviation. Vowel combination. aloft or aground. 69. 44. 43 42 41 62 ONE 22 21 .. . Master oscillator-power amplifier (abbr.). Without place (abbr. 52. 27. Means of transportation. 32.). MANUFACTURERS OF PHONOGRAPH C. 103 READER SERVICE PAGE -. Second note of the scale. An oil expert (abbr. 59 CIRCLE NO. steel mill. 45 50 58 64 51 . 65.

f.$1. but it had many deficiencies.. Those were the days when lightning and solar radiation ruled the radio -frequency spectrum. a prehistoric tribolite probably utilized the first r. (spl) .f.f.00 SPECIAL! ORIGINAL CARTON 60 Amp-2 pole -Curve I. ARR -2 Receiver -11 Tuhe. He concluded that silicon. which lowered the impedance to a bias current through the coherer. 3. he taught mathematics and physics at universities in Marburg. 6. The WORLD Martin Lincoln For further information write: ELECTRON!CS WORLD One Park Avenue New York 16. signal. when germanium and silicon became predominant. RE 2 -0270 CIRCLE NO. THE formal study and investigation of semiconductors began in 1874. CONSTANT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER SOL A..frequency signals to detect. They used such devices as tellurium wire contacting galena.1 Mc Receiver 9. Around 1900. the crystal was placed between two metal electrodes under light pressure. Minimum message: 10 words.50 13.500 -60 . 359. He found that they showed no evidence of electrolytic conduction or of thermoelectric effects which would account for this one -way conductance. He found that it had unilateral conductivity. silicon literally lined the ocean beaches. Marconi used the coherer as late as 1906.Y. of all things. By DON TAYLOR Brief resume of some of the early uses of crystals that have led up to the modern transistor and diode. Y. spark transmission and detection by coherence of a magnetic needle detector. but would only pass 6 milliamps in the opposite direction. having an excess of electrons in its internal struc- ture. 0 -135 VAC Output Amp 5.. 1850. This was opposite to the cohered devices. These bridges were broken by boiling hydrogen in the electrolyte. Braun learned some amazing things about crystals. Pierce.f.reading t or n Excellent 24. After these preliminary studies by Braun and Austin. Galena is a lead sulphide crystal.5 volts would pass 25 milliamps from steel to silicon. signal. responders were made of two metal plates placed very close together. He found that an e.50 4 Tuning t :nits. An r. of 2. W /HOWRE 54. but there were complaints about their delicacy ELECTRONICS WORLD . they had rectification properties. p.00 -Oto SILICON FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIERS 150 V PIV 25A 17.9. EW Chicago 16. ADVANCE ELECTRONICS 79 (ortlondt St.95 3. pilot lite assy $6.95 425 4.f.f.50 4SA 24. and was one of the first commercial uses of the crystal detector. rather infrequently. -4" . It costs very little: just 60c a word. Dun woody studied carborundum (an artificial silicate of carbon). Braun made further studies of crystals.C. The water cohered by electrical disturbance.150 McAM. It was used as a detector. Notice that this device provided a low impedance until it was disturbed by an r.FREE!! NEW RELAY Short History of Semiconductors with every $10.50 0 -20 AMPS RF Hammarlund 3. about 86'. they could detect the presence of an r. ergo.5.95 ARC.. But.3 MA DC . or selenium.. a vertical water jet was found to have a reaction (by molecular cohesion) to a charged sealing -wax stick. but they had to be tapped to regain their previous high impedance.95 0 -150 V DC 3. Oe . So if you have something to sell.85 METERS SQ . W. 5 in a carton $5.95 2 Amp 7. and without the elaborate tools of modern -day physics. had rectification properties. with or without a bias.455 -. Nothing really impressive.95 Checked Indicator AN' APN -4B LORAN! eceiver-Indlc for with 89. He received his PhD in 1872 at Berlin University. fuse. ing transmitter or Hi -Fi .95 ESTERLINE ANGUS CHART RECORDERS Model =AW 1MA New Used 5175.. Powerstat mounted in 5 "x6" steel box W /2sw. detector. General H.. Austin studied silicon -steel junctions.75 2" RD 0 -100 MMA- 3" RD 0 -100 MMA DC 0 -1 MA -(ARB SCALEI 0 -5 MA DC SQ 0 -100 MA AC 0 -150 MA DC .$3. signal. Carlsruhe and Strassburg. tinfoil -galena. 3. and was naturally called an "anti.. Dunwoody.25 . VARIACS VARIACS VARIACS 115 VAC Input. V DC or AC Packed in steel cans for cool(ARB SCALE) O -1 MA DC 0. Phone: CAlumet 104 A S -1281 Dept. The crystals worked fine. Galena could be found at the nearest lead mine. 3.50 27. detector that retained popuularity for many years was the coherer -made of substances that would cling together and change their internal conductivity in the presence of an r. and it was believed that this fine point heated the crystal in a small area and changed the impedance of the contact area. Crystals abounded in nature.50 0 -1 MA S0. Excellent.m.25 With 28V Tslmr. Although this was 73 years before Bell Labs invented the first real transistor.95 . III.00 5245. At this time. without fanfare. However. it detected electricity and could detect r. detector.50 BC. Eccles and other notable "radio engineers" studied crystals in the period from 1905 to 1910." Shortly after the turn of the century. that is. and other crystal - metal detectors. 1/í" 0 -500 MMA 0 -1 MADC 0 -1 MV $39..75 . with an intervening electrolyte which formed little bridges for low impedance conduction.50 194 Amp. BC -221 FREQUENCY METER. Pickard. at least with a steel junction. little was done with crystals until about 1905.6. until about 1920. Later.'. In 1906. With Manrs ual 14. or gold. With CB Comer. graphite -galena.09ea Curve 1S. lead and 13 sulphur. for above $5. N. Ferdinand Braun was born June 6. Still.75 3.$4.95 condition... . including name and address..75 3. with a trace of silver.95 26 Amp 3 Amp 1 Powerstat I.f.Y.23 ea. with no radio. He studied the electrical properties of crystals of galena and other metallic sulphides.75 complete We buy Surplus Inventories All Shipments F. But today it is seen as an n -type crystal.12 "x8 "x9" To close out 2 19.50 Amps in 9 95 CIRCUIT BREAKERS Heinemann 1 Amp S Amp 10 Amp 120V AC. giving a detectable noise in a telephone receiver. men like Dr.125VAC in 115VAC out.93 7Sí Anne 14.95 with AN /APN -9' LORAN 124. probably because they did not understand them.50 20 Amp 39. . A fine metal point was required to contact the crystal.. Joseph Henry had observed.. 6. The bridges would soon re. 4. 101 ON READER SERVICE PAGE ELECTRONICS WORLD HAS A BUYER FOR YOUR USED EQUIPMENT OR COMPONENTS! 200.B.. Consider the crystal galena.95 . N.f.form. and persuaded the Telefuliken Radio station to use psilomelane (hydrated barium manganate) as a detector. He looked further.-.f. AN'APR -4 38 -2200 MC eceiver Witt.. Braun's fertile imagination turned to electricity and rocks in 1874. Braun laid his crystals aside. "LINE NEW" tvlth tlrlgln :d C:'llhr:dlion 9G-221 a d CIt Y Only bove $69.50 WITH MODULATION ONLY 89..73 (ARB) S Meter. but the hardy pioneers persisted in the use of other devices.50 6 Amp 12.00 purchase DPST 6 V DC Coil 15e Cont.3 Transmuter 101. few people had faith in crystals. but could not explain. ..95 0 -5 AMPS AC 3.. these men considered crystals as thermal detectors.75 3. N.50 out.95 0 -10A DC (DUAL SCALE) 3. V A 95. as such. He found that these crystals exhibited a unilateral conductivity. 3. Send Money Order or Check with Order Write for Latest Flyer -LOADS OF BARGAINS! ELECTRONICS Michigan R W 2430 5.95 42.coherer. C. As early as 1835. In this case. or antimony.000 purchasers of ELECTRONICS are always in the market for good used equipment or components. Frog -leg nerves were used with some success as sensitive current meters.95 0 -150 VAC WESTON 4. What is the magical property of these rocks? How do they perform their mysterious task? The thermoelectric theory was popular. H.O.75 50 V PIV 30A 250 V PIV 25A 45A MARS POWER SUPPLY 115V AC Input 12 -14V DC Output (a steel case.50 8. L. let EW readers know about it through our classified columns. New York 7.:. signals. field. it had an organic cavity in its skin which could detect lightning flashes.75 HI -SPEED BLOWERS 27'.. In 1879. But man -made electromagnetic radiation had not yet been devised! So. and used it successfully as an r. Metal filings in a glass tube cohered by molecular welding in an r.

8 .. write D CIRCLE NO. chalcopyrites (copper iron sulphide).65 .50 .61 .55 .44 .42 . When pressure was applied with a metallic contact. The crystals were far from pure and homogeneous.34 .69 .42 .47 .1 1.59 . .92 .44 1.55 .37 . 5 DAY MONEY abe.55 .79 .67 .8 .56 .34 .58 . He suggested that a distinction be made between "surface" and "body" rectification.1001 pt to and. and reasonably inexpensive.33 .78 .86 .6 .33 64X . As the 1920's roared and went.56 . ONO U.57 6125 6406 6408 6455 6456 6428 .6 6CL8 6C166 6CM7 6CN7 6008 6051 6CS6 60118 6024 6C%111 6CY5 6Cr7 6025 613/1 60E6 6066 6006 613131 6076 6E48 6E88 GEMS 6E917 6E58 6E118 6EV5 6C18 SONS 6J5 606 6x6 6L5 4CB5 ALL OTHER TUBES AVAILABLE AT COMPARABLY LOW PRICES.74 .74 .ah.0 .31 . Mdse..56 . Since no one understood the crystal as a concept of pressure contact.61 .63 .9 SEND FOR FREE 120x3 12806 12657 12057 12027 12C65 12C115/ 1205 12CX6 1204 12L6 12567 12567 12507 12507 12V6 12W6 12X 130E7 13DR7 1704 17006 170W6 194114 25454 25006 25CO6 25006 25L6 25W4 3585 35C5 .44 .68 .51 . zirconium.55 .54 .36 .13 . The point -contact transistor came into being.68 . and regulated the pressure by a thumbscrew until the signals in the telephone receivers were the loudest.36 .81 .62 .50 .61 .74 .46 64 %8 . The best performers were those containing iron or sulphur. About 1947. but even greater secrets remain locked in the rocks.S.1 ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY RECEIVED 4C56 .62 .51 .43 .58 Phone: 281 -9759 READER SERVICE PAGE USERS.59 . A second electrode (a metallic contact also providing slight pressure) was found to have the ability to control the action of the other junction. had some impurities in it that gave it a slight excess of electrons when it was in a relaxed state..34 . 133 ON READER SERVICE PAGE For DE LTA'Quolity Tested RADIO & TV TUBES' 1 FREE MADE IN 'e add ATTRACTIVELY t BOXED AND BRANDED 0Z4 orders tuba are each ttttuóy and completely .48 S0C6 5O46 .63 .34 . It took a steady hand to find a good semiconducting area.1 .42 62 .14 3524 3525 .nieh tae tube D at bn. In year purchase C. and many more.77 .34 .56 .66 .80 . subject to prior sale.62 .Daduct 10% on orders of 100 tubes or more.7 6507 6507 618 6118 6V3 656 6W 6W6 6% 6X8 7A07 SAWS 9CG7 8CM7 BCXB 94U7 100E7 10DR7 11CY7 12/105 12416 12477 124U7 124116 12455 12 /156 12457 1245 124717 12427 12134 12006 12006 120FB 12007 120x7 164 ON . Some later observations proved that pressure had some effect.6 .46 .64 . This created a junction within the crystal between the region under pressure and the unstressed region.88 .aMtO pesto m.75 . Iraeu. Ave.15 . .43 .and the difficulty of "tickling" them into operation.. This electron.9 . Other crystals used in this period were galena.59 .atery are on ALL U.9 .59 . CIRCLE NO.1 .44 1.52 .51 .59 . October. Add 25C handling charge on orders under $5.89 .52 .42 .40 .e am e4eehtta .55 .60 . The crystal. 1962 BACK OFFER .59 . Another conclusion of this period was that oxygen and oxides were necessary at the contact area to produce rectification.81 .63 .3 .78 .33 .80 . hY information.amet bOefeel.65 .54 .48 . This is seen today as a matter of providing an environment necessary to give the required pressure by the conducting wire.3 .6 . ) MINIMUM ORDER A. INQUIRE ABOUT OUR BRAND 'PRIVATE OEiM 105 .63 . when refined.excess and electron -deficient condition was later reproduced without pressure in a crystal. for example.6 .8 .1 .56 .60 .83 .45 .31 .68 .6l .34 6CB6 6CD6 6CES 6CF6 6CG7 6GG8 6CNB 6C1.45 TUBE LIST.2 . NO / /Í/u)4.50 .61 .6i 1RS 154 155 .64 .51 . J.6 .61 .77 .89 1. A.ey POSTAGE Prepaid YEAR UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED # r tI GUARANTEED er DE LTA 4213 University .80 .64 .65 . the marvelous crystal was taken into Bell Labs for study and experimentation.A.67 .6 .78 .74 .80 .16 . This effected amplification: a small input current controlled a large output current.72 . Amateurs used car borundum crystals in special jigs.BS 654 6567 55N7 654.3 .57 .63 . after much success in WW II as a radar wave detector.34 ..50 .57 .5 3510 5642 1.84 .2 . silicon.50 .63 . TERMS: Send 25% deposit with COD orders. Special 107 Discount ON ORDERS OF 100 rusts OR MORE QUANTITY ELECTRONICS CO. ..38 .61 .62 .55 .66 1.73 .50 .61 .53 .85 .42 .65 .46 .46 . Fleming observed that rectification depended in some cases on a surface action and in others upon the internal structure of one of the materials.42 .64 .49 1114 1115 . had certain impurities in it.. the "cat whisker" crystal detector bowed to the superior vacuum -tube diode. The pressure at the surface of the crystal changes the internal structure of the crystal in a small area.40 . In 1915.89 114 1V2 %2 21304 2C15 2CW4 24X5 3/13 3ALS 34116 3/1V6 3BC5 31106 30N4 SONS SOUS 3056 3026 3Ca6 3CF6 3C56 3CY5 30x6 31376 3S 3V4 {AUG : BCB aQ7 4858 BZ6 0327 .00.63 .56 .3 .2 .46 . And so it went. r used and each is clearly Dena tube s ondameany and I be 0. San Diego 5.S. dependable.16 518 5114 SUB 5V3 5X8 553 6684 64C7 Gars 64F4 GAGS 64114 SANS GAMS GALS GAMS 64N8 6405 6407 64135 SASS 6458 6416 SAT8 84114 .] .83 . Germanium.37 . After much discussion.15 . germanium.6 .9 SAMS SANS Sags 5454 5478 5458 51367 5607 SORB SCG8 SCL8 SCOB 50106 5. Calif. the material suddenly developed a deficiency of electrons in the small area under pressure.62 ..53 ./6 61367 60L7 61304 SONS 66013 60Q5 61306 6CU6 6801 6005 6858 60Ú8 60X7 GOYS 6876 6026 6028 6028 GC .A.60 .30 .43 .e firiilisftilr t .82 .66 .8 .68 . it was thoroughly understood: it was a complete mystery.66 .el .76 . the following theory was expounded.54 .x .80 ..76 .14 .56 .60 .61 . Much has been learned about the crystal since that first formal study.63 ilái=103 .33 . `-MitItieere Sales Corp Plc Washington.58 . it was pure coincidence that they got the right pressure and the right area.70 .52 .68 .67 .41 .61 .4.54 .51 . A successful detector was made with a plumbago (graphite) point in light contact with a piece of galena.48 .54 .59 .3 he ter.70 .66 . The junction transistor is rugged.54 .74 .43 . /.40 .69 . and the junction transistor was born.59 .90 64 %5 6428 6846 6048 SOCS 6000 6806 60E6 61306 SONS 613118 61365 613. Include approximate postage with Foreign and Canadian Orders.6 .72 .59 ./ . The crystal was good: it was bad.8 .92 .53 .77 .

. through stores.000. 284 pages over 1 0.000 people music devotees. ham operators. Radio Shack Corporation invites you and your friends to get your share of these savings and satisfaction by mailing the card opposite today.. u. cash or credit they are assured by our guarantee of getting the most satisfaction on every purchase.. . industry. Leader in y FREE FOR YOU AND TWO FRIENDS Mail Card Today The Radio Shack Story Radio Shack Corporation of Boston.. amateurs and professionals -will shop from our catalog because they get the most value for every penny they spend on they will buy their favorite products on the easiest terms. Our exclusive REALISTIC line of electronic products is famous nationwide for its high quality. Massachusetts is one of America's big 3 distributors of things electronic to the general public.000 Things Electronic To Enjoy 10. and direct to manufacturers.. This year over 2. craftsmen and hobbyists.10. u .10 1_w' ^^' w M ..000 WAYS TO SAVE IN famous RADIO SHACK CORPORATION'S Brand New 1963 Electronics Catalog Dlo SHAC . Our selection of national brand products is the largest in America.a . dependable service and fine values.000 items Partial List of Products in our New 1963 Catalog Public Address Amateur Radio Radios Antennas Resistors Batteries Tape Recorders Books Test Equipment Capacitors Tools Controls Hi Fi Microphones Needles Phonographs 106 Transformers Transistors Tubes Wire Radio Shack Corporation has been serving the nation since 1923 -from the very beginning of the electronic age.. We offer a complete selection of precision built products by mail.. ELECTRONICS WORLD . . - . .

