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Spherically and cylindrically symmetric wormholes.

Throats in
vacuum?
1
1 National

Carlos A. Conde,

University of Colombia. Department of Physics. General Relativity 2014-II.

Abstract
This work pretend to clarify the existence conditions of wormholes throats and wormholes as global
configurations in general relativity under the assumptions of cylindrical and spherical symmetries. As
a brief review, is pointed out that cylindrical symmetric and static wormholes could exist without a
violation of the weak or null energy near the throat and can appear with less exotic sources than throats
with a spherical topology. Furthermore, is also mentioned that throats can exist in rotating cylindrical
wormholes with ordinary matter or even in vacuum, however there are some difficulties in obtainning
asymptotically flat wormholes configurations without exotic matter.

Introduction

and the purpose was to explain the fundamental particles such as electrons, in terms of space-times tunnels called Einstein-Rosen bridges later named as wormholes by John Wheleer as was mentioned. However
this study was abandoned because the wormhole radius was extremely small in such a way that even
the particles couldnt traverse. Later, this topic begins to called attention with a publication that was
written in 1987 by Michael Morris, Kip Thorne and
Uri Yertsever of the intitute of technology in California. This article came as a solicitude by Carl Sagan
to Thorne because he was looking a way to transport the heroin of his novel called contact through
interstellar distances at higher speed than light speed.
Thorne gave this problem to his students and teachers Michael Morris and Uri Yertsever who investigated that was possible to make this trip if a black
hole could remain open the necessary time for a spaceship traverse it. Thorne, Morris and Yertsever conlcude that for wormholes mantain open they needed
matter with negative energy density and thus violate
all the energy conditions which will be studied after.
This hypothetical matter was called exotic matter.
The possible appearence of a wormhole geometry is
ilustrated by figure 1:
In figure 1 the picture (a) depict flat configurations that contains a part having the shape of a thin
tube that join different universes, similarly in (b) appears a join between spherical universes (a dumbbelllike configuration) or a flat one with a spherical one
(c) ( a hanging-drop configuration) also distant regions of the same universe as (d) and (e). Having introducing these type of wormholes its appropriate to
define with more detail the taxonomy of wormholes.
The major phyletic division is the distinction between

To give some ideas on how wormholes became an important topic of study let begin with some historical
developments that gave rise to the advance in wormholes knowledge. The term wormhole was introduced by J.A. Wheleer in 1955 and today its adopted
as one feature of the space-time that connects two different large or infinite regions through a throat. The
term came from the following analogy: imagine that
the universe is the skin of an apple and a worm travels
on its surface. The distance between two points that
are located in diametrically opposite positions its
equal to half circumference of the apple if the worm
travels between this points. But instead of that, the
worm could dig a hole inside the apple and go directly
to the other point without walking around the surface. Clearly the distance in this case is like a shortcut between the points of displacement. As we see
later, wormholes seems to be tunnels or bridges that
could connect regions of the same Universe or also
regions of different Universes under some geometrical space-time configurations. The beginnings of
the wormholes arises shortly after Einstein published
his General Theory of Relativity when a Viennese
physicist called Ludwig Flamm noticed the simplest
and possible form of a black hole : the Schwarzschild
black hole. He discovered that Einstein equations admits a second solution, known as a white hole which
is connected to the entrance of a black hole through a
space-time duct. The entrance of the black hole and
the exit of the white hole could be in different parts of
the same Universe or in different Universes. In 1935,
Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen studied in detail
these connections (intra-universe and inter-universe)

processes. Besides, wormholes can divided into micrscopic and macroscopic subespecies, as an example
of micrscopic ones we have Wheleer wormholes, deriving their existence form the assumed vacuum fluctuations taking place in the spacetime foam and they
are also typically transient. In the other hand, one
can consider macroscopic wormholes a Lorentzian wormhole that is quasi-permanent and might be suitable
for human beings: traversable wormholes.
Figure 1: Wormholes configurations.

1.2

While there is nothing in principle to prevent Euclidean wormholes being quasi-permanent, objects of
this type are rarely considered. One either has to
restrict the class of manifolds under consideration
by assuming compatibility with the existence of a
Lorentzian metric or one has to face loss of the various topology change theorems. Euclidean wormholes are typically transient and they are commonly
thought of as instantons in the gravitational field.
They also have been of considerable interest to the
particle physics and relativity communities. Although
some authors like Matt Visser considered that the
theory of Eculidean wormholes seems to have some
speculative character. It rest on the dynamics and
the Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity. If
they do exist, their effects may be by those of some
more exotic configurations.

Lorentzian and Euclidian wormholes. This merely reflects whether or not the manifold in which the wormholes resides is a Lorentzian (pseudo Riemannian)
manifold or a true Riemannian manifold with Euclidian signature. As it is known, a Riemannian space
(or space-time) is a differentiable manifold of arbitrary dimension D equipped with a metric g of arbitrary signature. If it is positive-definite [the signature
(+ +...+)], the space is called Riemannian, in other
cases it is called pseudo-Riemannian. Physics seems
to study more space-time with Lorentzian signature
that means non positive-definite like (-,+,+,+) or
(+,-,-,-). As a preview working definition taken from
Visser, we say that a wormhole is any compact region of space-time with a topologically simple boundary but a topologically nontrivial interior. Let introduce some types of wormholes in which definitions
are taken from the book Lorentzian Wormholes, from
Einstein to Hawking. of Matt Visser.

