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Spherically and cylindrically wormholes

Spherically and cylindrically wormholes

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Throats in

vacuum?

1

1 National

Carlos A. Conde,

Abstract

This work pretend to clarify the existence conditions of wormholes throats and wormholes as global

configurations in general relativity under the assumptions of cylindrical and spherical symmetries. As

a brief review, is pointed out that cylindrical symmetric and static wormholes could exist without a

violation of the weak or null energy near the throat and can appear with less exotic sources than throats

with a spherical topology. Furthermore, is also mentioned that throats can exist in rotating cylindrical

wormholes with ordinary matter or even in vacuum, however there are some difficulties in obtainning

asymptotically flat wormholes configurations without exotic matter.

Introduction

and the purpose was to explain the fundamental particles such as electrons, in terms of space-times tunnels called Einstein-Rosen bridges later named as wormholes by John Wheleer as was mentioned. However

this study was abandoned because the wormhole radius was extremely small in such a way that even

the particles couldnt traverse. Later, this topic begins to called attention with a publication that was

written in 1987 by Michael Morris, Kip Thorne and

Uri Yertsever of the intitute of technology in California. This article came as a solicitude by Carl Sagan

to Thorne because he was looking a way to transport the heroin of his novel called contact through

interstellar distances at higher speed than light speed.

Thorne gave this problem to his students and teachers Michael Morris and Uri Yertsever who investigated that was possible to make this trip if a black

hole could remain open the necessary time for a spaceship traverse it. Thorne, Morris and Yertsever conlcude that for wormholes mantain open they needed

matter with negative energy density and thus violate

all the energy conditions which will be studied after.

This hypothetical matter was called exotic matter.

The possible appearence of a wormhole geometry is

ilustrated by figure 1:

In figure 1 the picture (a) depict flat configurations that contains a part having the shape of a thin

tube that join different universes, similarly in (b) appears a join between spherical universes (a dumbbelllike configuration) or a flat one with a spherical one

(c) ( a hanging-drop configuration) also distant regions of the same universe as (d) and (e). Having introducing these type of wormholes its appropriate to

define with more detail the taxonomy of wormholes.

The major phyletic division is the distinction between

To give some ideas on how wormholes became an important topic of study let begin with some historical

developments that gave rise to the advance in wormholes knowledge. The term wormhole was introduced by J.A. Wheleer in 1955 and today its adopted

as one feature of the space-time that connects two different large or infinite regions through a throat. The

term came from the following analogy: imagine that

the universe is the skin of an apple and a worm travels

on its surface. The distance between two points that

are located in diametrically opposite positions its

equal to half circumference of the apple if the worm

travels between this points. But instead of that, the

worm could dig a hole inside the apple and go directly

to the other point without walking around the surface. Clearly the distance in this case is like a shortcut between the points of displacement. As we see

later, wormholes seems to be tunnels or bridges that

could connect regions of the same Universe or also

regions of different Universes under some geometrical space-time configurations. The beginnings of

the wormholes arises shortly after Einstein published

his General Theory of Relativity when a Viennese

physicist called Ludwig Flamm noticed the simplest

and possible form of a black hole : the Schwarzschild

black hole. He discovered that Einstein equations admits a second solution, known as a white hole which

is connected to the entrance of a black hole through a

space-time duct. The entrance of the black hole and

the exit of the white hole could be in different parts of

the same Universe or in different Universes. In 1935,

Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen studied in detail

these connections (intra-universe and inter-universe)

processes. Besides, wormholes can divided into micrscopic and macroscopic subespecies, as an example

of micrscopic ones we have Wheleer wormholes, deriving their existence form the assumed vacuum fluctuations taking place in the spacetime foam and they

are also typically transient. In the other hand, one

can consider macroscopic wormholes a Lorentzian wormhole that is quasi-permanent and might be suitable

for human beings: traversable wormholes.

Figure 1: Wormholes configurations.

1.2

While there is nothing in principle to prevent Euclidean wormholes being quasi-permanent, objects of

this type are rarely considered. One either has to

restrict the class of manifolds under consideration

by assuming compatibility with the existence of a

Lorentzian metric or one has to face loss of the various topology change theorems. Euclidean wormholes are typically transient and they are commonly

thought of as instantons in the gravitational field.

They also have been of considerable interest to the

particle physics and relativity communities. Although

some authors like Matt Visser considered that the

theory of Eculidean wormholes seems to have some

speculative character. It rest on the dynamics and

the Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity. If

they do exist, their effects may be by those of some

more exotic configurations.

Lorentzian and Euclidian wormholes. This merely reflects whether or not the manifold in which the wormholes resides is a Lorentzian (pseudo Riemannian)

manifold or a true Riemannian manifold with Euclidian signature. As it is known, a Riemannian space

(or space-time) is a differentiable manifold of arbitrary dimension D equipped with a metric g of arbitrary signature. If it is positive-definite [the signature

(+ +...+)], the space is called Riemannian, in other

cases it is called pseudo-Riemannian. Physics seems

to study more space-time with Lorentzian signature

that means non positive-definite like (-,+,+,+) or

(+,-,-,-). As a preview working definition taken from

Visser, we say that a wormhole is any compact region of space-time with a topologically simple boundary but a topologically nontrivial interior. Let introduce some types of wormholes in which definitions

are taken from the book Lorentzian Wormholes, from

Einstein to Hawking. of Matt Visser.

