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McGraw Hill Education RYT)
COMPLETE
male s(en
eC: we Lea
For details log on to www.mhetestprep.comMeGraw Hill Education (india) Private Limited
Published by MoGraw Hil Education (India) Private Limite,
-24, Green Park Extension, New Delhi 110 016
Complete Physies—JEE, Main
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Cover Designer: K Anoop
DCALCRCODZOACContents
re
13
uM
15,
16.
17.
18,
1.
20,
24
A Word to the Reader
About JEE Main
Syllabus
Physics and Measurement
. Kinematies
- Laws of Motion
Work, Energy and Power
Rotational Motion
5. Gravitation
. Solids and Fluids
3. Heat and Thermodynamics
. Kinetic Theory of Gases
10.
Oscillations and Waves
Blectrostaties
Current Electricity
Magnetic Effeets of Current and Magn
Electromagnetic Induction and Altemating Currents
Blectromagnetie Waves
Ray Opties
Wave Optics
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
‘Atoms and Nuclei
Electronic Deviees
‘Communication Systems
Practice Test Paper-t
Practice Test Paper-
Practice Test Paper-I1
Practice Test Paper-IV
Practice Test Paper-V
212.54
3.13.66
41-442
51-552
66M
7.4-7.60
8.18.52
9.9.12
1o.1-10.74
M111 58
ss
131-1342
14.1-14.46
5.8
16.1-16.42
15.
17.1-17.26
181-1822
19.1-19.28
20.1-20.30
Pips
P10-PA8
P19-P29
P30-P4l
PAD-P52i
yee Mau
@ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
1. The Si system of Units
‘The internationally accepted standard units of the funds
‘mental physical quantities are given in Table 1.1
Table 1.1. Fundamenal S1niss
Physical Quantity ‘Symnbor
Length m
Mass kilogram ke
Time second ‘
hectic euerent ampere a
‘Temperature kelvin K
Luminous intensity candela od
‘Amount of substance mole mol
Angle in «plane radian rad
Solid angle steradian s
2. Dimensions of Physical Quantities
The dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to
which the fundamental units of mass (M), length (L) and
time (T) must he raised to represent the unit of that quan-
tity. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity is an
expression that tells us how and which of the fundamental
quantities enter into the unit of that quantity.
In mechanics, the dimensional formula is writen in
terms of the dimensions of mass, length and time (M, L
tnd 7). In heat and thermodynamics, in addition to M, L.
and T, we need to mention the dimension of temperature
in kelvin (K), In electricity and magnetism, in addition 10
M, Land T, we need to mention the dimension of eurrent
or charge per unit time (A or QT")
Example 1 Find the dimensional formula of (a) veloe-
ity, (b) acceleration, (¢) foree, (A) work, (e) energy and
(D pressure.
Solution
distance _ dx
(2) Velocity (¢)= Ssanee = & - ILI
time dt
=(LT = LT}
eration (@) = 22 = MOLT
(6) Acceleration (a)= FF = NS
(©) Fores (F) = ma=[M] x [M°LT
(@) Work (1) = Fx= [MLT?] x{L]=[MLT?]
(6) Enerey = work = [M L217]
[uur
ita
‘Table 1.2 gives the dimensional formulae of some im-
portant physical quantities.
(8 Pressure IMT?)
3. Princi
‘of Homogeneity of Dimensions
Consider a simple equation,
A+B=C,
I-this is an equation of Physies, i. if 4, B and C are
physical quantities, then this equation says that one physi-
cal quantity A, when added to another physical quantity B,
gives a third physical quamtity C, This equation will have
rao meaning in Physics if the nature (ie. the dimensions)
of the quantities on the left-hand side of the equation is
not the same as the nature of the quantity on the right-hand
side. For example, if 4 isa length, B must also be a length
and the result of addition of 4 and B must express length,
In other words, the dimensions of both sides of a physical
equation must be identical. Ths is called the principle of
homogeneity of dimensions12 Complete Physics JEE Mam
Table 1.2 Dimensional Formulae of some Physical Qua
Physical Qvantny Diinensonal Forma Physical Quantity
‘Arca Met? eat eneray
Volume Mit’ Eniropy
Density ML Specific heat
Velocity mer! Latent heat
Aveeeration| weir? ‘Molar specific heat
‘Momentum ur! “Thermal conductivity
Angular momentum MT Wien's constant
Force ur? Stan's constant
Eneray, work MET? Boltamann’s constant MET?K!
Power MutT “Molar gas constant MUTA mot!
“Torque, couple MET? lecre charge Tord
Impulse Mur! lect curren ‘AorQr!
Frequency Mur! lesre potential, MIT 7071
orMLT A
Angular Fequeney wer! lect feld Mur?!
orMET A
Angular acceleration wr? Capacitance MeL rtas
orML?T°Q*
Pressure Inductance MeTQ?
orMLT#A*
laste moduli Mitr? Resistance MT!
orMLT
Suess Magnetic ux MET IQ"
orML?T2A"
‘Moment of inertia utr" Magnetic fax density or METIg!
Magnetic induction fed orMLOT 2A
Surface tension Permeabiity MLQ™ or MLT-7A*
Viscosity Permitivity ML Tg?
orm TA?
Gravitational constant Planck's constant Mert
Example2 The distance v traveled by a body varies with
time fas
x =at+bP, whore a and b are constants,
Find the dimensions of a and &,
Solution The dimensions of each term on the right hand
of the given equation must be the same as those of the left
hand side, Hence
Dimensions of a= dimensions of x
fd)
am
Dimensions of he? = dimensions of x
or la LT =—MPLT
or (LT 7] =[M°LT 7)
Example 3 The pressure P, volume V’and temperature
Tof a gas are related us
(r+
where a, b, and ¢ are constants. Find the dimensions of =
5
Jw) =er
Solution Dimensions of 4 = dimensions of P
v
Dimensions of « = dimensions of PY
Also. dimensions of b = dimensions of FPhysics and Measiroment 1.3
+ Dimensions of & [Pry = [MET] x(L4]
=(IMLT
1, Trigonomettie funetion (sin, 60s, tan, cot ete) are
dimensionless. The arguments ofthese functions are
als dimensionless
2. Exponential functions are dimensionless. Their expo-
nents are also dimensionless
Example 4 When a plane wave travels in a medium, the
displacement y ofa particle located at xa ime ris given by
y= asin(br+ ex)
where a, band ¢ are constant. Find the dimensions of ©
Solution Terms brand ex must he dimensionless, Hence
Ie ay
Oe Gq
ia
ll AP a
[F]=wraewrery
and
wy
‘Note thatthe dimensions of «are the same as those of
Example In the expression
P
P is pressure, x isa distance and a and b are constants,
Find the dimensional formula for
souion [2] 10
Also ax is dimensionless. Hence fa] = [L~'
TL yt iy
pat ET
‘The principle of homogeneity of dimensions ean also be
used to find the dependence of a physical quantity on other
physical quantities
Example 6 The time period (1) of a simple pendulum
may depend upon m the mass of the bob, / the length of
the string and g the acceleration due to gravity. Find the
dependence of ron m,/ and g.
solution
Let te mhe
or to km's,
where bisa dimensiontess constant.
Writing the dimensions ofeach quantity, we have
Try = ony (ey ery
or OMT] = (Lr)
-Accosding tothe principle of homogeneity of dimen-
sions, the dimensions of ll the terms on either side ofthis
equation must be the same. Equating the powers of M, L
and T, we have
a= 0,b+0=0and-20=1,
1 1
which give b= + and e=
anebey 2
Hence f= ki #2 go>
i
aft
Ve
‘Thus risindependent ofthe mass ofthe bob ands directly
proportional to 7 and inversely proportional to y/¢
4. Significant Figures
‘The number significant figure in any measurement indi-
cates the degree of precision of that measurement. The
degree of precision is determined by the least count of the
measuring instrument. Suppose a length measured by a
ict seale (of least count = 0.1 em) is 1.5 em, then it has
two significant figures, namely 1 and 5. Measured with a
vvernier callipers (of least count = 0,01 em) the same length
is 1.53 cm and it then has three significant figures. Meas-
tured with a serew gauge (of least count = 0.001 em) the
same length may be 1.536 cm which has four significant
figures
I must be clearly understood that we cannot increase
the accuracy of a measurement of changing the unit. For
example, suppose a measurement of mass yields a value
39.4 kg, Itis understood thatthe measuring instrument has
a least count of 0.1 kg. In this measurement, three figures
3,9 and dare significant, If we change 39.4 kg to 39400 g
‘9 39400000 mg, we cannot change the accuracy of meas-
urement. Hence 39400 g or 39400000 me still have three
significant figures; the zeros only serve to indicate only the
‘magnitude of measurement,
Estimation of Appropriate Significant Figures in
Cateulations.
‘The importance of significant figures lies in calculation to
find the result of addition or multiplication of measured
{quantities having a different number of significant figures.
The least accurate quantity determines the accuracy of
the sum or product. The result must be rounded off to the
appropriate digit1A Complete Physes JEE Main
Rules for Rounding off
‘The following rules are used for dropping figures that are
not significant
1. If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, the next
(preceding) digit to be retained is left unchanged,
For example, if a number 5.34 is to be rounded off
to two significant figures, the digit tobe dropped is 4
which is less than 5. Hence the next digit, namely 3,
isnot changed. The result ofthe indicated rounding-
offs therefore, 5.3.
2. [the digit to be dropped is more than 5, the preceding
Aigit to be retained is inereased by 1, For examples
7,536 is rounded off as 7.54 to three significant
figures.
3. Ifthe digitto be dropped happens tobe 5, then
(a) the preceding digit to be retained is inereased
by 1 ifitis odd, or
(b) the preceding digit is retained unchanged i
For example, 6.75 is rounded off 10 6.8 1 wo
significant figures and 4.95 is rounded off to 5.0 but
3.45 is rounded off to 3.4
Rute for Finding Significant Figures
1. For addition and subtraction, we use the following
rile
Find the sum or difference of the given measured
quantities and then round off the final result such
that it has the same number of digits after the dect
‘mal place as in the least accurate quanuity (he. the
quantity whick has the least number of significant
figures)
Example 7 Four objects have masses 2.5 kg, 1.54 kg,
3.668 kg and 5.1278 kg. Find the total mass up to appropri-
ate significant figures,
Solution
M=2.5-+ 1.54 + 3.668 + 5.1278 ~ 12.8358 kg
In this example, the Ieast accurate quantity is 2.5 kg. This
sass is accurate only up to the first decimal place in kg.