Net 39. mike. Price each Total Price Total for Mdse. anmunication up to tenna. add 3 °. Net 59.®SEAL /St/C RADIO SHACK'S VIVA! V FIRST IN CITIZENS' BAND COMMUNICATION For the finest in Citizen Band equipment in Kit or Wired form. crystal -controlled transmitter. Net 69.95 21P1054. Massachusetts 621(6 Please Print Address City & Zone__ State Please send me the following items: Stock No.Talkie with range to mile. 139. Kit. push -to -talk power input meter. see our exclusive Realistic line in Radio Shack's big new 1963 Catalog.A. TRC -8 Wired 9. October.95 a------'- SAVE! AM. 12 VDC dual power supply. tuned RF stages.Channel Band Transceiver Kit 89.95 $5 Mo.. antenna.005% stability. Deluxe solid -state DC power supply for both 117 VAC and 12 VDCI Superhet receiver with RF stage.Channel Citizens' Band Transceiver © TRC -5 CB TRANSCEIVER Tunable Superhet Receiver! 5. 121/4 lbs. 3 lbs. 15 lbs $8 Mo. powerful. NO MONEY DOWN CREDIT TERMS Take up to 2 years to pay.Transistor Walkie -Talkie Police Band . TRC -8 CB TRANSCEIVER KIT 8 Crystal. $6 Mo. Push -to -talk mike. for Postage Tax TOTAL AMOUNT J 109 .D. ANI. earphone.S. 20P1081. RP -30 RP -148 50 175 5.O. Wired ll 3.S.S.A.AM /FM Receivers 34. tuned or crystal -controlled (30. 1962 TRC -27A Net 89 9s Name QDouble 21P94LX595.Controlled Channels! 23. 3 IF stages. Wt. `residents 141 ON residents add 3'/2'%.95 59 95 IE Save $5 Off 1961 -2 Price! Thousands of Delighted Users! Q New Walkie. wt. Net 109. Net 59.'s) 'Express Charges collect on delivery Conn. push.A. TRC -8 Kit $8 Mo. 13 lbs.totalk mike. combination "S" and power input meter.50 me only). Wt. Rugged. 21P45DX391. FM POLICE RECEIVERS For Live. No C.O.95 $5 Mo. 20P1080. Made in U.. price. squelch control.. Amt. Quantity Name of Item TRC -27A CB TRANSCEIVER 3 Crystal.Action Drama as it Happens! D FM and AM Save $10 on our rugged REALISTIC Police Band Receivers! "Communications -gray" metal cabinets. tuned RF stage.Controlled Channels! Thousands Now in Use! REALISTIC's exclusive TRC -27A provides 15 -tube performance via 10 tubes with 5 dual stages. 117 VAC. earphone.95 20P1099. multi. TRC -5 $5 Mo. 117 VAC.TRANSISTOR TRANSCEIVER TRC -2 < ea 1 Citizens' B 9.Channel Citizens Band Transceiver 69.95 39.95 20P1098.. portable unit includes battery. Sales Tax READER SERVICE PAGE R. channel 11 crystals. 3 lbs.transistor portable for 2 -way commile! Includes carrying case...95 CIRCLE NO. with $150 -$190 wired units! Has built -in "S" meter.Channel Dual Conversion Receiver A gives you $200 worth of quality at REALISTIC almost half the price! Tunable dual conversion superhet.95 21P1053. Box No.Channel Operation! the transmitter power of competing units! 0. compact. squelch. 12 lbs. 117 VAC. 309 Boston.95 "REALISTIFONE" TRANSCEIVER Choose 30 -50 or 148 -175 me Models 1 'Realistifone' WalkieTalkie Nei ! Exclusive AC Power Bose! Superhet Receiver! B Compact 9. Net 109. 8. transmit crystal. tuned RF stage. Sh. 14 lbs. 21P1001. squelch control. Made in U.95 MAIL THIS ORDER FORM TODAY Radio Shack Corporation P. Net 34. batteries.95 New 6 Meter Amateur Transceiver 1 109. TRC -2 $5 Mo. carrying cose..stage. 09.95 NEW 6 METER TRANSCEIVER KIT Dual Conversion Receiver Compare features. push -to -talk mike! Made in U.95 21P94L594. ANL. Net 139. dual 117 VAC -12 VDC supply. No license needed. Simple push -to -talk operation.I. Check or Money Order Enclosed (No Stamps.

. Shpg. B. mixer. Rider Publisher. and 3" round mounting for 1 -5'16" Four x wave guide.00 Output 91 x 12 x 5 ": KIT of 14 Volts DC a. technicians. Capacitor.. Stamford Street.1. Graduates in all branches of electronics with major companies.: attachment: REFLECTOR ANTENNA -Plane fat type configuration. operation. New York. detector and a. Net Wt. Holmes. as VALPARAISO TECHNICAL INSTITUTE Dept. x 91. Approx. Size: 4 x 51 Wt. low -power SSB transmitters. microphone placement for different types of programming. The text is lavishly illustrated with line drawings and photographs of actual installations and equipment.$19. and motorboating. and maintenance of such equipment. Published by Rifle Books Ltd.: 6 lbs.: 17 lbs. Soft cover. covers the origins of SSB.00 (Photo sent on request.: 15 lbs. $ 7.. In addition the volume includes foldout schematics and hundreds of illustrations and circuit diagrams. Lima.95 $49.f.. the text is presented at a professional level and is designed for those with a good background in radio theory. Qoks Line Switch.: 125 lbs.oscillator circuits. Light.$10. Published b Howard W.00.. -STK . Wt.95. radar and automation. 24. v.00 Wired complete..00 7. e t: "AVIATION ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK" by Keith W.. Rectifier. campus.517. Price $3.00 25% Deposit on C.95 20.95 PARABOLIC ANTENNA ANTENNA REFLECTOR- Four 14: Foot diameter Aluminum Parabolic Dispan type with 21" antenna feed.f.00 15. SSB communications receivers. As the spectrum becomes more crowded those involved in communications are casting around for better ways of utilizing the available space. Dorms. servicing the audio stages. Soft cover. derivation of signals..: 375 lbs.95 KIT of Parts. In addition to providing complete instructions for the use. speech amplifiers and filters. specialists in communications.E. echbrlicalj SUPPLIES Pilot Line Indicated ratings are for load Fuse. amps. "TRANSISTOR RADIO SERVICING MADE EASY" by Wayne Lemons.O. 121 pages.: 12 lbs.: 12 lbs. remote broadcasting and p. communications systems.. Electronic Engineering Technology. This is another in the BBC Training Manual series and covers the basic principles of sound and electricity.nonsense approach to the servicing of transistor receivers to eliminate waste motion and increase profits. Basic & advanced courses in theory & laboratory.g. Dual output 12'14 or 24/28 VDC ie 6 amps.24VDC4A: Wired complete . Start Feb. Price $1. etc. Size 7 s 6 x 5": Wt. 11 -.D. Published by John F. Published by Howard W. "COMMUNICATIONS DICTIONARY" by James F..S. broadcast engineers. This handy little reference work contains more than 2500 terms in the field of telecommunications and data processing.$10. circuits. Up to seven definitions are included for a single term to encompass all possible meanings for the word. tests and measurements.24VDC1. W6YTH. an ECPD accredited Technical Institute curriculum. studio acoustics. There are detailed explanaELECTRONICS WORLD .00 Wired complete .c.. Inc. . 216 pages. Price. circuits and their repair.95 KIT of Parts . and others concerned with specifying.$13. Sales f.. plus a list of the importers of Japanese transistor receivers. 278 pages plus schematics.50. volume control. HANDBOOK" by "HIGH. Painted gray. power amplifiers. Size: 7 x 6t'z x 13 ". The twelve chapters provide basic coverage of transistors. Written by a practicing technician for the benefit of his fellow service technicians.5A: KIT of Parts.h. also obtainable.-STK Wired eemplete. Bose. amps. distance -measuring equipment. and stereophony. field engineers. Size: 5'!.O. High school graduate or equivalent.. speakers. with work Of Reflector and necessary hardware & guys. Price 43 s/5 d by mail. this volume will be of help to those who are only secondarily involved in telecommunications and /or data -processing equipment. Rider Publisher. O.95 AC POWER SUPPLIES FOR RECEIVERS R 13C WIRED: $19. x PS. Inc. Inc. computers. -STK . equipment). . Indianapolis.a. Published by John F. training leads to success technicians. Indiana 110 COMMUNICATIONS Harry D.95 Parts. 119 ON READER SERVICE PAGE GET INTO ELECTRONICS V. Sams cE Co... For this reason single -sideband stands a good chance of becoming more popular not only with amateur radio operators but with communications technicians and engineers..PS. squeals. rapid diagnosis and repair. Soft cover. automatic direction finders.: 55 lbs. Box 1105 LIMA. Sept. -STK :PS-12VDC2A: KIT of Parts. studio control desks. Size: 51'.95. G.suppression techniques. tools and equipment. engineers. SEND FOR CATALOGI FAIR RADIO SALES 2133 ELIDA RD. Price $4. This volume has been prepared for the benefit of aircraft owners. studio equipment (microphones. In addition to those actually working in the field. radar beacon transponders. linear r. Although almost all of the equipment discussed is European in origin. and aircraft installations. Cord.12VDC6A: 91 x 5 ": Wt. OHIO CIRCLE NO. Not available with defrost attachment. RD. EW Minimum Order $5. omnirange.00 16. * s o "COMPUTER ARITHMETIC" by Henry Ja- cobowitz.PS. The text. airborne radar.514.B. pilots. the basic principles involved are universal hence this volume can prove valuable to U.$ 9. Net Wt. 2 amps. Inc. instrument landing systems. guided missiles.00 -77 /ARC -3 -923 BC-603/ 683 BC -652 BC -1206 1 1. x 5': Wt.: 7 lbs. installing.f. I L" Priels F.$ 9. Anyone involved with computers will probably find this small volume invaluable as a brush -up text on basic arithmetical operations of positional number systems.00 : Output 24 28 Volts DC o 4 amps.S.00 Output 24 /28 Volts DC a.95 Same as above -Six 161 Ft. Indianapolis. The text is divided into eleven chapters covering standard Comm/Nay systems. 88 pages. the aviation radio spectrum. London S.. Hooton.. mounting brackets with hardware.00 Wired complete. Indianapolis. balanced mixers and converters.95 Output 12'14 Volts DC e. Dia.95 Price with heater defrost - 539. This is a no. shop facilities and regulations... Address Dept. Published by Howard W.T. Sams ce Co.12VDCIA: Wired eemplete. Assoc..QUALITY SOUND PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION" by H. Size: 7 x 6 x 5": Wt.I.95 KIT: $15...95 "SINGLE -SIDEBAND Output 12/14 Volts DC le 6 amps. which is divided into thirteen chapters. Wt.00 10. and maintaining the electronic equipment in planes. alignment and tracking.95 9. Aluminum 8' L a 6' W. oscillations.. 118 pages. Valparaiso. Mounted by frameshaped bracket.Ì FINEST ELECTRONIC SURPLUS BARGAINS DC 60 cycle Trans- anti former. SSB generators. -STK . Price $1. the hook describes in detail many of the circuits used in the most popular commercial units. the theory of musical instruments. carrier.. $75. noise. Burrell Hadden.95 19.PS -12 24VDC6A: KIT of Parts .. sideband selection. New York.. Write for catalog.OF THE WORLD ". repairing "under par" radios. Soft cover. Inc. i.PS. carrier generators. conditions. over -all service techniques. Price $6. and where to get replacement parts.'. and trends.E Co.I. approved.$14.95.STK .$20. Price 529. degree in 29 mos.

Price $4.. testing and required test gear. 244 pages. all of which have been re. 592 pages. N. Indianapolis. helps overcome the six basic weaknesses of conventional ignition systems: Power loss due to mis -firing at low speeds Power loss due to voltage drop at high speeds Fuel waste due to off -time firing Slow starting under cold engine conditions Excessive wear on points by current surges and arcing Plug misfire due to carbon or oil build -up. Please rush Capacitive Discharge Electronic Ignition El -4. but run only 10. receivers. waveguides. and a discussion of secondary radar. postage prepaid. basic transistor configurations. The kit includes hardware. The coverage is fairly complete and discusses the electronic principles and formulas forming the basis of radar.. 132 pages. installation. the book has been revised to place new stress on semiconductors. This is Vol. Based on all -out competition. Palo Alto..S. Gives Permanent "Top. SEND FOR FREE BOOKLET NOW Motion Inc. a completely up -dated and expanded handbook covering over 1400 more tubes than its predecessor volume. There are now 6627 recommended substitutes covering receiving tubes. It will be good news to a new generation of students to know that this tried -and -true text has been revised and updated and offered in its Eighth Edition.evaluated and up -dated in the light of present practice. send complete technical information. $6. 1 Summer Avenue. Road and Race Tested.tubes. 112 pages. and magnetic amplifiers as well as providing additional data on control circuits of various types. transmission lines. Fires Fouled Plugs.50. N.. Published by Co. Cal.- ON READER SERVICE PAGE i . Fast Starts in Zero Weather .. Enclosed Is check for $125. October. Name The American Federation of Information Processing Societies has announced the availability of copies of its "Proceedings of the 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference. Adams.95. this handbook should help speed repairs by eliminating delays involved when special tubes have to be ordered. oil companies and automobile manufacturers. A. The use of an electronic circuit to by -pass over 90% of the primary current around the breaker points. oscillator and amplifier circuits.000 miles. this text is written in such a way that the volume can be used as a refresher for the experienced as well as a basic course for the beginner... D. Copies are available from The National Press. In keeping with the changing emphasis on electronics... The EI -4 system has demonstrated its efficiency. picture. This small volume fills the need for radar information which was heretofore available only in bits and pieces from various sources. Assures Full Power at High RPM .50... antenna systems. foreign. are badly burned. Van Nostrand Company..000 miles. plus capacitive spark discharge. detailed installation instructions and a theory and application manual. Inc. typical circuit diagrams of various units comprising a radar installation (transmitters. o c e by Thomas M.. It will quickly return the investment in economy and satisfaction. and Resultant Timing Problems .00 a copy. industrial.tions of the fundamental operations of binary. Published by McGratc -Hill Book Company. fire perfectly every time with the El -4 System. need replacing. S. EI -4 KIT FITS ALL 12VOLT NEGATIVE GROUND CARS GIVES UP TO 100. Compact enough to be carried in the tube caddy or used on the service bench. Without cost or obligation. cavity resonators. * * * by Sams Staff. "TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS" "PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING" by Alexander Gray Sr G. Price "TUBE SUBSTITUTION HANDBOOK" Howard W. J. reliability and economy on the race track and in tests by truck and taxi fleets..50. Subsidiary of Tung -Sol Electric Inc. or maintenance of radar gear. Sains & Co. For those involved in the design. Sums & $1. servo systems. this handy manual should come as a blessing.ldentical points.to -U. It is this almost instantaneous rise to firing voltage that prevents leakage and mis -firing and utilizes the full energy of this new system.S. wiring harness. transistor -capacitor circuit works with standard batteries and spark plugs in any make of 12 -volt engine regardless of age or condition. _ _State. Wallace. Since this is primarily a classroom text. transistors. Inc. Capacitive Discharge Electronic Ignition System should not be compared with cheaper "transistorized" units. Boulding.J. 1a.T How EI -4 Protects Broker Points Points at left.. warranty.Takes Less Than Hour. It is installed as a dual system.. from EI -4 System. data transmission. and detector circuits. prepaid. and cathode -ray tube and display systems).Easy to Install. hexadecimal. Inc. "RADAR POCKET BOOK" by R. Fires Fouled Plugs Like This Plugs that won't lire with conven- tional ignition. 1 The El-4 Electronic Ignition is the first major breakthrough in automotive ignition in fifty years." a compilation of papers of interest to students of computers and technical libraries. show almost Complete lack of wear after 100. and subminiature types. Indianapolis. used under same Conditions in conentional ignition system. the volume carries a number of problems and experiments for the student. It provides a wave -front some 50 times steeper than that supplied by the induction coil of the conventional ignition system. operation. Zone_ _ CIRCLE NO. Prevents Worn Points . This is the fourth volume in this publisher's "Basic Electronics Series" which features the firm's unique four -color diagrams to explain circuit operation..000 MILES OF TROUBLE FREE IGNITION OPERATION Slashes Maintenance and Fuel Costs . StreetCity _. H.. Soft cover.. Price $9. The text material is divided into five chapters covering transistor physics. spark plug manufacturers.Tune" Performance . U. 850 Hansen Qay.. The high. Price $2. 4..-to- foreign..00. CONVERT YOUR CAR TO CAPACITIVE DISCHARGE ELECTRONIC IGNITION MOTION INC. the EI -4 is the outstanding value at any price. The Motion Inc. While some prior experience with electronic circuitry would be helpful.. octal. T L. Published by Princeton. EI -4 has two distinct exclusive advantages -capacitive discharge and compatibility.. and ternary arithmetic and a variety of practice exercises by means of which the reader can test his comprehension. Newark 4.energy. Quickly Pays for Itself . 1962 Occupation Age Make of Car Class _. Published by Howard W. New York. junction rectifiers.