1.1

Euclidean Wormholes

1.3

Lorentzian Wormholes

Lorentzian wormholes speciation occurs into permanent (quasipermanent) and transient verieties, each of which has intra-universe and interuniverse that we have mentioned before. Also each
subespecies arises in microscopic and macroscopic
varieties. A quasipermanent type of wormhole is in
essential a three-dimensional objects that exist for
a finite non-zero lenght of time. If one slices a region of space-time into spacelike hypersurfaces, and
each slice of space, thought as a three-dimensional
Riemannian manifold, contains a wormhole, then the
wormhole can be thought of as existing throughout
a certain duration of time. As opposed to quasipermanent one could imagine the possibility of a truley permanent wormhole that mantained the toplogical estrcture in time. Other type of wormhole is
the ones known as transient wormholes because they
pop into and out of existence, they are intrinsically
4-dimensional objects. Transient wormholes, beacuse
they certainly do not satisfy the classical topology
change theorems, require mutilation of classical general relativity to permit classical topology changing
2

Traversable Wormholes (Morris-Thorne)

Morris and Thorne studied the Einstein equations


and determined the necessary constraints such that
a wormhole solution colud be used at least in principle, for interstellar travels. In their solutions is essential a geometry of a throat (the tunnel that connects the tow regions) without an horizon event. It
means that in a physical singularity exist a bounded
hypersurface of the space-time such that the events
of one side of it cant affect to an observer located in
the other side. With this fact and the conditions of
the Einstein field equations arises the most important
constraint for the solutions of traversable wormholes:
the matter that may cause this type of objects must
be exotic like negative mass. Although there is
no experimental evidence of exotic matter there is no
prove to reject it. Here there is specified some desired
properties that was imposed by Thorne and Morris
to have a traversable wormhole:
For simplicity is considered a spherically symmetric metric and with indpendence of time.
Its assummed that the general theory of relativity is correct

The solution must have a throat that connects


two asymptotically flat space-time regions.

= (c2 ) 2( + )/r

Dont exist an horizon of events to have a return trip.

That can be written as:


0

= b /(c2 r2

The proper time required to traverse the wormhole must be in a finite reasonably short time
(less than a year) measured by the traveler and
the observers that wait the return.

= [b/r 2(r b) ]/(r2


0

p = (r/2)[(pc2 ) ]

The matter and fields that generates the spaceMorris and Thorne also was very clever in their
time curvature cant violate the fundamental procedure to solve the field equations. Usually the
laws of physics and so the energy-momentum order was first assume some type of matter that one
tensor is constraint by the above conditions.
knows that can result in the searching geometry, then
calculate the corresponding energy-momentum ten Their formation must required a very less mass sor and derive state equations based on the physics
and time compared with these ones about the of that source. With the energy-momentum tensor
Universe.
one could generate in principle, solutions to Einstein
field equations. However, since they were looking for
1.3.1 Effects on the properties of geometry solutions with specific geometrical properties, they
and matter
change the procedure of solving these equations in
The metric required is the spherically symmetric and the following way: first assumed the existence of a
very well geometry behavior imposing some condistatic one in the form:
tions to b and functions based on the proporties
dr2
of traversable wormholes, then solve the field equa2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
ds =
+ r (d + sin ()d ) e c dt
1 b/r
tions and analyzed the implications about , and p,
that means discuss if the energy-matter distribution
where = (r) and b = b(r) are arbitrary functions is reasonable.
called redshift and shape function respectively. An
imposed condition was that the field decay radially Spatial Geometry:
very fast so the space-time turns asymptotically flat,
i.e. :
Taking an equatorial slice of the geometry i.e. with
b/r 0

0 ;

when r

= /2, t = const one fit in an Euclidean metric. It


is:

1/2
dz
r
=
1
(1)
dr
b(r)

The Energy-Momentum Tensor :


Ttt = (r)c2 ; Trr = (r) ; T = T = p(r)

This equation shows the way in which b(r) determines


Where (r), (r), and p(r) are the mas-energy den- the throat geometry. Using the coordinate l = (r2
sity, the tension per area (average) unit radially and b20 )1/2 it follows that:
the pressure measured in the ortogonal directions to
r
r
dz
b
dr
b
the radial, repectively. All measurements in the ref=
= 1
(2)
erence frame of the travelers.
dl
r
dl
r
The Field Equations:

The absence of the horizon of events

The procedure in obtaining the following equations is omitted in this text because is out of the
main purpose of the discussion, but one can deduce
them by taking account the spherically symmetric
metric given before and using the components of the
energy-momentum tensor in the Einstein equations
to obtain:

In an asymptotically flat space-time, the horizons are


the surface non-singular in which: g00 e2 . That
is: nullity of the proper time interval during a coordinate finite time. Thus, if its required that wormhole
have no horizon of events so that implies that: (r)
must be finite everywhere.

Constraints in the tension and the mass density of


the throat:

b = c2 r2
0

= (b r3 /[2r(r b)]

conditions are related with some coordinate-invariant


restrictions of T . There are many different energy
conditions according the circumstances. Some of the
most popular are the following:

The condition that the wormhole is connected by


two asymptotically flat space-times implies that the
shape of the throat must be like is shown in figure 1
a) and more specific in the following picture:

Weak Energy Condition (WEC):


It states that T t t 0 for all timelike vectors t , or equivalently that 0 and +
p 0. As one example consider the special
case where se source is a perfect fluid, so that
energy-momentum tensor takes the form:
T = ( + p)U U + pg

where U is the fluid 4-velocity. Because the


pressure is isotropic T t t will be nonnegative for all timelike vectors if T U U 0
and T l l for some null vector l . Evaluating
these quantities we have:

Figure 2: Throat of a traversable wormhole.


If we analize this figure and in spacial the shape
of r = r(z) one can see that d2 r/dz2 > 0. On the
other hand we have the conditions , (and thus
0
b because the filed equations described above) to be
finite y that in the throat: r = b = b0 . Using that
and the expression (1)the condition that d2 r/dz2 > 0
can be written as:

T U U =

Null Energy Condition (NEC):


States that T l l 0 for all null vectors l , or
equivalently that + p 0. It is a special case
of the WEC, with the timelike vector replaced
by a null vector. The energy density may now
be negative, so long as there is a compensating
positive pressure.

(4)

When is sufficiently high an observer will measure


a negative mass-energy density.

T l l = ( + p)(U l )2 (6)

The WEC implies 0 and + p 0. That


means that the energy density be non-negative
and the preassure not be too large compared to
the energy density.

