© All Rights Reserved

11 views

© All Rights Reserved

- CPB30004 Process Dynamics and Control Experiment 1: Level flow cascade process control lab report
- Rstune Pid User Guide
- Advanced Control Systems
- Design and Simulation of DA Based PID Controller Using Verilog Coding
- PID for Line Following
- Results and Calculations
- DC Motor Speed Using Fuzzy and PID Controller
- Harmony Search Algorithm-based Fuzzy-PID Controller
- 2.3 Control Strategy
- Instrumentation Positioner Presentation
- 109EE0309.pdf
- refer1
- Design and Control of Condensate-throttling Reboilers
- CTR-1
- ch07
- IC-2003
- lineduino report final
- Category_Control - Open Electrical.pdf
- Temperature Controllers
- Lecture 23 Student

You are on page 1of 32

This input error signal represents the amount of deviation between where the process

system is actually operating and where the process system is desired to be operating.

The controller provides an output signal to the final control element, which adjusts the

process system to reduce this deviation.

The mode of control is the manner in which a control system makes corrections relative to

an error that exists between the desired value (set point) of a controlled variable and its

actual value.

The mode of control used for a specific application depends on the characteristics of the

process being controlled. For example, some processes can be operated over a wide band,

while others must be maintained very close to the set point.

The PID algorithm consists of three basic modes, the Proportional mode, the Integral and

the Derivative modes. When utilizing this algorithm it is necessary to decide which modes

are to be used (P, I or D ?) and then specify the parameters for each mode used. Generally,

three basic algorithms are used P, PI or PID.

Each of the three modes reacts differently to the error. The amount of response produced

by each control mode is adjustable by changing the controllers settings.

The mode of control is the manner in which a control system makes corrections relative to

an error that exists between the desired value (set point) of a controlled variable and its

actual value.

The mode of control used for a specific application depends on the characteristics of the

process being controlled. For example, some processes can be operated over a wide band,

while others must be maintained very close to the set point.

The PID algorithm consists of three basic modes, the Proportional mode, the Integral and

the Derivative modes. When utilizing this algorithm it is necessary to decide which modes

are to be used (P, I or D ?) and then specify the parameters for each mode used. Generally,

three basic algorithms are used P, PI or PID.

Each of the three modes reacts differently to the error. The amount of response produced

by each control mode is adjustable by changing the controllers settings.

10

The proportional control mode is in most cases the main driving force in a controller. It

changes the controller output in proportion to the error . If the error gets bigger, the

control action gets bigger. This makes a lot of sense, since more control action is needed to

correct large errors.

The adjustable setting for proportional control is called the Controller Gain (Kc). A higher

controller gain will increase the amount of proportional control action for a given error. If

the controller gain is set too high the control loop will begin oscillating and become

unstable. If the controller gain is set too low, it will not respond adequately to disturbances

or set point changes.

11

As long as there is an error present (process variable not at set point), the integral control

mode will continuously increment or decrement the controllers output to reduce the error.

Given enough time, integral action will drive the controller output far enough to reduce the

error to zero.

If the error is large, the integral mode will increment/decrement the controller output fast,

if the error is small, the changes will be slower. For a given error, the speed of the integral

action is set by the controllers integral time setting (Ti). A large value of Ti (long integral

time) results in a slow integral action, and a small value of Ti (short integral time) results in

a fast integral action .If the integral time is set too long, the controller will be sluggish, if it

is set too short, the control loop will oscillate and become unstable.

12

The main advantage of the proportional control mode is that an immediate proportional

output is produced as soon as an error signal exists at the controller .

It combines the immediate output characteristics of a proportional control mode with the

zero residual offset characteristics of the integral mode.

By adding the reset action to the proportional action the controller produces a larger

output for the given error signal and causes a greater adjustment of the control valve.

This causes the process to come back to the set point more quickly. Additionally, the reset

action acts to eliminate the offset error after a period of time.

13

14

The third control mode in a PID controller is derivative. Derivative control is rarely used in

controlling processes, but it is used often in motion control. For process control, it is not

absolutely required, is very sensitive to measurement noise . Nevertheless, using the

derivative control mode of a controller can make a control loop respond a little faster than

with PI control alone.

15

The derivative control mode produces an output based on the rate of change of the error

.Derivative mode is sometimes called Rate. The derivative mode produces more control

action if the error changes at a faster rate. If there is no change in the error, the derivative

action is zero. The derivative mode has an adjustable setting called Derivative Time (Td).

The larger the derivative time setting, the more derivative action is produced. A derivative

time setting of zero effectively turns off this mode. If the derivative time is set too long,

oscillations will occur and the control loop will run unstable.

16

main issue in the noise budget.

17

sensitivity (black). Noise sources shown are seismic noise (brown), suspension thermal

noise

(blue), coating thermal noise (red), gravity gradient noise (green) and quantum noise from

the light

(purple).