50 1 2 1000 VDC 2.70 1. FILAMENT TRANSFORMERS All 110 VOLTS -60 CYCLES unless noted 6. Pittsburgh 19. Irv' gain.c1 .lralrJ ahnr alh.00 Amps 2 1..95 220 V pri..Inv 1. Sponsored by PGCS. 2..50 2.r. 60 c1.:. Secondary 3100.0110 ^ 59.c:d m. 2. 0. 1211 Cathedral St. 5 A. I a 4545 West Augusta Boulevard TRAINING INSTITUTE Chicago 51. BRAND NEW OIL CONDENSERS SO MFD 200 VDC 4. D. Sec. 137 ON READER SERVICE PAGE A -3 3. Denver. v or ni.2111111. AIEE. Illinois Dept.. Towson.uah dnewr óclJ. 1730 S.3100 V. I "I:rMn. $10. Def.000 ^ 2. 7.50 6.25 . 3 -6.50 Ma.95 1 MFD 5000 VDC 4.n. 112 0 Ihr I. r1..h.95 3. 1.soh I1r.0. Sec.aer or . Shirley Bay.95 nois.80 . Indispensable to the Electronic Engineer in development work and to the Maintenance Engineer in the detection of failures.50 6 MFD 2500 VDC 5..125 AC.lrihulr r.95 1. Telecom Est.deJ. Sec. Sponsored by Institute of High -Fidelity Manufacturers.a 1 ( ngnnlra .C...50 2 MFD :ono.n0 \'DC 2. 25 A. Barbizon -Plazo Hotel.. OCTOBER 22 -24 Navigational Electronics. Learn all about servicing the new transistorized equipment learn advanced techniques for handling complex service problems easier and faster.l:.95 2.an.h\nm.3 V 5 4. Winston. Miami Beach.arriar \"Irr 6.. For full details.rlor. R. Jea . I now hold___ .c>. Used.ly . Ihc Rods.95 2 MFD 7 ^ 17. I a N Pre TV and RADIO OEM mandenance .6g 20n) VW .95 30 17. Sponsored by PGNS. Sponsored by North Carolina Section of IRE. George C.95 . Old Chelsea Station. Michigan. New York City.95 0 -500 53.InJ meo.95 2 MED 12. Program information from AES. ninn. Greensboro Coliseum.m. 0.30 ..0(I(1 ^ 69.50 .6.25 3 MFD 411n0 VDC 8.65 5 l'. Program details from Michael Ihnat.50 . Full details from Norman . Colorado Blvd.9 hrs.000 ^ 34.3 V 10 4. n. 1962 OCTOBER 15 -19 Fourteenth Annual Fall Convention & Exhibit. Thos..5 1 Eighth Notional Communications Symposium. 530 William Penn Place. 1. P..r s nl. NASA Redstone Arsenal. MOTOROLA R.ers Assn. Res.. Wilmington. Butler. Dept..95 Sec. 10 A. Program details from George Baldwin.lnJu.i(1(1D a 89.45 150n VDC 75 1500 \'D(' 1. Clinton. Dr.50 2 MEO . et al.40 Volts 52..19 1. WO -2 -2370 19th Annual Meeting of American Medical Writ- CIRCLE NO. Vergara.10 10 0 \' 1.. J. Avco Corp. Program details from Otto A. Program information from Dr. New York 7.50 MFD 20. you will also be preparing yourself for your 2nd Class FCC Radiotelephone License.. Medical and Chi rugical Faculty of Maryland. Murfield. un. 60 Cy. sell powers: OCTOBER 15 -17 -IRE Fall Meeting. Ldlr.. Running Time 62. =2. lor. 0.lan. Ottawa..99.l. Box 12.. .err. New York Coliseum. 1 1 ELECTRONICS CO.95 : OCTOBER 12 -13 Seventh Annual Electronics Symposium. I. There is no obligation and no salesman will call. iu 3. send coupon today.50 2.35 PIV 400 100 200 400 50 100 200 Price Current 51.t O.95 $17. McCormick Place.0. 466 -2.999. r 0 VI IC 11110 VIL(' \'I 1. C. .xs a xidr (:mgr 01' and mr. Producer. Hotel Utica & Municipal Auditorium..C. New York. Name Address INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVESCORP I.55 Amps 2 . CT.1: others 01 DcJrr ON 1)aneh .. Canada. Details from W.00 ea.50 MEO 10. Sheraton Pork Hotel. Ir000' MFD 15.3 V. Jr.. New York City. 6. 11 READER SERVICE PAGE City Zone CIRCLE NO. OCTOBER 2 -4 West.35 1. 2818 Regency Dr.E. D.75 . Md.25 6.n0 VIrC 6. N.. 'Simi-Ira.95 ^ MFD 11111 12. 3 A.r II.. Moss.75 3. . 100. Inc.95 1 MFD .3 V.95 1 1211D VD(' . Washington. Bendix Radio.lnar and nv11ehr.95 MFD 2:. 5 V 519. Chicago. Program information from H. ms.rnJ 11004 of .PPi.50 . N. "Ihe CIRCLE NO. 4. Sponsored by PGSET.a0. 1. 165 I1. cnlnunicaoen.. Fla. Ala.3 V. Hoberg.00 15 Amps 15 Amps 15 Amps 50 Amps 50 Amps 50 Amps OCTOBER 2 -6 New York Hi -Fi Show./ 8.60 .30 0n0 VDC 0 VD(' 4 MFD ririn VDI' 5 INFO 000 VD(' 6 MFD 010 \'DC 000 VDC 8 MFD 2 INFO 3 MrD 10 MFD 12 MFD I MED 2 MFD MEO 8 MED 10 MFD 12 MFD 1 MFO 1 MFD 2 MFD MED MFD I MED r 1100 VD. W. The MINITRACER' hypersensitive.15 Volts AC.an la. N.. The Motorola Training Institute's home study course in FM 2 -way radio servicing can enable you to take advantage of these profitable opportunities now. Guar.. and Induarial" mJr1 JIn. Broadway.95 .75 3.500 ^ 34.. n.95 MFD 330 AC 3.. URSS AMERTRAN PLATE TRANSFORMER Primary 105.6 A.n11. New York Trade Show Building..95 220 V pri. 1.95 mil. Canada.Salem.110 Better Future Advancement and increased earnings are waiting for you in the expaAding communications field. r. In addition to this wealth of practical application knowledge.1.el4auon. A.3 V. wao"cum rnl nr. 201 Lowell St. StatlerHilton Hotel. 6.95 220 V to 110 V 60 cy.nD(' PEAK 66 W.: a\\I nd I\I radio. .4 n MFD amt.<Rrn .75 SeC.__FCC License. Baltimore.90 . W.50 4. $75. Sc.l h.. Michigan.cl.. AEF239 Please send me full details on the Motorola Training Institute's planned home study program on FM 2.3 V. S V S A S 2.6 V 1100 Amps Step -Dawn Trans. Hotel Fontainebleau. 85 SILICON RECTIFIERS Ply loo 200 400 750 200 400 100 200 Priee Current 500 Ma 500 Ma 500 Ma 500 Ma 750 Ma 750 Ma 5 2 AmpS .. AC P 600 MA Baltimore ' SIGNAL TRACER Earn More Money Build Ì for electronic and mechanical equipment 1J G. Sponsored by PGANE and BalEast Coast Conference on Aerospace & timore Section of IRE.50 2 MFD . N. Paris Road.ion. E. Ann Arbor. . $14.95 5 V 52 Amps (16 NV Iasi Amps IS NV Ins. \lalnlr. IrJ n1.25 MFD TC. Details from John Sergeant.. OCTOBER 19 -20 Denver Stereo Hi -Fi Show. New York.rn.50 .30 OCTOBER 8 -10 National Electronics Conference. ..lnpn0nl. Westminster. 75e Sec.25 5. Instrument.Way Radio Servicing. Information from ISA. Colo. .50 . University of Michigan. Utica.' 1000 \'D(' 10011 VD(' 10110 \'DC 111011 VD(' 2.. 500 Watt Sec. Sec. Calendar of Events i 2 OCTOBER Price 2 LAVAI PANEL METERS 2" Meters 0. Sponsored by IRE.5 eeds Cye9 Eleventh Annual Symposium on Space Electronics and Telemetry.75 6.. Open to public Oct.. )our I1r. Emerson Hotel.100 Miero 0. Augustadt. Md. Meter I15V 57.rvna '. Y. Sec. 7930 Maria St. IT 8. Illi- \'I. $1. PGAP.Y. Detroit.Automation Conference & Exhibit. 6.50 . H.95 Pram Freq.C.D. Dept. kIcai. Sponsored by Audio Engineering Society. for program information.. 15 -18 International Symposium on Space Phenomena OCTOBER and Measurement. MTT sections of IRE.c4 . 110V.r 16.O. Pa. Writers' Manor Hotel.3 V. $1. Sponsored by ISA. New York 11. Marshall Space Flight Center.30 .5 MFD 7500 VDC 2. Ottawa. 160 ON State READER SERVICE PAGE ELECTRONICS WORLD .95 3" Meters Volts DC. Sec. Rome -Utica Section of IRE.50 MFD 25. . Chapman. . Sponsored by URSI.95 2 MED 29.85 . PGGE.1 Ma. Greensboro.Ir.

aluminized picture tube.CONAR odes. 4. For example. or seconds %with proper decimal notation. in reading a 10 -mc.Mac's Electronics Service (Continued from page 40) instrument. or 10 seconds or can be opened and dosed manually.Packard unit. MONEY BACK GUARANTEE. cabinet. 6) with the base common to each: KB2C4 the emitter -base and collector -base di. The gate can be opened and closed manually for any length counting period desired. City Zone NNE State MO 113 .01. Now i can recognize them. one polarity of the meter leads than is I understand the prices include 10 ¡ U. Electronic equipment is growing more complicated and sophisticated every day. C. and collector voltages.00. tax. Washington 16. "For that matter. 1962 own TOP DUALITY TV SET.huild your % count error that is inherent in gate -and -count type of instruments. some receiver manufacturers recommend in their service data that such units should not be relied un. Now. "You've told me the cathode -ray oscilloscope was once considered an 'exotic' added a plus or minus 1 1 October.001 second it would be 00010000. A fascinating. Already the use of transistors is making counters lighter and more compact. practical project that rewards you with years of superb viewing from this professional. and a soldering pencil or iron. SEND $2. NameAddressFig. Every part of highest quality. An open collector circuit puts emitter and collector at the same voltage.1. should measure a lower resistance with is $135. too. 5. the counter reading would be 10000. with experience. at . Many service -type transistor testers are on the market. the gadget will count pulses of any sort up to a maximum of 10. The same thing %rill happen to electronic counters. and test equipment is going to have to keep pace.001." "That's right. Fo ward and reverse resistance of transistor "diodes" can be checked.." "That's the thing that counts!" Mac said with an approving grin. For each diode. the counters total the cycles of the standard frequency fed to it and display the count in time units of microseconds." "I still don't understand your sudden interest in this rather exotic instrument. pliers.00 for Assembly Manual. \\'hcnever i start thinking I'm a hotshot electronics technician.1 second. attractive receiver. we have often found transistors that operate satisfactorily in their circuits but test "bad. 1. complete instructions and picture diagrams for easy assembly. emitter. milliseconds. True the price will have to come clown some before he can afford one of these instruments. During the time the gate is open. and retains the accuracy of the heavier. your ohmmeter 3939 Wisconsin Avenue. 3. Li Send me facts about monthly payment plan and "Custom 70" booklet. but that will happen. You can reverse connections and feed a standard frequency from the time -bast into the counter circuits while an unknown frequency is feci to the gate circuit. 2. tubes. Think how nice it vould be to be able to check quickly and really accurately the burst frequency of a color TV set or the critical output frequency of a signal generator. . A far from normal base voltage usually means trouble in the base circuit. all I have to do is take a look at some of the circuitry of that counter and this shrinks my ego back to size. i suppose the gate time is regulated by the time. 6. An open emitter circuit causes a loss of forward bias between emitter and base." Barney paused a few seconds and then went on: "I think it does me good now and then to study and try to understand some of the wonderful things being clone with electronics outside the field of radio and TV service. D. the 5243L. weighs less than 40 pounds and can be easily carried in one hand. At . Resistance measurements also help. \ly thinking is this: the service technician of the future will be using such an instrument in his everyday work." "Can the thing do anything else but check frequencies ?" "Oh yes.to -back diodes National Radio Institute (Fig. Checking Transistors Enjoy a new sense of accomplishment PERFORMANCE GUARANTEED You don't have to know Electronics to assemble Conar's "Custom 70.000. it would be 010000.000 cycles is darned good counting in my book!' "And in mine." "It's not so exotic. On the other hand. bulkier tube type. Ship complete TV Set Kit DEnclosed at once.. The gate is opened on one cycle of this unknown frequency and closed on the next." Anyone can build it with a screwdriver. yet now it is a necessity.1 million per second. This method of measuring the period of a frequency gives more accurate results with very low frequencies.00. The react -out is in kilocycles. Conar's Custom 70" Kit includes everything you need chassis. Send me facts about monthly payment plan and "Custom 70" booklet.base. I will pay shipping costs upon receipt. I've seen several electronic counters by various manufacturers in the engineering departments of factories when I've been on industrial service calls. compact. Use order to your order form below.00 Guaranteed by NRI with a recfor ord of nearly 50 MANUAL ASSEMBLY years of pioneering in electronCredited ics. The gate can be held open for . parts. You remember my uncle could either count telephone poles for a given length of time or he could see how much time passed between mile posts. While the various checkers vary in their capability. A leaky transistor will cause abnor- mally high collector current and may reduce or reverse the forward bias. You can locate open base connections and. A new fintclett. Service Transistor Sets Assemble America's First COMPLETE TV SET KIT (Continued from page 58) of base. frequency %with a -second gate -time.000. and the decimal point is moved automatically as the gate -time is shifted. . S. A transisRR Division of tor is actually two back. - ON DEnclosed is $2. yet it has a maximum counting rate of 20 mc." We prefer to rely on voltage measurements and elimination checks to spot a defective transistor quickly. A maximum error of 9 cycles in 100. The 524C will do the sanie thing. recognize excessive emitter -collector leakage.

meters.O. transistor. These include the use of a gated -beam limiter tube with its zero. you may have to vary ADDRESS CITY ZONE STATE emitter bias. there will inevitably be important changes in the high -fidelity industry as the audio dealer. endangering the weaker of these output transistors. Replacing Transistors If you do not have an exact duplicate suspected transistor. an i. Further. 103 ON READER SERVICE PAGE suppress oscillation. key. 3. in Fig. Rockford.m.v.t. This condition is much less evident to the human ear than is the overload signal output of a vacuumtube amplifier where the svaveforms are collapsed and violently distorted in the central regions as well as on the waveform tips. 9" deep. and consumer make the gradual transition from tube to transistorized high -fidelity equipment.. substitutes. a. transistors can furnish performance almost equal to that of tubes in every respect. The transistors shown in this conventional circuit are svidely used types compatible to many receivers. 1450 cubic inch volume. 40. localize trouble to a stage. factory. The voltage ratings for the substitute should Anglo American Acoustics Ltd. For the rest. which have assisted in obtaining such amazing performance in tuners. 8 ohm impedance. the amplifier designer will have to bear in mind that should an installation be operated carelessly svith shorted speaker leads.time -constant limiting characteristic and. 3. There is no interchangeability. Price -$19. The different ohmmeter configuration used in most r. either to bring up gain or CIRCLE NO.sv1Ten the leads are reversed. -644GIVE 2027 Columbia Ave. you must remove the transistor from the circuit. Literature on I I -a - - d c request. and you save a bundle. so it may be just as well to try a replacement transistor if one is handy." Transistors or Tubes for Hi -Fi? (Continued from page :33) amplifiers are being pushed to slightly overdriven peak signals. up to 30 watts power capacity. reduce value of the emitter resistor (it).r..f.t. the other is likely to go bad soon afterward. All standard sizes . unit with AFTER RECEIPT. 2N411. Illinois CIRCLE NO. It is referred to the typical circuit of Fig. The troubleshooting chart in Table 1 is a convenient reference for many common troubles. hard rubber and plastic's. Furthermore. and so on.B.collector resistance should be high in either polarity. but considerably higher in one direction than in the other. the output transistor overload currents could be extremely high. If a new mixer does not oscillate in a p -n -p configuration like that of V. As the above indicates. `" 'not be exceeded by those applied in the 129 Maryland Ave.95 F. This latter waveform distortion is clearly audible. replace a AM NOT COMPLETELY SATISFIED GUARANTEED AND IF MAY RETURN FOR A FULL REFUND WITHIN TEN DAYS mixer with a mixer type. high fidelity dealer. the base is open. the audio technician. the widely used tuning eye.f. etc.m. 123 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 114 "I _ -w hove a feeling we lost the job the minute you kicked that cat. Direct factory sales only.. and customer swill be immediately faced with less standardization of replacement transistors and greater dependence on the high -fidelity manufacturer for direct replacements. GREENLEE CHASSIS PUNCHES Make accurate. In tuner design. of course.000 gauss flux density.) FEATURES AND SPECIFICATIONS 24" wide. 2N409. coaxial wound 1" voice coil. zero external magnetic field. 8" high compliance woofer. Unfortunately. No tedious sawing or filing few turns of the wrench does the job. however. (For an elaboration of this technique with a u. manufacturer. Thus the owner is faced with a $25 replacement service charge which is hard to take even if it is due to his own negligence. The substitute should also be Please ship me "Rent' natural wood cabinet designed for the same type of service as speakerlsl at $19.95 each. silicone treated edge allows for 3/4" cone displacement.'s will aller typical readings." page 66. are lost to the designer using transistors. Alcomax III 1 -lb. Here. switches. To use the ohmmeter. magnet.m. in our July 1962 issue. Fibreglass acoustic dampening. 3" hardened tweeter cone. 10" high.. For example. to narrow down the defective part. some of the recent highly refined tube developments. confirm the customer's complaint. ORDER NOW to insure prompt delivery! This remarkable speaker is not available in retail stores. you may be able to find a satisfactory substitute. for a I I I ¿'UT 'gtE' i. and make voltage measurements with a v.. Frequently if one of these output pairs fails for any reason.f. of course.f. an i. If a low emitter -collector resistance reading is obtained. the transistor is leaky.f 2N407. -Ed. between p -n -p and n -p -n types. 10. matched for stereo. For example. At your electronic parts dealer. but measured GUARANTEED Outperforms speakers costing five times more or your money back! ALL NEW ALL WOOD the KENT- $195 only if the principle is the same. types finally selected for inclusion in amplifiers will undoubtedly carry type numbers unique with that particular design and not readily available at electronic parts distributors. finished holes in s minutes or less in metal. in the case of i. New York Gentlemen: Enclosed is my check for $ circuit. only a couple of these manufac- turers offer the reasonably priced specialized types suitable for high -fidelity output stage design. square. NAME In a few cases. both diodes have a high resistance without regard to polarity. see "Transistor Test Techniques with an Ohmmeter. GREENLEE TOOL CO. inspect for surface defects. round. Emitter. Shipping weight 18 pounds. the transistor unit has evidently greater clarity and performs more like a s-acuunl -tube unit with twice the output rating. Freeport. UNDERSTAND THAT THESE SPEAKER SYSTEMS ARE the original. ELECTRONICS WORLD . 18. Finally. remember that a good general procedure is to check batteries first and substitute a satisfactory supply. if necessary. 5 -oz. This effect is primarily clue to the lower driving impedance with negligible bias shift offered to the output transistors such that the overloaded signal has its peaks cleanly clipped.o.. It may facilitate substitution to know that they are solder -in versions of otherwise identical plug-in types: mixer.000 cps. despite the fact that the number of transistor manufacturers is nearing the hundred mark and the number of registered transistor types is up in the thousands. or "D" shapes for sockets.