0 0 c2
> 0 (throat neighborhoodi.e.r = b = b0 )
|0 c2 |
(3)
This is the most important contraint, the problem
can be seen better with the energy density measured
by an observer that is moving through throat with a
radial velocity close to speed light:
T00 = 2 (0 c2 0 ) + 0

(5)

Dominant Energy Condition (DEC):


Includes the WEC, as well as the additional
requirement that T t is a nonspacelike vector
(T T t t 0).

Energy Conditions

Before we start the analysis of some specific interested symmetries of wormholes , its important to
mentioned the concept of Energy conditions that is
associated with the Stress-Energy Tensor (SET) behaviour . As its known the SET (T ) is used to
described the flux of energy and lineal momentum of
a continuous distribution of matter being neccesary
in Einsteins equations. Consider for instance, what
are the conditions that T need to have in order
to satisfied the Einsteins equation. In general, one
could say that any metric is valid to solve the Einsteins equation. This is, compute the Einsteins tensor at first (G )with this metric and then demand
that T be equal to G so by Bianchis identity
T is conserved. However, this is just a mathematical consistence, but in the universe we must consider
some type of realistic sources of energy and momentum. So it is convenient to impose some energy
conditions that limit the arbitrariness of T . These

Null Dominant Energy Condition (NDEC):


Is the DEC for null vectors only: for any null
vector l , T l l 0 and T l is a nonspacelike vector. The allowed density and pressure
are the same as for DEC, except that negatie
densities are allowed so long as p = .
Strong Energy Condition (SEC) :
1
States that T t t T t t for all timelike
2
vectors t , or equivalently that + p 0 and
+ 3p 0. It implies the NEC, along with
excluding excessively large negative pressures.
For this purpose, it means, the study of this
particular wormholes with cylindrical and axial symmetries the NEC is the one required for
further analysis.

Some conditions are illustrated in figure 3 for per- the circles) are not part of the 2-D surface illustrated
fect fluids:

Figure 4: Two plane sheets connected by a circular


throat; there is axial symmetry, but the center of any
circle is not in the 2-space.
.
Thus, taking into account this detail the general
metric that describes spherical symmetry is written
as follows:
ds2 = e2(t,u) dt2 e2(t,u) du2 e2(t,u) d2

(7)

where u being an arbitrary admissible radial coordinate and d2 = d2 + sin2 d2 the element of solid
angle. The functions , and are independent of
the angular coordinates (, ) to maintain spherical
Figure 3: Energy conditions as applied to perfect symmetry, otherwise we just have different metrics
fluids, expressed as allowed regions of energy density for different points of this curved space-time. Furthermore, one can always choose the reference frame
and pressure p
(RF) in such a way that , and depend only on
.
the radial coordinate u and one can fix the choice of
this radial coordinate by postulating a relation be, ,. Also its usual the no3 Spherically symmetric spacetimes tween the functions

tation r e by making an appropiate change of


In section 1.3 it has shown very briefly the Morris- variable. The reason why the metric has this form is
Thorne treatment for a defined wormhole geometry beacause the spherical symmetry. Its expected that
to continue the historical developments that gave rise spatial terms in the metric tensor (g) like dr d,
the study of wormholes as general. However, we dr , dr, d d not appear to preserve the spher2(t,u) ,
havent seen some important concepts like spherical ical symmetry. Also, the coefficients gtt = e
2(t,u)
is acceptable because provide gtt > 0
symmetries or the definition of a throat. The purpose guu = e
and
g
<
0
everywhere
and their derivatives its easof this section is to clarify some of these concepts for
uu
further developments and also clarify previous anal- ier to calculate similar what is made in differential
equations. Thus, equation (7) takes the form:
ysis.
At first, is naturally think about the symmetries
of any physical system because the solution of the
ds2 = e2(u) dt2 e2(u) du2 r2 (u)d2
(8)
specific problem can be easily reduced. Its said that
Its important to mention that in solving different
there exist shperical symmetry when an object can
rotate in any angle and the properties of this object problems, different variants of the radial coordinate
doesnt change. If we choose the usual spatial coor- conditions can be convenient. Let enumerate some of
dinates (r, , ) for this symmetry its important to them:
clarify that in this curved space-time, the spherical 1. e(u) 1, du = dl: the Gaussian normal coorradius r has nothing to do with a distance to the dinates; the coordinate l is the tru length along the
center because there can even be no center at all. radial direction, counted from a certain fixed sphere
For example, imagine the space-time geometry of a l = 0.
wormhole like the figure 4. It consists of two sheets,
2. u = r, = (r), = (r) >: the curvature or
wich are joined by a throat . The whole thing is symmetric about an axis along the middle of the throat, Schwarzschild coordinates. r is the curvature radius
but the points in this axis (which are the centers of of the sphere r = const.
5

where dots and primes stand for /t and /u, respectively. One can see that if the metric is static
(time independence), the Ricci tensor is diagonal and
takes the new form:
h 00
i
0
0
0
0
R00 = e2 + (2 + )
h 00
i
00
0
0
0
0
0
R11 = e2 2 + + 2 2 + 2 (2 + )
h 00
i
0
0
0
0
R22 = e2 + (2 + ) = R33

The general metric for this condition becomes:


ds2 = e2(r) dt2 e2(r) du2 r2 d2

(9)

If we calculate the curvature quantities as Riemann, Ricii, curvature scalar, Einstein tensor, in vacuum (T = 0), the solution of Einsteins equation
becomes the Schwarzschilds solution:





2GM
2GM 1 2 2 2
2
ds = 1
dt 1
dr r d
Furthermore, one also can compute the Einstein tenr
r
(10) sor components G and here its shown the components G11 and G11 that is of interest since it does not
2(u)
2(u)
2
3. e
= e
u : Isotropic coordinates, in contain second-order derivatives in u, thus for a static
which the spatial part of the metric is written in a metric:
comformally flat form:
0
0
0
G00 = e2 + e2 ( 2 )
(13)
dl2 = e2(u) (du2 + u2 d2 ) = e2(u) d~x2
(11)
2

where, in the three-dimensional linear element, Cartesian coordinates have been introduced: ~x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ).
4. (u) = 2(u) + (u) the harmonic coordinate
u is very convenient for solving problems with scalar
fields.
5. (u) = (u): the quasiglobal coordinate u.