1.1

Euclidean Wormholes

1.3

Lorentzian Wormholes

Lorentzian wormholes speciation occurs into permanent (quasipermanent) and transient verieties, each of which has intra-universe and interuniverse that we have mentioned before. Also each

subespecies arises in microscopic and macroscopic

varieties. A quasipermanent type of wormhole is in

essential a three-dimensional objects that exist for

a finite non-zero lenght of time. If one slices a region of space-time into spacelike hypersurfaces, and

each slice of space, thought as a three-dimensional

Riemannian manifold, contains a wormhole, then the

wormhole can be thought of as existing throughout

a certain duration of time. As opposed to quasipermanent one could imagine the possibility of a truley permanent wormhole that mantained the toplogical estrcture in time. Other type of wormhole is

the ones known as transient wormholes because they

pop into and out of existence, they are intrinsically

4-dimensional objects. Transient wormholes, beacuse

they certainly do not satisfy the classical topology

change theorems, require mutilation of classical general relativity to permit classical topology changing

2

and determined the necessary constraints such that

a wormhole solution colud be used at least in principle, for interstellar travels. In their solutions is essential a geometry of a throat (the tunnel that connects the tow regions) without an horizon event. It

means that in a physical singularity exist a bounded

hypersurface of the space-time such that the events

of one side of it cant affect to an observer located in

the other side. With this fact and the conditions of

the Einstein field equations arises the most important

constraint for the solutions of traversable wormholes:

the matter that may cause this type of objects must

be exotic like negative mass. Although there is

no experimental evidence of exotic matter there is no

prove to reject it. Here there is specified some desired

properties that was imposed by Thorne and Morris

to have a traversable wormhole:

For simplicity is considered a spherically symmetric metric and with indpendence of time.

Its assummed that the general theory of relativity is correct

two asymptotically flat space-time regions.

= (c2 ) 2( + )/r

0

= b /(c2 r2

The proper time required to traverse the wormhole must be in a finite reasonably short time

(less than a year) measured by the traveler and

the observers that wait the return.

0

p = (r/2)[(pc2 ) ]

The matter and fields that generates the spaceMorris and Thorne also was very clever in their

time curvature cant violate the fundamental procedure to solve the field equations. Usually the

laws of physics and so the energy-momentum order was first assume some type of matter that one

tensor is constraint by the above conditions.

knows that can result in the searching geometry, then

calculate the corresponding energy-momentum ten Their formation must required a very less mass sor and derive state equations based on the physics

and time compared with these ones about the of that source. With the energy-momentum tensor

Universe.

one could generate in principle, solutions to Einstein

field equations. However, since they were looking for

1.3.1 Effects on the properties of geometry solutions with specific geometrical properties, they

and matter

change the procedure of solving these equations in

The metric required is the spherically symmetric and the following way: first assumed the existence of a

very well geometry behavior imposing some condistatic one in the form:

tions to b and functions based on the proporties

dr2

of traversable wormholes, then solve the field equa2

2

2

2

2

2 2 2

ds =

+ r (d + sin ()d ) e c dt

1 b/r

tions and analyzed the implications about , and p,

that means discuss if the energy-matter distribution

where = (r) and b = b(r) are arbitrary functions is reasonable.

called redshift and shape function respectively. An

imposed condition was that the field decay radially Spatial Geometry:

very fast so the space-time turns asymptotically flat,

i.e. :

Taking an equatorial slice of the geometry i.e. with

b/r 0

0 ;

when r

is:

1/2

dz

r

=

1

(1)

dr

b(r)

Ttt = (r)c2 ; Trr = (r) ; T = T = p(r)

Where (r), (r), and p(r) are the mas-energy den- the throat geometry. Using the coordinate l = (r2

sity, the tension per area (average) unit radially and b20 )1/2 it follows that:

the pressure measured in the ortogonal directions to

r

r

dz

b

dr

b

the radial, repectively. All measurements in the ref=

= 1

(2)

erence frame of the travelers.

dl

r

dl

r

The Field Equations:

The procedure in obtaining the following equations is omitted in this text because is out of the

main purpose of the discussion, but one can deduce

them by taking account the spherically symmetric

metric given before and using the components of the

energy-momentum tensor in the Einstein equations

to obtain:

the surface non-singular in which: g00 e2 . That

is: nullity of the proper time interval during a coordinate finite time. Thus, if its required that wormhole

have no horizon of events so that implies that: (r)

must be finite everywhere.

the throat:

b = c2 r2

0

= (b r3 /[2r(r b)]

restrictions of T . There are many different energy

conditions according the circumstances. Some of the

most popular are the following:

two asymptotically flat space-times implies that the

shape of the throat must be like is shown in figure 1

a) and more specific in the following picture:

It states that T t t 0 for all timelike vectors t , or equivalently that 0 and +

p 0. As one example consider the special

case where se source is a perfect fluid, so that

energy-momentum tensor takes the form:

T = ( + p)U U + pg

pressure is isotropic T t t will be nonnegative for all timelike vectors if T U U 0

and T l l for some null vector l . Evaluating

these quantities we have:

If we analize this figure and in spacial the shape

of r = r(z) one can see that d2 r/dz2 > 0. On the

other hand we have the conditions , (and thus

0

b because the filed equations described above) to be

finite y that in the throat: r = b = b0 . Using that

and the expression (1)the condition that d2 r/dz2 > 0

can be written as:

T U U =

States that T l l 0 for all null vectors l , or

equivalently that + p 0. It is a special case

of the WEC, with the timelike vector replaced

by a null vector. The energy density may now

be negative, so long as there is a compensating

positive pressure.

(4)

a negative mass-energy density.

T l l = ( + p)(U l )2 (6)

means that the energy density be non-negative

and the preassure not be too large compared to

the energy density.