COLOR TV ANALYST B &K Division has added a new color analyst 1 to its line of equipment for the servicing and repair of electronic gear. Available in black or white printing. "Emergency brakes" are automatically applied the moment trouble is sensed and. The Model 50 -191 is 1044" wide x 6" deep x 6" highs while the 50. The instrument produces R -Y. nd. ing 15 channels of information on a tape running at a speed of nearly 60 utiles an hour.H. INSTANT LETTERING is handling the distribution The Datak Corp.f. The latter device is a ring which provides additional grounding at the periphery of the nuvistor tube in the form of extruded dimples. high voltage. The Model 850 provides dot patterns. portable NI-SC color-bar generator designed for use in the installation and maintenance of color TV receivers in the home or shop. designers. wood. C plete sheets of alphabets and numerals are included for odd words and designations. red.f. or screens.c. and battery leads. Each item is identified by a code number.. The anticipator feature is adjustable. Both units have copper -clad steel cases.f. Both units are transistorized. Remote control has a t ariable a.. r. if the trouble is loss of power. ELECTRONIC DIMMER is now offering an to provide flexible. It comes complete with a. cyan. The couplers are available in 12 v. 6.lel 50-202 has a capacity of 550 -600 watts while the Model 50 -191 will handle 275. In addition to dy- namic testing of electrolytics. Mylar. 1962 COMMUNICATIONS Additional information on the items covered in this section is available from the manufacturers. and plastic. TV TUNER General Instrument Corporation is in pro)) o duction on a new u. and individual colors one at a time on the instrument panel and the color TV set for fast. The units convert 12 volts d. and insulation leakage of cable and appliances. simply fill in the coupon appearing on page 17. designed jointly by the company and RCA for the new circuitry and for operation at ultra -high frequencies. is now marketing a compact n dynamic capacitor tester. A unique bridge arrangement compensates for 6. full range dimming of all incandescent lighting fixtures up to 600 watts. Inc. Hunt Electronics Company 10 electronic control 115 . magenta. output switch and a signal light indicating proper a. the ANTENNA COUPLERS Winegard Company has announced a new series of low -cost v.c. goes on quickly and adheres permanently. motor capacitors.Atr. crosshatch. and greets as well as the standard alignment signals R -Y.COMPONENTS TOOLS TEST EQUIPMENT HI -FI AUDIO New Products and Literature 1 NTSC COLOR -BAR GENERATOR The Hickok Electrical lnstrtmtcut Company has recentls Mt rod unvl a new compact. ranging from "AC" to 'Zooms. output voltage. Developed for radar applications. technicians. Probing into the color set is eliminated.h. red.. vertical and horizontal lines. The 300 -ohm couplers citable the dealer to make up his own combination of antennas on the same mast with a single down -lead running to the TV set or amplifier.- . It generates the following NTSC color signals: yellow. manufacturers.h.. To obtain further details. and electrolytic capacitors. POWER INVERTERS has added Corporation two new 4 power inverters to its line of emergency power sources.." which requires no water.. blue. an auxiliary air system is cut in. burst signal. yellow. and green. is offering a new solid 5 state temperature controller which combines advanced circuitry and a platinum resistance probe to give dependable temperature control. in OW :uca it ciccuontit. easy October.. the line includes the Models 50. It produces 100% saturated color bars to N I SC standards as well as all standard alignment signals. TV and FM yagi an2 tenna couplers which provide new flexibility of arrangement.F. The instrument will test paper. Inc. the "Cappy" Model E -2. metal. 1.c. checking. magenta. tapes. cyan. B -Y -(G -Y).. A new oscillator circuit in the tuner operates at only one -quarter the anode power previously required." Each set gives up to 95% of all electronic panel markings. The output is completely filtered for use with tape recorders and the 60 -cps frequency is maintained to an accuracy of ± cps irrespective of changing load or input voltage. A three -range selector switch facilitates leakage detection in con- formance with manu- facturers' minimum specifications and standards. white dot.c. a contains 24 sheets in 3" x 5" size with multiples HAM Ili Terado unit weighs just 9 pounds.106. a new tube basing in the tuner allows a more efficient arrangement of connections and a new tube retainer. In addition.202 is I04/4" wide x 13" deep x 71/4" high. Both have electric fans for cooling.h. The "Duo -Trot 600" will handle the control from any standard wall box without special wiring or separate attachments. COMPACT CAPACITOR TESTER Watsco. HIGH -SPEED DATA RECORDER RCA's Surface Communications Division has 6 announced the development of a "mile -aminute" tape recorder which is capable of record. light1 weight. to 110 volts. cord and test leads.-viewer on the front panel enables the technician to see each pattern and color as it should be. blue.. 60 cycles. CB U. burst. the unit can a quick and accurate check of silicon and seien' rec- perform tifiers. the tape is guided through the recorder by compressed air to allow the seven miles of tape stored in the machine's 30-inch reels to travel at such a fast rate without undue mechanical wear. A window. paper. mits engineers.f. Leakage ranging from 1000 mcgohms to 5000 megohms is indicated. and G -Y at 90 degrees. The Mo. A novel anticipator circuit prevents overshoot and virtually eliminates temperature offset when the heat load of the system is changed. running a single 300 -ohm down -lead. come atmplete with remote control. experimenters to add a professional touch to their prototype equipment. "Letraset. tuner which is said to provide four times longer aube life with less drift than heretofore available. 1 BRIDGE CONTROLLER Delta Design._: . Known as the "Continental" series.300 watts. The FM antenna coupler makes it possible to connect an FM antenna with a TV antenna on the same mast. The letters can be placed on any surface such as glass. ambient temperature variations as well as line voltage fluctuations. Q. new dry transfer lettering set which per. The circuit incorporates a new miniaturized nue istor tube. cables. each set 3 of hunJicda it t.191 and 50 -202. Color phase angles are maintained in accordance with NTSC specifications. and cross -hatch patterns. B -Y. TV models (each individually tuned to a single channel) and in one FM model. The FM ampler can also be used as a "signal splitter" inside the house. Known as the Model chit "C hrocn-A ligner.116 ' .

FNI multiplex carrier or other r. INDIANA CIRCLE NO.nter.c. %Vow and flutter is 0. stereo. . Each speaker can handle full amplifier power. 1941. rq. MULTIPLEX FILTER now in production 16 ois an LC-type low -pass filter for use its the music system to eliminate distortion and interference when tape recording from 1'M multiplex Viking of NIL nncapolis is stefctcasts. 53. III F\1 usable sensitivity is 1...75 ips. Frequency response is !". high compliance. The unit is designed for patch -cord connection between the output jacks of any stereo FAI tuner and the high -level or tuner inputs of a high fidelity tape recorder.. . has recently introduced a portable "Tole -Pa t" system which is 11 designed to improve television pickups through rapid and accurate signal evaluations and adjustments of all television performance characteristics in closed. 60 cycles only.7n and Per germ olunm. (oser all important makes 'i neered for proper display of the slides. all needed alignment facts. t '1961.000 cps ± 2. voltages.n'.5 ips and 50 -9010 cps ± 2. According to the comp-Illy. 1960. 1940. $3.nrs. ka leidosegæ of geometric lire system operates from I IS volt a. reel. F51.ri peg. irrespective of caniera location. HI -FI -AUDIO PRODUCTS NO -RISK ORDER COUPON COLOR ORGAN Colorunn C. . printed boards. 1949. with smooth roll -off beyond. ELKHART.transistor design and cower with an Asiatic dynamic low impedance miclophune with response of 6010. 8' e. 53. The deck operates from 110 -120 volts.09% . and double-page schematics.. $3. 152 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 116 L. radio. The two-speed deck is equipped with its own six -transistor dual stereo playback preamplifiers that are equalized to the NAB curve. ration is 33 db.1111(1 cps ± db. sredtd ol sers icing elate.75 ips. be tapped on and off at any pre-dialed light level. puny is iutrod ut nag a color organ designed to be used with the musical ELECTRONIC TELEVISION SERVICE MANUALS . $3. Early 1959 TV. 1957. 1958 TV Manna. $3. two track and quarter track stereo. TRANSISTORIZED MULTIPLEX TUNER 50 stringing. Known as the "Roving Rostrums.nua1.es. CERAMIC STEREO CARTRIDGE soli C on icocn unced speti- pholln cartridge. Volumes are big. 53.. 1951. fessional arms and 3 grams for changers.38 PRICE EACH. -' 1958. only 53. st . _ 1956 TV manual.ues a 1 1 Ntme Add rest: State CIRCLE NO. outlet and is equipped with a built -in dustfree slide storage spur. monochrome Of color. all nettled align.000 CPS IPS SPEED FLUTTER 15 71/2 .5 db at 3. can be plugged into any 110 -I15 volt a. compliance is 5.5 x 10 -n nn." the system is battery operated and weighs tinder 30 pounds.:.2'. n: Ire ads ere Isom nt as your order form. $3. pr. Lafayette Radio Electronics Corporation has 14 added a stereo playback tape deck. dial radios. the 9TA. stereo sepa. the cartridge has flat response i.A walnut base or portable carrying case is available at extra cost. the filter removes all ext rmlenl5 signals produced by the interaction of the 38 -kc. combinations.000 CPS 3 db 30 to 8. . Early 1962 Television Servicing Manual.a. .. has anOmega Electronics Corpora 11 nounced the development of' an all -transistor FM-multiplex tuner.. which provides uniform light intensity and correct color temperature. additional 1962 Television Manual $3. :l 1954 TV. J Master Index to . 1961 TV manual.5 ips and . 1959. EW -1062 or phone JA 3 -4919 for complete information. 1950. 1953. 1954. (. C 1953 TV. :limo sers. _ Additional 1957 TV. Send postpaid. J 1951 TV. C Early 1955 TV. The two loud. 128 ON READER SERVICE PAGE AMAZING OFFER RADIO & TV SERVICE DATA I our best complete source for al KAI litI and TV diagram. Alost anl:vim saines. The illuminator. 25C I hmg 12 output of a speaker connected to any stereo or mono record or tape player. The colors are in direct relation to the manic.1r. 1956. interference with the bias oscillator of the tape recorder or recording amplifier." "1952.system which is housed in a single case. Ilum and noise levels are engineered to professional stand- Red lights tt'spond to the high frequencies while green and blue lights arc generated by the medium and Iuw frequencies.c. Use this en ersk order form... The filter passes the 'multiplex signal but provides sharp cut -oaf at 20kc.8 AV. /dyne.5 db at 7. -. 1955. transistor A home orta vs. Tracking pressure is as little as 2 grains for pro. Inc.ó at 7. scis. The filter has no adjustments or controls. $3. Heads 3 Motors 3 Speeds -Full Track Model BX801 Also available in half track.A..f... 1948.. Output voltage is 0.1100 cps. pea kers are 6" x 9" units with 10 -ounre ceramic magnets. $2. the Model 1650. It measures 1431i"x5 "x10Yk" and contes complete with hookup cables. 53. 1962.11-171.VOLUME P. and critically 13 *' -r aa¡s C ELECTRONICS WORLD . Lowest prucd.18% 2 & WOW 33/4 NOISE RATIO 60 db TV ADJUSTMENT SLIDES Tele.Measurements. Only `i 1.. Designated Model NIX -10. am enclosing full price.ó at 3. 33. r 1952 TV. RADIO DIAGRAM MANUALS I Irre are low -priced r manuals that simplify repairing( Cover everything front most recent tats radios to pre -war old -timers. hints. CROWN INTERNATIONAL Division of INTERNATIONAL RADIO 8 ELECTRONICS CORP. s prri ils.06% . or live music played through an ampli- fier. HIGH.15'.000 CPS 2 db 30 to 16. ILL Rush today TV and Radio manuals checked in no -risk order form of this ad.1 volt. Channel separation is 30 db. It features a combination tap /dial st hicli mas. 1942. 1947. The new unit features extremely low stylus mass. 1946. = 1960 Tv mana. All Aluminum construction -10V2" Reels Crown gives more performance per dollar - FREQUENCY RESPONSE db 30 to 28. You guarantee my complete satisfaction or my money back. Some dealer franchises available.17.Early 1957 Television. Large schetat ics. cokages.000 cps. while frequency response is 3015. $3. $3. the RK1411VX to its line. Cheek sol uons wanted.c amulet lmanual. Additional 1955 TV. -I he system consists of six R x IO precision test slides and a test pattern illuminator engi- 60 db 55 db Write Dept. fessional Tape Recorder SUPRA PROFESSIONAL STEREO PLAYBACK DECK Unexcelled for broadcast use 3 Fire unit is a solid -state full -wave proportional power control which conserves power in exact proportion to the light intensity used. ". 1926.ii 31. The brilliance of light int ntases wills volume of sound and a patterns is created. Emory dam on pr:. complete circuits.Powar C piny is in pa ttducl ion on 15 a new high -volume portable public -address . The circuit incorprl.I db over talc entire audible recording range from 20. It has it 10 -watt push pull amplifier of all. boards was dorms. . Additional 1959 TV.. $3. Either speaker can be used alone or they can be used together for greater audience coverage.ea s iln:uion damping. power lines. electronic organ.rt bol ter f.circuit and broadcast TV. ards. SYSTEM l'erma. Only í2.50 - SUPREME PUBLICATIONS 1760 Balsam Road Highland Park.

americanradiohistory. by the l'he system is equipped with a new type of noise -cancelling micro phone which nu i n imites feedback problems and enables the operator to use the full 20 watt peak power of the system. 1962 www.tube superhet . has just introduced I the " Wollensak 1181.A. Wall data. 455 Me IF's. 100 -156 mc AM.. etc.f vet 85 lbs. plus two matching.50 for 1 CW..9 glow tubes: or ants any incoming J and plant applications. 19 tubes ' include 832Ás. and a neon lamp. 0.00 to get AM FM AN 'APR -4 revr Is the RECORDER 3M Revere Camera Co. Satisfaction grid. Corp.999 counts 60 Cy line as Clock signal. Meas. Frequency response is 20.000 cps ± 3 db at 3. plotting r precise phase -shift measurements . or flake. exc. FOB Bremerton.50 Following all fob Los Angeles. PORTABLE P. any (has Schmidt trig. 20. Bremerton. theory. Checked. for 20 -db quieting. either polarity. Varian. OK! 11 lbs. Scope erm.50 postpaid at only HANDY -DANDY 3 -PH 400 CY INVERTER Ideal for labs. 12. 15. Scintlllators 8 Geiger Counters. hex base. is our OX-535. The speaker system incorporates an ri" woofer.1 %. $14. 2.37. grtd ready to use.1000 me. iss for connecting from 6 to (IO or more stations. has recently intro.c. for 30-16 quieting and 1. stereo wings. gives closed contacts to rear plug for external devices. has announced a new series of compact intercom systems for office $200. calibrated.savi ACC. Elect. I. up. transistor amplifier.95 down. kit builder since the front -end and the four.. binary countdowns. Regular $14. 22 duced a portable. The amer operates on 117 volt. etc. Resist. CHECKED ELECTRIC. GOODHEART CO. The II-1FM signal -to-noise ratio is -51 db. hed. OK. blues. and independent volume control on each channel. 61. Out: 3 ph 115 v 400 Cy 250 VA 1.95 14 lbs fob San Diego.R. has a spring -loaded rotary talk listen switch. DT-2. 200 PIV 20A at ISO C. from GOODHEART! GET IT manually or to recycle alter adjustable r d Os. orSLos Angeles R. TS-34A /AP: triggered plus freerunning sweeps 10 to CR plusChooded dmagnil. The instrument comes with two microphones. cond. S195. in handsome cabinet w pwr sply. $164. The unit also incorporates a built. e p and I -tack stele° and mono record-playback.finished wool. V A feed. 5350. Divider.4/ASQ. wobbulated Standard Sig." a stereo unit which in will record and play back stereo sound. Boonton Unierters. for Carobcontinuous use. regulated.pwr Grectifiers. Coax °w yrRVLF hIS kc INK -47.4 a ma dc meter. II watts per channel..00 Tektronix 511AD.13. The unit will handle 2. an 81/4" and a 12" which innew 21 corporate the "hidden magnet" feature. Compact.50 Charleston. 323.00(1 cps and the system will handle 3(1 watts nlaxinuun of integrated program material.. 304 -5: Sensitivity 100 my full scale 5195. Scope Cameos. At m sensitivity. new or ont and. PRESET DIGITAL E. $9. only Add $3. $295. C RCLE NO.95.I8. the unit is fully weatherproofed and temperature compensated. oper. Hi-pwr 2:1 A Sorensen voltage4regulatorrs from f 500 to 5000 VA. Set up any number 1 to 9. for photog $225. db. special 61/2" mid -range and subsidiary tweeter. dust protected cabinet. It weighs 12 pounds and measures 8" high x II" deep x 141/4" wide.com .. The enclosures offer a choice of easily interchangeable grille fabric frames including florid designs. aligned.Cy surge. $12. S.. FOB San Antonio Time Pay Plan: $17. I17 October. The Series 2700 is an administrative model with printed circuitry. PM. a better °by double tonve tine Iinto the BC -453 or OX! 535. instruct.c. -IVideo tS. SYSTEM Wm.55 -43 mc in 6 bands." h. Sanborn. FM MULTIPLEX TUNER A. new. S gammas produce a dc. INTERCOM SYSTEMS Co.550 kc 6 -tube superhet w 85 kc IF's. Either book postpaid . Inc. $45. It is housed in a cabinet 3 "x 151/2"x 9 ". Frequency response is 40.I Pa. w synched scope TS-452A.50 for Test Add $59.$225. uts.: set of plugs. frequency response is 40. Oscillator T5 -47 APR. a slip -over vinyl protective cover. operates by means of four tab controls.5 ev. 1 he systcm is housed in an "art frame" cabinet with tapered.00 TEST OSCILLOSCOPE BARGAINS Every scope checked. and accessory cords. The speaker is designed with solderless metal binding posts with green dot indication to show voice -coil start for phasing. 'I he ceramic magnet is mounted between the basket and the cone in conventional design permitting use of a dual conc for extended range.I. MIS: Navys pride 2. 5 ma Buyreverse. Iì0 -cycle a. grtd. each cadre.999. being especially suited for narrow walls. fob1°Newark $49. ARC -3 and ART -13A TECH MANUALS! Handbooks mainten. and for putting amt. outlet. analysis. and fat iii. high s a select. Etc. The speakers can be driven by amplifiers of as little as 10 -watt rating...3 8 Converter CV. Standard Signal Generators. 121 ON READER SERVICE PAGE P. Can be set to hold until pse. Contract termination. RADIO RECEIVER AND/ OR SPECTRUM ANALYZER -tube 30 mC IF etc. Hl. for transist. DC amplifiers. Add for Recorder RD. STEREO TAPE l.1. A. and picture framc mount ings. 19 lbs. 6 sel.2 knit: add $79. It can be tripod mounted or carried by its handle or oser the . interconnections for as many as 144 stations. Radio bridge. AM. $349.. ¡Brush.8: indrntersl icator ID -5 ( is a. Oxford Electric Corp. and battery . XII form. 186D to 10 P. and decorator cane. Schein $10.8 Power Bridge. ar. has just added the S1 97 FM multiplex stereo tuner to its pine of high-fidelity components available in both kit and factory assembled fort. speakers. In MI s packing. deg. TS -173. -stage circuit board are prc -wired and prc.75 ips (NAB standard equalization). There are seven front -panel controls.i. r r plug gives voltage for photocell. self. cond.6% and I \I distortion 0. _. DuMont's all DC to low RF. has automatic shut -olf. Antenna is 300 ohms balanced and 75 ohms coaxial. The cabinet is walnut. Recording oseulographs both null - balancing and DArsonval types..F. all calibrated for use as VTVMs axe. starting urge 70A.00 AN USM -25 105 -481 radar ranging plus general purpose. bridges. There are five controls.7 brand new. an SC:\ filter.twcr supply all in one unit. AND IF YOU DON'T SEE IT HERE. radiator. and general purpose. ready to use. contained speakers. /built -In 60 cy pwer sply. for AC pwr sply. w mating plug.R.. Head twit. 1A tworT 2i0Óed. w gem sply. sloping front to provide a three- 71- dimensional appearance. 250 A .°1AM. Reeves Inste. EsterllneAngus. a three -position spring-load rotary talk -listen Sts in h with provision for remote relay. 11 % $16. with heads for 38.. a relay stops counting. may be parallelled by a order it desired. The system provides 22 watts of audio power output.. channel separation is 30 db.50 ele. . Á5K FOR IT ANYWAY BECAUSE WE ARE ALWAYS BUYING! R. 13 tubes. xti filter.00 304 -H: Same but HV aCCel. four indicators. It may be used indoors 2 -METER RECEIVER & 2/6/10 METER XMTR SCR522 rev. 0 . EclipsePioneer =12142.00 pwr plug 8 Handbook. rack 8 case. Control C. transistorized. Featuring two high -efficiency rot nlpettype speakers.e y Volt. Pwr spry includes DC for the automatic $179 J50 tuning motor. . The baked enamel wrinkle gray finish will not chip. Shoe wt 250 lbs. smlr.O -Ette" two'5V2V speaker system 18 which measures 23" wide x 29" high x 4" deep. lens. Model 79B Pulse enerators.50 Good to 4 kc rate! Neat.P. silk -screened neoclassic art grilles. Tuned 8 w Jed'm ter. S.00 403: Ultra.f. t wash. Crystal -controlled markers. Calif. S-meter.D. 28 VDC.000 cps ± 3 db at 7. 174.95 1. Audio'o tputs. -650. and cc mpletcly self-contained public address ste'm. Freq. and 160 -page Handbook. Instrument check. Gen. since the volume is controllable. for Its has Pwr Pan. ton Los Ang. 6 signal diodes.sound. etc. 100 uy per division. Tuningfok frequency-refer-standard oscillators. clean and fresh as day its left the factory. crack.28 Stud. Input is 300 ohms balancer. ready to fob $79. fob yr instead of AM. Portable TB% pwr splies only $8. exc. aligned for fringe area reception. Gen. Very clean. Only St a" lg. 'Fhe automatic stereo indicator and station tuning indicator travel in tandem on twin slide -rule dials. meters BC -221. The \lode) 120 consists of microphone. only BARGAINS IN FINE PRINT We don't believe in surplus catalogs but will he happy to send comprehensive data on specific items. tunable IF A as 2nd vert.01)1) cps ± IHFM usable sensitivity is 3 ev. 1 e 1 COMPLETE MAGNETOMETER AN /ASQ -3 in Case CY -4.95 ALLY! Grtd.in antenna for strong -signal areas. Ideal as long -wave rev. Instructions. Phila. brand MIL SPEC SILICON DIODES 1N250A Unused. fob Los Angeles Same.spkr.00. Sold St less than the tube cost In surplus! A$ . 0 -9.50 NEW Os.on 6 and 10 metirs. E. IF Is 1255 ke. aligned. . Scope NV x Sores. TD2 VHF apaci new.5 ils and 40. shoulder.C.----. e Checked.00 lareset 21 Webster Electric Eico Electronic Instrument Co.I.0 PF. and high -power switch for contacting noisy areas. ne b 20 I' lo. The instrument uses tri transistors and 23 diodes.' las.00 for complete technical data group inCludinR original schematics 8 parts lists. when that count is . Box 1220 -A Beverly Hills.. Max It a v drop. with harmonic distortion 0.Jr subcarricr filter for tape recording off the air. a knobs. checked. and three outputs including a switched a. It incorporates two identical record and playback amplifiers. Input 28 v de LOA. O.A. and three limiters. In: 27E2 v e de 22A.sensitive. Hol Corp.03 . breadboard as. II . with 1 time like $179. $2.00 350: Identical XY ampls for X.. Inc. ekt. The Series 3900 "Executive" line has the saine 1 DECADE COUNTER reads out from O to 9. The Series 4300 is housed in an all -metal. REMOTE SPEAKERS is now offering two speakers. ULTRA -THIN SPEAKER SYSTEM University Loudspeakers has just introduced the "Svl. Model 7240A on four 0.20 19 -tube superhet has voicee filter for low Se.45'ARR. No test or alignment instruments are needed r COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER BARGAINS IC453B: 190. The speakers are designed to fit into any narrow space or area.3000 me 21 Los Ang. Dynamotor Asslily DY -6. 40. LAN Decade mera(. 10 ce to 10 roc. Genre.0. Kay RadaSwee p. it is suitable for small groups as well as large gatherings.00 dwgs.A. VLF rev' Darle 15 It. cords. sound-on.

