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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS
TOPIC: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
COURSE CODE: AISM-09/M/DFEQ

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AISM-09/M/DFEQ

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Basic Concepts
Definition: Differential Equation
Let us consider the following equations
=y+x+5
+y=0
These equations contain derivative(s) of y. Thus we have the
definition:
An equation involving derivatives or differentials of one (or
more) independent variable(s) with respect to one (or more)
independent variable(s) is called a differential equation.

Order and Degree of a Differential Equation


We categorise differential equations by their degree and order. Let
us consider following differential equations:(i)

= (x + sin x)
= et

(ii)
(iii)

y=

(iv)

The order and degree of equation (i) is 1, 1


The order of highest derivative involved in a differential equation
is called order of differential equation.

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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The integer power raised to highest derivative of a function is


called the degree of a differential equation.
Hence, Order of (ii) is 4, order of (iii) is 1 and order of (iv) is 2
Degree of (ii) is 1, degree of (iii) is 2 and degree of (iv) is 2

The order of the highest differential coefficient appearing in the differential


equation is said to be the order of the differential equation. The highest
power of the highest order differential coefficient appearing in the
polynomial form of the differential equation is called the degree of the
differential equation.
Illustration:
Find the order and degree (if defined) of the following differential
equation:
x3 + y = log2
Solution:
The given equation can be re-written as

Hence its order is 2 and degree is 1.


Illustration:
Find the order and degree (if defined) of the following differential
equation:
y=x

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Solution:
.
y2 2xy

+ x2

= a 2 + a2

The order of the highest order derivative is 1 and its degree is 2.


Hence order is 1 and degree is 2.
Formulae of Differential Equations
Given an n-parameter family, an nth order differential equation can be
obtained whose solution is the given family or expression.
Illustration:
Find the differential equation from the equation
Solution:

x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by + c = 0

(i)

For forming a differential equation we have to remove the arbitrary


constants from the given equation.
Differentiating (i) w.r.t. to x, we get,
2x + 2y

+ 2a + 2b

=0

(ii)

Differentiating (ii) w.r.t. to x, we get,


1+

=0

(iii)

Differentiating (iii) w.r.t. to x, we get,


2

=0

(iv)

We note that the equation (iii) and (iv) both have only one constant b.
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Therefore, substituting value of b from (iii) into (iv), we get the


desired differential equation as

Equations of first order and First Degree


The equation of first order and the first degrees are of the form
= f(x, y, c) where, c is a constant
Or
M (x, y, c) dx + N (x, y, c) dy = 0
Let us now learn to solve the differential equations of first
degree and first order.
The simplest form of differential equation which can be early solved is
M(x) ax + N(y) dy = 0. This form is called variable separable form
because the terms of x and y are separate from each other. These
forms can be integrated individually.
The equation is given
M(x) dx + N(y) dy = 0
Integrating we get
= C where C is an arbitrary constant of integration.
Illustration:
Suppose we have the differential equation x 3y dy + y2xdx = 0
Solution:
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Let us first separate xdx, ydy. So we divide by x 3 y2 and we get,


dy +

=0

=0
Integrating with respect to respective variable we get
In y

=c

In y = c +

y=

= c

Required solution is y = c
Illustration:
Find the differential equation whose solution represents the family
xy = aex + bex.
Solution:
We have xy = aex + bex
Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get
x

+ y = aex + bex.

Differentiating (2) now, with respect to x, we get


x

= aex + bex.

From (1), aex + bex = xy, so that we get


x

= xy, which is the required differential equation.

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(1)

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Illustration:
Find the differential equation whose solution represents the family
c(y + c)2 = x3.
Solution:
The given family is c(y + c)2 = x3.
Differentiating once, we get
c[2(y + c)]

= 3x2
= 3x2

or

=3

=y+c

= 3x2
c=

y.

