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Heat Transfer Formula Sheet

Chapter 1:
Conduction:
Heat Flux = q = - k T = - k {dT} over {dx} = - k {{T} rsub {2} - {T} rsub {1}} over {L}
Heat Rate =

q=q A

Convection:
Heat Flux = q = h left ({T} rsub {s} - {T} rsub {} right )
Heat Rate = q =

h A ( T sT )

Radiation:
Heat Flux =
q = {E} rsub {b} - G = {T} rsub {s} rsup {4} - {T} rsub {sur} rsup {4} = left ({T} rsub {s} rsup {4} - {T
= q =
= q =

hr ( T sT sur )
+ {q} rsub {rad} rsup {
q}conv
=h ( T sT ) + hr ( T sT sur )

Conservation of Energy:
Closed System:
sto
QW = E total
Control Volume (thermal and mechanical Energy):
E stored=E E out + Egenerated

q=mC
p ( T out T )
Constants and Units:
q= Heat Flux per unit time and Surface Area = W/m^2
q= Heat Flux per unit time and length = W/m
q= Heat Transfer Rate= W = J/s
k= Thermal Conductivity = (W/m)K
= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant= 5.67x10^-8 (W/m^2)*K^4
h= Convection Heat Transfer coefficient
hr
= Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient =
Chapter 2:
Heat Diffusion Equation Cartesian Coordinates:

Cylindrical Coordinates:

Spherical Coordinates:

( T s +T sur ) ( T 2s + T 2sur ) = (W/m^2)K

If K is constant:

For Steady State:

For Steady State, one-dimensional Transfer in x-direction and no energy generation:


d
dT
k
=0
dx dx

( )

Boundary Conditions:
I)
II)

Constant Surface Temperature: x=0, T(x,t)=T(0,t)=Ts


Constant Heat Flux at Surface:
} = - k {T} over {x}
a. Finite Heat Flux =
at x=0 => Constant Slope
q s
b. Adiabatic Surface =

III)

} = - k {T} over {x} = 0

qs

Convective Heat Transfer occurs at the surface:

Constants:
Thermal Diffusivity =

at x=0 => Slope =0

T
=h [ T T ( 0, t ) ]
x x=0

k
C p

Chapter 3:
Temperature distribution:
I)

Surface Temps given: T(0)=

II)

Constant k: T(x) =

T s ,1

T(L)=

T s ,1 + ( T s ,2 T s ,1 )

T s ,2

x
L

a) Temperature distribution is linear


b) Heat flux q is independent of x
q = {k} over {L} left ({T} rsub {s ,2} - {T} rsub {s ,1} right )
a.
c) Heat Rate q is independent of x
kA
T T s , 1)
a. q = L ( s ,2
Thermal Resistance:
I)

Conductive Resistance:

RCond =

L
kA

II)

Convective Resistance:

III)

RRad =

Radiative Resistance:

IV)

Tube Conductive Resistance:

Overall Thermal Resistance:


I)

Series: q =

II)

Parallel: q =

1
hA

RConv =

1
hrad A
r1
r 2 /

ln
Rt , cond=

T 1T 2 T 2T 3 T 3T 4 T
=
=
=
R1
R2
R3
R

1 1 1
+ +
R1 R2 R 3

Contact Resistance:
R}t , =c {{T} rsub {a} - {T} rsub {b}} over {q
Temperature Distribution Tube:
T s , 1T s ,2
r
ln
+T s ,2
r1
r2
T(r) =
ln ( )
r2

( )

Fins:
General Conduction Analysis:
d
d h
Ac
P=0
dx
dx k

A c : Fin Cross sectional area P: Perimeter

Where Cross-Sectional Area is constant


Case

Tip Condition (x=L)


Temp distribution

Convection heat
Transfer
d
h ( L )=k x=L
dx

( mkh )sinh m ( Lx )
h
cosh mL+ (
sinh mL
mk )

cosh m ( Lx )+

Fin Heat Transfer Rate

qf

h
cosh mL
(
mk )
M
h
cosh mL+ (
sinh mL
mk )
sinh mL

Adiabatic
d
=0
dx x=L

Prescribed
Temperature
( L )= L

Where:

Infinite fin
L=

M tanh mL

cosh m ( Lx )
cosh mL
L
sinh mx+sinh m ( Lx )
b

( )

sinh mL

cosh mL

M
mx

=T T
b= ( 0 )=T bT
m 2=

hP
k Ac

M =b hPk A c
Fin Heat Transfer Rate (uniform Cross-sectional Area)
d
q f =qb =k A c x=0
dx
Case
Fin Effectiveness >2

f=

qf
qf
=
q w/ o h A C ,b ( T bT )
f=

Infinite long Fin


Fin Resistance

Rt , f =

k P
h Ac

b
qf

R t , b=

b
h A c ,b ( T bT )

1
h A c ,b

Fin Efficiency < 1

Efficiency f =
*Adiabatic Uniform Cross Section

qf
h Af ( T b T )

Efficiencey f =

Where

A c =fin crosssectional area

tanh m Lc
m Lc

sinh mL

L
b

Where

A s =fin surface area

Where

A f =Total fin surface= A s=+tip surface

Where

Lc =Corrected Fin Length

Chapter 4:

ny
(
L )
(1 ) +1
2
nx
( x , y )=
sin

n
L
nW
sinh (
L )

sinh

n +1

n=1

Finite-Difference Equation
Interior Node:
T m ,n+1 +T m , n1 +T m+1, n +T m1,n 4 T m ,n=0
Node at an internal corner with Convection:
h x
h x
2 ( T m 1, n+T m , n+1 ) + ( T m+1, n+ T m , n1 ) +2
T 2 3+
T m , n=0
k
k

Node at a plane surface with convection:


2h x
h x
( 2 T m 1, n+T m , n+1 +T m ,n1 ) + k T 2 k +2 T m, n=0

Node at an external corner with convection:


h x
h x
( T m,n1 +T m1,n ) +2 k T 2 k +1 T m ,n =0

Node at a plane surface with uniform Heat Flux:


2 q x} over {k} -4 {T} rsub {m,n} =0
( 2 T m1,n+ T m , n+1 +T m ,n1 ) +
Where delta x and delta y is the distance between nodes in the horizontal/vertical
Chapter 5: Hand Out
Chapter 6:

h= 1 hd A s
As A

or

Reynolds number:

1 hdx
h=
L0
x =

Critical Reynolds number:


Energy Equation:
T
T
2 T v u
u
+ v =
+
x
y
y 2 C p y

( )

u x

x ,c

u x c
=5 X 10 5

Friction Coefficient:
Boundary Layer

Conservation Eq

B.C. Wall

B.C. Free Stream

Velocity

y 2
u
2

1
dx+

L
dp

y=
u

x+ v
u

u ( x, 0 )=0

u
u ( x, )=

Thermal

y2
T
2

1
y=

L Pr
T

x+ v
T

T( x, 0 ) =0

T( x, )=1

y y 0
u

s
2
Cf=
=

2
L
V

Chapter 7-9 Handouts

Similarity Parameter

L =

VL
v

L , Pr =