Hence the final result much be rounded off to the first
decimal place in kg, The correct result up to appropriate
significant figures is M= 12.8 kg,
2, We use the following rule to determine the number
‘of significant figures inthe result of multiplication
and division of various physical quantities
Do not worry about the member of digits afer the
decimal place. Round off the result so that it has the
same number of significant figures as in the least
‘accurate quantity
Example® Aman runs 100.2 min 10.3 s, Find his aver
age speed up to appropriate significant figure.
0.2m
1038
‘The distance 100.2 m has four significant figures but the
time 10.3 s has only thee. Hence the value of the result
‘must be round off to three significant figures. The correct
result is 9= 9.73 ms"
28155 ms!
Solution Average speed (0
5. Least Counts of Some Measuring Instruments
1, Least count of metre scale = 1 mm
2. Vernier constant (or least count) of verniereallipers
value of | main seale division - value of I vernier
scale division = 1 M.$.D.~1V.8.D
Let the value of 1 M.S.D = a uni
I'm verier scale divisions coincide with m main
seale divisions, then value of
Lvs. =" of Ms.D= ™ uni
Least count = a ~ ™*
3, Least count of a micrometer screw is found by the
formula
Least count = ——_PitchoFserew _
Totalnumberof divisions
‘oncircularseale
‘where pitch = lateral distance moved in one com-
plete rotation of the serew,
Example 9 In a vernicr eallipers, 19 divisions of the
main seale exactly coincide with 20 divisions of the ver-
nicr seale. IF the smallest division of the main scale is 1.0
‘mm, find the vernier constant of the calipers,
Value of 1 M.S.D.~ 1.0 mm
OMSD,
Solution
20 divisions of the vernicr seal
=19x1.0mm= 19mm
Vaiue of V5.0. = 12 mm
20
Least count or vernier constant = 1 M.D. 1V.S.D
10mm
9
1 a
Fp t= 0.08 mm
0,005 emPhysics and Measiroment 1S
6. Order of Accuracy: Proportionate Error
‘The order of accuracy of the result of measurements is de
termined by the least counts of the measuring instruments
used to make those measurements. Suppose a length x is
measured with a metre seale, then the error in x 8 + Ax,
where Ax= least count of metre sale= 0.1 em. IFthe same
length is measured with vernier eallipers of least count
0.01 em, then Ax= 0.01 em.
Fractional or proportionate errors defined as “
Maximum percentage error =“ x 100,
1 Error in Sum: Suppose a quantity is given by
aaxty
Then Aa = Ax + Ay is the maximum error and
Aa _ Atay
a (ry)
2. Errorin Difference: [fa =. y, then the maximum
a= Ax+ Ay
We take the worst case in which errors add up.
Aa _ Avtay
a ey)
3. Error in Product and Suppose we deter-
‘mine the value of a physical quantity w by measur-
ing three quantities x,y and 2 whose true values are
related to 1 by the equation
yer
Lette expected small eosin the measurement of
tuuniea,y and: be respectively, dy and
Fe ota the cmorin oy oning eos obseved
Guanes 2 fur The mureical values of Be, )
thd ae given bythe Test count ofthe isc
tases sed tocar om
Taking logarithm ofboth sides we have
Jog w= @logx + Blog y~ ylogz
Partial ferentiation ofthe above eauation gives
ae gts gle
‘The proportional or relative error in w is Aul The
values of Ax, Ay and Az may be positive or negative
nd in some cases the terms on the right hand side
‘may counteract each other. This effect cannot be
relied upon and it is necessary to consider the worst,
cease which is the case when all errors add up giving
an error Au given by the equation:
pay
Tso find he maximum proportonal ero i
Tul do prveioal are ih ho 9
cat ox bebreatant od pereio a
fact bees cdr hc sta
conned
The sum obi gv te maximum po
porio! erin the aa hen he pope
ona sr nts mit 100 we
fee pcongs erro a quay
Example 10. ivan eerie fr dering ey
(vote reunguarel Dees» soda mart
tatovng mestemcats
Masse ck (m)=393¢
Lenght losk 5.126
Brea ook) 236m
"ike of ek) 0.37 em
Ti tr we tant of 201 Fd
iineanomestofs yands 001 om find he ale
of p (in g em *) up to appropriate significant figures, stat-
inte econ ne an of
ii 303 ,
Solution p= =) __ sg. s037 gem
Pp xyz 5.12x2.56*037 8
an ae ae
= 21, 001, 001 , 001
93"s12 "236" 037
=00353
8p = 0.0853 xp = 0.0353 «8.1037
= 0.286 gem~*
Round offeror Ap tothe fs significant gue as Ap -
03 gem? .
Hen p= 61037 gms not acerte tothe fourth
decimal place. In fact, itis accurate only up to the first
SECTION!
Multiple Choice Questions with One Correct Choice
Which one ofthe following is not a unit of length? (@) MET? K! — () MLT 2K?
(a) angstrom, (b) light year (©) MLTK (a) MET?
(6) fermi (a) radian {8 The SI unit of Stefan’s constant is
‘The unit of impulse isthe same as that of (@) Ws'm?K* () Jsm2K4
(a) moment of force (stmt (dy Wm 2K
() linear momentum 9, The SI unit of magnetic permesbilty is
(6) rate of change of linear momentum @ar
(@ force aa
3. Which pair of quantities has dimensions different (©) Hm
feom the other thece pairs? (@) No unit; it isa dimensionless number
(@) Impulse and linear momentum 10, The quantities L/R and RC (where £, Cand R stand
(b) Planck's constant and angular momentum for inductance, capacitance and resistance respec-
(6) Moment of inertia and moment of force tively) have the same dimensions as those of
(@) Young's modulus and pressure (@) velocity () acceleration
4. The dimensions of the coeficient of viscosity are (©) time (@) force
@ Mur? (®) MT? 11, The dimensions of entropy are
(© MET! (@) ML"T? @) MLK () MLE
5S. The dimensions of surface tension are © MUT"k (@) MLT?K!
wat? @ mar? 12, What isthe physical quantity whose dimensions are
(©) MET? (@ MET? MLT®
‘The SI unit of the universal gravitational constant G (a) kinetic energy (b)_ pressure
is (©) momentum (4) power
(a) Ning wndig 13, Which one of the following has the dimensions of
(©) Nm? kg”! (@) Nmkg MET?
7. The dimensions of the coefficient of thermal con- {(@) torue (ep setacattenatat
ductivity sre (6) viscosity (a) stressPhysics and Measurement 1.7
4
16.
vw.
20.
a.
2,
ms of angular momentum are
) MT"
(@ MULT?
‘The gravitational foree F between two masses m,
and m; separated by a distance r is given by F
Gms where G isthe universal gravitational con-
(©) MLD
stant. What are the dimensions of G?
@ MT? ) MLIT?
(©) MET @ Miers
‘The equation of state of areal gas can be expressed
as(r+s
)o-tyseratoe miss
v
the volume, T the absolute temperature and a, band
are constants, What are the dimensions of a?
(a) MILT?
© MULT
&) MLUT?
(@ ML*T*
7. The equation of state for » moles ofan ideal gas is
PY = nT
where Ris the universal gos constant and P, Vand 7
have the usual meanings. What are the dimensions
of RY
(@) M'LT 7K! mot!
(b) ML? T? K* mor"
(MET? mot!
(@ ML? T?K! mot!
‘The SI unit ofthe universsl gas constant is
(@) erg ' mot" (b) watt K"' mot!
(6) newton K mol"! (a) joule K mot
According to the quantum theory, the energy £ ofa
photon of frequency vis given by
E=hW
here fis Planck’s constant. What is the dimen-
sional formula for h?
@ MULT? @) MULT
MET @Mer
‘What is the SI unit of Planck's constant?
(a) watt second (b) watt per second
(6) joule second (a) joule per second
‘The dimensions of Planck's constantare the sameas
those of
(@) encrey (6) power
(6) angular frequency (d) angular momentum
Time period Tofa simple pendulum may depend on
‘m, te mass of the bob the length of the string.and
4, the acceleration due to gravity i.
To mt Pg
23.
4,
28,
26.
2.
28,
‘What are the values of, b and c?
(a) 0, (b) 0,- Z
tt
© 50-5,
‘The volume of water passing any point of uni-
form tube during 1 seconds is related to the eross-
sectional area ofthe tube and velocity w of water
by the relation
Vocatubst
Which one of the following will be tue?
(a) a=B=y tb) 2B.
(©) a=Bey (a) aeBey
Which one of the following relations is dimension
ally consistent where his height to whieh a liquid of
density prises in capillary tube of radius, Tis the
surface tension of the liquid, 6 the angle of contact
and g the acceleration duc to gravity?”
fw pe 270088 yy 2
pe cose
2px 0088 arpg
ce) = PEC (gy y= MP
© ar o cos
‘The frequency n of vibrations of uniform string of
length f and stretched witha force F is given by
where p isthe number of segments of the vibrating
string and m is @ constant of the string. What are the
dimensions of m?
@ MLtT! () ML?Tt
(©) ML*T" (@ ML*T
‘When a wave traverses a medium, the displacement
ofa particle located at x at time ¢is given by
y=asin (b1—ex)
where a, b and ¢ are constants of the wave, The
dimensions of # are the same as those of
(a) wave velocity (b) amplitude
(©) wavelength (d) wave frequeney
In.Q.26, the dimensions of © are the same as those
of «
(a) wave velocity
(©) wave amplitude
‘The van der Waal equation for moles ofa real gas
(b) wavelength
(@) wave frequency18 Complete Physics JEE Main
(Post) om amr
where P is the pressure, V is the volume, Tis the
absolute temperature, is the molar gas constant
and a,b are van der Waal constants, The dimensions
‘ofa are the same as those of
(a) PY @) PF
oPv (a Pv
29, In Q.28, the dimensions of b are the same as those
of
@ P wm
(© Py (@) nar
30, In Q.28, the dimensions of Tare the same as those
of
(a) enerey (8) force
(©) pressure (@) specific heat
31, In Q. 28, the dimensional formula for ab is
(@) MT? () MutT?