0 0 c2

> 0 (throat neighborhoodi.e.r = b = b0 )

|0 c2 |

(3)

This is the most important contraint, the problem

can be seen better with the energy density measured

by an observer that is moving through throat with a

radial velocity close to speed light:

T00 = 2 (0 c2 0 ) + 0

(5)

Includes the WEC, as well as the additional

requirement that T t is a nonspacelike vector

(T T t t 0).

Energy Conditions

Before we start the analysis of some specific interested symmetries of wormholes , its important to

mentioned the concept of Energy conditions that is

associated with the Stress-Energy Tensor (SET) behaviour . As its known the SET (T ) is used to

described the flux of energy and lineal momentum of

a continuous distribution of matter being neccesary

in Einsteins equations. Consider for instance, what

are the conditions that T need to have in order

to satisfied the Einsteins equation. In general, one

could say that any metric is valid to solve the Einsteins equation. This is, compute the Einsteins tensor at first (G )with this metric and then demand

that T be equal to G so by Bianchis identity

T is conserved. However, this is just a mathematical consistence, but in the universe we must consider

some type of realistic sources of energy and momentum. So it is convenient to impose some energy

conditions that limit the arbitrariness of T . These

Is the DEC for null vectors only: for any null

vector l , T l l 0 and T l is a nonspacelike vector. The allowed density and pressure

are the same as for DEC, except that negatie

densities are allowed so long as p = .

Strong Energy Condition (SEC) :

1

States that T t t T t t for all timelike

2

vectors t , or equivalently that + p 0 and

+ 3p 0. It implies the NEC, along with

excluding excessively large negative pressures.

For this purpose, it means, the study of this

particular wormholes with cylindrical and axial symmetries the NEC is the one required for

further analysis.

Some conditions are illustrated in figure 3 for per- the circles) are not part of the 2-D surface illustrated

fect fluids:

throat; there is axial symmetry, but the center of any

circle is not in the 2-space.

.

Thus, taking into account this detail the general

metric that describes spherical symmetry is written

as follows:

ds2 = e2(t,u) dt2 e2(t,u) du2 e2(t,u) d2

(7)

where u being an arbitrary admissible radial coordinate and d2 = d2 + sin2 d2 the element of solid

angle. The functions , and are independent of

the angular coordinates (, ) to maintain spherical

Figure 3: Energy conditions as applied to perfect symmetry, otherwise we just have different metrics

fluids, expressed as allowed regions of energy density for different points of this curved space-time. Furthermore, one can always choose the reference frame

and pressure p

(RF) in such a way that , and depend only on

.

the radial coordinate u and one can fix the choice of

this radial coordinate by postulating a relation be, ,. Also its usual the no3 Spherically symmetric spacetimes tween the functions

In section 1.3 it has shown very briefly the Morris- variable. The reason why the metric has this form is

Thorne treatment for a defined wormhole geometry beacause the spherical symmetry. Its expected that

to continue the historical developments that gave rise spatial terms in the metric tensor (g) like dr d,

the study of wormholes as general. However, we dr , dr, d d not appear to preserve the spher2(t,u) ,

havent seen some important concepts like spherical ical symmetry. Also, the coefficients gtt = e

2(t,u)

is acceptable because provide gtt > 0

symmetries or the definition of a throat. The purpose guu = e

and

g

<

0

everywhere

and their derivatives its easof this section is to clarify some of these concepts for

uu

further developments and also clarify previous anal- ier to calculate similar what is made in differential

equations. Thus, equation (7) takes the form:

ysis.

At first, is naturally think about the symmetries

of any physical system because the solution of the

ds2 = e2(u) dt2 e2(u) du2 r2 (u)d2

(8)

specific problem can be easily reduced. Its said that

Its important to mention that in solving different

there exist shperical symmetry when an object can

rotate in any angle and the properties of this object problems, different variants of the radial coordinate

doesnt change. If we choose the usual spatial coor- conditions can be convenient. Let enumerate some of

dinates (r, , ) for this symmetry its important to them:

clarify that in this curved space-time, the spherical 1. e(u) 1, du = dl: the Gaussian normal coorradius r has nothing to do with a distance to the dinates; the coordinate l is the tru length along the

center because there can even be no center at all. radial direction, counted from a certain fixed sphere

For example, imagine the space-time geometry of a l = 0.

wormhole like the figure 4. It consists of two sheets,

2. u = r, = (r), = (r) >: the curvature or

wich are joined by a throat . The whole thing is symmetric about an axis along the middle of the throat, Schwarzschild coordinates. r is the curvature radius

but the points in this axis (which are the centers of of the sphere r = const.

5

where dots and primes stand for /t and /u, respectively. One can see that if the metric is static

(time independence), the Ricci tensor is diagonal and

takes the new form:

h 00

i

0

0

0

0

R00 = e2 + (2 + )

h 00

i

00

0

0

0

0

0

R11 = e2 2 + + 2 2 + 2 (2 + )

h 00

i

0

0

0

0

R22 = e2 + (2 + ) = R33

ds2 = e2(r) dt2 e2(r) du2 r2 d2

(9)

If we calculate the curvature quantities as Riemann, Ricii, curvature scalar, Einstein tensor, in vacuum (T = 0), the solution of Einsteins equation

becomes the Schwarzschilds solution:

2GM

2GM 1 2 2 2

2

ds = 1

dt 1

dr r d

Furthermore, one also can compute the Einstein tenr

r

(10) sor components G and here its shown the components G11 and G11 that is of interest since it does not

2(u)

2(u)

2

3. e

= e

u : Isotropic coordinates, in contain second-order derivatives in u, thus for a static

which the spatial part of the metric is written in a metric:

comformally flat form:

0

0

0

G00 = e2 + e2 ( 2 )

(13)

dl2 = e2(u) (du2 + u2 d2 ) = e2(u) d~x2

(11)

2

where, in the three-dimensional linear element, Cartesian coordinates have been introduced: ~x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ).