Substituting c back into question (1), we get


= x3
which is the required differential equation.
Illustration:
Find the differential equation whose solution represents the family
y = ae3x + bex.
Solution:
Differentiating the given relation, we get
= 3ae3x + bex,
= 9ae3x + bex.
From the above three equations, we find that
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+ 3y = 0.

Solution of Differential Equations


If we have a differential equation of order n then by solving a differential
equation we mean to get a family of curves with n parameters whose
differential equation is the given differential equation. For the solution of
differential equations of order 1 and degree 1, we have the following
method:
First Order Differential Equations with Separable Variables
Let the differential equation be of the form

= f(x, y)

(1)

where f(x, y) denotes a function in x and y.


(1) is separable if it can be expressed in the form f(x, y) =
where M(x), N(y) are real valued functions of x and y respectively.
Then, we have

(2)

N(y) dy = M(x) dx.


Integrating both sides of (2), we get the solution viz.
+ c.
Illustration:
Solve

= exy + x2ey.

Solution:
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

We write

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as

ey dy = (x2 + ex) dx.


Integrating both sides, we get ey =

+ ex + c which is the solution of

the above differential equation, where c is an arbitrary constant.


Illustration:
Solve

= 0.

Solution:
Here

= xy

+ c.
This is the solution to the given differential equation.
Differential Equations Reducible to the Separable Variable Type
Sometimes differential equation of the first order cannot be solved directly
by variable separation. By some substitution we can reduce it to a
differential equation with separable variables. A differential equation of the
form
= f(ax + by + c) is solved by writing ax + by + c = t.

Illustration:
Solve

= sin2 (x + 3y) + 5.
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Solution:
Let x + 3y = t, so that 1 + 3

.
= sin2 t + 5.

The given differential equation becomes


= 3 sin2 t + 16

or

=
[u = tan t = tan (x + 3y)]

+ c.
We can see if the given differential equation is of the form
= f(ax + by + c). If so we can reduce it to the variable separate

form
The given equation is
= f(ax + by + c)

(i)

Let us consider the substitution ax + by + c = v.


(i) will become
= f(v)
= f(v) +
= b dx
Equation (ii) can be solved by separations of variables.
Solution of (ii) will be

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(ii)

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where c is an arbitrary constant.

Important:
If

then we can express it as


= f(ax + by)

Illustration:
Solve:

= (4x + y + 1)2

(i)

Solution:
Let

4x + y + 1 = v
4+

(ii)

From (i) and (ii) we have


= v2 + 4
= dx
Integrating we get
x+c=

tan1

tan1

(4x + y + 1)

where c is an arbitrary constant of integration


Pause:
If c = 0 in

= f(ax + by + c) then

= f(ax + by)

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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We substitute here ax = y = v

First Order Differential Equations of Homogeneous Nature


Suppose we have the differential equation of the form
= f(x, y)

(1)

where f(x, y) is a function of x and y. (1) is of the homogeneous form if it


can be written in the form
or
.
These equations are solved by putting y = vx, where v
dx.

Illustration:
Solve (x2 + y2)dx 2xy dy = 0.
Solution:
Here
Let y = vx so that
v+x

=v+x
x

x
log (1 v2) = log x log c

x(1 v2) = c.

= c.
So, x2 y2 cx = 0, is the required solution.
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v(x), a function of

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Illustration:
Solve (x2 + 3xy + y2)dx = x2dy
Solution:
We write

and take y = vx

v+x
or 1 + 3v + v2 v = x
v2 + 2v + 1 = x

log x =

+c

log x +

=c

which is the required solution.


Illustration:
Solve (x2 + 3xy + y2)dx = x2dy.
Solution:
The above equation is homogeneous so that we put y = vx, giving
= v + v2

2
2x

2v + 2x

= v + v2

= v2 v

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

loge (v 1) loge (v) =


loge

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loge(x) + logec

= loge

=c

=c
yx=c

y,

which is the required solution.