(©) MUT* (@) MT?
32, If velocity (F), acceleration (4) and foree (F) are
taken as fundamental quantities instead of mass (M),
length (L) and time (T), the dimensions of Young's
‘modulus would be
(@ eer?
(©) rer
©) ee?
@ rers
TThe dimensions of permittivity (fof vacuum are
@ ME TAT ) MUTA?
(METAR @) MT?
34, What are the dimensions of permeability (4) of
(o) MIT? A’ () MUTA
()ML'T#A? — (@d) MET? 4?
38, The dimensions of 1/ Yb) are the same as those
of
(@) veloc (b) acceleration
(c) force (@) energy
136, The dimensions of specific heat are
(@) MET? @ MT?"
MLTR — @ MLT?KT
37, What are the dimensions of latent heat?
(@) MET? () ML 27?
(©) MULT? @ MET?
38, What are the dimensions of Boltamann’s constan
(@) MUT?K" @) MT 2K
(MT? kK" @) MET? K*
39.
a
2.
45,
46.
4,
49,
The dimensions of
‘The dimensions of potential difference are
(@ META!) MUTZAt
(MET ?A (ad) MLD?
1. What ate the dimensions of electrical resistance?
(@) MET2A? (MUTA?
() METOA? (MEET PA?
‘The dimensions of electric field are
(@) MUTA" () MT? At
(©) MLTTAt (@) MET? At
‘The dimensions of magnetic induction field are
(@ METI AT (by MOLT AT
(©) MUTA @ MUTA!
3. What are the dimensions of magnetic flux?
@ MUT?At (b) ML?T7 A?
(©) ML*T?At (a) ML a
The dimensions of self inductance are
@ MUT?At (b) ML?T?7
(ce) ML? T? a (a) ML?T FA
The dimensions of eapacitance are
(@) MLS TA? db) MILE TEA
OMera go Mtceta
If velocity (), foree (F) and energy (E) are taken
as fundamental units, then dimensional formula for
‘mass will be
@) Vr" () MRE
© rere @ RE
Frequency (n) of a tuning fork depends upon length
(of its prongs, density (p) and Young's modulus
(0) of its material. Then frequency and Young's
‘modulus willbe related as
(a) na VF
© n=
() ney
1
@ net
vr yay
6) E? (6) = permittivity of free
space and £ = electric field) are
(@) MLT () MLT?
(©) ML'T* @ MOT
Of the following quantities, which one has dimen-
sions different from the remaining three
(@) Energy per unit volume
(b) Force per unit area
(c) Product of voltage and charge per unit volume
(@) Angular momentum
|. If the time period 1 of a drop of liquid of density d,
radius r, vibrating under surface tension s is givenPhysics and Measiroment 1.9
boy the formula r= Yar? © and if
then bis
@ 1 (b) 2
©3 4
a1
A pair of physical quantities having the same dimen-
sional formula is
(a) angular momentum and torque
(b) torque and energy
(6) entropy and power
(@) power and angular momentum
In the measurement of « physical quantity
ae
op
‘The percentage errors introduced in the
‘measurements of the quantities 4, 8, Cand D are
2%, 2%, 4% and 5% respectively. Then the mi
‘mum amount of percentage of ervor in the measute~
‘ment of Xs contributed by:
(4 8
wc @o
Which of the following has the dimensions
ML'T "2
(a) Surface tension
(b) Coefficient of viscosity
(6) Bulk modulus
(@) Angular momentum
sa
Pressure gradient did isthe rate of change of
pressure with distance, What are the dimensions of
abla?
@) MLIT? Qo) MEST?
(©) ML'T* (@) ML? Tt
ICE, M, J and G respectively denote energy, mas,
angular momentum and gravitational constant, then
EL hs the dimensions of
@
(a) length
(c) mass
(b) angle
(a) time
Ie, fy h and ¢ respectively represent electronic
charge, permittivity of free space, Planck's constant
36.
and speed of light, then -— has the dimensions of
Efe
(2) current
(b) pressure
(©) angular momentum
(@) angle
IL, R, C and V respectively represent inductance,
resistance, capacitance and potential difference, then
3.
the dimensions of —*— are the same as those of
L
RCH
a
a,
1
‘current
1
‘charge
(a) current cy
(6) charge @
If E and B respectively represent electri field and
magnetic induction field, then the
dimensions of
(@) displacement (b) velocity
(6) acceleration (a) angle
If Cand F respectively represent the capacitance of
‘capacitor and the potential difference between its
plates, then the dimensions of CV? are
(@) MT ) MUTI
(©) MET (@) LT?
io = bas the
2
|. If F and e respectively represent Planck's constant
i. Ina system of
and electronic charge, then the dimensions of
are the same as those of |
(a) magnetic field (b) electric field
(€) magnetic ux (a) electric flux
If energy B, velocity V and time T are chosen as
the fundamental units, the dimensional formula for
surface tension will be
(@) ET? ) EV 'T?
(Ever? @ BVT?
‘The number of particles crossing a unit area perpen=
dicular tothe s-axis in a unit time is given by
wo(nen)
where m, and n; are the number of particles per unit
(3
Nolume a-r= x, and:x=xy respectively and Dis the
diffusion constant The dimensions of Dare
(@) Mit? () MLZT
(Mir ( MILT
‘A gas bubble from an explosion under water oseil-
lates with a period proportional to Pd’ E* where P
is the static pressure, dis the density of water and E
is the energy of explosion. Then a, b and c respec-
tively are
a 3
1
@Uut
ts in which the unit of mass is a
kg, unit of length is & metre and the unit of time isc
second, the magnitude of a ealorie isCompete Physics IEE Main
7.
6,
0.
nn
@ Ss
abe
ot
The error in the measurement of the radius of a
sphere is 1%. The error in the measurement of the
volume is
(a) 1% (6) 3%
(©) 5% @) 8%
If the erro in the measurement of the volume of a
sphere is 6%, then the error in the measurement of
its surface area will be
(a) 2% ©) 3%
(©) 4% @ 75%
Aphysicel quantity Xisrepresentedby.
The maximum percentage errors in the measure
ment ofM, Land T respectively are a%, b% and e%.
‘The maximum pereentage error in the measurement
oF Xwill be
(a) (ax+ bye
(b) (ae + By +) percent
(©) (ax— by +2) pereent
(@) (ax~ by~c2) perwent
‘The percentage errors in the measurements of the
length ofa simple pendulum and its time period
29% and 3% respectively. The maximum error inthe
value of the acceleration due to gravity obtained
fiom these measurements is
(a) 5% @) 1%
() 8% (@) 10%
‘The moment of inertia of a body rotating about 3
sven axis is 6.0 kg min the SL system, What isthe
Value of the moment of inertia ina system of units
in which the unit of length is § cm and the unit of
‘mass is 10 27
(a) 24x10°
(€) 60% 10°
percent
(b) 24% 108
(@) 60 10°
A quam 5 given by gL he isthe
permittivity of free space, L is a length, AV isa
potential difference and A is a time interval. The
dimensional formula for ¥ isthe same as that of
(a) resistance (b) charge
(6) voltage (2) current
‘The coetficient of viscosity (1) of a liquid by the
‘method of flow through a capillary tube is given by
the formula
n.
m.
78
16.
n
where R= radius of the capillary be,
ngth ofthe tube,
P= pressure difference between its ends,
and
Q
‘Which quantity must be measured most aecurately?
@R Oe
oP @ @
‘The mass m of the heaviest stone that ean be moved
by the water flowing in a river depends on v, the
speed of water, density (d) of water and the accel-
eration due to gravity (g). Then m is proportional to
@ oe ) of
(©) * (ao
solume of liquid flowing per second.
’. The speed (0) of ripples depends upon their
wwavelenth (2), density (p) and surface tension (0)
‘of water. Then v is proportional to
(a) va
a
1
@
The period of reveition (7) of planet moving
Toul te sun nw cou 5 cepts upon the
Tatas (othe evi mass (4) of te sn nd te
{Pvt constant (0) Thon Ps proportional
@ 7? wr
o oe
If energy (E), momentum (p) and force (F) are cho-
scnos ndamonal nie dimension of mesa
th oe eytn l be
OEP.) BF
© Ep F? (a) B°p'P
thee fn), gravitonal eon ()
td pane const) oe chosen fae
Unite imcnons tine fc new Stem
i
fa) Gh? (b) 3G 22
(©) eG 7H? (@ &%G"7H
The ample of «damped olor of mass m
vain wah tine
A= Age
‘The dimensions ofa are
(@) MLT! () MLT!
(©) MIT (@) ML'TPhysics and Measiroment_ 111
78. A student measures the value of g with the help of a
simple pendulum using the formula
an
77
‘The errors in the measurements of L and Tare AL
and AT respectively. In which ofthe following eases
is the error inthe value of g the minimum?
(a) AL=OSem,AT=05
(b) AL =0.2em, Ar=0.2
(€) AL=O.1em,AT=1.05
(@ AL =0.1 em, ai
A student performs an experiment to determine the
Young's modulus of @ wire, exactly 2 m long, by
Searle’s method. Ina particular reading, the student
‘measures the extension inthe length of the wire to
be 0.8 mm with an uncertainty of + 0.05 mm at a
load of exactly 1.0 kg. The student also measures
the diameter of the wire to be 0.4 ram with a uncer
tainty of £0.01 mm. Take g= 9.8 mis (exact). The
Young's modulus obtained from the reading is
(a) (2.0403) x 10" Nim?
(b) @.0402)x 10" Nim?
(6) (2.00.1) x 10" Nim?
(@ 2.04005) x 10! Nim?
|. In a vemier callipers, one main scale division is x
«mand divisions of the vernicr seale eoineide with
(1) divisions of the main scale. The least count
{Gn em) of the calipers is
Is
1.
©)
oD
° (a=)
EEE” «ANSWERS
L@ - (b) 2
40) @ 6. (0)
2 @ ©)
10. (@) - (a) ©
3.) i (b) i)
16. () - (b) @
19. (b) 1 (o) - (a)
22. (@) - (b) (a)
25. (d) @ @®
28. (b) . (b) 1 (a)
31. (@) - (0) = (a)
34. (b) @ (0)
37d) i (b) 1 (a)
40. (b) - (a) - (a)
8. @) 44, (b) 45.)