4. (u) = 2(u) + (u) the harmonic coordinate

u is very convenient for solving problems with scalar

fields.

5. (u) = (u): the quasiglobal coordinate u.

G11 = e2 + e2 ( + 2 )

(14)

the cosmological constant can be write in the form:

1

R g R + g = T

(15)

2

where = 8G , c = 1 and the Einstein tensor:

1

6. (u) = (u) the u is sometimes called torG = R g R

(16)

2

toise coordinate because in many important cases

the metric functions change very slowly when ex- Multiplying equation (15) by g it becomes:

pressed in terms of u.

1

Now, With the metric in (9) one could calculate

g R g g R + g g = g T (17)

2

the Ricci tensor with a mathematical symbolic pro

gram like Maple 16 and check that R as a matrix Thus,

1

array in the form:

(18)

R R + = T

2

0

1

2

3

R0

R0

R0

R0

Exchanging equation 18 becomes:

R1

1

R11

R12

R13

(19)

R R + = T

R =

(12)

2

R0

R21

R22

R23

2

Thus,

G + = T

(20)

R30

R31

R32

R33

with

with non-zero components:

1

G = R R

(21)

h

i

2

R00 = e2 2 +

+ 2 2 + 2 (2

+ )

+

So with equation (21) one can obtain (13) and (14).

h 00

i

0

0

0

0

2

Then, if one substitute (13) and (14) into (20):

e

+ (2 + )

h 0

i

0

0

0

0 0 ) 0

R01 = 2e2 (

G00 + = e2 +e2 ( 2 )+ = T00 (22)

h 0

i

0 0 ) 0

0

0

0

R10 = 2e2 (

G11 + = e2 +e2 ( +2 )+ = T11 (23)

h

i

R11 = e2

+ (2

+ )

+

h 00

i

where the prime denotes d/dr while the SET (Stress00

0

0

0

0

0

e2 2 + + 2 2 + 2 (2 + )

Energy

Tensor) in the present case corresponds to the

h

i

2

2

electromagnetic

field.

R2 = e

+ (2 + )

+

h 00

i

0

0

0

0

e2 + (2 + ) = R33

6

Making A(r) = e2 one proceed to solve A(r) integrating both sides of equation (31)

1

Lem = F F ; F = A A

(24)

d 2

4

r(e

1) = r2 r2 T0 0

(32)

dr

And thus, with the definition of the SET :

Z

Z

2 Sm

4

T =

;

S

=

L

gd

x

(25)

m

r(A 1) = r2 8GT0 0 r2 dr

g g

Z

r3

One obtain the following result for the SET:

= 8G T0 0 r2 dr

3

h

i

T = 4F F + F F

(26)

Z

r2

G

(A 1) =

8

T0 0 r2 dr

The Maxwell equations F = 0 must now be

3

r

written for the spherically symmetric case, so that

among the components of F only the ones describZ

r2

G

ing a radial electric field (F01 = F10 ) and a radial

A(r) = 1

8

T0 0 r2 dr

(33)

3

r

magnetic field (F23 = F32 ) can be nonzero. Let restrict to an electric field, so the Maxwell equations

By equation (27) and solving the integral:

yields

Z

Q2 2

r2

G

Qe+

Qe

A(r)

=

1

8

r dr

01 0

01

( gF ) = 0 F =

, F10 =

3

r

8r4

2

2

4r

4r

Z

where the constant Q is interpreted as an electric

1

r2 G 2

charge (using Heaviside units in electrodynamic). Fi Q

dr

A(r) = 1

3

r

r2

nally, the SET takes the form:

1 0 0

0

r2

G

2

A(r)

=

1

+ 2 Q2 + C

(34)

Q

0

1

0

0

3

r

T =

(27)

4

0

0

1

0

8r

Furthermore if we substract (28) and (29)

0 0 0 1

"

!

!#

0

0

Q2

0

1

1

2

1

2

.

Thus, T0 = T1 =

e2

+

=0

(35)

8r4

r2

r

r2

r

Its very convenient to solve the Einsteins equations

in curvature coordinates as was described. Thus, Thus,

i

2e2 h 0

0

equations (22) and (23) takes the form:

+ =0

(36)

r

!

0

0

0

1

2

1

Implies that + = 0 =

0

2

0

G0 + = e

=

T

(28)

0

r2

r

r2

As a result of the integration in (32), the metric

finally

takes the generally form:

!

0

1

2

1

G11 + = e2

2 + = T11 (29)

+

dr2

2

r

r

r

r2 d2

ds2 = A(r)dt2

(37)

A(r)

1

1

00

0

where r e = lnr ; = ; = 2 .

where:

r

r

Lets write equation (28) in a different form, so first

if we calculate the quantity:

d 2

0

r(e

1) = e2 2 re2 1

dr

A(r) = 1

(38)

(30)

Its easy to verify the Schwarzschild solution by making in the equation (38): = 0, Q = 0 and so the

metric (37) turns into equation (10) as expected.

1 d 2

r(e

1)

= ( + T0 0 )

r2 dr

r2 2GM

G

+ 2 Q2

3

r

r

(31)

3.1

In the case of static, spherically symmetric spacetransversal pressure respectively, which in general can

times described by the general metric:

be arbitrary functions of the radial coordinate u. Its

commonly make use of two different radial coordids2 = e2 dt2 e2 du2 e2 d2 .