Equations Reducible to the Homogeneous Form
Equations of the form

(aB

Ab) can be reduced to a

homogeneous form by changing the variables x, y to X, Y be writing x = X +


h, y = Y + k; where h, k are constants to be chosen so as tomake the given
equation homogeneous. We have

so that the equations becomes


.
Let h and k be chosen so as to satisfy the conditions ah + bk + c = 0 and
Ah + Bk + C = 0.
These give h =

which are meaning full except when aB = Ab.


can now be solved by means of the substitution Y = VX.

Illustration:
Solve

.
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Solution:
Put x = X + h, y = Y + k.
We have

To determine h and k, we set


h + 2k + 3 = 0, 2h + 3k + 4 = 0
Hence

h = 1, k = 2.

Putting Y = VX, we get


V+X

or

log (

V 1)

log (

V + 1) = (log X + c)

log (

Y X)

log (

Y + X) = A

where A is another constant and X = x 1, Y = y + 2.


Remark:

For aB = Ab, put ax + by = t and solve by variable separation.

Expressing any 1st order 1st degree differential equation in the form
.
The differential is given
Let us consider the substitution y = vx.
(i) will become
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(i)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

v+x

= f(v)

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= f(v) v
(ii)

Now, (ii) is the differential equation of type variable separable.


Thus its solution is
+ c where c is an arbitrary constant.

Illustration:

Solution:
Substituting
y = vx

we get

Or v + x

=v

=v+x

x
.
Integrating we have 3 log

+ 2 log

= log x + c

Differential equation which cannot be reduced to the variable


separable form
If any 1st order 1st degree differential equation cab expressed in
the form
= f(x, y) where
, it can be solved by
reducing into homogeneous form.
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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It is clear from the given equation that we can not express it as


.
To make it homogeneous we should make a transformation in
such as manner that its constant terms present in numerator and
denominator of f(x, y) vanish.
This equation is solved by the substitution
x=X+h
y=Y+k
The constant h & k are chosen
So that ah + bk + c = 0 and ah + bk + c = 0
Thus the equation reduce

Which being
substitution Y = VX.

homogeneous

can

be

solved

Illustration:
If we have equation like:

Solution:
Then we substitute x = X +
y=Y+

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by

standard

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+2 +1=0
2 +2=0
or 2 + 3 = 0

X=x+

Y=y

Now
It can solved as shown in the previous example. We will get the
result in the form of
F(Y, X) = c.
In this result we substitute the value of Y, X to get the result in
the form of
F

=c

Pause:
When

, then you can solve it as reducible variable

separable equation.

Important 1:
1.

If we can express any differential equation in the form


d[f(x, y)] = 0 then we can solve it by simple integration
= 0 or, f(x, y) = c where c is an arbitrary constant.

2.

If d[f(x, y)] = f(x) dx or f(y) dy. Then we have the solution as


f(x, y) =
dx + c or
dy + c.
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Differential equation which cant be reduced to either variable


separable or homogeneous forms
If the differential equation is of the form

+ P(x) = y Q(x)

(i)

Where P(x), Q(x) are function of x alone or constant it is called a


linear equation and can be solved in the following manner.
Pause:
Equation (i) is linear y.
Equation (i) can be expressed in the form d(f(x, y)) = 0. If we
multiply
both sides.
Hence we have
+ yP(x)

= Q(x)

= Q(x)
Hence its solution is
y

dx + c where c is an arbitrary constant.

Note:
1.

If an equation can be expressed in the form


Then
x

2.

Here,

it

will
=
,

be

+ P(y)x = Q(y).

linear in x and its solution is


dy + c where c is an arbitrary constant.
are called Integrating factor.

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Illustration:
Given differential equation is
+ x2y = x5

Solution:
So integrating factor is
Multiplying the L.H.S. & R.H.S. with this we get
x5

=
t et
3y

dx + c
+ c where x3 = t
et + c
= x3

+c

First Order Linear Differential Equation


The differential equation of the form

+ Py = Q, where P, Q are functions

of x alone, is called a linear differential equation.