Advanced LIGO will have greater sensitivity

to a wide range of astrophysical gravitational waves. The factor of 10 improvement in noise

will result in 1000 times the volume of space that can be searched for those sources in the

mid-band of Advanced LIGO.

18

The elements that are under a significant stress are the cantilever blades, steel wires,

clamps, bolts, fused silica fibers and silicate bonding that are part of the quadruple

suspension system [4].

19

20

This investigation is focused on the possible creep coming from the hydroxide-catalysis

bonding

[5][6][7][8] that is one of the most critical elements because a) of its proximity to the test

mass,

b) the magnitude of the shear stress at which the bonding is to withstand [9] and c) the

nature of

the bonding layer which presumably has plenty of relaxation mechanisms in its structure

21

The two sensors will give information on both translation and rotation of the ear with

respect to the substrate. Also, a printed circuit layout of the sensor is shown.

How much is the effect of temperature on the signal

Heat the box to maintain a constant temperature

22

These very sensitive displacement sensors are based on the electrical capacitance

dependence of a conductor and the distance from a dielectric body.

23

The last test performed on the sensor was a stability measurement. The use of common

resistor makes the system sensitive to temperature variation and this effect was clearly

visible when in the tank where the sensor was located has been heated up with a heat gun.

The temperature increased by few degrees and consequently the output voltage dropped.

The data of equivalent displacement versus time for a record lasting 17 hours during night

is shown in figure The stability can be greatly improved using resistors with extremely low

(25ppm) temperature coefficient, increasing the symmetry of the bridge and finally,

monitoring the temperature variation and subtract its effect from the output

signal.

The room temperature increased because during night hours the air conditioning system

does not work.

Figure. Results of the stability test. On the y axis the equivalent displacement calculated

with the sensibility of 1.3mV/micrometer . In order to show the effect of the temperature

the tank where the sensors was placed has been heated with a heat gun for few minutes at

the beginning of the measurements. Later the tank slowly reached the thermal equilibrium

with the room and followed its temperature variation during 17 hours of measurement.

The room temperature increased because during the night hours the air conditioning

system is turned off.

24

main issue in the noise budget

25

26

27

is a group of indicators used for the temperature control. We have the possibility to

switch on the override to give in output a power to bring the temperature to the desired

value manually. Then we can switch off this button and turn on the control button.

Before that we have to insert the right coefficients. Set point should be a temperature

above the environment temperature (usually around 28).

P0 is the power we need to go close to the set point value and we can take the value

from the power we can read in exit from the override. The two Gain of the control must

be set to 5 for the proportional one and 0.1 for the integral one. When the control is on

the board give a voltage in output that supply a circuit that generate some current that

pass through three high power resistors that heat the box.

28

29

output range specifies the range to which to coerce the control output. The default range is 100 to 100,

which corresponds to values specified in terms of percentage of full scale. You can change this range to

something that is appropriate for your control system. For example, you can relate engineering units to

engineering units instead of percentage to percentage. This VI implements integrator anti-windup when the

controller output is saturated at the specified minimum or maximum values.output high specifies the

maximum value of the controller output. The default is 100.output low specifies the minimum value of the

controller output. The default is 100.

setpoint specifies the setpoint value, or desired value, of the process variable being controlled.

process variable specifies the measured value of the process variable being controlled. This value is equal to

the feedback value of the feedback control loop.

PID gains specifies the proportional gain, integral time, and derivative time parameters of the controller.

proportional gain (Kc) specifies the proportional gain of the controller. The default is 1. In

the equation that defines the PID controller, KC represents the proportional gain.

integral time (Ti, min) specifies the integral time in minutes. The default is 0.01.

derivative time (Td, min) specifies the derivative time in minutes. The default is 0.dt

(s) specifies the loop-cycle time, or interval in seconds, at which this VI is called. If dt (s) is less than or equal

to zero, this VI calculates the time since it was last called using an internal timer with 1 ms resolution. If dt

(s) must be less than 1 ms, specify the value explicitly. The default is -1.

reinitialize? specifies whether to reinitialize the internal parameters, such as the integrated error, of the

controller. Set reinitialize? to TRUE if your application must stop and restart the control loop without

restarting the entire application. The default is FALSE.

output returns the control output of the PID algorithm that is applied to the controlled process. If this VI

receives an invalid input, output returns NaN.

dt out (s) returns the actual time interval in seconds. dt out (s) returns either the value of dt (s) or the

computed interval if you set dt (s) to 1.