46. (d) 47. (a) 48. (0)
49. (d) 30. (e) 51. (b)
52. (©) 33. (b) 54. (b)
58. (b) 56. (4) 57. (b)
58. (b) 59. (a) 60. (©)
61. (©) 2. (@) 63. (@)
64. (b) 65. (b) 66. (©)
67. () 68. (e) 69. (b)
70. (a) 71 (@) Re
B. (a) 14. ©) 78. (a)
76. (a) 11. (@) 7B. W)
1. (b) 80. (e)
> SOLUTIONS
6
5. Surface tension = fore’fengt
Choices (a), (b) and (e) are units of length. Choice
(@) the radian is unit of angle in a plane.
2. Impulse = force « time
dp
Pay
dr
ap
-hange in momentum
Hence the correct choice is (b).
.. The dimensions of moment of inertia are ML°T" and
‘of moment of force are ML? T-*, All other pairs in
(@), (b) and (4) have identical dimensions.
4. The viscous force acting on a spherical body of ra-
dius r moving witha speed v ina fluid of coefficient
‘of viscosity 7s given by
Fe 6nnro or n=
are
«Dimensions of 9
dimension of F
imension of rx dimension of &
Hence the correct choice is ().
=MLTL= MLO
Hence the correct choice is (a,
From Newton's law of gravitation, the force of
attraction F between two bodies of masses mand
im, separated by a distance ris given by
FG
gravitational constanta2
Compete Physics IEE Main
W.
oe
Unitor = wtol A xunitafr
unit of mms
__ newton (mette
(k
Hence the correct choice is (b).
1. The coefficient of thermal conduetivity is defined
as the rate of flow of heat energy per unit area
Of eross-seetion per unit temperature gradient
‘The dimensions of rate of flow of heat arc
ML? T2T= ML? T°, The dimensions of area are
‘and the dimensions of temperature gradient are
dimensions of femperature/dimension of length
= KL, Hence the dimensions of the coefficient of
thermal conductivity are
MET?
xxl
=MLT?K?
‘Thus the correct choice is (a).
3. From Stefan’s law, the total energy emitted per see
fond by a unit area of a black body is proportional to
the fourth power of its absolute temperature, i
ExT or £=oT*
here o isthe stefan’s constant. Thus.
E
o
a
Sl unit of
Slunit of energy per second
ST unit of area x (SI unit of temperature)
(metre) (kelvin)®
thoice is (2)
wm?k*
Henee the correct
1. The correct choice is (c).
L/R is the time constant of an L-R circuit and CR is
the time constant of a C-R circuit. The dimension of
‘the time constant is the same as that of time, Hence
the correct choice is (c).
Entropy Sis defined through the relation
T
where di isthe change in entropy, dQ the change is
hheat energy and Tis the absolute temperature,
Dimensions of entropy
2.
1.
4
18,
16,
n.
18,
dimensions of heat energy
dimensions of temperature
=MUTFK!
Hence the correct choice is (4).
The dimensions of energy are ML? T*. The
dimensions of pressure, momentum and power are
ML'T?,MLT and MLET
the core choice is (a.
ML-'T are the dimensions of force por unit area.
Out of the four choices, stress is the only quantity
thats foree per unit area, Hence the correct choice
is
‘The angular momentum L. ofa particle with respect
to point whose postion vector is ris given by
Lerxp
where p is the linear momentum ofthe moving par
tile
Dimensions of L
ofp=LxMLT!
respectively, Thus
dimension ox dimensions
MT
“Ths the coreeet choice is (b).
Since G= Fhe dimensions of Gare
dimensions of F x dimensions of r
dimensions of ms
MULT? XU yy papa
aE
‘Thus the eorreet choice is (a).
Prom the principe of homogeneity of dimensions,
the dinesions of mun ete ames hse of
.Thoofore dimensions ofa
dimensions of 7
=ML'T?x(L*)
‘Thus ihe core! choice is (6)
wv
EE the dimensions of R are given b
rl given by
Since
dimensions of P x dimensions of 7
®
¢ dimensions of x dimensions of T
= MENT gp not
mmole
‘Thus the correct choice is (b)
PF ite pt Ps tame
units as those of work, namely, joule; the unitof Ris
Now RPhysics and Measurement 113
19,
0.
a
2,
2.
2,
25,
unit of PY J
unitof mxunitot TF — molxK
IK mol
Hence the correct choiee is (@).
Dimensions of h ~ Simension of E
dimension of v
MT
‘Thus the eorrect choice is (b).
uniter & _ joule
(second)
Unitot}
joule second
unit oF v ‘
‘Thus the correct choice is (6).
‘The correct choice is ().
‘The dimensions of the 1wo sides of proportionality
TeMLhary
‘are the dimensions of g.
T Mere anette
Equating the powers of dimensions on both sides,
we have a=0, +e =Oand~2e
1 sndao.
where LT
whichgve ont ae
‘Tins the correct chioce is (a).
The dimensions ofthe two sides of proportionality
DLL) erie err
Equating the powers of dimensions on both sides,
wehave
dat p-3
Bb
which give B= yand a= + G-B) i.e Bx
‘Thus the correct choice is (b).
Since cos @ is dimensionless, using the dimensions
of T, r, p and g, itis easy to see that choice (a)
is only one that is dimensionally consistent. The
dimensions of # are the same as those of Tirpg.
‘Squaring both sides ofthe given relation, we get
dimensions of m
. dimensions of F
‘imensions oF |
26.
2.
28,
29,
30.
M
2.
(pis dimensionless number)
Henee the correct choice is (8),
‘Since the argument ofa sine function (or any trigo-
nnomettic function) must be dimensionless, br and
cer are dimensionless. Since brs dimensionless, the
dimensions of b = dimensions of 1/7 = T~', which
are the dimensions of frequency. Henee the correct
choice is (),
Dimensions of br = dimensions of ex, as they are
both dimensionless.
Dimensions of & = dimensionsof == = Lt
Hence the eorreet choice is (a)
From the principle of homogeneity, the dimensions
of 4 must be the same as those of P, ie. dimen-
¥
sions of = dimensions of P
vr
mensions of PV, Hence the
2 dimensions of a
correct choice is (b).
‘The correct choice is (b).
‘The dimensions of n&
dimensions of PY
ML" T? **
‘The dimension of F, 4 and F in terms of M, L and T
are the same as those of
(= Ur ay= 10?
and (= ML?
Let y= U ar)
Putting dimensions of ¥, 1A and F. we have
(MET?) = (LTT?) (METS
ee Mt erste
Equating powers of M, Land T we have
and —a~2h~ 20
which give @1.44 _Complete Physics JEE Main
‘Thus (= (EY 9)
Thus the eorreet choice is (e).
According to Coulomb's law oFelectrostaties, force
F between two charges g, and ga distance r apart
in vacuum, is given by
La
pe ae
ae,
1 aa:
an PF
——o_.
MIT x
33,
or &
Dimensions of €, =
= MTS T?Q?= MALTA
‘The correct choice is (a).
‘3M, The force per unit length between two long wires
carrying currents J, and J; a distance r apart in vae~
uum, is given by
= Ma ti
f an
L_xMLT~ xL*
Dimensions of y= + 2MUTS x7
a A
=MLr ta?
‘Therefore, the correct choice is (b).
35. Dimensions of
‘hich are the dimensions of velocity, Hence the eor-
rect choice is (2)
36. The heat energy content Hof a body of mass m at
temperature @ is given by H = ms@ where sis the
specific heat. Therefore
a
nd
Dimensions of s
dimensions of heat energy
dimension of mass > dimension of temperature
MLT
MxK
MT Kk
‘Thus the correct choice is (e).
3a.
38.
39,
a
2.
Latent heat Zs theamount of heat energy Hf required
to change the state of a unit mass without producing
any change in temperature. Thus
Hn
MUT:
L
Dimensions of L
‘Thus the correct choice is (@),
According to the law of equiparttion of energy,
the energy per degree of freedom of a gas atom or
molecule a a temperature O kelvin is given by
e=1ko a
@
where is the Boltzmann's constant
imensions of
Dimensions of
‘The potential difference V bewween two points isthe
amount of work done in moving a unit eharge from
‘one point tothe other.
work done _W.
Thus, = —workdone
charge moved”
MT?
+ Dimensions of P= =MET?Q°!
MUT At
Hence the correct choice is (a,
Qeary
From Ohms law, resistance & is given by
_ potential difference
ot
R
Dimensions of R=“ = MUTA
“Thus the correct choice is (b)
Force F experienced by a charge q in an electric field
Eis given by f
Fa gk or E~*
q
dimensions of F_ MLT
Gimensionsof@ AT
= MILT A"
‘The force F, experienced by a charge q moving with
speed @ perpendicular to the direction of a uniform
‘magnetic induetion field B is given by
Dimensions of =Physics and Measurement 135
F=qoB or B
Dimensions of B= MET = uri?
QxiT
=MLT At
is.
43. The magnetic fux 6 linked with a circuit of a
induction field B is given by
= BA cos 6
where 6 is the angle between the field and area vee
tors,
& Dimensions of 6= dimensions of BA
(> 0s Gis dimensionless)
=ML'T 2A KEMLETAAT
‘Thus the correct choice is (a).
44, The self inductance £ of a coil in which the eurrent
Hence the comect choi
in
dt
dicties ofaal eee pay obese
Now,
Dimensions of Z
dimensions of
‘Gimensions of //dimensions of
_ META
AT
‘Tins the correct choice is ().
45. When a capacitor of capacitance Cis charged to a
potential difference V, the charge Q on the capacitor
plates is given by
2
= CV or C=
o .
=MUT2A2
dimensions of 0
dimensions of V
Dimensions of C
=M LT
ME
Henee the correct choice is (f),
46, Let m= "FOES
2 IM] = (LT! x [ML T=]? x [MI
4.
0.
st.
52.
1. Given 1= d*
Equating the powers of I, L and Tand solving, we
get a =~ 2, b=Oand c= 1. Hence the dimensional
formula of m= [¥-? F" E] which is ehoice (d).