G11 = e2 + e2 ( + 2 )

(14)

Before we proceed the Einsteins equation with


the cosmological constant can be write in the form:
1
R g R + g = T
(15)
2
where = 8G , c = 1 and the Einstein tensor:

1
6. (u) = (u) the u is sometimes called torG = R g R
(16)
2
toise coordinate because in many important cases
the metric functions change very slowly when ex- Multiplying equation (15) by g it becomes:
pressed in terms of u.
1
Now, With the metric in (9) one could calculate
g R g g R + g g = g T (17)
2
the Ricci tensor with a mathematical symbolic pro
gram like Maple 16 and check that R as a matrix Thus,
1
array in the form:
(18)
R R + = T
2
0

1
2
3
R0
R0
R0
R0
Exchanging equation 18 becomes:

R1
1
R11
R12
R13

(19)
R R + = T

R =
(12)
2

R0
R21
R22
R23

2
Thus,

G + = T
(20)
R30
R31
R32
R33
with
with non-zero components:
1
G = R R
(21)
h
i
2
R00 = e2 2 +
+ 2 2 + 2 (2

+ )
+
So with equation (21) one can obtain (13) and (14).
h 00
i
0
0
0
0
2
Then, if one substitute (13) and (14) into (20):
e
+ (2 + )
h 0
i
0
0
0
0 0 ) 0
R01 = 2e2 (
G00 + = e2 +e2 ( 2 )+ = T00 (22)
h 0
i
0 0 ) 0
0
0
0
R10 = 2e2 (
G11 + = e2 +e2 ( +2 )+ = T11 (23)
h
i
R11 = e2
+ (2
+ )
+
h 00
i
where the prime denotes d/dr while the SET (Stress00
0
0
0
0
0
e2 2 + + 2 2 + 2 (2 + )
Energy
Tensor) in the present case corresponds to the
h
i
2
2

electromagnetic
field.
R2 = e
+ (2 + )
+
h 00
i
0
0
0
0
e2 + (2 + ) = R33
6

As its known the Lagrangian of the electromagnetic field is:


Making A(r) = e2 one proceed to solve A(r) integrating both sides of equation (31)
1
Lem = F F ; F = A A
(24)

d  2
4
r(e
1) = r2 r2 T0 0
(32)
dr
And thus, with the definition of the SET :
Z
Z

2 Sm
4
T =
;
S
=
L
gd
x
(25)
m
r(A 1) = r2 8GT0 0 r2 dr
g g
Z
r3
One obtain the following result for the SET:
= 8G T0 0 r2 dr
3
h
i

T = 4F F + F F
(26)
Z
r2
G
(A 1) =
8
T0 0 r2 dr
The Maxwell equations F = 0 must now be
3
r
written for the spherically symmetric case, so that
among the components of F only the ones describZ
r2
G
ing a radial electric field (F01 = F10 ) and a radial
A(r) = 1
8
T0 0 r2 dr
(33)
3
r
magnetic field (F23 = F32 ) can be nonzero. Let restrict to an electric field, so the Maxwell equations
By equation (27) and solving the integral:
yields
Z
Q2 2
r2
G

Qe+
Qe
A(r)
=
1

8
r dr
01 0
01
( gF ) = 0 F =
, F10 =
3
r
8r4
2
2
4r
4r
Z
where the constant Q is interpreted as an electric
1
r2 G 2
charge (using Heaviside units in electrodynamic). Fi Q
dr
A(r) = 1
3
r
r2
nally, the SET takes the form:

1 0 0
0
r2
G
2

A(r)
=
1

+ 2 Q2 + C
(34)
Q
0
1
0
0

3
r
T =
(27)

4
0
0
1
0
8r
Furthermore if we substract (28) and (29)
0 0 0 1
"
!
!#
0
0
Q2
0
1
1
2
1
2
.
Thus, T0 = T1 =
e2

+
=0
(35)
8r4
r2
r
r2
r
Its very convenient to solve the Einsteins equations
in curvature coordinates as was described. Thus, Thus,
i
2e2 h 0
0
equations (22) and (23) takes the form:
+ =0
(36)
r
!
0
0
0
1
2
1
Implies that + = 0 =
0
2
0
G0 + = e

=
T
(28)
0
r2
r
r2
As a result of the integration in (32), the metric
finally
takes the generally form:
!
0
1
2
1
G11 + = e2
2 + = T11 (29)
+
dr2
2
r
r
r
r2 d2
ds2 = A(r)dt2
(37)
A(r)
1
1
00
0
where r e = lnr ; = ; = 2 .
where:
r
r
Lets write equation (28) in a different form, so first
if we calculate the quantity:

d  2
0
r(e
1) = e2 2 re2 1
dr

A(r) = 1

(38)

(30)
Its easy to verify the Schwarzschild solution by making in the equation (38): = 0, Q = 0 and so the
metric (37) turns into equation (10) as expected.

