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This input error signal represents the amount of deviation between where the process
system is actually operating and where the process system is desired to be operating.
The controller provides an output signal to the final control element, which adjusts the
process system to reduce this deviation.

The mode of control is the manner in which a control system makes corrections relative to
an error that exists between the desired value (set point) of a controlled variable and its
actual value.
The mode of control used for a specific application depends on the characteristics of the
process being controlled. For example, some processes can be operated over a wide band,
while others must be maintained very close to the set point.
The PID algorithm consists of three basic modes, the Proportional mode, the Integral and
the Derivative modes. When utilizing this algorithm it is necessary to decide which modes
are to be used (P, I or D ?) and then specify the parameters for each mode used. Generally,
three basic algorithms are used P, PI or PID.
Each of the three modes reacts differently to the error. The amount of response produced
by each control mode is adjustable by changing the controllers settings.

The mode of control is the manner in which a control system makes corrections relative to
an error that exists between the desired value (set point) of a controlled variable and its
actual value.
The mode of control used for a specific application depends on the characteristics of the
process being controlled. For example, some processes can be operated over a wide band,
while others must be maintained very close to the set point.
The PID algorithm consists of three basic modes, the Proportional mode, the Integral and
the Derivative modes. When utilizing this algorithm it is necessary to decide which modes
are to be used (P, I or D ?) and then specify the parameters for each mode used. Generally,
three basic algorithms are used P, PI or PID.
Each of the three modes reacts differently to the error. The amount of response produced
by each control mode is adjustable by changing the controllers settings.

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The proportional control mode is in most cases the main driving force in a controller. It
changes the controller output in proportion to the error . If the error gets bigger, the
control action gets bigger. This makes a lot of sense, since more control action is needed to
correct large errors.
The adjustable setting for proportional control is called the Controller Gain (Kc). A higher
controller gain will increase the amount of proportional control action for a given error. If
the controller gain is set too high the control loop will begin oscillating and become
unstable. If the controller gain is set too low, it will not respond adequately to disturbances
or set point changes.

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As long as there is an error present (process variable not at set point), the integral control
mode will continuously increment or decrement the controllers output to reduce the error.
Given enough time, integral action will drive the controller output far enough to reduce the
error to zero.

If the error is large, the integral mode will increment/decrement the controller output fast,
if the error is small, the changes will be slower. For a given error, the speed of the integral
action is set by the controllers integral time setting (Ti). A large value of Ti (long integral
time) results in a slow integral action, and a small value of Ti (short integral time) results in
a fast integral action .If the integral time is set too long, the controller will be sluggish, if it
is set too short, the control loop will oscillate and become unstable.

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The main advantage of the proportional control mode is that an immediate proportional
output is produced as soon as an error signal exists at the controller .
It combines the immediate output characteristics of a proportional control mode with the
zero residual offset characteristics of the integral mode.
By adding the reset action to the proportional action the controller produces a larger
output for the given error signal and causes a greater adjustment of the control valve.
This causes the process to come back to the set point more quickly. Additionally, the reset
action acts to eliminate the offset error after a period of time.

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The third control mode in a PID controller is derivative. Derivative control is rarely used in
controlling processes, but it is used often in motion control. For process control, it is not
absolutely required, is very sensitive to measurement noise . Nevertheless, using the
derivative control mode of a controller can make a control loop respond a little faster than
with PI control alone.

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The derivative control mode produces an output based on the rate of change of the error
.Derivative mode is sometimes called Rate. The derivative mode produces more control
action if the error changes at a faster rate. If there is no change in the error, the derivative
action is zero. The derivative mode has an adjustable setting called Derivative Time (Td).
The larger the derivative time setting, the more derivative action is produced. A derivative
time setting of zero effectively turns off this mode. If the derivative time is set too long,
oscillations will occur and the control loop will run unstable.

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Events of micro-release can simulate gravitational bursts signals, therefore it represents a


main issue in the noise budget.

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contributions from individual noise sources to the total Advanced LIGO


sensitivity (black). Noise sources shown are seismic noise (brown), suspension thermal
noise
(blue), coating thermal noise (red), gravity gradient noise (green) and quantum noise from
the light
(purple).
Advanced LIGO will have greater sensitivity
to a wide range of astrophysical gravitational waves. The factor of 10 improvement in noise
will result in 1000 times the volume of space that can be searched for those sources in the
mid-band of Advanced LIGO.