Letnef* ph
Putting dimensions ofall the quantit
we have
(1) = LM) (ML T°
Equating powers of M, L and Ton both sides, we get
b+e=0,a-3h—c=Oand-2e
1
1
L
which give a 5 amle= 5. Thus
nett pt yi
Hence the correct choice is (a).
3. We know that
Hence 1 6
Dimensior
Hence the correct choiee is ().
Energy per unit volume, force per unit arca and
product of voltage and charge density all have
dimensions of ML?T~*, but the dimensions of
angular momentum are ML?T-'. Hence the
correct choice is (¢).
1°? 5, Substituting dimensions, we
have
(= ML? Ey OMT?
erro, 16202 +80) =e
Equating powers of L, we have,
38
Ba4? =o,
Given a wo
which is choice (c).
Both torque and energy have the dimensions of
force x distance. Hence the correct choice is (b),
aD
les, we have
log C3 log D
31.16 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
Partially differentiating, we have
AA, AB 1c
x 4° B 3C
Percentage erorin A
Percentage errorin D= 3 42 —3 596 —
D
We find thatthe minimum percentage error is con-
tributed by C. Hence the correct choice is (c).
153. The correct choice is (b)
‘54, ‘The correct choice is (b)
455. Dimensions of J and G are ML?T“! and M~1L? T=
respectively. The eorreet choice is (b).
56. Dimensions of &, and A are M7IL T* A? and
ML'T" respectively. The correct choice is ().
RC!
5
1s the dimensions oftime (7). Vhas the dimen-
sions ofemf whieh has the dimensions of. The
correct choice is (b). a
'58, The force F on a particle of charge q moving with a
\elocity v in E and B fields is given by
(E+vxB)
Hence the dimensions of & are the same as those of
1B. The correet choice is (b)
Energy stored ina capacitor of capacitance Chaving
4 potential difference V between its plates is given
by
ence, the dimensions of CV? = dimensions of en-
‘ergy. Hence the eareet choice is (a).
2) ow
ar
60. dinesion or ( ewer x!
Dimensions of # = MT 2
Magnetic flux = B x area. The correct choice is (c).
61, Let surface tension o= E° V!'T, Using the dimen-
sions of o, £, V and Tand equating powers of M,
Land T, find the values of a, b and c, The correct
choiee is (c).
a.
gp
65,
or.
Dimensions of » (number of particles per unit area
per unit time) = L7T"', Dimensions of m orm;
(number of particles per unit yolume)=L*. Dimen=
sions of x, or x;=L. The correet choise is (4)
1. The correct choice is (a).
{. Let, be the magnitude (ic. numerical value) of a
physical quantity when the fundamental units are
(M,,L,, T,)and ns the magnitude of the same physi-
cal quantity when the fundamental units are (Ms, Ls
Ty) then, itis obvious that
ny (MY LETS) =m (MELE TS
@
where x, y and 2 are the dimensions ofthe physical
quantity in mass, length and time respectively. Now,
we know that calorie = 4.2 joule = 4.2 ke m’s*
‘Therefore, in the first system of units m= 4.2, x=
I,y=2and =~ 2. Hence, in the second system of
units in which M, =a kg, L; = bm and T=, we
nen SY
(eh (3) (2)
Kee)
» which is choice (b),
z|Z
ve dae,
have
log = log 4+ 1og x3 log r—log 3
Differentiating, we get
Taking logarithm of both sides, we
XeML'T*onlog.X=slog M+ log
Differentiating, we have
ax aM al ar
ee
‘The maim enor ini (sine al errs ad up)
zlog T.Physics and Measurement 147
0.
n
AL
aM, Ab ,, An
eM TE
wat yb + 2h
The coret cote 's (8).
s
orlog g=log (22) + log /~2 lg 7. The maximum
snoring is
ae Al.) 47
er Tr
). The dimensions of moment of inertia are (ML), We
a
rn(ts)
or nM, U3)
(MAL)
MG
0, My= 1 kg. Ly
Ly= Sem. Therelore,
moon (it) (2)
=60% (ae) ie (iseeny
= 6.0% 100% (20)? = 24x 10"
‘The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given
by C= eptid. Hence the dimensions of él are the
same as those of capacitance.
av
2 Dimension of et ©
sy
_ dimension of Cx dimensions of ¥
time
_ dimension of O
o-cn
Hence the correct choi
8).
‘The correct choice is (a),
‘The maximum permissible erorin nis given by the
relation
An_ Ak
RTP
[tis clear that the error in the measurement of R is
‘magnified four times on account of the occurrence
‘of Rin the formula. Hence the radius (R) of the cap-
illary tube must be measured most accurately. Thus
the quantity whieh is raised to the highest power
needs the most accurate measurement.
n.
n.
m4.
1.
16.
n.
78
mY
Take m= 0% dg! and show that a = 6.
‘Take o = 2” po and show that =~ 1
2
Take Por MPG® and show that a= 3
Take M= £"p'F* and show that a
c=0,
1,b=2and
‘The correct choice is (),
‘The exponent is a dimensionless number, Hence
tim is dimensionless, Therefore,
_ dimensionof m _ M
Dimension of a= “imensionofim _ M.
dimensionoty — T
MLort
‘The proportions eor inthe measurement of gs
fe ab, at
eb Tr
Hence Ag will be minimum i AL and AT te min
‘mum. Thus the correet choice is (d).
FL _ AMet
ax
where
M = 1.0 kg (exact), g = 9.8 ms (exact)
L=2m(exac), J 08mm =08x 10 m
a
Al =£0.05 mm, d=0.4mm=0.4 x 10° m
Ad = £0.01 mm
Substituting the values of Mg, Z, d and Jin Eq, (1)
we get
Y= 2010!" Nm?
From Ea, (1) the peoponionte uncertainty in ¥is
gienby
ay aw, Se aL, 2ad at
,roM se bod ‘7
Since the values of Mand Lar exact, AM= 0,
and Al 0. Hence
ay _2ad at
road
2%0,0lmm _ 0.05mn
04mm” 0.8mm
05 + 0.0625 = 0.1125
AY = 0.1125 x ¥= 0.1125 x2.0% 10!"
228 x 10!" Nav?
Since the value of ¥ is correct only up to the first
decimal place, the value of AY must be rounded
‘off t the first decimal place. Thus AY = 0.2 x 10""
Nm. Therefore, the result of the experiment is
¥+AY=(2.040.2)x 10" Nm?
,
Hence the correctCompete Physics IEE Man
80, Vernier constant = value of 1 M.S. ~ value of |
tvs (%!) son
SECTION
Multiple Choice Questions Based on Passage
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the following passage.
Passage!
The dimensional method is a very convenient way of
finding the dependence of a physical quantity on other
physical quantities of a given system. This method has
its own limitations. In a complicated situation, itis often
‘ot easy to guess the factors on which a physical quantity
will depend. Secondly, this method gives no infermation
about the dimensionless proportionality constant. Thirdly,
this method is used only if a physical quantity depends
fn the product of other physical quantities. Fourthly, this
method will not work if a physical quantity depends on
another quantity as a trignometric or exponential function.
Finally, this method does not give complete information
in eases where a physical quantity depends on more than
three quantities in problems in mechanics
1, The dimensional method cannot be used to obtain
denpendence of
(a) the height to which a liquid rises in a eapit-
lary tube on the angle of contact
speed of sound in an elastie medium on the
modulus of elactreity.
height to which a body, projected upwards
with a certain velocity, will rise on time 1
the decrease in energy ofa damped oscillator
on time f
o)
©
@
2. In dimensional method, the dimensionless propor-
tionality constant isto be determined
(a) experimentally
(b) by a detailed mathematical derivation
(6) by using the principle of dimensional homo-
‘eenci
(2) by equating the powers of M, L and T.
Questions 3, 4 and S are based on the following passage.
Passage-II
In the study of physics, we often have to measure the
physical quantities. The numerical value of a measured
quantity can only be approximate as it depends upon the
Teast count ofthe measuring instrument used. The number
of significant figures in any measurement indicates the de-
agree of precision of that measurement, The importance of
significant figures lies in calculation, A mathematical cal
culation cannot increase the precision of a physical meas-
urement. Therefore, the number of significant figures in
the sum or product ofa group of numbers cannot be greater
than the number that has the least number of significant
figures. A chain eannot be stronger than its weakest link.
3. A bee of mass 0.000087 kg sits on a flower of mass
00123 kg. What is the total mass supported by
the stem of the flower upto appropriate significant
figures?
(a) 0.012387 kg (b) 0.01239 kg
(©) 00124 kg (@) 0012 kg
4. The radius of a uniform wire is r= 0.021 em. The
Value ais given to be 3.142. What is the area of
cross-section of the wire upto appropriate signifi-
cant figures?
(a) 0.0014 em’ (b) 0.00139 em’
(€) 0.001386em? (4) 0.0013856 em’
5. A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. His average speed
upto appropriate significant figures is
(a) 9.76 ms (b) 9.757 ms
(©) 97573ms! (a) 98 ms!
> ANSWERS
1, The correct choices are (a) (c) and (€). The height of|
4 liquid ina capillary tube depends on cos 6, where
Gis the angle of contact. The height S to which a
body ses is given by S= wr + a whichis asm
oftwo terms ut and ; af’, The energy of damped
oscillator decreases exponentially with time.
2, The correct choices are (a) and (b),Physes and Measurement 139
“Total mass = 0.000087 + 0,0123 = 0.012387 ke, The
mass of the bee is accurate upto sixth decimal place
in ke, whereas the mass of the flower is accurate
‘only upto the fourth decimal place, Hence the sum
must be rounded off to the fourth decimal place,
‘Therefore the eorrect choice is (c).
4. A= nr? =3,142x (0.021)? = 0.00138562 em?. Now,
there are only two significant figures in 0.021 em,
Hence the result must be rounded off to two signifi-
‘cant figure as 4 = 0.0014 em’, which is choice (a)
100.5m
38
The distance has four significant figures but the time
hhas only three. Hence the result must be rounded
‘off to three signigicant figure to 9.76 ms '. Thus the
correct choice is (a).