Multiplying be

on both sides, we get

or
or

or,

dx

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

or, y.

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= (x) + c, where (x) = Q.

which is the required solution of the given differential equation.

Note:
The factor

is called the integrating factor.

Illustration:
Solve

+ 2y = cos x.

Solution:
It is a linear equation. The integrating factor is
.
Hence, the solution is given by
ye2x =

cos x dx + c =

[2 cos x + sin x] + c.

Illustration:
+ be = enx.

Solve
Solution:

Integrating factor is given by


= ebx. Now, the solution is given by
yebx =

dx + c
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

or yebx =

dx + c

or yebx =

e(n+b)x + c

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enx + cebx.

y=

Illustration:
Solve y +

(xy) = x(sinx + logx).

Solution:
Here y +

(xy) = x(sinx + logx)

y+y+x
or,
I.F. =

+2

= x(sin x + log x) or, x

+ 2y = x(sin x + log x)

= sin x + log x.

(1)

= e2 ln x = eln x2 = x2.

Multiplying (1) by x2, we get,


x2
or
= x2

= x2(sin x + log x) or,


(yx2) =

(yx2) = x2 (sin x + log x)

(sin x + log x)

dx 2

= x2 cosx + 2

dx + log x
cos xdx +

= x2 cos x + 2x

(2)
dx

dx

dx 2

= x2 cosx + 2x sinx 2

xdx +

= x2 cosx + 2x sinx + 2 cos x +

log x

log x

+ c.

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dx

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Hence (2) reduces to


yx2 = x2 cosx + 2x sinx + 2 cos x +

log x

+ c.

Extended Form of Linear Differential Equations


Sometimes a differential equation is not linear but it can be converted into a
linear differential equation by some suitable substitution.
Bernoullis equation
+ Py = Qyn

(1)

where P and Q are function of x alone. Dividing each term of (1) by y n, we


get
= Q.
Put

(2)

= v, so that

Substituting in (2), we get


+ (1 n)v.P

(3)

(3) is a linear differential equation.


Note:
+ P(y)x = Q(y)xn is also Bernoullis equation reducible to linear
differential equation.
Illustration:
Suppose we have
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

+ y tan x = yn sin x
Solution:
Dividing by yn we get
tan x = sin x
=t

(1 n)

As we get
+ (1 n) (tan x) t = (1 n) sin x
= (cos x)(n1)

I.F. =

d(t(cos x)n1) = (1 n) sin x. (cos x)n1 dx


t(cos x)n1 =

(cos x)n + c

(cos x)n1 =

cosn x + c

Which is the required solution.


Some Useful Results:
(i)

d(x + y) = dx + dy

(ii)

d(xy) = x dy + y dx
d(x2 + y2) = x dx + y dy

(iii)
(iv)

(v)

d
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

(vi)

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(vii) d
(viii) d
(ix)

(x)

d (x2 y2) = 2x2 y dy + 2xy2 dx

Illustration:
Solve the differential equation
x dy y dx = (x2 + y2) dx
x dy y dx = (x2 + y2) dx
Solution:
Dividing both sides by x2 we get
dx
d

dx.

= dx.
Integrating we have
tan1

= x + c where c is an arbitrary constant.

y = x tan (x + c) is the required solution.


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(i)

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Illustration:
Solve (y logx 1) ydx = xdy.
Solution:
The given differential equation can be written as
+ y = y2 log x.

(1)

Divide by xy2. Hence


log x.
Let

=v

So that

log x,

(2)

(2) is the standard linear differential equation with P=


I.F. =

, Q=

log x,

= 1/x.

The solution is given by


v

+ c.
v = 1 + log x + cx = log ex + cx

or 1/y = log ex + cx or y (log ex + cx) = 1.


General Form of Linear Differential Equation
A general form of the linear differential equation is f(y)
Here, we write f(y) = t. The differential equation becomes
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+ P(x) f(y)=Q(x).
+ P(x)t = Q(x).