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The elements that are under a significant stress are the cantilever blades, steel wires,
clamps, bolts, fused silica fibers and silicate bonding that are part of the quadruple
suspension system [4].

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This investigation is focused on the possible creep coming from the hydroxide-catalysis
bonding
[5][6][7][8] that is one of the most critical elements because a) of its proximity to the test
mass,
b) the magnitude of the shear stress at which the bonding is to withstand [9] and c) the
nature of
the bonding layer which presumably has plenty of relaxation mechanisms in its structure

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The two sensors will give information on both translation and rotation of the ear with
respect to the substrate. Also, a printed circuit layout of the sensor is shown.
How much is the effect of temperature on the signal
Heat the box to maintain a constant temperature

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These very sensitive displacement sensors are based on the electrical capacitance
dependence of a conductor and the distance from a dielectric body.

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The last test performed on the sensor was a stability measurement. The use of common
resistor makes the system sensitive to temperature variation and this effect was clearly
visible when in the tank where the sensor was located has been heated up with a heat gun.
The temperature increased by few degrees and consequently the output voltage dropped.
The data of equivalent displacement versus time for a record lasting 17 hours during night
is shown in figure The stability can be greatly improved using resistors with extremely low
(25ppm) temperature coefficient, increasing the symmetry of the bridge and finally,
monitoring the temperature variation and subtract its effect from the output
signal.
The room temperature increased because during night hours the air conditioning system
does not work.

Figure. Results of the stability test. On the y axis the equivalent displacement calculated
with the sensibility of 1.3mV/micrometer . In order to show the effect of the temperature
the tank where the sensors was placed has been heated with a heat gun for few minutes at
the beginning of the measurements. Later the tank slowly reached the thermal equilibrium
with the room and followed its temperature variation during 17 hours of measurement.
The room temperature increased because during the night hours the air conditioning
system is turned off.

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Events of micro-release can simulate gravitational bursts signals, therefore it represents a


main issue in the noise budget

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is a group of indicators used for the temperature control. We have the possibility to
switch on the override to give in output a power to bring the temperature to the desired
value manually. Then we can switch off this button and turn on the control button.
Before that we have to insert the right coefficients. Set point should be a temperature
above the environment temperature (usually around 28).
P0 is the power we need to go close to the set point value and we can take the value
from the power we can read in exit from the override. The two Gain of the control must
be set to 5 for the proportional one and 0.1 for the integral one. When the control is on
the board give a voltage in output that supply a circuit that generate some current that
pass through three high power resistors that heat the box.

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output range specifies the range to which to coerce the control output. The default range is 100 to 100,
which corresponds to values specified in terms of percentage of full scale. You can change this range to
something that is appropriate for your control system. For example, you can relate engineering units to
engineering units instead of percentage to percentage. This VI implements integrator anti-windup when the
controller output is saturated at the specified minimum or maximum values.output high specifies the
maximum value of the controller output. The default is 100.output low specifies the minimum value of the
controller output. The default is 100.
setpoint specifies the setpoint value, or desired value, of the process variable being controlled.
process variable specifies the measured value of the process variable being controlled. This value is equal to
the feedback value of the feedback control loop.
PID gains specifies the proportional gain, integral time, and derivative time parameters of the controller.
proportional gain (Kc) specifies the proportional gain of the controller. The default is 1. In
the equation that defines the PID controller, KC represents the proportional gain.
integral time (Ti, min) specifies the integral time in minutes. The default is 0.01.
derivative time (Td, min) specifies the derivative time in minutes. The default is 0.dt
(s) specifies the loop-cycle time, or interval in seconds, at which this VI is called. If dt (s) is less than or equal
to zero, this VI calculates the time since it was last called using an internal timer with 1 ms resolution. If dt
(s) must be less than 1 ms, specify the value explicitly. The default is -1.
reinitialize? specifies whether to reinitialize the internal parameters, such as the integrated error, of the
controller. Set reinitialize? to TRUE if your application must stop and restart the control loop without
restarting the entire application. The default is FALSE.
output returns the control output of the PID algorithm that is applied to the controlled process. If this VI
receives an invalid input, output returns NaN.
dt out (s) returns the actual time interval in seconds. dt out (s) returns either the value of dt (s) or the
computed interval if you set dt (s) to 1.

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