30

31

32

- CPB30004 Process Dynamics and Control Experiment 1: Level flow cascade process control lab reportUploaded bySiti Hajar Mohamed
- Rstune Pid User GuideUploaded byrmays
- Advanced Control SystemsUploaded byA.kader Ali
- Design and Simulation of DA Based PID Controller Using Verilog CodingUploaded byjamal2877
- PID for Line FollowingUploaded byAmmar Naveed Bajwa
- Results and CalculationsUploaded byJing Ze
- DC Motor Speed Using Fuzzy and PID ControllerUploaded bySandeepRana
- Harmony Search Algorithm-based Fuzzy-PID ControllerUploaded byricardol8a
- 2.3 Control StrategyUploaded byMcShee
- Instrumentation Positioner PresentationUploaded bySangram Patnaik
- 109EE0309.pdfUploaded byrijilpoothadi
- refer1Uploaded byPandimadevi Ganesan
- Design and Control of Condensate-throttling ReboilersUploaded bycymy
- CTR-1Uploaded byKerwin Chin
- ch07Uploaded byJavier Ricardo
- IC-2003Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- lineduino report finalUploaded byapi-255235794
- Category_Control - Open Electrical.pdfUploaded byDoly Damanik
- Temperature ControllersUploaded byMeer Mudabbir Ali
- Lecture 23 StudentUploaded byboban_mikic
- robt304_project_report(1).pdfUploaded byrighthearted
- Chap 3Uploaded byamol76
- 389H_NO_22_Control.pptUploaded bymuhammad ali
- Lecture 5 - Control Strategy and Tuning MethodsUploaded byFiriz Fariz
- Control Chapter07 - GearTeamUploaded byNabilaSalsa
- 997985.pdfUploaded byAs'ad Syamsul Arifin
- Tracking Controller for Output Voltage Regulation in a Boost ConverterUploaded byAliAlMisbah
- Bahan 1.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Afghan Fadillah
- 890b67b9b9e6df148e7c165c0afd4f5f8244Uploaded byQazi Kamal
- Why PID is Poorly Suited to Wastewater Aeration ControlUploaded byRahmi Arslan

- Microwave Engineering 3e - David M Pozar - Solutions ManualUploaded byisuyuanji
- Optics Lab -Blackbody Radiation - Spring 2016Uploaded byKarLa Rmz
- Precision Interferometer Manual OS 9255AUploaded byshinjikari001
- optocad_ug_0.93i manualUploaded byKarLa Rmz
- Deflection TubeUploaded byKarLa Rmz
- Higher-Order Squeezing of Quantum Field and Higher-Order Uncertainty Relations in Non-Degenerate Four-wave MixingUploaded byKarLa Rmz
- Diffraction Crystal StructureUploaded byKarLa Rmz
- LockIn Amplifier 00Uploaded byKarLa Rmz

- Vacon NX Brake Resistors User Manual DPD01573A UKUploaded byTanuTiganu
- International Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications (IJESA)Uploaded byijesajournal
- Syllabus for Jan-June 2017 SemesterUploaded byGurinder Pal Singh
- spruhj1cUploaded bythietdaucong
- M34E04Uploaded byquemasda quiensoy
- Mimo and Sync With Usrp UpdatedUploaded byRakesh Peter
- PLX82 MNET 61850 DatasheetUploaded byJake Navarrete
- SIM900 ManualUploaded byBernie
- ATV61 71 Profibus PDV0 DPV1 Diagnostic of Communication TroubleUploaded byLe Hoai Nhat Phuong
- Colpitts Oscillator Design PDFUploaded byShay
- Owners Manual for Omnivsint800 Omnivsint1000 Omnivsint1500xl Ups 932205 EnUploaded byTudor Leonida
- Current Lead And Lag Concept.docxUploaded byUsman Ameen
- BC 317Uploaded byNaresh K
- Manual Cheetah XIUploaded byart159357
- Bus System e65 745iUploaded byJean-Baptiste Bulliard
- Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Loss Characterization Up-To 20 GHzUploaded bysanjeevsoni64
- lf351-nUploaded byelettroice
- files.pdfUploaded byCrisTim
- slyt426Uploaded bythangaraj_ic
- Circuit Cellar[Nonlinear.ir] 029 1992Uploaded byjlcastroa
- DRN_T925Uploaded byjayzaa00tpg
- StopWatch ReportUploaded byGeoffrey Chua
- 55353944 Cable Sizing CalculationUploaded byhafizhery
- Profibus.pdfUploaded byMartin Guzman
- ZTE LTE Random AccessUploaded byGauthier Toudjeu
- EVAL-AD7606.pdfUploaded bybillylu06
- Funai 29a-250-450 Service ManualUploaded bygnaks58
- MHC-V7D.pdfUploaded byGiancarloRichardRivadeneyraMiranda
- MCU2121 Lab Manual v1.2Uploaded byneonaveen25
- Power Factor and Distortion Measuring for Small Loads Using USB Acquisition ModuleUploaded byCristian Ortiz