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Illustration:
Solve sin y

= cos y (1 x cos y).

Solution:
The differential equation is sin y
or sin y

= cos y(1 x cos y)

cos y = x cos2 y.

Divide by cos2y. We get tan y sec y


Let sec y = v
So that

(1)

secy = x.

sec y tan y

v = x.

(2)

(2) is linear differential equation with P = 1, Q = x,


I.F. =

= ex .

The solution is given v.ex =

ex dx = x ex + ex + c

= ex (x + 1) + c or v = (1 + x) + cex
or sec y = (1 + x) + cex.
General Form of Variable Separation
If we can write the differential equation as
f1(f2(x)) d(f2(x)) + f3(f4(x)) d(f4(x)) ++ f2n1 (f2n(x)) d(f2n(x)) = 0,
where f1, f2, , f2n are real valued functions, then each term can be easily
integrated separately. For this the following derivatives must be
remembered.
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

(i)

d(x + y) = dx + dy

(ii)

d(xy) = y dx + x dy

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

d(ln xy) =

(vi)

(vii) d
(viii) d
(ix)

Illustration:
Solve

= x2 + 2y2 +

Solution:
The given equation can be written as
.
Integrating both sides, we get
= c.

Orthogonal Trajectory
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

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Any curve which cuts every member of a given family of curves at right
angle is called an orthogonal trajectory of the family. For example, each
straight line passing through the origin i.e. y = kx is an orthogonal trajectory
of the family of the circles x 2 + y2 = a2.
Procedure for finding the orthogonal trajectory
(i)

Let f(x, y, c) = 0 (1) be the equation of the given family of curves,


where c is an arbitrary parameter.

(ii)

Differentiate (1) w.r.t. x and then eliminate c i.e. form a differential


equation.

(iii)

Substitute

in the above differential equation. This will give

the differential equation of orthogonal trajectories.


(iv)

By solving this differential equation we get the required orthogonal


trajectories.

Illustration:
Find the orthogonal trajectories of the hyperbola xy = c.
Solution:
The equation of the given family of curves is xy = c.

(1)

Differentiate (1) w. r. t. x. We get


x

+ y = 0.

(2)

Substitute
x

for

in (2). We get

+y=0

(3)

This is the differential equation for the orthogonal trajectory of given


family of hyperbolas.
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

(3) can be rewritten as


xdy = ydy, which on integration gives x2 y2 = c.
This is the family of required orthogonal trajectories.
Application of Differentiation Equations
Rate of Change Problems
Illustration:
If the population of a country doubles in 50 years, in how many years
will it triple under the assumption that the rate of increase in
proportional to the number of inhabitants?
Solution:
Let x denote the population at a time t in years;
then
Solving

= kx, where k is a constant of proportionality.

= kx, we get

log x = kt + c
at time t = 0.

x = ekt + c

x = x0ekt, where x0 is the population

Since it doubles in 50 years, at t = 50, we must have x = 2x0.


Hence, 2x0 = x0e50k = 50k = log 2
k=

, so that x = x0

For x = 3x0,
3x0 = x0

log 3 =

t = log 3

t = 50

= 79 years.

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

Illustration:
The rate at which a substance cools in moving air is proportional to the
difference between the temperatures of the substance and that of the
air. If the temperature of the air is 290K and the substance cools from
370K to 330K in 10 minutes, when will the temperature be 295K?
Solution:
Let t be the temperature of the substance at time t. Then
(T 20)

= k (T 290)

= k

(1)

Integrating the LHS between the limits, T = 330 to T = 370 and the
RHS between the limits t = 0 to t = 10, we get

or log 40 log 80 = k. 10
i.e. k =

log 2 = 10k.

(2)

Now, integrating (1) between T = 370 and T = 295 and t = t and


t = 0, we get

log 5 log 80 = kt
t=

log16 = kt.

