Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

XIII. AGE OF EXPLORATION *—A period of time from 1476 to 1700 when the Europeans sought an all-water route to the East and discovered new lands. Word for word! 1) New lands = New World = North America, South America, Central America, Caribbean Islands 2) Event in 1453 that expedited AoE = Fall of Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks • Why? Turks raised tolls on roads. 3) Why all water route? • Cheaper/make more profit • Faster • Safer in beginning 4) Why did explorers go? • Gold (wealth), Glory (adventure & fame), God (spread Christianity) 5) Main nations in beginning: Portugal & Spain 6) Voyage financing à King & Queen supported them, and Joint-Stock Companies (one voyage only) • Group of investors = entrepreneurs • Stock = certificate of ownership • Dividend = $ divided up at end of voyage 7) New Economic Ideas of AoE: A. Mercantilism à A country, to be powerful, should try to accumulate as much gold and silver as possible. Two ways: • Imperialism (country tries to take over land beyond its barriers) Ø A.k.a. for imperialism = colonization Ø Colonies existed to benefit mother country • Tariffs: taxes on imported goods B. Capitalism à Based on: “law of supply and demand” and individual profit + A.k.a.: free enterprise system • Principles of Capitalism: 1. Individual profit 2. Freedom from gov’t interference 3. Private ownership 4. Competition à ?—Is good for consumer • Have choice, variety • Lower prices • Quality

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

8) Three advanced civilizations in the Americas Mayans + Mexico/Central A. + System of writing: pictographs + Mathematicians + Astronomers + Divided into city-states + Ended—diseases—crop failure? + Calendar + Built pyramids + Main city—Tikal Aztecs + Yucatan Peninsula + Irrigation system + Warriors + Human sacrifices + Tenochtitlan + Great Speaker: Montezuma II + Conquered by Cortez Incas + Andes Mts. + System of social order + Aqueducts, roads + Terracing (farming) + Main city—Cusco + INCA—Atalwalpa + Conquered by Pizarro

Montezuma’s Revenge—Mexican water that makes light-skinned people sick 9) Exploration • Bartholomeu Diaz—Portuguese—Explored SE coast of Africa + reached Cape of Good Hope • Christopher Colombus—Spain—Found New World but was trying to find Asia. 4 voyages. First voyage: • Bahamas—San Salvador—West Indies • Ships: 1) Nina 2) Pinta 3) Santa Maria • Leif Erikson—Viking—Established colony in America Established Vinland—First European to reach New World • Vasco da Gama—Portuguese—Found 1st water route to East. Reached India. • Amerigo Vespucci—Portuguese—Explored S.A., figured out it wasn’t Asia. “Americas” named in his honor. • Ferdinand Magellan—Spain—His expedition was first to circumnavigate the globe. • Hernando Cortez—Spanish conquistador. Conquered Aztecs. • Francisco Pizarro—Spanish conquistador. Conquered Incas. 10) Terms • • • • •

New World West Indies San Salvador Vinland Conquistadors

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

• • • • •

Latin America—Countries of America where the main language is a Romance language St. Augustine, Florida—oldest city in US founded by Spanish in early 1500’s. Founded by Ponce de Leon. Jamestown, VA—1st English settlement in New World Mestizos—Spanish/Portuguese & Indian descendents. (Mixed-race) Plaza—Center of life and community in a mestizo civilization.

11) Results 1. Increase in trade b/c of new goods from New World. 2. Italy began to decline b/c no longer center of trade. (Atlantic Ocean) 3. Atlantic is new highway of trade 4. New economic ideas—Mercantilism & Capitalism 5. New types of businesses—joint-stock companies 6. Wealthy middle class created 7. Money economy (instead of barter) 12) Problems 1. Atlantic Slave Trade à Ashantis (Also known as poor treatment of natives, according to Williams) 2. News causes for war: land 3. Diseases—Smallpox 4. Inflation—Prices go up but salaries stay same. Due to influx of new wealth from the New World.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.