It weighs 10 will operate with any standard FM radio ounces. Roth nuits incorporate facilities to turn the amplifiers on and off from the microphone or other remote toter i. I enclose s_ for sembly Manual. enclose $15 for Staining Pkg. 3-7. Inc. BASE -STATION TRANSMITTER is now market32 ing a new economy priced base. has added to its line of speaker 24 baffles and enclosures for sound systems in homes. 25 WIRED ing. . Yonkers.11. front -panel -controlled a. is installed in a rooms where an extension speaker is located. a light-bar tuning indicator. as TRANSISTORIZED P. an optional channel selector kit may be added. installations with a choice of vertical or horizontal controls and the newest 19". both units arc crystal fixed to any predetermined channel within their respective frequency ranges. Yonkers N.. restoration. International Crystal Manufacturing Co. The unit station from 15 to 330 watts. the system covers the range from 30. is now in production on the Model 5.-wide ratio detector.000 cps ± 1 db on multiplex. tem which is being marketed as the Z -500.30.-2 30 -watt amplifiers both designed for mobile.. Grey Oaks Ave. CB TRANSCEIVER AM. and wide /narrow A \I selectivity.com . Baffle mounting tabs are located away from the plastering area to prevent plaster fill up. For TV or combination TV and Hi -F Professional Quality Features: Choice of push -pull 10 -watt audio or output to your Hi -Fi system .FM. No technical knowledge required. o a has recently introduced new line of transistorized public. FM interchannel hush. a built -in LINE Wald.Lc.control device. YO S -6900 MAIL THIS COUPONewwmi T anevislon Electronics. Inc. and commercial buildings." It is fully transistorized and sage measures . ASSEMBLY MANUAL-$2. It pros-ides broad 72. .8" wide x 1_06" thick x 5. permitting the selection of up to 6 channels within I% of channel frequency. which is being Grey Oaks Ave. portable.BUILD THE FINEST features as the Series 2700 but includes microphone atop the cabinet. Dept EWT -10 Asn.c. bador" series. Ultra.degree sound dispersion and high electrical efficiency. A \I sensitivity is 2 µv. Browning Laboratories. D. SMALL FULL -RANGE SYSTEM Neshantiny Electronic Corp. operation.sensitivity for fringe areas Complete line of Accessories for Custom Installations.or high -band two -way FM radio systems. Oct.. twcl ve costal. All of the 23 models now available feature ease of installation.C.MULTIPLEX TUNER Also available: lKleeed ously. has brought out a new CB transceiver. use with high -fidelity systems. Currently available are the Model TR -I 15 -watt and the Model TR. Cost of Manual refunded on purchase of Kit. and general use on 6 to 15 volts tl.2700 -A base. 306. enl:dne.AMFM.americanradiohistory. which has a light to indicate when the power is on. Featuring the JansZen electrostatic mid high range tweeter paired with a special 11" Model 350A dynamic woofer. refundable ' on purcl.station transmitter which is designed to be used with the firm's R. 1.f.conversion su perbet receiver tuning 23 channels.Newest Standard Coil Model PILO Automatic Fine Tuner Super. SPEAKER BAFFLE CUSTOMIZED TV KIT On Easy "Pay As You Wire" Terms Only $15 for the Starting Package! The "PROFESSIONAL" Series -designed for the perfectionist seeking the finest in TV performance. Model TR-I includes a microphone and a music channel. his v... for noise and distortion 30 db below 100% modulation. two costal.controlled receive positions. A special reflective tweeter housing provides a unique way of acoustically "curving" the flat surfaces of the electrostatic radiator. l'he new unit incorporates a crystal filter for improved reception. N. 1 Name Address lone State Rooms 305. has Conte out with a new remote. 1'he cabinet measures 243/4" lone x 131/2" high z 1144t" deep. I11FM sensitivity is 1. AMPLIFIER 20 Hannan -Bandon. LS 4 ON READER SERVICE PAGE low -cost 21 for the "Audio Robot. 29 Inc. on any single channel) and the MR 61X (25 to 54 mc.tg. Easy to assemble. Inc. Sherwood Electronics Laboratories.HAM -COMMUNICATIONS MONITOR RECEIVERS CHASSIS for custom START NOW is a four-channel amplifier. The circuit features the company's "Stereo -lite" which indicates Tchen a multiplex signal is being broadcast.000 cps ± 1/2 db on FM. 23" or 27" - Picture Tube. the user is first alerted by the sound of a tone and then receives his voice message through the same receiver.211. On existing construction.00(1 cps. Inc. Designated the PERSONAL PAGING RECEIVER General Electric Company has developer) a 31 new pocket radio receiver which permits both tone signalling and voice messages in a single unit. The TR-2 ventional low.119 to 9199. of t1a l. which features a transistor power supply for improved reliability in mobile opera t ion.nr. Hi-Fi Show.8 ay. incorporating flanges that nail directly to adjoining studs.aae of Kit.t rhea': 1^_. Inc. the ring has retaining tabs that bend to the thickness of the plaster.A.c.15. Choice of 19 ".1. at 60% modulation for . 20.. Response is 20. (Complete Kits range from 1. maple.S. 23" or 27" CRT. CIRCLE NO. The baffles have a one -piece plaster ring for new construction. The basic system consists of a robot control and a remote.4" long.c." The unit controls the on -o0 switch of any listino or stereo hi -fi component from an extendon or remote speaker. It is compatible with and can be tied into conbase AUDIO ROBOT Electronic Development. and 20.address equipment which is being marketed as the "Trott. both of which can function simultane- 11B nm in i for receivers for high.00 See how easy it is to assemble the Transvision Kit. An ideal "Learning" Kit with a Complete Course of Study is available. on any single channel).. Inc. mahogany.station receiver. on pay-an-you-wire T. Armed Services and over 4000 schools and colleges have selected Transvision Receivers for educational 1 sstelevisionn. offices. flywheel tun... - Ilammarlund Manufacturing Company. If more than one channel is retplired.control unit. - Seautiful Cabinets designed to enhance sound quality and blend with modern decor. U.) . built-in calibration circuit.Y.ii.21110 . is now market 26 ing a compact new high -fidelity speaker sys. All models are available as baffles only or as complete assemblies of baffle with speaker and components.Y. The instrument is housed in a 14" x 4" x 1212" walnut -tone leatherette case.linear sweep circuits.Y. The robot control is installed at the main system while the remote control. a Tradenamed "Compact/ the new unit delivers clear powerful signal with 100% modulation ELECTRONICS WORLD www.and low -baud \IR 51X (147 to 174 me.7500 cps C) 6 db in the wide -band AM mode. prosision for connecting external speaker and "S" meter. Plug -in converters are available to adapt these amplifiers to a. It is available in oiled or lacquered walnut. -FM personal paging receiver has been called "Mes- Mate. Prices range A few of the .o. When the paging system is combined with the company's new "Encoder 100" selective calling system. 30 has announced the availability of two new Royce marketed Learn the basic principles of electronics from the Course available with the City CB.c. or birch finishes.d ¿M Cl a4on cs? Kit. push -to -talk operation. or 115 volts a.. N. Other features include a 1-mc.5 volt output and 6 -db S/N ratio. use.multiplex tuner.controlled transmit positions. the Model 1110A.. and a transistorized power supply that operates from 6/12 volts d. from $119 to $199. pre -wired and ready to install.

Ilan prepared UNIVERSAL CB TESTER Globe Electronics is now offering a new thf signal optimizer and universal tester for Citizens (sand equipment. crystal -controlled transmitting channels. 6577 NA 613 %SGT 68AS TUBES 1X2 2ÁF4 20N4 2CY5 3AÚ6 38C5 3BÚ6 3CB6 3CS6 30K6 3076 .t. nd for Nation-Wine's complete c re tube list. FINDER DEPTH MINIATURE SLIDE SWITCHES Oak Dlanutailurtug Cu.YOURSELF" At TUBE CHECKERS 1 5 The Origin -Il COST! $36.' Pulse. on -the -air indicator. modulation.The stunul unit. Four scales of 50 fathoms give a total range of 200 fathoms on a 7" chart.loltter supplies. Also included are an efficient pi. CL. MIKES FOR MOBILE USE the Asiatic Corpora ' has just released Illirruphunes designed especially for mobile applications.1. electrical ratings. RI)18W5. Wel will Refund Your Money within Five IS) days! Immediate shipment on all orders! All tunes Iuaranteed for one full year.contained audio circuitry. The "White Line" feature clearly defines the bottom as a thin dark line followed by a blank portion or white area. base-station and mobile -antenna elficicncv.c.!. 38 page bruchine !silk of low -cost mil l II highlights IIi. 4rncl al Ieatul'es of the (hone of models.MSoire Shipped F. each antenna consisting of an array of four radiating elements mounted on a 2W o. antenna output. The four units in the line coyer: 148-162 mt.25 211..uperolark. A detailed schematic of the Series 21111 is included.uacterisi in.1 111. pressure.B. It features high output rang-52 elb below I cult (It tie cm.B try in One month Or 111 TV CONSOLES I INDIVIDUALLY BOXED! CODE DATED! BRAND -NEW FACTORY SECONDS USED TUBES raidi A 024 41326 IL6 4018 lB3GT 1LB4 ILH4 ILNS INSGT Used and /or factory second Mick IRS Oill l'Irlur.t.I1101.1111 tester.d. The radiating clement assemblies are attached to the support pipe with 5/16" stainless steel hex head machine screws.n ul-e slide sty a1 a four - new series itslies. and circuit descriptions of the beta and leakage tests. 9 -db offset. Attention! All Picture tubes Sold by Nation -Wide Contain only new w parts! The glass envelope which reused has been closely inspected culor to manufacture to insure lear and perfect pictures! All '. 6 -db omnidirectional: 160 -174 Inc.cast -aluminum alloy bases. \ludel 51:111. self.1. The new unit was developed primarily for fishermen to d': ' guish schools of fish near the lot tom at depths up to 200 fathoms.!15 17111'4. HUmboldt 4 -9848 PTA 6AÚ8 SAVSGA SAYA SAWS A RRTIONWIDÈTpÚBE COU 304 30SOT 354 354 4AU6 SACS SBCs 'BQ7A 41356 6BCS SACS 66E6 125117 6SL7GT 65N7GTA A 6VGGT 6W6GT 6W4GT 6 %4 A 6 %SGT 688 A ASG A 7135 7137 B 7138 B 125N7GT 12V6GT I2W4GT 12X4 130R7 14Á7 1486 14F1 I7AVSGA I7AX4GT I9AU4GTA 190006 A 19TB 25Á%46T 25806 25C5 25C066Á '0 TACT 2SCU6 2SDN6 784 707 25LSGT 25WaGT 7AU7 25006 252sCT 35135 3585 6BG6G A 7C5 7C6 6036 7H7 7H? 3S1.. plus special options. 6T8 A 6Ú8'A 6v3Á 6AX4GTA 31326 NATION -WIDE BLD HARRISON. The instrument is housed in an 81/2" x 5" x I lib" portable case that weighs no clore than two The Rcndix Corporation has added the 34 \h Nlel DR 20 "White Line" depth recorder to its line of marine navigation and safety equipment. torque motor.Wide's own Control Department! All shorted and Low Emission tubes are immediately destroyed! You receive only TOP QUALITY. 14111'4. ture range f 3e U BROCHURE 'mils Dis: i3 ullcriuç a 111ík RD Insu' 31 8 -page technical I/1u(hul e [shit ll dest!ibrs its Model 1885 cis nauuic beta putscr 118111.STATION ANTENNAS TESTER ation Products Company has announced the availability of four new C 33 broadband base. The folded dipole radiating elements are made of solid aluminum rod mounted on high -strength cove-rage of the entire 2)111.J..B.05 I IUS BRANDED! 6CM7 6CQ8 6CÚ6 6CU8 6DE4 4C06 SAMS SANS 5A05 61306 PETS SASS SATO 51357A SERB SU46' SU4GA /8 SUB -x t:l't- 1 Filer On All Order _ nelo.95 Pays for itself Ideal for . Table duty cycle pulsing system. POSTAGE . with ing from a ceramic element able to withstand a tempera 40 to -. CCTV MONITORS Kitt Tel Division has issued a single -page data sheet describing its closed-circuit TV 39 Inuu i tors.e S. N. dimensions. Designed to provide a complete check of CIi installations and to protide maximum performance and utilization of equipment.O. push -to -talk ceramic microphone. Si l'rE: No Dull Required On Alas 1206 6E55 61(607 6GH8 6X6 6J5 6J6Á STO ONE YEAR GUARANTEED 1284 SERS PERS SCLBA SCZS B 12A57 12A27 A/B PEAS PEAS GEMS Seos S306 as IS) 12AT7 12ÁU7 12ÁV5 12A %4GTA 35C5 35W4 3523 35ZSOT 5085 5005 SOCS SOEHS 50L6°. the instrument teas and checks such features as antenna power in watts. tl theset.it O/ 2n Orders Under 11. ON ORDERS OF SS OR MORE! FREE TROUBLE -SHOOTER GUIDE WITH EVERY ORDER! October.1 To ire Ì111111e0 II 12 M. Echoes from fish near the bottom will show up in a normal manner as a dark trace :dove the bottom. the range selector can be placed in the "all" position for pounds.-MM. In addition tu describing the equipment ill GUARANTEE ON ALL TUBES! Before shipping. lU4 I.iÌlan and Foreign orders plen.network assuring maximum transfer of energy to the antenna. diulcnsiuus. Dept. :.G.O.. the t. im clades technical specifications.. lyye. F. Iwo new Sfs 40 nul D. IF Tr:ln -forms lr -! Satisfaction Guaranteed Or Your Money Back! Shipped Railway Express.. and performance. field strength.O. and the truie Ili. SOYGGT SOY7GT 70L7GT 75 BO 83 I1723 117Z6GT Partial listing -send for free Complete tube 1lsting. I. BONUS.11i_di.GGT 8ÁW8'Á 8003 35Y 6B116 613N8 A 60I4S 613NSA B 71(8 754 6BL7GTA 6BN6 BCG] 8C57 6975 60760TÁ B SCM7 BCXB 6807 A 613U13 SSN?GTB 61326 SUBA 6C4 6C136 10EG7 12ASGT 6CL6 12AD6 6BVSGA 6827 6C1360 A 6CG7 9AU7 100E7 12Á135 121305 RATS B 12Q787 1258CT 125E7 125E7 651(7 65117 GAUSGT GAUP A For all type 121305 65H7 6AM8 A PANS A 6AS5 A HUNDRED I2CU6 1204 A 6501 GAGS A1-146T PASS PATS PATS A A A I2CU5'I2C5 65 SANG PANS PALS per 12CÁ5 12CR6 12006 A 12K7GT 6L66Á B/C 12LSGT 6AF4 A of The .tomplele0 Roe Whoa! hark la I. and front-panel switching of ten channels with an auxiliary socket for seldom -used frequen- and cies. Hickok and set tested tubes! 1 -YEAR tifically Tested "DO -IT. h :tIlnon its.M!1. simplified s1 hentatie diagrams.05 121. high ingtcd:uur. LONG -LIFE.1 -$M. 9 -db offset. I he two -color sheet (6 --256) describes twelve monitors f 14 to 221 inches with complete specifications.t15 211's MIM. I 120EE6 G?GT 5540 588 TV PICTURE TUBES Lew h Inch! Nere l are just a few peC taeular sample prices) m11' -M4.SII III Tu!. FREE SURPRISE.00 17 tlLI'. if y N. TORQUE MOTOR Aeroncx Laboratories luit urporated is offering a new brochure giving full technical application data on its brushless d. Series _Nltl.fathom range.station antennas. The impact plastic Stith spun al unit is designed to be operated either hurizontalh mir Nellie-all. operating t 11. is a dynamic ope with posh bill lumi optl. MANUFACTURERS' LITERATURE BASE. 12087 12876 12877 Go? SY3GT SABOT PARA 6ÁC7 w11. and (11115111H It'd of highgrille. 6-db omnidirectional: 148 -162 mc. hill "III t.7 :. the brut hint list.l. 5 -watt input power. performance tolerances. the two-color bloodline.05 101:1'. 6AU4GT 654 .I --bale IMMEDIATE DELIVERY! Express F. standing -wave ratio.nd approximate not completely satisfied with any m rchan. The heavy cast aluminum case is waterproofed to permit mounting on an open bridge or other un- protected location.4-$7 . by 5/32" wall 60611Yí aluminum support pipe fed by a sealed binary phasing and matching harness.10 I tl A l' 4 -81 5. each order of tubes is Scienn Quality by Nation. MMIER.1. In addition.05 21Aw1'S22.1-d10.... 1962 CIRCLE NO 134 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 119 . The \lodel 511 is a ceramic unit with pushbutton operation.. and 160 -174 Inc.-$1111 degrees F.