(39)

nates, the quasiglobal (see 5.) and curvature coordiOne could formulate the common requirements to be nates. So, for the quasiglobal coordinates the equaimposed on the metric coefficients which, if satisfied, tion (37) takes the form:

enable one to say that this metric describes a wormhole geometry.

du2

ds2 = A(u)dt2

r2 (u)d2

(42)

A(u)

At the beginning of this article was defined that

with the conditions u = u0 , expressing the aba throat connects two different space-times making

sence of a horizon and a finite regular minimum of r,

a type of shortcut. Now one can enunciate the exishave the form:

tence condition of a throat in the following way. If

0

00

the function r e(u) , which is equal to the curA>0 r>0 r =0 r >0

(43)

vature radius of the coordinate sphere u = const,

If we remind Einsteins equation as in equation

t = const at each fixed value of u, have a regular

(19)

but without cosmological constant one can comminimum r = rmin > 0 at some value of u and as0

1

sume values r >> rmin far from this minimum we pute with Maple 16 the R0 , R1 and subtracting their

say that exist a wormhole geometry. In other words, associate Einsteins equation to obtain the wormhole

if at some u = u0 the function r(u) has a regular conditions, thus:

minimum r(u0 ) > 0 (which is then called a throat)

1

R00 =

[A00 r + 2A0 r0 ]

(44)

and, on both sides of this minimum, r(u) grows to

2r

much larger values than r(u0 ). Another condition

1

is that the wormhole must be freely traversable in

R11 =

[A00 r + 2A0 r0 + 4Ar00 ]

(45)

2r

both directions. So the existence of the proper threeequation that includes

geometry is insufficient: one must also require the Writing down the0 Einstens

1 respectively:

the

components

R

and

R

0

1

absense of horizons. This is a fundamental distinction form black holes. For the metric shown in (39),

1

(46)

R00 00 R + 00 = T00

this requirement reads gtt e2(u) > 0 in the whole

2

range of the radial coordinate. As an example let see

1

R11 11 R + 11 = T11

(47)

the simplest metric of a wormhole that clarify the

2

condtions:

Thus,

ds2 = dt2 du2 (u2 + a2 )d2

(40)

00

= 2A = 8G( + pr )

(48)

r

where it differs from the Minkowski flat-space met0

1

ric only by the emergence of the term a2 . However, where T0 = and T1 = pr . Taking in mind the

this drastically changes the geometry: at a = 0 we conditions in equations (43), so that implies that if:

have the Minkowski space-time, and the coordinate

00

r

u changes from zero to infinity, u = 0 is a regular

2A > 0

( + pr ) < 0

(49)

r

center, and an extension to negative values of u is

meaningless. But, if a > 0, the valueu = 0 is a regu1

lar minimum of the function r(u) = u2 + a2 , i.e., a Now, computing the component G1 of the Einsteins

throat, nothing prevents consideration of u < 0 and tensor one obtain:

i

1 h

0

0

0

u is again a spatial infinity of the same kind

G11 = 2 1 + A rr + Ar 2 = 8Gpr

(50)

r

as that at u +.

So, the other condition implies that:

Assume the the general form of the SET compatipr < 0

(51)

ble with this kind of symmetry is :

R00

(u)

0

0

0

0

p

(u)

0

0

r

=

0

0

p (u)

0

0

0

0

p (u)

R11

density. The conditions (49) and (51) are of local

nature and do not depend on any assumptions on the

(41) space-time or matter properties far from the throat.

Furthermore, the condition in (49) implies the viNotice that in the last equations for the metric

olation of Null Energy Condition (NEC). For all null (54) its shown the non-zero components in a general

vectors:

form without specifying the choice of the radial coordinate u. Furthermore, is helpful to identify the

T l l 0, l : l l = 0

(52) component G1 because does not contain any second1

order derivatives. In particular, if we choose u as

In the metric (39), for the null vector

a harmonic radial coordinate i.e. making (u) =

l = (e , e , 0, 0) this condition takes the form: (u) + (u) + (u) the expressions for R00 , R22 , R33

do not contain first-order derivatives. Computing the

T00 T11 0

(53) Ricci components with u as the harmonic radial coordinate:

And for the tensor (41) it reads + pr 0 contrary

00

to (49). Thus the wormhole existence requires NEC R00 = e222

violation.

R11 =

h 00

i

00

00

0

0

0

0 0

e222 + + + 2 2 2

00

2

222

As in the case of spherically symmetry one could find R2 = e

a metric for a cylindrical symmetry in the form:

00

R33 = e222

ds2 = e2(u) dt2 e2(u) du2 e2(u) dz 2 e2(u) d2

make r(u) e(u) for example the compnent R33 < 0

(54)

because the conditions of a throat by (43). Remind

that the SET in the most general form admitted by

Where u is any admissible radial coordinate, z R,

the space-time symmetry can be written as:

[0, 2] and the coordinates are numbered accord

0

0

0

compute the non-zero components of the Ricci tensor

0 pr

0

0

(55)

T =

that are simply the diagonal:

0

0

pz

0

h 00

0

i

0

0

0

p

0

0

0

0

R00 = e2 + + +

Also the Einsteins equations can be written as:

00

00

00

0

0

0

R11 = e2 [ + + + 2 + 2 + 2

1

0

0

0

0

R = T ;

T = T T

(56)

( + + )]

2

i

0

h 00

0

0

0

0

R22 = e2 + + +

Replacing R33 in the last equation (56):

i

h 00

0

0

0

0

0

R33 = e2 + + +

R33 = T33

1 3

3

= T3 3 T

where the prime denotes d/du. Computing also the

2

non-zero components of the Einsteins tensor G =

1

3

1

= T3 T

R R :

2

2

1 0

3

1

2

3

= T3

T + T1 + T2 + T3

G00 =h

2 0

i

00

0

0

0

00

0

0

0

0

0

e2 + 2 + + 2 +

1 0

1

2

3

= T0 + T1 + T2 T3

2

h 0 0

i

0 0

0 0

0

1

2

G1 = e

+ +

= T0 + T11 + T22 T33

2

But, R33 < 0 thus T00 + T11 + T22 T33 < 0 beG22 =h

i

00

0

0 0

0 0

00

0 0

0

cause > 0. Therefore with (55):

e2 + 2 + + + 2

pr pz + p < 0

G33 =h

i

00

0

0 0

0 0

00

0 0

0

e2 + 2 + + + 2

(57)

condition (59) leads to pr < 0 or pr > .