Thus, equations (28) and (31) are equivalent:



1 d  2
r(e

1)
= ( + T0 0 )
r2 dr

r2 2GM
G

+ 2 Q2
3
r
r

(31)

3.1

Static spherical wormholes

where , pr , p are the density, radial pressure and


In the case of static, spherically symmetric spacetransversal pressure respectively, which in general can
times described by the general metric:
be arbitrary functions of the radial coordinate u. Its
commonly make use of two different radial coordids2 = e2 dt2 e2 du2 e2 d2 .
(39)
nates, the quasiglobal (see 5.) and curvature coordiOne could formulate the common requirements to be nates. So, for the quasiglobal coordinates the equaimposed on the metric coefficients which, if satisfied, tion (37) takes the form:
enable one to say that this metric describes a wormhole geometry.
du2
ds2 = A(u)dt2
r2 (u)d2
(42)
A(u)
At the beginning of this article was defined that
with the conditions u = u0 , expressing the aba throat connects two different space-times making
sence of a horizon and a finite regular minimum of r,
a type of shortcut. Now one can enunciate the exishave the form:
tence condition of a throat in the following way. If
0
00
the function r e(u) , which is equal to the curA>0 r>0 r =0 r >0
(43)
vature radius of the coordinate sphere u = const,
If we remind Einsteins equation as in equation
t = const at each fixed value of u, have a regular
(19)
but without cosmological constant one can comminimum r = rmin > 0 at some value of u and as0
1
sume values r >> rmin far from this minimum we pute with Maple 16 the R0 , R1 and subtracting their
say that exist a wormhole geometry. In other words, associate Einsteins equation to obtain the wormhole
if at some u = u0 the function r(u) has a regular conditions, thus:
minimum r(u0 ) > 0 (which is then called a throat)
1
R00 =
[A00 r + 2A0 r0 ]
(44)
and, on both sides of this minimum, r(u) grows to
2r
much larger values than r(u0 ). Another condition
1
is that the wormhole must be freely traversable in
R11 =
[A00 r + 2A0 r0 + 4Ar00 ]
(45)
2r
both directions. So the existence of the proper threeequation that includes
geometry is insufficient: one must also require the Writing down the0 Einstens
1 respectively:
the
components
R
and
R
0
1
absense of horizons. This is a fundamental distinction form black holes. For the metric shown in (39),
1
(46)
R00 00 R + 00 = T00
this requirement reads gtt e2(u) > 0 in the whole
2
range of the radial coordinate. As an example let see
1
R11 11 R + 11 = T11
(47)
the simplest metric of a wormhole that clarify the
2
condtions:
Thus,
ds2 = dt2 du2 (u2 + a2 )d2

(40)

00

= 2A = 8G( + pr )
(48)
r
where it differs from the Minkowski flat-space met0
1
ric only by the emergence of the term a2 . However, where T0 = and T1 = pr . Taking in mind the
this drastically changes the geometry: at a = 0 we conditions in equations (43), so that implies that if:
have the Minkowski space-time, and the coordinate
00
r
u changes from zero to infinity, u = 0 is a regular
2A > 0
( + pr ) < 0
(49)
r
center, and an extension to negative values of u is
meaningless. But, if a > 0, the valueu = 0 is a regu1
lar minimum of the function r(u) = u2 + a2 , i.e., a Now, computing the component G1 of the Einsteins
throat, nothing prevents consideration of u < 0 and tensor one obtain:
i
1 h
0
0
0
u is again a spatial infinity of the same kind
G11 = 2 1 + A rr + Ar 2 = 8Gpr
(50)
r
as that at u +.
So, the other condition implies that:
Assume the the general form of the SET compatipr < 0
(51)
ble with this kind of symmetry is :
R00

(u)
0
0
0
0

p
(u)
0
0
r

=
0
0
p (u)
0
0
0
0
p (u)

R11

Notice that there is no restriction on the sign of the


density. The conditions (49) and (51) are of local
nature and do not depend on any assumptions on the
(41) space-time or matter properties far from the throat.

Furthermore, the condition in (49) implies the viNotice that in the last equations for the metric
olation of Null Energy Condition (NEC). For all null (54) its shown the non-zero components in a general
vectors:
form without specifying the choice of the radial coordinate u. Furthermore, is helpful to identify the
T l l 0, l : l l = 0
(52) component G1 because does not contain any second1
order derivatives. In particular, if we choose u as
In the metric (39), for the null vector
a harmonic radial coordinate i.e. making (u) =

l = (e , e , 0, 0) this condition takes the form: (u) + (u) + (u) the expressions for R00 , R22 , R33
do not contain first-order derivatives. Computing the
T00 T11 0
(53) Ricci components with u as the harmonic radial coordinate:
And for the tensor (41) it reads + pr 0 contrary
00
to (49). Thus the wormhole existence requires NEC R00 = e222
violation.
R11 =
h 00


i
00
00
0
0
0
0 0
e222 + + + 2 2 2

Static cylindrical wormholes

00

2
222
As in the case of spherically symmetry one could find R2 = e
a metric for a cylindrical symmetry in the form:
00
R33 = e222

As in the case of static spherical symmetry if one


ds2 = e2(u) dt2 e2(u) du2 e2(u) dz 2 e2(u) d2
make r(u) e(u) for example the compnent R33 < 0
(54)
because the conditions of a throat by (43). Remind
that the SET in the most general form admitted by
Where u is any admissible radial coordinate, z R,
the space-time symmetry can be written as:
[0, 2] and the coordinates are numbered accord

ing to the scheme (0, 1, 2, 3) = (t, u, z, ). One could

0
0
0
compute the non-zero components of the Ricci tensor
0 pr
0
0

(55)
T =
that are simply the diagonal:
0
0
pz
0
h 00
 0
i
0
0
0
p
0
0
0
0
R00 = e2 + + +
Also the Einsteins equations can be written as:
00
00
00
0
0
0
R11 = e2 [ + + + 2 + 2 + 2
1
0
0
0
0
R = T ;
T = T T
(56)
( + + )]
2
i
 0
h 00
0
0
0
0
R22 = e2 + + +
Replacing R33 in the last equation (56):

i
h 00
0
0
0
0
0
R33 = e2 + + +
R33 = T33


1 3
3
= T3 3 T
where the prime denotes d/du. Computing also the
2
non-zero components of the Einsteins tensor G =