Shure Brothers. tying base." 77'. I.111. Data I opt.. dilute -(onrvd tape rrc alles which il out supply on request. of tape anti film deg:utssers. two colur location.ILlhcshelf" slit. WORLD CHAMPION PHIL HILL TALKS ABOUT THE AEC 77 HE USES . Citroen TAPE RECORDER I.germaniuw diodes. More efficient combustion delivers full power over 7.color catalogue Which illustrates and describes stand:ud and special low -cost sltinns of hooped and pl rssod wing nuts for a wide variety of aplllir. \lour than 2ro sisal characteristics are listed for n. 111(1. 2117118. Inc. front panel view with controls pinpointed. .unllaitnred to 3Il1sS. Ire [Ionic. transistor test 'quipinen t. . 387 Pork Ave. Sikh dimensions. P:urluit Corporal ion has published Bulle41 tin SS. Answer to Electronic Crosswords (Appearing on page 1031 12 volt CIRCLE NO. blast pruol feaLlue.. . all engineered and ul. Detailed.lnfcal and electrical specifications iuc laded.000 miles of testing. 36 . and 89115 is prosided Willi t rch. Complelr mreielnital :Ind elccu tel r h:racteristics. 16. WING-NUT CATALOGUE Central Screw C pony has released an 851 page. designed for list. Dimensions. I l l Hastings. ¡Miel) describes ils recently 50 introduced :I Unnna it s isoa I radio direction finder in cotnidcl :cble detail.. completely electronic transistor amplifier that works in any make engine. actuating desires for gimbals. Inc. 153 ON READER SERVICE PAGE 120 TRANSISTORIZED POWER SUPPLIES Electronic Research Associates Inc. un color data I strong. the publication lists such applications as direct -drive servo motors and tachometers. that its principle was adopted by Detroit for use on the 1963 models after being proven in over 2. 'heel gist's unnplen ditails inclwling - ". INDUSTRIAL MICROPHONE The Asiatic Corlxn'at' has issued a coin. high energy.hii use. either concave or con st' \\ bile the routp:nts is prepared of make for :utS pen post. Inc. So.. EW -10.d h'(' I addition. IN198. r n:utslorntar.I which describes a new method of cabling by means of its "StaStrap" tools. :mil thread sires suitable for 111:111111. taons.. with no fragile moving parts to break and never needs adjustment. The rugged AEC 77 electronic ignition is a contained. SHIELDED SWITCHING DEVICE Cooke Engineering Co.. and counol aacssotirs..The et. Sc hental its. Co.New AEC 77 TRANSISTORIZED detail. and semi. modular Vows surines.. and remotepositioning devices and a multi input summing t TAPE DEGAUSSERS Ili atcrm'o' Corp. assures fast starts at low end full power at high rpm prevents up to 20% more mpg fouled plugs ... the cualcrgut. Incr .spark can make up for a multitude of little sins. intpedanii change tir sets ice. !r!n-.ions. as compared to others who use low voltage transistors in series and two 1 watt zener diodes that cannot handle the power loads AEC 77 delivers. control instruments. has is48 sued a shortorni catalogue (No.racleristics. has prepared a film' -page mbich descaihes and plc ores sec52 Lento trial of its . Save 40' by ordering your AEC 77 now at SPECIAL MANUFACTURER's PRICE* $39.lnsminers..Raydist 85 92 Allied Radio Corporation fisher Radio Corporation 100 102 Precision 102 (right) American Foundation for the Blind. regulated power supplies for industrial applica I A1 1 L E A E N P O N E NC C R Y S T A L S R O C A L S T A P L E P A N E D A M P R M U L T P L E X E R I U I ERE.Bell Telephone Laboratories. show btxly Icrruinal blink.. I Z A T S M E R S T F L U N E E T A h.500 rpm. lamer shoo. REPORTS THAT I i(iIt1.000. Leichner Mfg.11 I1111. .c. Inc. AEC 77 is so reliable that every unit is registered and guaranteed for 3 full years.ill and 018I tape (duelers and asailablc arc essolies which initude :nt a. 45 I MILITARY DIODES al Transistor has just issued a two46 page data sheet describing :I line of militaire type "Cold Bonded.I'.. Dept. inunersibilin. foot ((intro] fur stcnogr:q. adapter. Three CABLE TIES AND CLAMPS ELECTRONIC IGNITION 'I he information is prrisided in concise tabular lilt ill and the products rosined are illustrated. soak Ihic Ancss. ties.. brochure gives details on the method of I he using the products and lists the military Tech bcations met by the products.23-1.. are given fui all . 12011) listing over -11111 types of transistorized tamer supplies. SpeciIic:lt1nns till' gis rat for scvet including the j\N. . ad IN277. design and engineering.000 mile 5 times over normal point life . increases spark plug life 3 to insures 75. wing height.'s r:utsd ricer. Chart.. aerospace control surfaces. hsulule maximum ratings and pet loan :mcc nc.penalises in lima 11. 62.t \1. DIRECTION FINDER DATA nemliy -\ta clue has issued a four -page. laboratory power supplie. \. 35.. r POWER -SUPPLY CATALOGUE Yreka i Elect ' s Corpora ' is oil er ing copies of ils new 0111. Fischer & Porter Co. PHOTO CREDITS Page Credit 22 Eico Electronic Instrument Co.413 O N O S U M T D E R A E A R u R O N A A N O L C T T E R V R O S A T E C P S S U T E HUI EGO I MS P P U L S E T ADDRESS O PARABOLIC REFLECTORS The Conics Co. iutpd amer.95 ppd.\ spccifica.. and :tom cigarette l ighrer alla pier. N. In 42 \(1t power output up fo 7% . it . in both steel and brass and the weights per Iunn pieces. and rctciver transmitters. IV2711. on nu the and clamps.. AEC 77 is so dependable in performance. I I B A F F L E ELECTRONICS WORLD . . and diagrams shun obig sptrad.. Inc. 46 51 Bionic Instruments... 17íc bulletin iletails spec illations on the \lodes '.n :u lrl$'tir. IN.lilted Girt nit design. The publication lists new 'Haim controlled rectifiers tlansistur series tic gulanvl I and T\'R is pl' d. .Ind CR tube patterns under different operating conditions. intruding a polar partent. volt Further information on AEC units 6 L I . In addition Io (notating complete specifications on the instrument. 45. and performance characteristics are included. of p:nabolic refleetors and dt-lails its facilities for the rapid Lustout labrieal ion of special purpose runes based on conic sections. spline." :t miniaturized shielding swilc ping dey ici' for entering coaxial tir shielded tiriiisnlissiun turcs. is now uttering a 44 loin-page illustrated folder which describes ill detail its \lodtl 2211 "Cuja'. particularly al the low end and will appreciably improve its performance and economy. easy to follow instructions make installation quick and simple with no special tools or knowledge required. N. supplying detailed sped 41 calicot ions ou its Sir. three. shoos \I magnetic transistor series rcgulalms. Nat diot.Y. - emit ultrasonics. and gives up to 20% self more mpg in city driving. ixise ill tic :sling.seen ISpcs in addition tu the mechanical th. It will make your ear run smoother. 43 prchensise bulletin cowling in new \lode] he i-. lids DATA Hier lire l a.c. 26 34. . the brurhurc part tires pied is installations. Simple 20 minute installation by anyone. - AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS CO. Uicirion has issued an 49J mho malt ion bulletin describing in detail kief. and Icugrolatioe IeSistaucc. snp1rlics of ad. NAME CITY ZONE STATE AEC -77 For Negative ground cars $39. ranforniers.95 ppd.uiom.. AEC -77P For Positive ground cars $59.u-rued catalogue covering an exrtaeise lino of rats power supplies. gives instant starting in sub -zero weather eliminates frequent tune ups. 23 00 -cycle "ThruIlore" sy tic Iuos loi servi applications in a new is data sheet t:sz IS -.I industrial misrophuue.. are also gist-to. such as worn points or improperly gapped spark plugs.11 .11 buloids and ellipsoid.95 ny be "4 brim re n al nrry tire.Y. in sound E Q U A L CONTROL d TORQUE SYNCHROS \'ernitron Corp.IN I_s. 't.doguc is identified as . 0122I. and other data. magnetic amplifier transistor preamplifier regulated nuns.s Every AEC unit uses high quality components such as DELCO high voltage 15 ampere transistors and MOTOROLA 50 watt zener diodes. differential trans mirteis. aliable un its nr II pun ably nsosprr I. type al switch.

scientific. Easy -Pay -Plan." Arcturus Electronics Corp.. Leading manufacturer.Y. and "Information California.. Astonishing details. D. Box 177 -C33.. Diodes. etc. Radio. BEFORE you buy receiving tubes. Texas.A.79. C. Y.. Catalog Free. Ohio. Rockville. New Hyde Park.00. McKinley Publishers. Box 3038. Texas. Olympia. Box 672 -E. MD -102. Request Bargain Bulletin.. Resident classes also available. N.95. Houston 18. 2817 -WC Third.. months. test equipment. direct. Rock Distributing Co. 55. Telefix.. Detects sound through ordinary walls.Y. 1029 Vermont Avenue NW.95.95. Dept. low "We Will Not Be Undersold Prices. TV Camera -low cost -easily built -complete schematics. Florida.Y. Yonkers. National Cinema Tapes. Walton Beach 1. Write: Spera Electronics. Full details. high and low-speed performance. Miami 50. 1st Quality. Parts. For a Fair Deal write: Barry Electronics Corp. traded! Free Catalog /bargain closeouts. Door Operator GARAGE Kits-Edwards famous KR -50 kit. top quality. Cherry Hill. Matchcorp.. Los Angeles 16. Magnetrons. Ores Analyzed. Dress ner. LOW.O. Mercury Terminal.I. transceivers. Parabolic Reflectors. USED -29 dollars on radio. Box 211. California. R -388. Send $1. American Recording Co. War surplus bargains. CONVERT any television to sensitive. Start February. Complete Information sent immediately. at low. 125 -R.P.00. SHOPPING GUIDE CLASSIFIED HANDY GUIDE TO PRODUCTS. SELF -Hypnosis. California. R -390A. 6704 Edsall Road. Meshna. River Forest. N.88. Write For Free Catalog or Call WAlker 5-7000. S. Union City. 8mm $7. silicons. 220 -NC East 23rd St. radios. Lenses. N. ASR Foundation. N. Parts.00 For free Invention Record Inventor's Need. equipment cabinets. AUTOMATION Worries ? ?? Electronic. tube testers. New York 12N..tubes. Send tuner with all parts to: L. ELECTRONICS! Associate degree ENGINEERING and Art Degrees earned study. No rebrands. recorders. GOVERNMENT SURPLUS -Jeeps. Hammarlund Receivers SP -600. N. exact replacement parts orders: Japanese transistor or tube radios. RENT stereo tapes. Binoculars. Cloverdale 8 -4288. International W. Illustrated plans. All specs guaranteed. DISGUSTED $6. Gray Stamp Co. Valparaiso Technical Institute. Centinela Stereo -Parti. Inc..00 first lesson. No obligation. Inc.. JEEPS $278.. sold. A PHOTOGRAPHY -FILM. Dayton 6. $1. free brochure. Also want commercial Ham Receivers and Transmitters. sports. 28. seleniums 7" TV bench test tube. Minimum 10 words.J. Box 512 -R.00. SAVE 50% on guaranteed first line professional recording tape. $2. We overstocked for our own mfg. etc. chusetts. etc. Edmund Scientific Co. EQUIPMENT.. liberal arts. RECORDERS. Catalog Free. Box 19.95. Write for our free price list. Y. Free Circular. P. Sleep Learning Equipment. GE. Valparaiso. U. 25T Oxford Road. Discount to 75% from list. 1962 for quotation on components. Autocrat. 16mm $14. ssue closes October 5th. D. Dept.001 items wholesale. (Courses Bought. one year guarantee -all at biggest discounts in America! We serve professional servicemen.53. Box 24 -ZD. New concept teaches you quickly by tape or LP. engineers. rockets. Free bargain catalog/ blank tape /recorders norelco speakers. Phone PR 1-8616. New Jersey. East 88. QUICKSILVER. 1523 EW Jericho Turnpike. Write. Penna. ASSEMBLE MaFt.-bought. carbon-deposit. Illustrated plans. 1 -watt. Relco. faint SUPERSENSITIVE directional sounds at 300 feet. radar. Technicians. or trade. pulls. 121 . Toronto. INVESTIGATORS. 2W. 71 Dey Street. Y. New York City. P.O. 18530 Parthenia Northridge. G. TV tubes subscription service.. United Radio 1000 -W. 108.Y. Free literature. AN UPM prefix.R. automation. 120. New England Woodcraft. N. Easily concealed. Lawrence. rented. Box 10563.C. Let us solve your new IV tube stocking problems. Palmer Electronics. Dept. "FREE. Dept. hobbyists. Denson Electronics. Dept. TV. early United States. computers. instructions 50C. Dept. Barrington. WANTED your surplus electronic tubes. Massa- PLATINUM electronic scrap bought." one reel. Box 1665. Chicago 32. N. 30% on stereo music tapes. 2-watt. San Bernardino. P. Free literature. illustrated magazine. tubes catalog.I. Transmitting And Industrial Types At Sensibly Low Prices. Massapequa. big -screen oscilloscope. New York 6. transmitting CASH Paid! Sell unused. Accessories. Alltronics. SCHEMATIC diagrams. Box One. parts. Florida. Free catalog.. Complete collection plus big. Washington. VENEER wall baffles. $2. Details free. Indiana. Louisiana. SMASHING collection EDUCATIONAL QUALITY! Tape: 73% Discount! Pre -recorded. Tuners-Rebuilt or Exchanged $9. Massachusetts. Free Catalog. (Richmond 2-0048). LEARN while asleep. TV PRICES? The Best! Factory -sealed Hi -Fi Components' Yes! Send for free catalog.H. Hi -Fi. Tapes. No connection to telephone necessary. typewriters. PRECISION Resistors.C. parts kits at 1 /10 original cost. SAVE money! Amazing circuit increases tube life in TV. Lake City. CPO 849.. SAVE Roslyn 9. hypnotize with your recorder phonograph.Y. Unusual Values. TRIGGER -W9IVJ Cash. 1/2 -watt. Write for literature. Penna. California. Platinum. Conn. Want Clean radio and TV receiving. etc. $2. We Buy Shortwave Equipment For 7361 North.C.99and more. E. Dept.W. Computers. Easily assembled and installed. Carlisle.00.Y. Boats $7. Components! Free wholesale catalogue! Carston. -all brand new premium quality individually boxed. Priced from $59. 627 locations and procedure.C. I5C. Surplus. Timers. Calif. $264. high value pictorials. PATENTS PATENT Searches. EW. complete home study course $25. -$1 up. N. PROFESSIONAL Electronic Projects -Organs. "LISTEN -IN -COIL" picks up any telephone conversation in vicinity. Valley Tuner. 902 Corwin Rd. electronics equipment. Includes triangles. When writing specify course desired. Acoustical Research. Profitable! Write: Lures.. Z2. Send 10C for postage. Complete Kits. October. New. C.00 to: Surplus. Top Name Brands Only. Plans $2. all free. N. typewriters $8. HELP WANTED EARN Extra money selling advertising book matches. Conn GOVERNMENT Surplus Receivers. send for your giant free Zalytron current catalog. 16. Tuner Exchange. HIGH-FIDELITY with "Hi" Hi -Fi Prices? Unusual Discounts On Your High Fidelity Requirements.00 weekly. Inc. One Park Ave. Kentucky. parts at less than manufacturer's cost. Diagram Service.Y. technicians.. Dept. featuring Standard brand tubes. Key Electronics. Mass. Wash.. Barry Electronics Corp. 1776 Columbia Road. N. Techservices. 11500 NW 7th Ave. OPPORTUNITIES While Asleep.. Lexington.L. Picture tubes at 75C inch up. Norwood.R. Ill. Save gas. Transmitters. Box 7021.Fidelity Supply. specialists in communications. terials supplied free. 512 Broadway. 30% Stereo music on tape. MEDICAL FILM -Adults only -"Childbirth. FOR SALE - microphone picks up TUBES -TV. etc. SERVICES Bargains Request Free Giant Catalog "C1" -144 pages. $9. WANTED: Collins. tune -ups. Guaranteed. Inglewood 3. 2028 Garth. LEARN BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES artificial lures at home for stores.. Audion. guns. 5719-C Santa Monica Blvd.C. Buy 10. build one. Whitestone 57.98 complete.. Hi. Most tuners shipped day received. 23 -09 169 St. Hi -fi components. Fink Co. New York 10. Y. N.S.Y. Pisgah. TRANSISTORS. 512 -D East 80 St. Name brands. N.record. Hartford 1. Washington. Prior.Learning Association. recorders.C. Mass. Boston 1. Canada. British colonies. Improved starting. III. guaranteed service. Visit store or write for catalog. Box 361. mechanical. 511. Washington 5. Alabama. Rectifiers. (Walker 5-7000). Quotations by return mail. 92% effective. N. Dee Company.00. Kleinschmidt.. Write today for complete information. experimenters. Pacific International College of Arts & Sciences. 600 Haverhill. Free Samples furnished. SCIENCE STAMPS AND COINS free. Va. latest subminiature electronic listening devices. ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING AND INSTRUCTION Correspondence Courses and Books sold and rented. Catalog: Tape King. generators $2. Seattle 55. 100% guaranteed. cameras. Mechanical Drafting pays $175. Easily built for $7. N. Money back guarantee. Microscopes. speaker enclosures. Tokyo. L. Hi. Remarkable. 502 -22nd Street. WRITE 7263 -D.E. GENERAL BUT OF WIDE ELECTRONIC. are typical government sur plus sale prices. N.. LOW quotes: all components and recorders. Greenvale. tools. Snoop erscopes. kits. Different -all major 811 -G. Silver. New Orleans 1. RCA. Television $2. New York. Levittown. Box through home Electronics.00.g. Conversions.Fidelity Center. Teletype. New York.. field engineers.00. Box 536. SAVE Newark.-Astronomical Telescopes.10 33 St.50. thousands of items. New York 12. Parts. 512 Broadway. Send order and remittance to: ELECTRONICS WORLD. Los Angeles 9. Industrial. HI -FI Components. California. Give make. Send $2. 284 Nepperhan Ave. missiles. Gold. 220 West 42nd St. DIAGRAMS for repairing radios $1. Kits.C. Parks." 15 -day money back guarantee.. TAPE RENT Stereo Tapes -over 2. Dept. Saxitone. 1. EW. September.Y.C. California. Edward T.500 labels -free catalog. No electronic experience necessary.00.R..68. N. Rochester 10. tape recorders. Needles. Los Angeles 34. Millions in stock.. Mass. Thousands sold. HI -FI Components.. 4611 West Jefferson Blvd. Hollywood 38.O. model. GOVERNMENT SURPLUS Airplanes $159.." Write: Miss Hey- ward.Howard. Hi -Fi. Cash. New Jersey. New York City. Guaranteed 1% accuracy. Picture Catalog 100. Ave. Houston 8. T6. N. special purpose. 37. NOT NECESSARILY INTEREST. primarily a correspondence school.. A. 120 Liberty St. etc. Want military and commercial lab test equipment such as G. Why pay more? Zalytron Tube Corp. broadcast types.. Noble Metals Co. etc. Klystrons.95 complete all types -fast. Only minor changes required. Rivera. e.ELECTRONICS MARKET PLACE RATE: 60C per word.) Lee Mountain. 8C. California. $2. TELEVISION cameras. (Columbia) 9651 Foxbury. Give model and manufacturer. Lowest prices.J. N.Y. Abbottstown. Lewis. from $34. Available with or without remote car control. sensational catalog free! Sleep. all brands. Malden 48. Fabulously low surplus prices. only $1. Alexandria..$6. Japan. Tape duplication services. 4 /TR Stereo Tapes. TAPE AND RECORDERS Recorders. December i Y. No electronic experience necessary. TV tuners rebuilt or exchanged.00. TRANSFIRE TRANSISTOR Electronics ignition.