9

The last result implies the violation of the Dom- Thus, pr < 0. In addition, substituting + = 0

inant Energy Condition (DEC, see page 4) if one as- into the Einstein equation G11 = T11 is obtained:

sume, as usual, 0. The condition above is known

0

0 0

0 0

G11 = e2 + +

as a r-throat. Now let discuss another type of throat

| {z }

=0

in terms of the area function a(u) instead of r(u). In

0 0 2

0

this case one call it an a-throat for clarity.

=e

= 2 e2 0

|{z}

Definition: In a space-time with the metric (54),

an a-throat is a cylinder u = u1 where the function

a(u) = e(u)+(u) has a regular minimum.

Thus |{z}

T11 0 T11 0 that means:

>0

Because of the last definition a regular minimum can (at u = u1 ). So the conditions that must hold at and

near the throat are:

be found if:

pr pz + p < 0

h

i

d h (u)+(u) i 0

0

e

= (u) + (u) e(u)+(u) = 0

du

(r throat)

(59)

< pr 0

(a throat)

(60)

Thus, for a regular minimum the necessary conditions

are:

Thus, an r-throat does not necessarily requiere violation of any of the standard energy conditions, whereas

0

0

00

00

+ = 0 ; + > 0.

(58) at and near an a-throat there is always a region with

negative energy density .

The minimum occurs in terms of any admissible coordinate u, in particular, in terms of the harmonic

All that concerned only local conditions at the throat.

coordinate ( = + + ). Taking into account the

However, to describe a wormhole as a global entity,

conditions in (58) one can calculate R22 + R33 :

it is mandatory to consider the geometry far form

the throat, on both sides of it. One can consider

=0

a situation in which the wormhole is observed as a

z }| {

00

0

0

0

0

0

stringlike source of gravity form an otherwise very

R22 + R33 = e2 + + +

weakly curved or even flat environment. Thus, it

00

is required the existence of two spatial infinities on

0

0

0

0

0

+ + + +

both sides of the throat, i.e. such values u = u

| {z }

=0

that r = e and the metric is either flat or cor

00

0

0

0

responds to the gravitational field of a cosmic string.

= e2 +

First, at u u , a correct behaviour of clocks

00

and rulers requires || < and || < i.e:

0

0

0

+ +

const, const as u u . Choosing proper

scales, one can turn this constants to zero, but if

00

00

0

0

0

0

2

=e

+ + +

a wormhole has two such asymptotics, this opera| {z }

=0

tion, in general , can be done only at one of them.

00

00 2

In the other hand, at large r it is required that:

= + e

<0

0

| {z }

| |e 1 , = const < 1 as x x . So

>0

that the circumference-to-radius ratio for the circles

On the other hand, using equation (56) and comput- u = const, z = const tends to 2(1 ) instead

ing R22 + R33 :

of 2 wich should be the case if the space-time is

asymptotically

flat. Thus, the parameter is an an

0

1

2

3

2

3

gular defect. Uunder the last asymptotic conditions

R2 + R3 =

T0 + T1 + T2 T3

2

with > 0 and = 0 the solution can simulate

a cosmic string and a flat spatial respectively. No+ T00 + T11 T22 + T33

tice that negative values of are also not a priori

0

1

excluded,

they correspond to an angular excess. Sec= |{z}

T0 + T1 < 0

ond, the Riemann curvature tensor, hence the Ricci

>0

tensor, should vanish at large r, and, due to the

Einstein equations, all SET components must decay

quickly enough. One could verify that in the coordinates ( = + + ) a regular asymptotic (in

10

characteristic is the angular velocity of tetrad rotation:

1

= em em

(62)

;

2

where Greek indices correspond to the four world

coordinates x while the Latin letters m,n...are used

for Lorentz indices and the vector determines the

effective angular momentum density of the gravitational field.

The simplest space-time possesing a stationary

vortex

gravitational fieldis that with the cylindrically

A static, cylindrically symmetric wormhole with

symmetric

metric:

two flat or stringlike asymptotic regions can-

as u . Due to the last asymptotic conditions

0

| | const that are compatible

each with other only if u . Thus, at a regular

asymptotic, both r(u) and a(u) tend to infinity. If

there are two such asymptotics, both functions have

a minima at some finite u, i.e., there occur both a

throat as a minimum of r(u) and an a-throat (in general, the do not necessarily coincide). This leads to

the following no-go theorem:

nonnegative.