Hence, from (2), t =

. 10 = 40 minutes.

Geometrical Applications
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

We also use differential equations for finding family of curves for which some
conditions involving the derivatives are given.
Equation of tangent at a point (x, y) on the curve y = f(x) is given by
Yy=
(X x).
At the X-axis, Y = 0, so that x = xy/
Y=yx

and at the Y-axis, X = 0, so that

Hence the length of intercept of tangent on the X-axis is x y/


Y-axis is y x

and on the

. Similarly we can find the intercepts made by normals.

Illustration:
A normal is drawn at a point P(x, y) of a curve. It meet the x-axis at
Q. If PQ is of constant length k. Then show that the differential
equation describing such curves is y
. Find the equation
of such a curve passing through (0, k).
Solution:
Equation of the normal at a point P(x, y) is given by
Yy=

(X x)

(1)

Let the point at the x-axis be (x, 0). From (1), we get
y

= x1 x.

(2)

Now given that PQ2 = k2


or, x x1 =

Hence, using (2), we obtain y

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(3)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

(3) is the required differential equation for such curves.


Now solving (3), we get,
or x2 + y2 = k2, which passes through (0, k).

Solved Examples
Example 1:
Find the order and the degree of the following differential equation
(i)

=0

(ii)
Solution:
(i)

=0
The highest derivative in this equation is order 3
Therefore the order of the differential equation is 3.
The power of the highest derivative raised is 2.
Hence the degree of the equation is 2

(ii)

y=x

y2 + x2

2xy

=1+

The order of the differential equation is 1


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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

The degree of the differential equation is 2


Example 2:
Solve the differential equation
x

dx + y

dy = 0

Solution:
x

dx + y

dx = y

dy = 0
dy

Integrating both sides w.r.t.x,

+c
+ c1 (c = c1)
Example 3:
Solve the differential equation
x

y = x tan

given y = /2 when x = 1

Solution:
Equation (i) reduces to

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(i)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

Let y/x = V

y = Vx

Therefore, the differential equation becomes


V+x

= V + tan V

Integrating both sides we get

log sin V = log x + log C


sin V = Cx

sin

=x

Example 4:
Solve the differential equation
(x 1) dy + ydx = x(x 1)

dx

Solution:
(x 1) dy + ydx = x(x 1)

dx

y = xy1/3
y2/3 = x
Let y2/3 = z
y1/3
The above equation becomes
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AISM-09/M/DFEQ

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

=x
x
This is known as linear differential equation, Integration actor is given
by
I.F = exp

dx
= (x 1)2/3

= exp
z(x 1)2/3 =

y2/3 = c(x 1)2/3 +

dx + c
(x 1)2 +

(x 1)

Example 5:
Solve the differential equation

Solution:

Let x = X + , y = Y +
dx = dX and dy = dY

The differential equation reduces to:

Now ,

are chosen so that


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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

= 1 and
= ,

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

=2

So the equation becomes

Let Y = VX
V+X
X

=
dV =

dX

Log |V2 + 2V 1| = 2 log |x| + log c


V2 + 2V 1 =
Y2 + 2XY X2 = C
(y )2 + 2(x ).(y ) (x )2 = c
=c
(2y 3)2 + 2(2x 1) (2y 3) (2x 1)2 = C1
Example 6:
Solve the differential equation.
x log x

+ y = 2 log x
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

Solution:
x log x

+ y = 2 log x

This is a linear differential equation


I.F. = exp.