1
3
1
= T3 T
R R :
2
2



1 0
3
1
2
3
= T3
T + T1 + T2 + T3
G00 =h
2 0
i
00
0
0
0
00
0
0
0
0
0


e2 + 2 + + 2 +

1 0
1
2
3
= T0 + T1 + T2 T3
2
h 0 0
i

0 0
0 0
0
1
2
G1 = e
+ +
= T0 + T11 + T22 T33
2

But, R33 < 0 thus T00 + T11 + T22 T33 < 0 beG22 =h
i
00
0
0 0
0 0
00
0 0
0
cause > 0. Therefore with (55):
e2 + 2 + + + 2
pr pz + p < 0

G33 =h
i
00
0
0 0
0 0
00
0 0
0
e2 + 2 + + + 2

(57)

In particular, if T22 = T33 which means pz = p the


condition (59) leads to pr < 0 or pr > .
9

The last result implies the violation of the Dom- Thus, pr < 0. In addition, substituting + = 0
inant Energy Condition (DEC, see page 4) if one as- into the Einstein equation G11 = T11 is obtained:
sume, as usual, 0. The condition above is known
 0
0  0
0 0
G11 = e2 + +
as a r-throat. Now let discuss another type of throat
| {z }
=0
in terms of the area function a(u) instead of r(u). In
0 0 2
0
this case one call it an a-throat for clarity.
=e
= 2 e2 0
|{z}
Definition: In a space-time with the metric (54),
an a-throat is a cylinder u = u1 where the function
a(u) = e(u)+(u) has a regular minimum.

Thus |{z}
T11 0 T11 0 that means:
>0

pr 0. But pr < 0 so one obtain < pr 0


Because of the last definition a regular minimum can (at u = u1 ). So the conditions that must hold at and
near the throat are:
be found if:
pr pz + p < 0
h
i
d h (u)+(u) i  0
0
e
= (u) + (u) e(u)+(u) = 0
du

(r throat)

(59)

< pr 0
(a throat)
(60)
Thus, for a regular minimum the necessary conditions
are:
Thus, an r-throat does not necessarily requiere violation of any of the standard energy conditions, whereas
0
0
00
00
+ = 0 ; + > 0.
(58) at and near an a-throat there is always a region with
negative energy density .
The minimum occurs in terms of any admissible coordinate u, in particular, in terms of the harmonic
All that concerned only local conditions at the throat.
coordinate ( = + + ). Taking into account the
However, to describe a wormhole as a global entity,
conditions in (58) one can calculate R22 + R33 :
it is mandatory to consider the geometry far form
the throat, on both sides of it. One can consider
=0
a situation in which the wormhole is observed as a

z }| { 

00
0
0
0
0
0
stringlike source of gravity form an otherwise very
R22 + R33 = e2 + + +
weakly curved or even flat environment. Thus, it


 00
is required the existence of two spatial infinities on
0
0
0
0
0
+ + + +
both sides of the throat, i.e. such values u = u
| {z }
=0
that r = e and the metric is either flat or cor
 00
0
0
0 
responds to the gravitational field of a cosmic string.
= e2 +
First, at u u , a correct behaviour of clocks

 00

and rulers requires || < and || < i.e:
0
0
0
+ +
const, const as u u . Choosing proper

 scales, one can turn this constants to zero, but if
00
00
0
0 
0
0
2
=e
+ + +
a wormhole has two such asymptotics, this opera| {z }
=0
tion, in general , can be done only at one of them.
00
00  2
In the other hand, at large r it is required that:
= + e
<0
0
| {z }
| |e 1 , = const < 1 as x x . So
>0
that the circumference-to-radius ratio for the circles
On the other hand, using equation (56) and comput- u = const, z = const tends to 2(1 ) instead
ing R22 + R33 :
of 2 wich should be the case if the space-time is
asymptotically
flat. Thus, the parameter is an an


0
1
2
3
2
3
gular defect. Uunder the last asymptotic conditions
R2 + R3 =
T0 + T1 + T2 T3
2
with > 0 and = 0 the solution can simulate


a cosmic string and a flat spatial respectively. No+ T00 + T11 T22 + T33
tice that negative values of are also not a priori
 0

1
excluded,
they correspond to an angular excess. Sec= |{z}
T0 + T1 < 0
ond, the Riemann curvature tensor, hence the Ricci
>0
tensor, should vanish at large r, and, due to the
Einstein equations, all SET components must decay
quickly enough. One could verify that in the coordinates ( = + + ) a regular asymptotic (in
10

4-dimensional curl of the tetrad ea : its kinematic


characteristic is the angular velocity of tetrad rotation:
1
= em em
(62)
;
2
where Greek indices correspond to the four world
coordinates x while the Latin letters m,n...are used
for Lorentz indices and the vector determines the
effective angular momentum density of the gravitational field.
The simplest space-time possesing a stationary
vortex
gravitational fieldis that with the cylindrically
A static, cylindrically symmetric wormhole with
symmetric
metric:
two flat or stringlike asymptotic regions can-

the sense of flat or string asymptotic) can only occur


as u . Due to the last asymptotic conditions
0
| | const that are compatible
each with other only if u . Thus, at a regular
asymptotic, both r(u) and a(u) tend to infinity. If
there are two such asymptotics, both functions have
a minima at some finite u, i.e., there occur both a
throat as a minimum of r(u) and an a-throat (in general, the do not necessarily coincide). This leads to
the following no-go theorem:

not exist if the energy density is everywhere


nonnegative.

ds2 = Adu2 + Cdz 2 + Bd2 + 2Edtd Ddt2 (63)