Where all metric coefficients depend on the radil coordinate u and the presence of the term dtd indicates the rotational effect in coordinate. If one

5.1 Tetrads

make t = const in the metric (63) one obtain the 3-D

In the standard approach, General Relativity is for- metric in the spatial coordinates:

mulated as a theory of the metric i.e. the main

BD + E 2 2

variable is the metric tensor g, while the connection

dl2 = Adu2 + Cdz 2 +

d

(64)

D

and the curvature are expressed in terms of the metric. There is an alternative formulation of General The development of the following procedure is to disRelativity that replaces the choice of a coordinate cuss the general conditions for the existence of cylinbasis by the less restricted choice of a local basis for drical wormholes with the stationary metric in (63)

the tangent bundle, i.e. a locally defined set of four with rotation and try to obtain a wormhole model

linearly independent vector fields called a tetrad. The with two flat asymptotic regions without invoking exadvantage of the tetrad formalism over the standard otic matter.

coordinate-based approach to general relativity lies

in the ability to choose the tetrad basis to reflect im- 5.2 Basic relations for stationary rotating

cylindrically symmetric space-times

portant physical aspects of the spacetime. For convenience, we will restrict attention on a 4-D manifold

Rewriting equation (63) in a slightly different notawith a Lorentzian metric signature (+ ). Gention, singling out the 3-D linear element:

eralizations in other dimensions with different metrics

can be made also.

ds2 = Adu2 + Cdz 2 + r2 d2 D[dt (E/D)d]2

Let M a differential manifold with a metric ten= e2 du2 + e2 dz 2 + e2 d2 e2 (dt Ee2 d)2

sor g so one can always choose an ortonormal ba(65)

sis {e0 (p), e1 (p), e2 (p), e3 (p)} in each tangent space

Tp M so the elements of the ortonormal basis are vec- where A,B,C,D,E as well as , , , are functions

tor fields and p represent the specific point in M. of the radial coordinate x1 = u, x4 = t is the time

Because one choose a Lorentzian signature for g one coordinate and the different notations are related by:

of the tetrad vector mus be time-like and the other

A = e2

C = e2

D = e2

three must be spacelike. Is useful to choose e0 as the

e = r(u)

r2 = /D

= BD + E 2

(66)

timelike vector and the other three spacelike so:

g(ea , eb ) = ab diag(1, 1, 1, 1)

(61) have:

g = |det(g )| = AC = e2+2+2+2

(67)

where ab is understood as a fixed matrix (which

is numerically the same as the standard metric in

In the gauge A = C ( = ) the vortex =

Minkowski spacetime).

is:

0

11

E D ED

1

0

= (Ee2 ) e .

2

2D A

(68)

con be expressed as follows:

The Einsteins equations are written as:

G = T ,

00

00

00

02

02

= 8G

R11 = e2 [ + + + + + ( + )]+2 2

(69)

0

0

0

2

2 00

R2 = e

[ + ( + )]

(70)

0

#

"

0

0

h 0

i0

DB + EE

3

= e+ Ee

gR3 =

2

(71)

" 0

#0

0

h 0

i0

D B + EE

4

gR4 =

= e+ Ee

2

(72)

"

#0

0

0

0

DE + ED

3

gR4 =

= e2+

(73)

2

" 0

#0

0

B E + BE

4

gR3 =

(74)

2

1

Tb = T T

2

Then according to the Einsteins equations, the tensor () G / behaves as an additional SET with very

exotic properties (thus, the effective energy density is

3 2 / < 0 acting in an auxiliary static space-time

with the metric (65) with E 0. If we assume as

before T43 = 0 (the comoving reference frame), then

R = Tb ,

E 3

(R R44 )

(82)

D 3

Thus, if the diagonal components of the Einsteins

equations have been solved the component (43 ) holds

and need not be considered. The same relations holds

for the SET components T34 .

R34 =

to the matter source of gravity, is natural assumed

5.3 The cylindrical wormhole geometry and

the azimuthal flow T43 = 0, thus one find from R43 = 0

its existence conditions

in (73) integrating with respect u:

Definition 1: We say that the metric (65) describes

= 0 e(2+) ,

0 = const

(75) a wormhole geometry if the circular radius r(u)

e(u) has a minimum r(u0 ) > 0 at some u = u0 ,

0

Replacing (75)into the expression (Ee ) , and

such that on both sides of this minimum r(u) grows

taking into account (68) one can find that:

to much larger values than r(u0 ), and, in some range

0

(Ee ) = 202 e3 = 2 2 e2++ = 2 2 g. (76) of u containing u0 , all metric functions in (65) are

smooth and finite (which guarantees regularity and

Also, in an arbitrary gauge the diagonal components absence of horizons). The cylinder u = u0 is then

called a throat (or an r-throat).

of the Ricci tensor can be written as follows:

The diagonal part of the T in the most general

00

00

02

02

02

1

2 00

form:

R1 = e

[ + + + + +

0

( + + )] + 2 2

R22

(77)

= 1

(78)

R33

= 1 + 2

R44

= 1 2 2

() G

T22 = pz ,

T33 = p ,

T44 = . (83)

0

(79) 00 > 0, one obtain R3 33 2 2 < 0 and for the cor(80) responding component of (25) it follows:

0 0

where for any f (u), 1 f = g 1/2 [ gg 11 f ] =

00

0

0

0

0

0

e2 [f + f ( + + )]. The Ricci tensor

can split into the static part (s) R and the rotational

part () R = 2 diag(2, 0, 2, 2). The coordinates

are ordered as follows: (u, z, , t). The corresponding Einstein tensor G splits in a similar manner,

G = [(s) G ]+[() G ],

T11 = pr ,

= 2 diag(1, 1, 1, 3).

(81)

Where the tensors (s) G and () G satisfy the conservation law G = 0 with respect to the static

metric (65) with E 0.

pr pz + p 2 2 / < 0

(84)

with spherical symmetry, to define a throat and a

wormhole in therms of the area function a(u) = e+

instead of r(u).