= exp. (log log x) = log x

The required solution is


y log x =

log xdx + c

y log x = (log x)2 + c


Example 7:
A normal is drawn at a point P (x, y) of a curve. It meets the x-axis at
Q. If PQ is of constant length k, show that the differential equation
describing such curve is
Solution:
Let P(x, y) be any point on the curve. Let Q is the point (C, O).
Equation of the normal PQ would be
y0=
=

(x c)
(c x)

Now,
y2 + (c x)2 = k2
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(i)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

(c x) =
Then (I) implies y
Which is the required equation of the above curve.
Example 8:
Let y = f(x) be a curve such that the triangle formed by the
co-ordinate axes and tangent at any point of the curve lies in the first
quadrant and has area 2. Form the differential equation.
y
P(x, y)

y
O

(x, 0)

k
Q
(c, 0)

Solution:
Let P(h, k) be a point on the curve, then equation of the tangent at P
would be
yk=
Now y = 0

(x h)
OX = x = h

Similarly for x = 0

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

OY = y = h

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

+k

Area of triangle OXY = 2


=2
=4
Generalising (h, k) by (x, y)
=4
xy

+ xy = 4

2xy

x2 + y2

Example 9:
A curve y = f(x) passes through the point P (1, 1). The normal to the
curve at P is a (y 1) + (x 1) = 0. If the slope of the tangent at any
point on the curve is proportional to the ordinate of the point.
Determine the equation of the curve.
Solution:
Equation of the curve is y = f(x)
Let P(x, y) be any point on the curve.
Now

= ky

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(i)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

log y = kx + c
Since the curve passes through (1, 1)
log (1) = k + c
k=c
Equation of normal at (1, 1)
(y 1) =

(x 1)

(x 1) +
Now,

(y 1) = 0

at (1, 1) = k [using (1)]


(x 1) + k (y 1) = 0

The given equation of normal is a (y 1) + (x 1) = 0


Comparing the two equations, we get
k=a

c=a

The required equation of the curve is,


log y = ax a
y = eax 3
Example 10:
If the gradient of a curve at any point (x, y) is 2y + x and it passes
through the origin, then find its equation.
Solution:
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

Given,
Or

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

= 2y + x
2y = x

Which is linear differential equation.


Its solution is
ye2x =

e2x dx + c

=
y = c e2x

(i)

It passes through origin (0, 0)


0=c

c=

(ii)

From (i) and (ii) we have


y=

e2x

or 4y = e2x 2x 1

which is the required equation of curve.


Example 11:
The number of bacteria in a yeast culture grows at a rate, which is
proportional to the number present. If the population of a colony of
yeast bacteria triples in 1 hour, find the number of bacteria, which will
be present at the end of 5 hours.
Solution:
Suppose that the number of bacteria is x 0 when t = 0 and it is x at
time t (in hours)
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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

= kx

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

= k dt

(i)

Where k is the constant of proportionality solution of (i) is


log x log c = kt where c is an arbitrary constant.
Or,

log

= kt

x = c ekt
when t = 0 x = x0
c = x0
We have x = x0 ekt
Given x = 3x0 when t = 1
3x0 = x0 ek i.e. ek = 3
We have to find when t = 5 then what is x 5?
x5 = x0 e5k = x0(ek)5 = 35 x0
x5 = 243 x0
Example 12:
Find the family of curves whose tangent form an angle
hyperbola xy = c.
Solution:
Here, the required angle is given by
= tan1
Or,

tan
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with the

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

where m1 =

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

for the required family at (x, y)

m2 = value of

for the curve xy = c

=
1=

dy = dx

dx

Integrating we have
tan1

y=x
Or,

y = x 2

+ d, where d is an arbitrary constant.

tan1

+ d, which is the required family.

Example 13:
Solve the differential equation
+6=0
Solution:
Let

=p

Equation (i) becomes


p2 5p + 6 = 0
p2 3p 2p + 6 = 0
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(i)

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

AISM-09/M/DFEQ

p (p 3) 2 (p 3) = 0
(p 3) (p 2) = 0
Thus either p 3 = 0 or p 2 = 0

(i)

p=3

(ii)

or, p = 2

(iii)

(ii) gives

=3

Integrating we get y = 3x + c,

(iii) gives

=2

Integrating we get y = 2x + c2,


Where c1 and c2 are arbitrary constant

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