5. Average speed = = 9.7573 ms!
SECTION
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
In the following questions, Statement-I(Assertion) is
followed by Statement-2 (Reason), Each question has
the following Four options out of which only ome choice
is correct
(@) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State-
‘ment-2 is the correet explanation for Statement-1
(b) Statement-l is true, Statement-2 is true but Stat
‘ment-2 is not the correct explanation for State-
is tue, Statement-2 is false,
is false, Statement-2 is tru,
©
@
1, Statement-1
‘The onder of accuracy of measurement depends on
the least count of the measuring instrument
Statement-2
‘The smaller the least count the greater is the number
‘of significant figures in the measured value.
2. Statement-1
‘The dimensional method cannot be used to abtain
the dependence of the work done by a force F on
the angle @ between force F and displacement x,
Statement-2
All tignometric functions are dimensionless.
Statement-1
‘The mass of an object is 13.2 kg. In this measure
ment there are 3 significant figures,
Statement-2
‘The same mass when expressed in grams as 13200
has five significant figures.
> SOLUTIONS
1, The correct choice is (b)
2. Work done is IV = Fr cos @ . Since cos @ is dimen-
sionless, the dependence of MF on 8 cannot be deter-
mined by the dimensional method. Henee the cor-
rect choice is (a)
3. The correct choice is (c). The degree of accuracy
{and hence the number of significant figures) of a
measurement cannot be increased by changing the2
Kinematics
@ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
1. Scalarand Vector Quantities
AA scalar quamtity has only magnitude but no direction,
such as distance, speed, mass, area, volume, time, work,
energy, power, temperature, specific heat, charge, poten.
tial, ee
‘Avector quantity has both magnitude and direction, such
1s displacement, velocity, acceleration, foree, momentum,
torque, electric field, magnet field, et.
2. Parallelogram Law of Vector Addition
‘The procedure of finding the resultant of two vectors is
known as the parallelogram law of vector addition and
may be stated as follows
If the two veetors are represented in magnitude and
direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram
drawn from a point, then their resultant is represented in
‘magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the paralleto~
gram passing through that point
Figure 2.1 show two vectors A and B of magnitudes
A and B inclined at an angle cz The magnitude R of the
resultant vector R is given by
B+ 2AB cose
The angle fl which the resultant vector R subtends with
sector A is given by
sina sine
4 A+ Boosa B R
In veotor notation the resultant vector is written as R=
ASB.
Special Cases
(i) When the two vectors are in the same direction, is.
a= 0°, then R= Ya? +H? +2 AB cos” = A+B.
‘Therefore, the magnitude ofthe resultant is equal 0
the sum of the magnitudes ofthe two veetors. Also
tun B= 0 or B=0, Lc. the direction of the resultant
is the same as tha of either vector.
Gi) When the two vectors are in opposite divections,
ive, @= 180°, then R= YA? +B +2 AB cos!80° =
A-B.Also B=0
When the two vectors are at right angles to each
other, ie. a= 90°, then
Raf PEP + 2AB Coe ~ (FTE Also
zB
Note: Ray =A+B and Ryg=A-B
Example 1 The following pairs of forces act on a part-
cle a an angle @ which ean have any value
()2Nand3N — ()
(©) 2Nand6Nand (d)
The resultant of which pair cannot have a magnitude of
4N?
3Nand3N
3Nand8N22._Complete Physics JEE Main
Solution
For pair(s) + Ry
and
For pait(b) Ryn
For pair(c) Rnn
For pair(d) + Rea
Hence the correct ansiver is (@).
Example 2 The magnitude of the resultant of two vee-
tors of the same magnitude is equal to the magnitude of
cither vector. Find the angle between the two vectors.
Solution Givend=8 and R=AorB.
Re (PAR VD AB CosO
= da LAER IA e050 = (24 (40058)
= #= 24° + c08 6) = cos = —1 = = 120°
Triangle Law of Vector Ad
“The parallelogram law of vector addition yields the triangle
law of vector addition. In Fig. 2.1, veetor QP = vector OS:
= B, In triangle OGP, vector OP = R. Hence, the triangle
law of vector addition may be stated as follows:
If the two vectors are represented in magnitude and
direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in the same
order, then their resultant is represented in magnitude
and direction by the third side of the triangle taken in the
‘apposite order
4. Subtraction of Vectors
Suppose we wish to subtract a vector B from a vector A.
Since
AB
+R
the subtraction of vector B from vector is equivalent to
the addition of vector— B to vector A. Hence the procedure
(o find (A ~B) is as follows:
a /e A/ 3B
@ ®
Fig.22
‘Choose a convenient scale and draw the vectors A and
Bas shown in Fig, 2.2 (a). IfBis to be subtracted from A,
rays the vector negative of B, ic, draw the vector ~B [see
Fig. 2.2 (b)]. Now shift the vector ~ B parallel to itself so
that the tail of B is atthe head of A. Veetor € is the sum
of vectors A and ~B, ie. [see Fig. 2.2 (€)]
CHA+CB)=A-B
5. The Unit Vector
A vector whose magnitude is unity is called a unit vector
‘A unit vector is represented by A’ where
The unit vectors along x, y and = axes of a regtangular
co-ordinate system are represented by 1, j and k respec-
tively
6. Resolution of a Vector into Rectangular
‘Components
Consider a vector A in the x-y plane making an angle 6
with the x-axis. The + and y components of A are A, and
A,. The magnitudes of A, and A, are (Fig. 2.3)
4, = A008 8 along -irestion
and 4, =A sin 6, along y-** r where «is the angular fre-
quency vector andr is the postion vector.
Angular momentum = r x p where ris the position
vector and p isthe linear
«i,
smentum vector.
ample 3 Find the angle between vetors A= 1+ j
and B-i
Solution A: B= AB cos0
Magnitude of Ais = 1? +1?
Magnitude of Bis B= J +(-IP = J7
= -jj-2c00 (.
= 1-12 cos Oxives cos = 0
or 0=90°
Example6 Two vectors A and Bare inclined st an angle
6. Using definition of scalar product, show thatthe magni-
tude of the resultant of vectors A and B is given by
R= VEEP + DAB cOsO
Solution R= A+B, Therefore,
R-R=(A+B).(A+B)=A.A+A.B+BLA
+ BOB
RRA HDA +B = +B" +2 AB eos 8
= R= VEE +2 AB COsO
Example? Given A~ 21-3 and B~ ih
snagnitde and ditcetion of (A x B)
(ci- 39) x (si+49)
= Wixi+sixj-isi
4]. Find the
Solution (Ax B)
Tinus the magnitude of (A x B) is 23 units and its direction
is along + 2 axis
10. Position Vector and Displacement Vector
The poston vector ofa patcle describes it instantne-
ous postion with respect othe origin ofthe chosen frame
ofraferenes tis a vector joining the origin to the particle
ands denoted by vector r.
Forone-dimensional maton (sy along.-ans) r= xf
where isthe distance ofthe parele from origin 0.
For two-dimension motion (say inthe x-y plan, ¥ =
xis yj, where (x,y) are the x and y coordinates ofthe
pattcte an
For thee-dimensional motion, r= xi+ yi 2h
Displacement vector
Ir; is the position veetor ofa particle at time f,, and ry at
time f, them the displacement vector is given by26 Complete Physes JEE Main
‘Vector sis the resultant of veetors rand ~ F, (Fig. 2.9)
Fig. 29
‘The displacement veetor is vector joining the initial
and the final positions ofthe particle after a given interval
of time and its direction is from the initial to the final po
tion,
Example8 A particle moves from 4 to B along a circle
of radius R. Find the path length and the magnitude of the
displacement in terms of R and @. [see Fig. 2.10]
Fig. 2.10
Solution Path length arc B= RO
Asshown in Fig. 2.11, the magnitude of displacements,
Fig. 241
11. Instantaneous Velocity and Average Velocity
‘The rate of change of displacement with time at a given
instant is called instantaneous velocity and is given by
de
a
The average velocity in a given time interval is defined
__ total displacement
Time interval
Example 9 The position of a particle moving along +=
axis is given by x = 21 37° +P, where x is in metre and
tin second.
(a) Find the velocity of the particle at 1=2 s.
(b) Find the average speed of the particle in the time
interval from (= 2st0/= 4,
Solution
() x= 2-3P +P
ds
Emr ort3¢
vat (1=2s8)=2-6x243x QF =
(6) Position at = 2 sis
x) 9 2x2-3x QF +) 0
Position at = 4 sis
ty 2x43 (4)? + (4) = 24m
Displacement is.x3~ xj =24-0
interval = 4-2= 2s, Therefore,
24m. Time
ava veaciy= etna!
12. Instantaneous Acceleration
The rate of change of velocity with time ata given instant
is called instantaneous acceleration and is given by
dr
13. Equations of One Dimensional Motion with
Constant Acceleration
Let xp be the position ofa particle at time t= 0 and let u be
its velocity at (= 0. Ibis given # constant acceleration « for
time ¢, Asa result it maves ina straight line toa position x
and acquires a velocity 2.
‘The particle suffers a displacement s = x —xg in time f
‘The equations of motion of the particle are
v=utar en
Loa
xexytut tar
2
Los
or sort bar a2and ax)
23)
|. While solving numerical problems of bodies moving
ina straight horizontal direction, we will consideronly
the magnitudes of u, 2, a and s and take care oftheir
direotion by assigning positive oF negative sign to
the quantity. For example, ~ a will mean aeceleration
~a will mean retardation (or deceleration).
2. Inthe ease of body falling vertically under gravity
or projected vertically upwards, we use the follow=
ing sign conventions.
Quantities directed vertically upwards are taken to
‘be postive and those directed vertically downwards
are taken to be negative. Since the acceleration due
to gravity is directed downward for a body moving
vertically up or falling vertically dawn, we take
9.8 ms” in Eqs. (2.1), (2.2) and 2.3),
3. Displacement in the mth second is given by
_= displacement in n seconds
= displacement in (7 ~ 1) seconds
L 1 "i
+ ba(ny? —u(a— Lain?