Definition 2: In a space-time with the metric (65),

an a-throat is a cylinder u = ua where the function

a(u) = e+ has a regular minimum. A configuration where on both sides of ua the function a(u) grows

to values a a(ua ), and, in some range of u containing ua , all metric functions in (65) are smooth and

finite, is called a a-wormhole. Let discuss what are

12

the existence conditions of an a-throat. By definition this case three of the four diagonal components of

0

0

00

00

2, at u = u1 one have + = 0 and + = 0. (90) for a masless scalar field give:

The minimum occurs in any admissible coordinate u,

00

R2 22 = 0 = 0

(92)

in particular, in temrs of the armonic coordinate. Using it in the Einsteins equation and with (78), (79)

00

00

00

R33 = 0 2 2 e2 = 0

(93)

it is found that the condition + implies:

00

4

2 2

R4 = 0 + 2 e = 0

(94)

00

00

R22 + R33 = e2 ( + ) + 2 2 < 2 2

(85)

Thus, it follows:

And thus,

= mu [with a certain choice of z scale] (95)

T11 + T44 = pr < 2 2 /

0

(86)

equation G11 = T11 one obtain:

0

02

G11 = e2 + 2 = e2 + 2 2

(87)

00

00

= 402 e22

(97)

T11 = pr 2 /

(88) the expression in (97). This equation is a Liouville

equation whose solution can be written in the form:

If 6= 0, these requirements leave an opportunity

e = 20 s(k, u)

(98)

of having a cylindircal wormhole geometry without

violating the standard energy conditions. However,

this requirements are valid only for the existence of with

1

k > 0, u R+ ;

k sinh(ku),

to have a regular asymptotic behavior far form the

u,

k = 0, u R+ ;

throat i.e. const while r , then it will be a s(k, u) =

1

k sin(ku),

k < 0, 0 < u < /|k|.

wormhole geometry by both definitions.

And thus,

5.4

Vacuum and massless scalar field sogration constants have been suppressed by choosing

lutions

If we consider a minimally coupled field with the of u in s(k, u) (last equation). Now, it is straightforfollowing Lagrangian as a source of the geometry ward to obtain:

(65):

e2hu

e2 =

,

e2 = e2mu

1

2

s(k,

u)

0

Ls = ()2 V ()

(89)

2

Where = +1 corresponds to a normal scalar field

emu2hu

e2 = 20 s(k, u)e2hu , e2 = e(4h2m)u , =

,

and = 1 to a phantom one.

2s(k, u)

Let assume = (u) and the co-moving reference

Z

frame, so that T43 = 0 and the Ricci tensor has the

du

0

2hu

= e2hu [E0 s(k, u)s (k, u)]

E = e s(k, u)

form (77)-(80). The stress energy tensor of is:

2

s (k, u)

(99)

1

0

T () = e2 2 diag(1, 1, 1, 1) + V ()

2

E0 = const. The scalar field equation reads

(90) With

00

=

0,

whence = Cu (fixing the inessential zero

And it is very convenient to use Einsteins equations

point

of

);

the constant C has the meaning of scalar

in the form:

charge density. Lastly, the Einstein equation G11 =

1

1

R = (T T ) = ( V ). (91) T1 which is first-order, leads to a relation between

2

the integration constants:

k 2 sign k = 4(h2 2hm) 2C 2

(100)

V () 0.

Using the armonic radial coordinate such that =

This completes the solution.

+ + the expressions (77)-(80) are simplified, in

00

2

particular, 1 f = e

f for any f (u). Thus, for

13

to the cylindrical radius r = e at both ends

[8] V. G. Krechet and D. V. Sadovnikov, Grav.

of the u range. It is clear that r and e 0

Cosmol. 13, 269 (2007).

as u 0 in all these solutions. In the same limit

the vortex , which probably indicates a singularity, although all components of the scalar field

0

SET are finite (since is finite and = C), hence,

by the Einsteins equations, the same is true for the

components of the Ricci tensor; however, taken separately, the static and vortex parts of the Ricci tensor

diverge. As to the other end of the u range, the situation is more diverse:

1. k > 0. At large u, e2 u(2hk)u and e2

e(2h+k)u , hence wormholes with a r-throat exists if

0 < k < 2h; we also have e at large u. A

wormhole with an a-throat if 0 < k < 2(h m).

2. k = 0. At large u we have e2 u1 e2hu and

e2 ue2hu , hence we have a wormhole geometry

with an r-throat if h > 0 and with an a-throat if

h m > 0. In addition, e at large u.

3. k < 0. A wormhole geometry (with both kinds of

throats) is described by all solutions with k < 0. At

both ends, e and e 0, while e+ and e

remain finite, and e2 .

We conclude that rotating cylindrical vacuum and

scalar-vacuum space-times are quite generically of wormhole nature, and in particular, the questions asked in

the title is answered YES. Though, none of these rotating wormholes solutions are asymptotically flat.

An attempt to remove this shortcoming was made in

[5].

References

[1] M. Visser, Lorentzian Wormholes: from Einstein

to Hawking (AIP, Woodbury, 1995).

[2] K. A. Bronnikov and S. G. Rubin, Black Holes,

Cosmology and Extra Dimensions (World Scientific,

2012).

[3] K. A. Bronnikov and J. P. S. Lemos, Phys. Rev.

D 79, 104019 (2009); arXiv: 0902.2360.

[4] V. G. Krechet and D. V. Sadovnikov, Grav.

Cosmol. 15, 337 (2009), arXiv: 0912.2181.

[5] K. A. Bronnikov, V. G. Krechet, and J. P. S.

Lemos, Phys. Rev. D 87, 084060 (2013); arXiv:

1303.2993.

[6] K. A. Bronnikov, M.V. Skvortsova; arXiv:

1404.5750.

[7] V. G. Krechet, Izv. Vuzov, Fiz. No. 10, 57

14

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