Inc. one switched. 66 110 Cadre Industries Corp. 19. 95 108 Brooks 93 109 Burstein -Applebee Co. Crystals. 2700 AUTHORS! Learn promoted. Oklahoma. stories.ECC 83's. 124 R 140 America FOURTH COVER 141 Radio Shack 142 Reeves Soundcraft Corp. 45 RPM spindle. 1901 McGee St. 96. Ft. Box 3566 -N. 108. This is completely inaudible. 89 Sylvania 81 Texas Crystals 92 154 Transvision Electronics 155 Triplett Electrical Instrument Company. 112 138 Quietrole Company 64 R.. nsitivity: 0..00 Year by Mail Order! Helped others make money! Start with $10. 7 ELECTRONICS WORLD www.55. Ceramic 1 2. Hoboken.95. Key Electronics Co.¢.. 2. Brooklyn 4. IIh rd changer n. Seaside.528. 124 Grommes Div. It's all there In in illtr..Y. Inc. Johnson.00. 69.101 ASItXX1. n.99. lion. 10.com . Metal . 27 68. LRS3. speakers. Profitable! Write: Lures. Treble 120ko I plus or minus 15 db.Smith. 126 165 136 14 Grantham School of Electronics 128 89 95 Elpa Marketing Industries. WRITERS Send Your books. plays for tree evaluation.11. Specially engineered output transformers utilize massive. effortlessly.Carlson A58 -880 Is one of the most Powerful stereo mplifiers available at any price. FM -Am selfpowered tuner. ZDI. 21 112 Channel Master McGEE'S PRICE $199. order now. MISCELLANEOUS Novelties. Use with n . Dept. Complete illustrated instruction manual. 88 Anglo American Acoustics Ltd. Box 244. 510. Zef ON READER SERVICE PAGE 122 116 117 102 8 105 EICO (Electronics Instr.50 extra.1. distributed. Made to sell at 5200.95 s ilCl. beautiful books. 65 Sprague Products Company 12 Harman -Kordon 2 150 114 Harman -Kardon 63 149 15 125 129 . Shinning' eight Iha :12 Tours (innl. 123 Goodheart Co. This Is I a paner rated at 32 wans per channel.E. 100 Corporation 106. 107. Howard W. Input Impedance: Tuner Aux. of Precision Electronics. In rating the ASR -880 a leading laboratory reported tst pleasant surprise cme in measuring the power output of the ASR. The 103 133 106 Automotive Electronics Co.00 -Free Proof."990 Successful. Cal -Brew Supplies. 24 161 Candee Co. 122 135 84. Radio Corporation of Columbia Electronics Conar Instruments 64 REGULAR 74.. At betnormal gain settings f the unit the hum level i ter than 70 db below 10 fis eve phono input. 2 -7199. 4. each channel has individual tone controls and professional er type separate volume controls which operate Inconjunction with the master ain control. The Artisan Organ 95 160 105 Astatic Corp. : 115 a 'A. Cedar burg. Detroit 7. Box 1005 -A14.. Inc. Missouri CIRCLE NO.S.americanradiohistory. Co. Unnoticed. 47M ohm. 0 49. articles.High and 131/2deep. how Reader Service No. Inc. Inc.11 her.5MV: . Ceramic Phono. 119 North American Philips Company. Two AC power outlets. 4 Electronic Chemical Corp. Overall size. HOMEBREWING! Beers Wines. jokes. Walton Beach 1. Inc. H. booklet "ZD.' SPECIFICATIONS The strombe. Knickerbocker Station. Particulars free. 169 McGee Radio Co.. Oklahoma City 6.. Inc. f14 watt Stereo amplifier with I :arrant Type Shure S171/ Cartridge and IC. grain oriented steel for x. CeptiOnally good low frequency power handling with minimum distortion.Stephens 12. Inc. 101 10C.Voice. 120 107 B & K Manufacturing Co. Materials supplied free... Florida. screening and sale. WRITE FOR McGEE'S 1963. 99 104 103 166 Advertiser Lafayette Radio - N. Send for free appraisal and detailed booklet. 92 111 Capitol Radio Engineering Institute. 112 87.71 W Electronics 104 Rad -Tel Tube Co." Work home! Plymouth -555M. or 48 watts at 17.. 97. Instruction manual $1 (guaranteed!). Inc. SAY YOU SAW IT IN Electronics World 131 Lampkin Laboratories. 53. 146 Scott Inc. 122 86 105 National Radio Institute 9. ASSEMBLE artificial lures at home for stores..6 or 0. Kansas City 8. 13 163 B & K Manufacturing Co. Thee ASR880 has a rare combination of very nigh gain and very The amplifier has low number of special features such a enter Channel output and a very effective channelbalancing system.95 extra.7 millivolts at the phono Inputs will drive the amplifier to 10 watts output per channel. 147 Sencore 148 Sonotone Corporation 73 Space Electronics Co. $.1 value. Multicore Sales Corp.C. World's biggest gadget catalog 0.2V.. 915 Broadway. 84 Fifth Avenue. High impedanCe Mrr tape n t order. 101 152 Supreme Publications 116 100 1 THIRD COVER Switchcraft. Inc. to have FREE Advertiser 116 Valparaiso Technical Institute 112 158 Weathers 64 162 Weathers 5 159 Winegard Antenna Systems 110 67 85 6.11 wlderantre 12. All subjects invited. New Jersey. California. 1314" s 4s.E. 11.l tuner. 109 77 F.000. 123 Greenlee Tool Co. New York. Designed with the flexibility of a recording tudio control panel.ee Special Carload Purchase Salei New. Equipment. National Service. 143 Rider Publisher Inc. PUBLISH your book! Join our successful authors: publicity advertising promotion. FI walkers. 95 157 University Loudspeakers 16 78.40. M71 -ZD2. 176 PAGE CATALOG a o McGEE RADIO CO... a 114 Data k Corporation. Crystal's. The 164 Delta Electronics Co. Torrey. . Tone control range: Ba s ISO Cps) plus or minus IT db. 83 Advance Electronics science. 70.2 e and IS ohms both 'ch0annelís aandS. The SECOND COVER 118 Tri -State College 95 156 U. HYPNOTIZE Accurate Instruments Co.1 n tion offer: ASII. The 18. or refund! Thousands satisfied! $2.. GUIDE. quickly. megTBp : Magnetic Phono. HOMEBREW Reader Service No. Each channel delivered 50 watts at 2% harmonic disco. Inc. 20. Wisc. Inc. Write today! Literary Agent Mead.50 99. 130 82. Inc. 111 Motorola.00. Manufacturing Company 76 93 11 91 127 Heath Company Indiana Technical College International Representatives Corp. 79 International Radio & Electronics Corp.) 28 Electro. 33.1 hase for Type A. 114 104 Antenna Specialists Co. Home -spare time. Page No. SS4. all only $285. 102 Nation -Wide Tube Co.Y. \ ail . Only in 0. Inc. Tubes: 4 -73SS. as well as vthe Seusual stereo functions found In all good amplifiers. 113 118 121 134 23 Dressner I Inc. John 144 Rohn 145 Sams & Co. hobbies. N. Tricks. Supply catalog included. ss'on. 81. 98. Fart urr cart:me:I fil w for channel Stereoo -lltF A11111() Án11. DeWald 5511:111. your book published. IS ohms acros s 4 ohm taps o center speaker. 117 R.J.. Knight Electronics Standard Kollsman 151 Superscope. 100 102 Allied Rodio 120 West 31 St.880.. J.C. 89 Oelrich Publications 89 167 Olson Electronics Inc. Inc. Industries. FREE Book Made $40.A. 75 Cleveland Institute of Electronics 113 STROMBERG WATT CARLSON STEREO AMPLIFIER SALE Page No. Timner. Compile mailing lists and address envelopes for advertisers..w1 111. 100 153 Automotive Electronics Co." Vantage. 94 119 Fair Radio Sales 110 120 G & G Radio Supply Co. 80 Nortronics Company. ELECTRONICS WORLD OCTOBER 1962 I $100 weekly possible.. RCA Institutes. New York City. 94 137 Peak Electronics Co. McGee offers them fer only 398. 132 Milwaukee School of Engineering 26 168 Motion Inc. Gold finish metal front panel with gold color knobs. Only SOO to sell. New York 1. 90 Bell Telephone Laboratories 25 Benjamin Electronic Sound Corp. Magnetic phono. distortion.Carlton Press.80. . Little -Known Businesses. 10. $1.H.