2 2
= ea
fen
Applications
( Ifa body moving with constant acceleration, starts
from 4 with initial velocity w and reaches 8 with a
velocity 2, then the velocity midway between 4 and
Bis
ma
A body starting from rest has an aeceleration a for
atime f and comes to rest under a retardation 6 for
atime fy I's and, are te distances travelled inf,
wi
(b) Total distance travelled (s, + 3)
AS
(6) Maximum velocity attained is
Pewee 71 5
(a) Average velocity over the whole tip is,
2
Gi)
vy)
wo
wit)
Kinematics 2.7
At time 1 = 0 a body is thrown vertically upwards
with a velocity #, at time ¢= T, another body is
theown vertically upwards with the same velo
1u, The two bodies will meet at time
ru
ts
A body is dropped from rest and at the same time
another body is thrown downward with a velocity
fiom the same point, then
(a) the acceleration of each body is g,
(b) their relative velocity is always n,
(©) thie separation willbe afer «tne f=
Fi sp ing, sy A en
cs win cert sens hy tics dae
ses tt fr eoce tee bly eto
tromet fom besa pit sand are he
sieeve a ota ce
eG
‘by of mas i rppe fom a ei
hep o and I ponte a depen enn
(a th averagerearain in send sven by
oath
thona
because loss in PE (gh) = work done against
the resistive force of sand (mas).
(b) total average fores exerted by sand is
F = mg+ma=m(g +a)
AA body is thrown vertically upward with a velocity
1 I the resistive force due to air-iction produces,
4 constant aceeleration (or retardation) a (< g)
(@) the net acceleration during upward motion
=gta,
the net acceleration during downward motion
=e-0,
the maximum height attained is
)
©
era)
(4) ‘the time taken to reach the maximum height is
(ee
Vigra) ra)
(©) the time of descent is
.- [= «
NV G@=a) (gat)?
(9, shespeed with whieh the body hits the ground is28 Complete Physics JEE Mam
[e=
Viera)
Goo
Note that les dha 4.
Me aya
Some useful tips
(Ia body, starting from rest, moves with a constant
acceleration, the distances covered by itn Is, 2s, 38,
are in the ratio 17:27: 3°... = 14:9
I'a body starts from rest and moves with a contant
acceleration, the distance covered by it in the Ist,
2nd, 3rd....seconds are in the ratio 1: 3:5
{A body is projected upward with a certain speed. If
air resistance is nelected, the speed with which it
hits the ground ~ the speed of projection.
Ifa body is projected upwards witha velocity u, the
maximum height attained is proportional to a? and
the time of ascent is proportional to u
(9) Fora freely falling body,
(2) velocity = time
(b) distance fallen & (time)?
(6) velocity «= distance fallen
14, Graphical Representation
iy
«i,
ww)
1. Displacement ~ time (<~ 9 graphs (Fig, 2.12)
Fig. 2.16(a) : Body atrest
Fig 2.16(6) © Body in uniform motion
Fig. 2.16(c) : Body subjected to acceleration
(a>0)
Fig. 2.16(d) : Body subjected to retardation
(<0)
Fig.2.16(e) : Body accelerating and then de-
ccolerating
t t
° > °
® co)
i t
= Tm 0 =
© @ ©
Fig. 202
The slope of x 1 graph gives velocity for uniform
motion [Fig.216(0)- For nomaniform motion [Fis
216(c),(d) and (e}], the slope of the tangent tothe
curv ata point gives velocity at that
2, Velociy-time(#
motion Fig. 2.13)
‘graphs for uniformly
N
w>oe<0
oS
Fig. 2.13
Gag
‘Acceleration = slope of (@— #) graph
Displacement = area under (0) graph
3, Acceleration —time (a1) graph (Fig. 2.14]
1 1
ql i>
oo
= consant> 0 > constant <0
1
o =
14>, increasing lincarly
vw time
Fig. 2.14Kinematics 29
4. (2-1), (0-9, (¢~0 graphs for fee fall [Fig 215] Example 12 Figure 2.16shows the vlocity—time graph
of a body moving in a straight line, Find (a) the distance
1 t travelled by the body in 20s, (b) the displacement of the
« * body in 20 s and (c) the average velocity in the time inter
o}———,,, 0 13 val '=0t07=205.
9a t
ms ? 4
(as
1
Fig. 25
Example 10. The displacement x (in metres) of a body
varies with time ¢ (in seconds) as Fig. 2.16
Solution
(a) Distance ~ area under speed ~ time graph which is
shown in Fig, 2.17.
How long does the body take to come to rest?
+
solution v= = —4)416 Spee
3 (os)
0-446 > sens Z 2
os Sw
Example 11 From the top of auilding 40m tall, «ball
1 thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 10 ms Fig.27
(o) After how long will the ball hit the ground? (b) After
tow long wil tne ball take to pass trough the point from 2 Distance travelled in 20 ¢~ area of O4B + area
where it was projected? (6) With what velocity will i hit of BCD in Fig 221
th rund Take g=10 ms contort x6xt0=60m
Solution 2 2
(a) = —40m,u=+ 10 ms", 10 ms* (b) Displacement in 20 s = area of O4B — area of BCD
1 in Fig. 2.20
Now sur Sai ~ieti-F
displacement
= -40=100+ ; xe 10)0 (c) Average velocity = sepieement 0
= Aaa
Example 13 A body moving in a straight line covers a
distance of 14 m in the Sth second and 20 m in the 8th sec
2-sor4s, The negative value of fis ond. How much distance will it eover inthe 1Sth second?
= V4
= 4
not possible
Henes the ball will hit the ground after 4 folttion Smuts Gar“)
(b) s=0,u=410ms" and a=—10ms~.
9a
Thercone 0 101-5 => 12s Snurd o
(©) v= + at= 10-10% 4 = 10-40 =~ 30 ms iz
‘The negative sign indicates the velocity vis directed Sy =u @
dowawards, 2
Solving (1) and @), we get a=2ms? and w= Sms“2.10 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
4m
15. Relative Velocity in One Dimension
Iftwo bodies 4 and & are moving in a straight line with
velocities 2, and vp respectively, the relative velocity of
With respect to B is defined as
‘The relative velocity of B with respect to A will be
Example 14 A police van moving on a highway wi
a speed of 10-ms "fires a bullet ata thief's car speeding.
away in the same direction with a speed of 30 ms ', Ifthe
muzzle speed of the bullet is 140 ms-', with what speed
will the bullet hit the thiet’s car?
Solution Spoed of police van is
thief's caris ,
10 ms", speed of
30 ms". Relative velocity of bullet wi
respect to van is yy= 140 ms. Let vg be the velocity of
the bullet. py = 09 vy- Hence dp = vq) + 2p = 140 10
130 ms |The bullet will hit the ar witha speed
50-30
Be =%9-R% 0 ms
Example 15. From the top of a
tower Omaha is thown 4 yg
verically down witha velocity of
Wms" Atthesame time, another
body is thrown vertically upward
from the ground with aveloity of
20 ms (a) After how long will
the two bodies meet? (b) At what he
height above the ground do they |
meet? Take g= 10 ms"
Solution
(@) Suppose the bodies meet
at C and let be the time at
‘which they meet
For body 1
Ground
Fig. 2.18
1oms",a=
hye 1oms
1 2
ors Sx C107
Which gives hy = Sr(r+2)
For body 2: Inyay= +20 ms",
10 ms
2 hye 201-SP=si-1+4) 2)
Adding (1) and (2), hy + hy = 300 or 60 = 30r
(b) Using r= 2 sin Bq, (2), y= $32 (4 2)= 20m
Alternative method
Relative velocity of body 1 with respect to hody 2 is
tag = ty uy = = 10 ~ 20) =~ 30 ms
Relative displacement of body 1 with respect of body 2 is
8127 = fy ~ (hg) =~ (hy +g) =~ 60m
Relative acceleration is aj, = a ~ a3 =
Using
e-Ca=0.
urs a? wehave-60=-30 = 192s.
2
Or $= 20x2-$x2¥= 20m
Example 16 The driver of tain 4 moving ata speed of
30ms sights another train 8 moving on the same track at
a speed of 10 ms "in the same direction, He immediately
applies brakes and achieves a uniform retardation of2ms~
‘To avoid collision, what must be the minimum distance
between trains 4 and B when the driver of sights B?
Solution
Relative initial velo
ty A want Bis,
yy = gy =30— 10 = 20 ms
Relative retardation of A w.nt Bis
a = 2 ms
‘To avoid collision, the relative final velocity of 4 wir.
B vy must be 2e10. Minimum relative displacement of
Watt Bis sp which is found by using the relation v* — a7
‘as which gives
aa~ar= 20
0-208=2%C2)Syp > Syp= 100m
16. Solving Problems Involving Non-uniform
‘Acceleration
Finding velocity and displacement if the depend
cence of acceleration on time is given
ssiven expression for a in terms of 1 and integrate
both sides.
Jaw =
and obtain the expression for 0()
jena
‘To find displacement x, use 2(0)
dr = 0(0 dl
Substitute the expression for and integrate both
sides
ds
hich gives
a vmene
jae = foo
Example 17 A particle starts from rest at x = 0. Its
acceleration at time r= 0 is 5 ms which varies with timeKinomatis 201
as shown in Fig. 2.19. Find (a) the maximum speed of the
particle and (b) its displacement in time interval from r=
Otor=2s,
Solution
(@) Slope of graph is
cepte= Sms. Using.
‘a varies with time as
5
Sims" per sevond. Inter-
ems
‘me + 6, the acceleration
= Sis
it
Inegring fue = {$145}
= 0
Fig. 2.19
It follows from graph that deceleration becomes
zero at 1= 6s. Hence ¥ will be maximum at
Using ¢= 6 s in Ea. (1) gives digg, = 15 ms
di. Integrating
i( Seesa
ae
(6) From =
5x
res "79
(6) Finding velocity and displacement if the depend-
ence of acceleration on displacement is given
#0 ae
Use SS
or tdv= ade
Subsite the given expression off) intems fx
td negate
Hence we get an expression for 0(s) in terms of x
a
‘To find displacement, we use v(x) = & =
pl it, =
here 0 is the expression abt
Example 18 A particle is moving along the x-axis with
tanaceeleration a= 2x where a is in ms “and xis in mete
I'he particle starts from rest atx = I'm, find its velocity
when it reaches the position
which gives 0= 4 ms"
(©) Finding velocity and displacemem if the depend-
ence of acceleration on velociyy is given
do
a(o)
do
ace) = dr
Ono
Integrating
jae
ae)
jo
Hence we obtain the expression for 0(9.