Where all metric coefficients depend on the radil coordinate u and the presence of the term dtd indicates the rotational effect in coordinate. If one
5.1 Tetrads
make t = const in the metric (63) one obtain the 3-D
In the standard approach, General Relativity is for- metric in the spatial coordinates:
mulated as a theory of the metric i.e. the main
BD + E 2 2
variable is the metric tensor g, while the connection
dl2 = Adu2 + Cdz 2 +
d
(64)
D
and the curvature are expressed in terms of the metric. There is an alternative formulation of General The development of the following procedure is to disRelativity that replaces the choice of a coordinate cuss the general conditions for the existence of cylinbasis by the less restricted choice of a local basis for drical wormholes with the stationary metric in (63)
the tangent bundle, i.e. a locally defined set of four with rotation and try to obtain a wormhole model
linearly independent vector fields called a tetrad. The with two flat asymptotic regions without invoking exadvantage of the tetrad formalism over the standard otic matter.
coordinate-based approach to general relativity lies
in the ability to choose the tetrad basis to reflect im- 5.2 Basic relations for stationary rotating
cylindrically symmetric space-times
portant physical aspects of the spacetime. For convenience, we will restrict attention on a 4-D manifold
Rewriting equation (63) in a slightly different notawith a Lorentzian metric signature (+ ). Gention, singling out the 3-D linear element:
eralizations in other dimensions with different metrics
can be made also.
ds2 = Adu2 + Cdz 2 + r2 d2 D[dt (E/D)d]2
Let M a differential manifold with a metric ten= e2 du2 + e2 dz 2 + e2 d2 e2 (dt Ee2 d)2
sor g so one can always choose an ortonormal ba(65)
sis {e0 (p), e1 (p), e2 (p), e3 (p)} in each tangent space
Tp M so the elements of the ortonormal basis are vec- where A,B,C,D,E as well as , , , are functions
tor fields and p represent the specific point in M. of the radial coordinate x1 = u, x4 = t is the time
Because one choose a Lorentzian signature for g one coordinate and the different notations are related by:
of the tetrad vector mus be time-like and the other
A = e2
C = e2
D = e2
three must be spacelike. Is useful to choose e0 as the
e = r(u)
r2 = /D
= BD + E 2
(66)
timelike vector and the other three spacelike so:

Rotating Cylindrical Wormholes

g(ea , eb ) = ab diag(1, 1, 1, 1)

Calculating the absolute value of this metric one


(61) have:

g = |det(g )| = AC = e2+2+2+2
(67)
where ab is understood as a fixed matrix (which
is numerically the same as the standard metric in
In the gauge A = C ( = ) the vortex =

Minkowski spacetime).
is:
0

One can described a vortex gravitational field by the

11

E D ED
1
0

= (Ee2 ) e .
2
2D A

(68)

The Ricci tensor components in the gauge =


con be expressed as follows:
The Einsteins equations are written as:
G = T ,
00

00

00

02

02

= 8G

R11 = e2 [ + + + + + ( + )]+2 2
(69)
0
0
0
2
2 00
R2 = e
[ + ( + )]
(70)
0
#
"
0
0
h 0
i0
DB + EE
3

= e+ Ee
gR3 =
2
(71)
" 0
#0
0
h 0
i0
D B + EE
4

gR4 =
= e+ Ee
2
(72)
"
#0
0
0
0
DE + ED
3

gR4 =
= e2+
(73)
2
" 0
#0
0
B E + BE
4

gR3 =
(74)
2

Or in the equivalently form:


1
Tb = T T
2
Then according to the Einsteins equations, the tensor () G / behaves as an additional SET with very
exotic properties (thus, the effective energy density is
3 2 / < 0 acting in an auxiliary static space-time
with the metric (65) with E 0. If we assume as
before T43 = 0 (the comoving reference frame), then
R = Tb ,

E 3
(R R44 )
(82)
D 3
Thus, if the diagonal components of the Einsteins
equations have been solved the component (43 ) holds
and need not be considered. The same relations holds
for the SET components T34 .
R34 =

Because our rotating reference frame is co-moving


to the matter source of gravity, is natural assumed
5.3 The cylindrical wormhole geometry and
the azimuthal flow T43 = 0, thus one find from R43 = 0
its existence conditions
in (73) integrating with respect u:
Definition 1: We say that the metric (65) describes
= 0 e(2+) ,
0 = const
(75) a wormhole geometry if the circular radius r(u)
e(u) has a minimum r(u0 ) > 0 at some u = u0 ,
0
Replacing (75)into the expression (Ee ) , and
such that on both sides of this minimum r(u) grows
taking into account (68) one can find that:
to much larger values than r(u0 ), and, in some range

0
(Ee ) = 202 e3 = 2 2 e2++ = 2 2 g. (76) of u containing u0 , all metric functions in (65) are
smooth and finite (which guarantees regularity and
Also, in an arbitrary gauge the diagonal components absence of horizons). The cylinder u = u0 is then
called a throat (or an r-throat).
of the Ricci tensor can be written as follows:
The diagonal part of the T in the most general
00
00
02
02
02
1
2 00
form:
R1 = e
[ + + + + +
0

( + + )] + 2 2
R22

(77)

= 1

(78)

R33

= 1 + 2

R44

= 1 2 2

() G

T22 = pz ,

T33 = p ,

T44 = . (83)
0

Thus, at a minimum of r(u), due to = 0 and


(79) 00 > 0, one obtain R3 33 2 2 < 0 and for the cor(80) responding component of (25) it follows:

0 0
where for any f (u), 1 f = g 1/2 [ gg 11 f ] =
00
0
0
0
0
0
e2 [f + f ( + + )]. The Ricci tensor
can split into the static part (s) R and the rotational
part () R = 2 diag(2, 0, 2, 2). The coordinates
are ordered as follows: (u, z, , t). The corresponding Einstein tensor G splits in a similar manner,
G = [(s) G ]+[() G ],

T11 = pr ,

= 2 diag(1, 1, 1, 3).
(81)
Where the tensors (s) G and () G satisfy the conservation law G = 0 with respect to the static
metric (65) with E 0.

pr pz + p 2 2 / < 0

(84)

Furhermore , it is rather natural, also by analogy


with spherical symmetry, to define a throat and a
wormhole in therms of the area function a(u) = e+
instead of r(u).
Definition 2: In a space-time with the metric (65),
an a-throat is a cylinder u = ua where the function
a(u) = e+ has a regular minimum. A configuration where on both sides of ua the function a(u) grows
to values a  a(ua ), and, in some range of u containing ua , all metric functions in (65) are smooth and
finite, is called a a-wormhole. Let discuss what are