range.U.h . -Lintl:v.Pioneer 12 -Volt with i.I -ores up to .RECEIVER 420 10 960 Me Al Radio altimeter aaluiprnclil. Only . Brand New $2750 (. 1. 800 cycles. $79. With all BRAND NEW 4. nc..180 U . Complete with tubes. n.1. t Auowl: dio 11 HN .SCCtton A tonna for BC604.288. :125...50 Vnmodul:m'd 56.('ompanion unit for Hf'-$8...... 2.r.. led 1 f 1 nr f $16950 SIT TS . New BA 1 1L St. le. 1 It-I . 1.95 . Cnm. 4.69.50 I. ND NEW. lees pna simply factory S19.50 R -9B/ APN -4. Complete.9S 14.95 5.19.50 4.!flee -. 1 BC -348 SUPERHET RECEi VI lt to 1.50 pile Conversion Instruction. 4. . 3" -2'.R.. eü 59. .603. . hank id n tir.. lunes$29.50 SCR -625 MINE DETECTOR Complete portable outfit in original packing.. We carry a complete line of spare parts for above.11 NP... Ilas 0. comidele with mounting hose. A.45 4.1 M1annels.a. . with all accessories.lnist:it t' $2.16.a Tvpe Coition (land Silke Excellent Used BRANDT NEW $2. I:. SM1pg wt.95 $11. crystal and visor. Y... 150. Me. 15 tubes dither. Complete with two connecting plugs BRAND NEW$49.95 Complete 2 O. less tubes.rurlll wired. Rn SI 0 117. I1 TEST SET Set toroth-8s to nil AM..High Imp. i BC604 TRANSMITTER.. LIKE NEW! Less tubes.50 $72. Hr. BRAND NEW $34" till: 1:\'1'1:. \ sis 1 5V \l)` \s5 1i.OSOA 2.a1..o :i mr.99' . i. { cnhle-. Complete 7 I.95 MICROPHONES orswiption (land Silke IRS -3R 7 -4605 120 ON READER 345 NEW. slit . I:. U TS . a It Control 119. NEW APN TEST SET TS -16 -5.94. o-CL o on boats.00 19. and I -N F: NEW e 400 I 310Á. Output: DC at 225 Ma.` N boo -S. "11 Iinu u_ at our L. Ti ws ex e trotne /grennai I.49 WILLARD 6 -VOLT MIDGET STORAGE BATTERY :1 Amp..!. Coil for ART -13 Same Eclipse..ARC -3 RECEIVER! fyt \oïl 111'1" 100 to 7uTeSAExc.. 1)te DM' $5 45 s1V sl AND NEW.50 $89 50 tt I. Ojai 4. but with 36P1 $29. .I ection $5.U -1.I tubes dt :ml rr)' -tai.5 to :) Mc Receiver Brand New 110 Volt AC Power Supply nit. .1 5' etl t$7. $4. OUT$49.Y..50 . . r 2 tuntM..3.95 complete line of spare parts for above. SPECIAL "PACKAGE" OFFER: S29.50 r. N. ivil _.47.R. Prom...25 ai $8. 3. I a 77 Leonard St.mutlefs in ielger.. 1.a5R TRANSMITTER . $9.75_ 5. and BC -312 for AC operation Like NEW Used Description 190.50 IiC-l: -955. a tote. 28voll DC power Input.15 3.ae°-ple.1.66 MICE lait loris LIMITED QUANTITY SPECIALS! 13C .73.. 66Á1(5.ll': TS -100AP 'SCOPE [ I 151n.50 INVERTER POWER SUPPLY.45 . ..9001. 12:Volt Inverter Power Supply. -V Brand New 569. ready -t0 operato. n1#2 spare parts for abo91'. AIRBORNE R4040 SLr.. one o I. .9002. complete $9. .. . BRAND NEW! Checked dp 7. tapes.e: tee u-t. 1..95 11.50 Like V81.3 Mc.su. 11. in..25A I DM -34D DM 53A DM -644 PE -73C PE -86 13M'42 X'1 7 -Quart ALL Cell.95 $12. "r` i T -170 G & G RADIO SUPPLY CO. Tubes: 1..nt .. . USED (worth 5750 OUR LOW PRICE . Brand New $12.307A RC ds. '.. \ \ ' i ' Tube.. a' an . Used 156 MC..95 18. carry We l APR1 Nat.. Complete with tubes and crystal..50 PUT: 115 V AC. 50 AM.. SERVICE si PAGE NE'W . Model [MSS V Input 12V DC.3. kid New For all -n1. 693 Interrb oo. BRAND N-. tike New $2. $79.50 .50 OUTPUT: 115 V AC h'. BRANO NEW.IA 250V . \'l1ELTIF radar seare/1 Rees. for -' D 1 35 to 50 Mc..50 MOBILE -MARINE DYNAMOTOR complete with ltd crystal.95 UHF Antenna Assembly 2.95 . ith plug and JE20 Jack S3.111) . ..50 l':m he R TVs S3950 óont.5 Amps.95 sii Tole. '1áfixed i. . Hmit.10a¡ d LON I -312 MOBILE RECEIVER FREQUENCY METER :VV. BRAND NEW 17. 4.arnnone Cushions for above -pair H .93 AC POWER SUPPLY FOR BC6O3.ll tubes and crystal. All Merchandise sobieet to Prior Sale ana Price Channe New York 13. 11. Used wnd points in ok.gis Conn.12507. BC454 and 490_ . AU shipments F.. 65c i CARTER GENEMDTOR Oui)' $2.00 de. 1. a t u 65C I /)out. Like 3 Me.95 11. .95 2..i.. 00.50 Shipping weight 25 Ihs. but including 5" Shope. to give you substantial savings in handling costs: Your Inp { melted. 800 cy. 7. PER CO..75' 3. Like Naps A'L ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE FOR ABOVE T19 TRANSMITTER I ' II.95 1. Determines position by radio signals from known xmitters. . . rettlamo. s..75 _5. Excel.1 1.95 Uc -457 TRANSMITTER -4.oboe 490 m ei IICBJS xnh loua -.57.34 TEST Il IInt1 Nn NEW . INDICATOR ID-BB/APR-4.25 Brand Now BC -683 FM Receiver.. INPUT: 24 V DC in 75 A. Used $4.453 Ite. tat. each P. ure.1e.7.7 51.50 U..3 a' i. 4-SnlnletO With :111 tube. 'l'. $58. 1 motor for 21 AN APT.12A6.. and RECEIVER$49. Fite BC. Receiver 1501 5!11 Kr continuous Used tides. ti.. Exc.528..and den.SO 0 95 Only 1111\ trio FINE QUALITY NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT 15...95 .0 t.1...11 Sir In 2 hand-..). 0 -16 Low Frew Ose.o. Continuous Push -button tuning d aa completemline Carry AN APR -4 RECEIVER tolls.49 5.p xperb ievision . TS.. \NI S . All packing and shipping Is made dl from O own warehouses In NYC.00.05A 2.453. USED 3. New 57. for all 274 ).. tested: from M1as r Nnento Charts.. Brand New 12 or 24V lynamotor for Alcove. Description High Impedance Low Impedance BRIANDB NEW $4. tonna for BC -503.39 N.flN Cite and $14..4. 4 `1R -. above $2.. SPECIAL '..5 NEW 595 . USED HEADPHONES model N 5 -23. 684 Transmitters.5. .VR150: RCA GEIGER COUNTER M3DEL WF -16A Il lgbly -en -nie.C.95 Telephone: CO t like $14.nantel. SenchrOnotsti Plug -in Bottle ifor Efectroliee '2 1.. SPECIAL' PE -Iole Dynamotor. POWER INVERTER -INCH SCOPE .1 Mc 2 17 -tube Power Supply Nit for above Factory Wired and Tested \ ik 2001500 1 Like NEW suer.95 lit' 454 Receiver a -0 Me 11. .. dynamotor.2. ist 10" . 539.0.rod new In original boxes FT -237 MOUNTING BASE for BC603 Rear :ont Bt' -0n I S1111n1.1-.95 NEW BR ND Inverter Power Supply..:11 33... CIRCLE NO 37 mom or eRemittanceein Foil DSOc Handling°Charge.+:2. 1962 1 I .95 DM33A 26V 5A ..15 "a1N INTIME ( BC -929 3 $1 . t 1 Tubes 435 to 500 MC 15 C F7 LORAN APN /4 OSCILLOSCOPE Coo 7..nrtTOe.OBOA 4.Made by Div. Voriebie In -trail ..45 $10.t volt heater. Tubes: 4 -955.: to ost AN/ART-I3 XMTR as above. WESTERN ELECTRIC MERCURY RELAY single l'oie 'rouble Throw.!' welt "batteries.'o alt orders under SS..95 55..need 0183..711 le i. and original Calibration / all tables Modulated .95.. e BI(: \ \Il \4: N' 54. 1.95 n:. Crystal.50 rype SCPI .125H7. rent: ta l1110h nirt .95 MD7 Modulator. pi etc bolt 11 Of FAMOUS BC -645 TRANSCEIVER ships and aircraft.5 V .. out t! Á5 Ss LM FREQUENCY I DIRECTION FINDERS BENDIX .n 61 TDi1e'e sli Sta¡ \2. IR each Brand New mental 4iú -5 roc.50 APN -1 FM TRANSMITTER. '.350A 8.7 . t NOW TO/ling Uittm ruling Shock . ESC. 2 -12X6. I BRANO NEW i . Like New Itl'.. nl f rm high .080* 3.95 27.8108 a per:Mires te heater encl. .. RANGE 35 to 50 Mc./ TUNING KNOB for 274N and AIIC5 BKCHIV1:1(5. .... Like New . R O $ Special Original BRANO NEW. $49. s i.33. INPUT: 24 V DC. NE a c.l'nunter Tubes.125.45 Complete Set of IO Plugs 5 50 Control 8i. 53 $33.. Crystal-controlled 100 -WATT XMTR CHANNELS 11 We specialize In the export of electronic equipment. COml9ete with metal $8. Our Price Used. used Receiver -Indicator as above.83 12 V 25.i LORAN R -65 /APN -9 RECEIVER & INDICATOR SPECIAL! BC -603 FM RECEIVER CONVERTED FOR FREQ.33 t.45 17.11 ° S169 50 ' $22. MEYER. i.Á1T IT.11.95 Dynamotor for ART 13 NEW.50 TUNING UNITS for TNI. cr.to talk rot 1lbs ton.1 t -I .P-- Tt.lt tie ont for into.95 m es I....1 hips.\i - .34A s . U` -oil . code d..'ul Celrle rit..$99. used. our price Type BC-9 06 FREQ.75 3. as ('ricial.S 89. ARCS Bace.125X7. ` `. SCR -274 COMMAND EQUIPMENT METER .95 nc -455 Receiver O -0 Mc. 20.16A . on y 8 !ro se l.R.er 12..95 RAND NEW 2 VOLT BATTERY "PACKAGE" -2\'Battery.li 1. 20 MSS. complete with tubes..150A 7. Transminer.' r ALL COMPLETE WITH TUBES I r modulé J50.50 .'un. Indicator and receiver complete with all tubes and crystal.50 Value 51200. fctr. Like New.95 BC 696 ` r)OTTER 3 -1 Ste Complete with $11. 3. 2. 10. 14 lbs. ready for operation. . Item. I. 00lone xnth e man -ale price!: J- rte'. 28V 7A 12V 2A 289 1.1 r I '- BC-221 SPECIA . . LORAN APN -4 :38 12 .50 13.t. tube Used in working perfect condition... IAA{. EXC. T53 BRAND Shock Mount for 59.95 ' Il lit Lia -!fì NO ARC -3 TRANSMITTER TRA NS MITT ER n Kc ta 18. 895 p AN ART -I3 ATTENTION: IMPORTERS -EXPORTERS of ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT .et 0. N' .. Combination Price - ¡r' OUTPUT: b .-tto Kt.1 . 1-1251. METER -SPECIAL . Ä6i dition o I $6950 1. BRAND NEW.23A 575V 540V 220V 220V 275V 1000V 250V OTOR N INPUT: 5..12117.n three range -. $14.R Mc.95 514 95 !.95 We carry a complete lin.75 :. 5 123 .. Exc. 310. Ike OTHER DYNAMOTOR VALUES: Excellent BRAND NEW Type Input Out nut Used DM -32A 28V 1. Exc.95' TELEPNONICS-41011 ohm Iuw Impedance HEAD. to IR New 579. 27 to :IB. 3S to 1111111 Sir II n 1.\ ait' In Tl61 o . Accurate to within 100 of distance.7 MN ár:1 Í53F'1'1' Easily converted for use on radio -TV service bench. 683 Receiver.naoa Technical Manual for BC. dynamotor.ISU Shills labor .1A 28V 20A 28V 1. T\_..011 ninthe ...124.0 V nt . 4 `19.. Parts.4..95 l' Wo SUPPLY for loran . of .95 BC -221 1000 Mc Crystal Wand New i. 2 25 A 'e"4 °I modified be i) -.I2SNY.4A 12V 5..eltmene . $17.50 . Exc.U. Determine exact geographic position of your boat or plane. $12. Used 56 95 1.1 Wt. iii rro 55.I SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS .. ' c P.550 KC 512. Willard Storage Sludel 220. for . t. BRAND NEW 579. Esc.57.50 Factors SPLINE.'..8. . and Electronic Tubes at LOWEST prevailing Illy prices.]. brand new $9 95 SON -1 etc.95 4.95 Mount for above Circuit diagram and connecting plugs available. BRAND NEWS88.1VtACA 0n 2 AmPxl'111. N.n horn harm radio eignion r.. Our Warehouse.C. A Uml.ROr s«. 1:.45.W. eist October.95 72 $89.l Eleetrn. t.005 Km 3.er. 12 24V Input 57..50 C.000 ne with crystal check ranges..untl ng It. With -.

62 .60 .5V6 Be ___6AW8 1. .60 .63 .00 .77 .63 -_5U4 LATEST TUBE TYPES.69 .__6AX5 Qty.55 1.94 . 678 SUB 6V6GT 6W4 6W6 6X4 6X8 .5T8 _ The Original NOW YOU CAN FIX YOUR OWN TV SET BOOK can fix your own TY if you have TV Fixit .11 1.58 -41376 f Price 6AU8 .86 .84 .71 .74 .80 6DG6 .75 .1. Postage Grand $ Total Please rush order.6EA8 .51 .87 .62 .55 8AU8 8AW8 8B05 8CG7 8CM7 8CN7 8CS7 8E88 8F07 9CL8 11CY7 12A4 12AB5 .70 .54 .97 .74 .51 .00 each.71 12CR6 .09 .58 1.01 .94 ___12AV7 .67 1.44 .80 .62 .99 .55 .56 .53 18FY6 .90 .57 .06 .1U5 For Yoi.79 .79 12FA6 12FM6 12SL7 _12SN7 .6BH8 .61 _12BR7 .39 . __6BA6 6CL8 6CM7 .60 .54 .50 .41 .59 .41 JAB 12CU6 Price .D.85 1.75 __12BD6 _ .02 65.21 6DK6 60 N6 .S.79 . Orders under $5: CIRCLE 6BG6 .63 .50 .95 .r FREE! NAME 55 CHAMBERS STREET.120E8 -12DL8 12096 12057 .17 .01 Manufacturers Suggested List Price No.82 . _6BC5 .36 .00 handling charge .60 .61 .49 . RAPIO. . Be Your Own Television $- 55 Chambers Street Newark 5.1R5 _ _. .86 . .58 1.79 .68 .69 _12815 .12078 .47 .76 .55 .73 .55 .12AF3 .65 . because 80% of troubles are caused This book explains.50 __.53 .73 _124X7 .62 .O. OTHER MAIL ORDER TUBE COMPANY 5AQ5 5AT8 _5X8 Book _.06 .60 .42 .82 _ 1.75 4C56 1:1/0 Qty. 6FV8 6AQ5 . Subject to prior sale.80 _ 121306 .99 65H7GT 1.88 -65K7GT .75 .1218 121(5 12L6 _ _12SF7 ..52 6EV5 _BEW6 .83 .69 12AC6 12ADG _1204 .75 . Orders over $5: plus postage.69 .56 1.93 . EW.95 .57 .6C U 6 6CY5 . .68 .85 .06 ..52 170116 18FW6 .. balance C.49 .64X4 City RAD -TEL TUBE CO. www.68 . 36AM3 50B5 5005 50E115 So L6 _70L7 11723 807 .82 174X4 ..6AS5 6ÁT6 6418 6AÚ4 6AU6 .84 . 170 ___66C8 . Orders under $5.85 21EX6 1.65 .90 .12AU7 .12 1.69 .12EG6 -12EK6 _12EL6 12EZ6 _ _12F8 .- _6D15 6DT6 .67 . Type _.94 .79 7Y4 .71 .44 1.45 .94 . Type Price Type ..89 .67 12AY7 _12AZ7 1284 .._ OZ4 -14)12 -__1B3 _113N5 ___1G3 Gives You More __ 113 _113 . 1213E6 _12BF6 12BH7 .. 25CU6 25DN6 Dept.O. by tubes.98 . Approx.59 25CD6 1.79 .60 .62 .75 - Total Tubes 5 Total Book(s) $ _ _. BOOK(s) Repairman $1.78 .63 .41 _ 6CY7 TELEVISION REPAIRMAN TERMS: __6BF6 1. .61 .85 .95 .79 __12BL6 . 6078 .12CN5 .83 6DA4 . NEWARK 5.75 .92 .42 25EH5 25L6 25W4 32E75 35C5 35L6 35W4 35Z5 _ .67 .53 12ÁV6 .72 .90 5BK7 RAD -TEL HAS THE tl.54 .90 . NOT AFFILIATED WITH ANY _.56 .80 ..66 .56 . __ _.55 .61 .70 1.80 .70 .83 .80 .79 -_5BQ7 -6A84 6AC7 -6AF4 type tube causing trouble.56 . 1 124 _ .70 _25AX4 .47 .85 .73 .79 .68 .50 . NEW JERSEY add $1 handling charge plus postage.18FX6 .46 .63 .46 .97 .53 .57 . position and You .18 .84 .81 60E6 .76 .63 1.19EA8 .08 .S..94 _-_12BY7 . DEPT.42 .55 1...87 19BG6 1.A.`.00 .78 .51 -_.62 613.70 __- $ .1S5 _1T4 .A.6EB5 .61 .58 __12BZ7 .10 6096 .66 .95 . Pinpoints in over 3000 layouts by model number. Money! _1X28 2AF4 3AL5 _3AU6 -3AV6 _3BC5 -3BN6 _3BU8 : 1-DAY SERVICE ovér 500 Types -3BZ6 -3C86 _-3056 -_313G4 -30K6 -3DT6 -3GK5 _394 3S4 _.00 RADIO 6BK7 6BL7 _6BN6 6BQ6 __6BQ7 .69 .50 .60 . $ 11 .54 .10 .91 12FR8 _12FX8 12GC6 .com ZONE.67 .04 ..86 .85 .63 .70 GAMS . No C.50 __19404 .75 7AÚ7 7EY6 _ .11 .79 1978 .77 .ANDHIFI 1 YEAR UARANTEE Price NO.94 .72 .'s outside continental U. STATE ELECTRONICS WORLD .79 .57 .84 .6507 674 1.88 1.47 6CU5 .55 .75 .96 .04 .62 _12DT5 12DT7 . - MAIL TODAY ORDER FORM RAD -TEL Tube Co.52 TAND 25% deposit must accompany all orders. New Jersey ENCLOSED IS SEND _12AL5 12AL8 _12405 .53 25C5 25CA5 .65 .6EY6 _6FG7 .76 . illustrates trouble and what tubes cause this trouble.82 . 8 tubes per lb.6816 _6817 61(6 .60 .83 .58 .90 1.55 1.65 .60 .55 . .99 .51 .76 . Type .46 .77 . .125K7 _ 12U7 12V6 12W6 12X4 .EACH TUBE ATTRACTIVELY BOXED & BRANDED RAD -TEL RAD -TEL Qty.97 . ADDRESS CITY 140 ON READER SERVICE PAGE PRINTED IN U.81 - -6GH8 661(5 6GK6 6GN8 6H6 615GT 6J6 12AE6 12AE7 12AF6 _12AJ6 _ _ 12AT6 _.plus postage.84 .49 .79 .Add $1. Send FREE Tube and Parts Catalog Send FREE Trouble Shooting Guide .60 .01 6AL5 __ EW -10 _6BF5 -6AG5 6AH4 6AK5 your own RAD -TEL TUBE CO 68E6 GC57 1. 6BU8 __ _6BX7 6BZ6 _6827 _6C4 _ -_6C86 _6C06 -_6CG7 _6CG8 -12CU5 _12CX6 654 .78 .74 .81 _ .79 12BV7 .60 .12507 .12AT7 _12AU6 .86 5Y3 J» .00 .61 65L7G7 6SN7GT .12DW8 _121326 _12E05 .3V4 _4897 4GM6 5AM8 5ÁN8 in Stock SERVICEMEN: Send For New Tube & Parts Catalog Send For Trouble Shooting Guide 5BR8 5CG8 5CL8 5CQ8 5EA8 SEUB 516 __ .16 .71 .61 -5U8 FREE' _6AV6 .10 1.77 1.6CN7 6CQ8 SCRS 6C56 .70 .96 -6EM7 6E138 6EM5 6EU8 _6AH6 1.50 6SA7GT .79 124X4 .03 .54 -_3BY6 BRAND TUBES FowTV.61 .79 .americanradiohistory.62 .56 .57 .79 .D.69 .53 .60 .74 1.86 .

ILLINOIS CIRCLE NO. 150 ON READER SERVICE CARD . IN FORMERLY STANDARD COIL PRODUCTS CO.. 111 -11) ee-your local authorized Standard Coil Distributor INC. INC.. MELROSE PARK. year guarantee backed by the world's largest TV 1 Trade-in allowance for the defective tuner being replaced.Lower Noise 85% of all TV servicemen prefer Standard turret type replacement TV tuners.

Whatever your reason for choosing a V ON kit there's one basic reason for making that choice an RCA WV -38A (Kl . Ample gain and bandwidth for the toughest jobs.extra value at no extra cost. Resistance from 0. ONLY RCA WO 33A available factornwired ail $79.25 -volt and 1 volt ranges Frequency response of low 1 db to 800. 200 -microampere peter movement with less than 1% tracking errcr. scuff -resistant lam inate ed-vinyl carrying case.95' Here is a rugged.95 available factory -wired Attractive. ONLY RCA WY.50 'User Price (Optional) RCA Test Equipment Distributor The Most Trusted Name in Electronics RCA Electron Tube Division Harrison.11( available factorywired RCA WV -98C (K) SUPER -PORTABLE OSCILLOSCOPE KIT RCA WV -77E (K) $29. Tests AC and DC voltages to 1500 volts. etc. long flexible leads.2 ohm to 1000 rregohms. resistance frcm 0. Ideal for servicing black-andwhite and color TV. AC DC -ohms probe comes completely assembled at no additional cost.95' extra and calibrated: $43. N.95` ad ealikatd: $13.2 ohm to 1000 megohms. 3" graph-scale screen and internal calibrating voltage source for direct reading of peak -to -peak voltage. J. special holder on handle to store leads.000 cycles a -c ranges is flat within Spring clips on handle for extra carrying convenience Jacks below switches keep leads out of way DB scale clearly marked no squinting Easy. n . 0 to 1500 volts rms or 4200 vo is peak to -peak. tape recorders. Complete with ultra -slim probes. Enjoy the self a professionalcaliber.. The result years of precision service at low cost. No professional know -how required. Clear step-by -step directions to follow. Precision multiplier resistors accurate to 1 NEW LOW PRICE calibrated $129.to-read meter measures 5" wide Non -breakable. Separate co or -coded scales measure DC voltages.95' RCA WV -98C Call your Authorized available factory wired ad $5795' calibrated: $'9. hi -fi components. AC voltages.Get Extra Value at No Extra Cost with this RCA WV -38A (K) VOLT -OHM- DIII1HIAIC KIT In kit form. Want examples' Now you can get - Extra 0. sealed Red plastic wincow test lead has probe and slip -on alligator clip for added versatility RCA WV -38A ONLys29. $4. compact oscilloscope that weighs only 14 pounds. Easily portable for in -the -home or shop troubleshooting.95' SENIOR VOLTOHMYST KIT new U5 -vult tull-scale DC range permits accurate measurement of low voltages used in transistor cirA cuits. radio. 0 to 1500 volts.95* OTHER OUTSTANDING RCA KIT VALUES # M RCA WO -33A (K) VOLTOHMYST KIT Famous VoltOhmyst:ii quality and performance at a low price! Special test features include: separate 1.V-0-M satisfaction and sensible savings that kit asembly offers you.5 -volt rms and 4 -volt peak -to -peak scales for accurate low AC measurements.