12

the existence conditions of an a-throat. By definition this case three of the four diagonal components of
0
0
00
00
2, at u = u1 one have + = 0 and + = 0. (90) for a masless scalar field give:
The minimum occurs in any admissible coordinate u,
00
R2 22 = 0 = 0
(92)
in particular, in temrs of the armonic coordinate. Using it in the Einsteins equation and with (78), (79)
00
00
00
R33 = 0 2 2 e2 = 0
(93)
it is found that the condition + implies:
00
4
2 2
R4 = 0 + 2 e = 0
(94)
00
00
R22 + R33 = e2 ( + ) + 2 2 < 2 2
(85)
Thus, it follows:
And thus,
= mu [with a certain choice of z scale] (95)
T11 + T44 = pr < 2 2 /
0

(86)

In addition, using + = 0 into the Einsteins


equation G11 = T11 one obtain:
0

+ = 2hu [with a certain choice of z scale] (96)

02

G11 = e2 + 2 = e2 + 2 2

(87)

00

00

= 402 e22

(97)

Where equation (75) has been taken into account for


T11 = pr 2 /
(88) the expression in (97). This equation is a Liouville
equation whose solution can be written in the form:
If 6= 0, these requirements leave an opportunity
e = 20 s(k, u)
(98)
of having a cylindircal wormhole geometry without
violating the standard energy conditions. However,
this requirements are valid only for the existence of with

throats because for a wormhole geometry we need


1

k > 0, u R+ ;
k sinh(ku),
to have a regular asymptotic behavior far form the
u,
k = 0, u R+ ;
throat i.e. const while r , then it will be a s(k, u) =
1
k sin(ku),
k < 0, 0 < u < /|k|.
wormhole geometry by both definitions.
And thus,

5.4

Here h, k, m = const, and the other three inte-

Vacuum and massless scalar field sogration constants have been suppressed by choosing
lutions

scales along z and t axes in (95) and (96) and origin


If we consider a minimally coupled field with the of u in s(k, u) (last equation). Now, it is straightforfollowing Lagrangian as a source of the geometry ward to obtain:
(65):
e2hu
e2 =
,
e2 = e2mu
1
2
s(k,
u)
0
Ls = ()2 V ()
(89)
2
Where = +1 corresponds to a normal scalar field
emu2hu
e2 = 20 s(k, u)e2hu , e2 = e(4h2m)u , =
,
and = 1 to a phantom one.
2s(k, u)
Let assume = (u) and the co-moving reference
Z
frame, so that T43 = 0 and the Ricci tensor has the
du
0
2hu
= e2hu [E0 s(k, u)s (k, u)]
E = e s(k, u)
form (77)-(80). The stress energy tensor of is:
2
s (k, u)
(99)
1
0
T () = e2 2 diag(1, 1, 1, 1) + V ()
2
E0 = const. The scalar field equation reads
(90) With
00

=
0,
whence = Cu (fixing the inessential zero
And it is very convenient to use Einsteins equations
point
of
);
the constant C has the meaning of scalar
in the form:
charge density. Lastly, the Einstein equation G11 =
1
1
R = (T T ) = ( V ). (91) T1 which is first-order, leads to a relation between
2
the integration constants:

We focus on configuration of the type T 0 and


k 2 sign k = 4(h2 2hm) 2C 2
(100)
V () 0.
Using the armonic radial coordinate such that =
This completes the solution.
+ + the expressions (77)-(80) are simplified, in
00
2
particular, 1 f = e
f for any f (u). Thus, for
13

A wormhole geometry by Definition 1 corresponds (2007).


to the cylindrical radius r = e at both ends
[8] V. G. Krechet and D. V. Sadovnikov, Grav.
of the u range. It is clear that r and e 0
Cosmol. 13, 269 (2007).
as u 0 in all these solutions. In the same limit
the vortex , which probably indicates a singularity, although all components of the scalar field
0
SET are finite (since is finite and = C), hence,
by the Einsteins equations, the same is true for the
components of the Ricci tensor; however, taken separately, the static and vortex parts of the Ricci tensor
diverge. As to the other end of the u range, the situation is more diverse:
1. k > 0. At large u, e2 u(2hk)u and e2
e(2h+k)u , hence wormholes with a r-throat exists if
0 < k < 2h; we also have e at large u. A
wormhole with an a-throat if 0 < k < 2(h m).
2. k = 0. At large u we have e2 u1 e2hu and
e2 ue2hu , hence we have a wormhole geometry
with an r-throat if h > 0 and with an a-throat if
h m > 0. In addition, e at large u.
3. k < 0. A wormhole geometry (with both kinds of
throats) is described by all solutions with k < 0. At
both ends, e and e 0, while e+ and e
remain finite, and e2 .
We conclude that rotating cylindrical vacuum and
scalar-vacuum space-times are quite generically of wormhole nature, and in particular, the questions asked in
the title is answered YES. Though, none of these rotating wormholes solutions are asymptotically flat.
An attempt to remove this shortcoming was made in
[5].

References
[1] M. Visser, Lorentzian Wormholes: from Einstein
to Hawking (AIP, Woodbury, 1995).
[2] K. A. Bronnikov and S. G. Rubin, Black Holes,
Cosmology and Extra Dimensions (World Scientific,
2012).
[3] K. A. Bronnikov and J. P. S. Lemos, Phys. Rev.
D 79, 104019 (2009); arXiv: 0902.2360.
[4] V. G. Krechet and D. V. Sadovnikov, Grav.
Cosmol. 15, 337 (2009), arXiv: 0912.2181.
[5] K. A. Bronnikov, V. G. Krechet, and J. P. S.
Lemos, Phys. Rev. D 87, 084060 (2013); arXiv:
1303.2993.
[6] K. A. Bronnikov, M.V. Skvortsova; arXiv:
1404.5750.
[7] V. G. Krechet, Izv. Vuzov, Fiz. No. 10, 57
14