= > demande
Integrating
fac= Jona
Example 19 A particle initially (ie. at = 0) moving
with a velocity w is subjected to a retarding foree which
decelerates it at arate a= —ky'o where o is the instan-
taneous velocity and & isa positive constant. (a) Find the
time taken by the particle to come to rest. (b) Find the
distance the particle tavels during this time.242 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
Solution
Incgraing
ja --4 hve ae
= x 2
3
17. Motion in Two
Projectile Motion
yensions:
(A body projected horizontally with a velocity u from
{height h. (Fig. 2.20] Horizontal and vertical dis-
tances covered in time rare
xu es)
26)
Differentiating Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6) w.rt time f, we
get the horizontal and vertical velocities.
de
“ 2.6)
FE 26)
et en
Equation to trajectory
Eliminating ¢ from Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6), we get
Since ys x7 the trajectory of the body is parabolic,
‘Time of fight 1)
Putting y = and r= 1) in Eq, (2.6), we get ty
Th
g
Horizontal range (R)
Putting ¢= sand x = R in Eg. (2.5), we get
Reauya ul
Ve
Magnitude of resultant velovity at time fis
"
“The angle er which the resultant velocity vector sub
tends with the vertical is given by
(ere
tana =
at
i) A body projected from the ground witha velocity u
‘ar an angle @ withthe horizomal. (Fig. 2.21)
‘The horizontal and vertical distances covered in
time rare
x = (weos 8) ay
Lie
and y= (usin Fer 29)
Horizontal and vertical components ofthe velocity
60s 6 2.10)
usin 8 gr ea
and 4
Magnitude of resultant velocity at time fis
‘The angle e’subtended by the resultant velocity vec-
tor with the horizontal is given by
tana =Kinomatice 243
3
aS
Fig. 221
Equation of trajectory
Putting
2u sind
g
Maximum height attained (ja)
Pute= 1/2 and y= hs in Eg. (2.9), we get
WP sin?
28
Horizontal range (R)
Putting ¢= spand x = R in Eq, (2.8) we get
sin(20)
&
A body projected from a height h with a veloctty u at
‘an angle 8 with the horizontal. (Fig, 2.22)
R
Se
Fig. 222
LETis the total time of fight, then we have
tl
hea Ta Set?
‘The horizontal range is R’ = (w cos 0)T
Applications
() The horizontal range is the same for angles @ and
(90° - 6),
(i) The horizontal range ts maximum for 6 = 45°
Rags = We z
(9 Wa rion range mais, gg = Ba
:
(i) Atte pit of etn, KE = Em FE = 0
1?
‘Total energy E
(©) Atte highest point, KE = + mu? cos?
and PE,
total energy ~ KE.
(vi) To find @ and ig, ftom the equation of tajectory
yeax~ be
where a and > are constants, refer to Fig. 2.23.
z
woe
a
(0) At O and B, y = 0. Putting y = 0 in the above
equation, we have 0= ax — bx? = x=0,
x= alb, Therefore p= 4
6
(b) ACA, = Figg and Using these
Values in =e? We et gg =214
Compete Physics IEE Main
wi
iti)
ro)
I-A and B are two points atthe same horizontal level
(on a trajectory at a height 4 from the ground, (see
Fig. 2.24), then
Fig. 224
2usind
zg
hts
woe tee
(6) Average velocity during time interval (4 ~«)
‘cos 8
Ce during this interval, the vertical displace-
ment is zero)
Velocity and Direction of Motion of Projectile at
any Height. Let P be a point on the trajectory of a
projectile ata height hand let» be the velocity ofthe
projectile at that height, If is the angle which the
Velocity vector makes withthe horizontal, then the
horizontal and vertical components of the veloc
toe eventy 0,0, conat
or ‘Deos =u cos @ @
and Baud 2gh
or (wsin ay? =(wsin 8) =~ 2¢h w
Squaring Bq, (i) and then adding to Ea (i), we get
u.-2gh or v= (u'—2h)"
This gives the speed of the projectile a height
‘The direction ofthe velocity vector (1, direction
‘of motion) is obtained by taking the square root of
Eq. (i) and then dividing by Eq (2). We get
sina, (vsin’o—29n)"?
fee e080
Time of Flight and Range of a Projectile on an
Inclined Plane
Consider an inclined plane O48 making an angle
@ with the horizontal (Fig. 2.25). Let a body be
projected with a velocity a at an angle @ with the
horizontal. Let us choose the x-axis along the plane
(4 and y-axis perpendicular to the plane OA. Let
the body hit the inclined plane at point P so that R
= OPis he range on the inclined plane. The x and y
components ofthe velocity ofthe projectile are
v= ueos(@-a) and
‘The. and y components of acceleration duc to grav-
ity are— gin erand~ g.eos crespectively, as shown
in Fig. 2.25, Let 7,-be the time of flight om the in-
clined plane. Since the net vertical displacement in
time 7, is zet0 (ie, = 0), we have
7 into) Lame,
2usin (@—a)
ge0s
F kena
Fig. 2.25
During this time, the horizontal component of
‘laity woos @remains constant. Hence, horizontal
distance OO is
00 =(ucos OT,
Range of the projectile on the inclined plane is
00 _(weos0)T,
cost cose
R=OP= ww
Using Eq, (ii) in Eq, (iv), we get
2u? sin (@-a)eos@
goose
18, Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
R
‘The relative velocity of a body B with respect to body
is defined as
If vectors v4 and vp are inclined to each other at an
angle @ as shown in Fig, 2.26, the relative velocity vp is
found as follows.Kinomatice 28
Fig. 2.26
Vag Vp W Me OV
‘Thus, the magnitude and direction of vector vg, can be
found by finding the resultant of vectors v, and ¥, which
is vector OC as shown in Fig. 2.26.
Magnitude of vector vp, i given by
gq = (04 +0} +204 09 cosa)!”
1409 c0s0)
(:a=180°-6)
‘The angle which the resultant vector OC subtends wi
‘cetor OD is given by
oc | cb
sind” Sind
(Dsind _vpsind
= sin esind
OC ty
Special Case
Gi) Ivector 2, and vy are in the same direction, 6 0°,
0) +p — 20404 =Vg- Vy
If vector 0, and ty are in opposite direction, 0 =
180%, then tpg = * ty
then dy,
Applications.
To cross the river of width d along the shortest path
‘which is PO, the boat must move along PR making
an angle (90° ~ 8) with the direction ofthe stream
such thatthe direction ofthe resultant velocity v is,
along PQ. Angle 0 is given by (sce Fig, 2.27)
a
)
Gy
Also
‘The time taken to eross the river along the shortest
path is given by
oie
To eross the river in the shortest time, the boat
should move along PQ. The shortest time is given by
‘Acthis time, the boat will each the point & on the
‘opposite bank of the river at a distance x from the
point Q (Fig. 2.28). From the Figure, we have
x= dun,
but
tan @ ~ “= Therefore,
s-4(S) 2)
gs 8
steamow
a 4
6
y
fig.2.28
Holding an Umbrella to Project from Rain Let v,
be the velocity of the rain falling vertically down
ward and v, the velocity of a man walking from
north to south direction (Fig. 2.29). In order to pro-
tect himself from rain, he must hold his umbrella
in the direction ofthe resultant velocity v, which is
aiven by
South —g216
Compete Physics IEE Main
19.
@
va Von,
This isthe speed with which the rain strikes the um-
brella If @is the angle subtended by the resultant ve~
locity v withthe vertical, then from triangle ORM’,
wwe have
tang ~ BM”
OR ®,
or o-tan' (2
‘Thus, the man must hold the umbrella at an angle
with the vertical towards north
Uniform Circular Motion
Fora body moving in horizontal eile
«
‘The centripetal acceleration of a body of mass m
moving in a citcle of radius & witha constant speed
1 (or angular speed «is
Cntripetal force is
mor
f= ma,
For a body moving in a vertical circle
‘The minimum speed to complete the circle when
the body is at the top of the cirele is = Rg
‘The minimum speed to complete the circle when the
‘body is at the bottom of the eitele is = SRE
SECTION!
Multiple Choice Ques
|. The magnitude of the resultant of two vectors of
magnitudes 3 units and 4 units in $ units, What is
the angle between two vectors?
x 5
oF oF
© = ax
. The magnitude ofthe resultant of two equal vectors
is equal to the magnitude of either veetor. What is
the angle between the two vectors?
(a) 60° () 90°
(©) 120° (@) 150°
In Q2, the angle between the resultant and cither
vector will be
(a) 60" () 90°
() 120° (@) 150°
1. Given P= A+ Band Q= A~ B. Ifthe magnitudes of
vectors P and Q are equal, what is the angle between
vectors A and B?
(@) zer0 oF
a
AB, what is the angle between A and
6
ns with One Correct Choice
(a) zer0 (b) 30°
(c) 60" (a) 90°
If]A x B|= 4 4B, what is the angle between A and
uP
(a) ze10 (by 30°
(6) 60" (a) 90°
1. IFA-B= magnitude of A B, then the angle between
veotors A and Bis
(a) 30° (by 48°
(e) 60" (a) 1°
s. Given A-B= 0 and Ax C= 0. Whatis the angle
between B and C?
(a) 4s°
(©) 18°
() 90°
(a) 180°
1. The resultant of two veetors A and B subtends an
angle of 45° with either of them, The magnitude of
the resultant is
tb) V2 4
24
(@) 2210
ja
1. Vector Cis the sum of two vectors A and Band vec
{or Dis the cross product of veetors A and B. What
is the angle between vectors C and D?
(a) ze10 (by 60°
(6) 90° (a) 180"Kinematics 247
iy
13,
16.
1”.
1.
Given ©= Ax Band D
‘between C and D?
(@) 2010 (6) 60°
fe) 90° (a) 180°
‘The resultant of two vectors of magnitudes 3 units
and 4 units is unit, What isthe value of their dot
XA. What is the angle
product?
(@) = 12 units () ~T nits
(6) —Tunit @) zero
‘The resultant of two vectors of magnitudes 3 units
and 4 units is 1 unit, What is the magnitude of their
«ross product?
(a) 12 units
(©) Lunit
() Tunits
(@) zer0
1. Three vectors A, B and C are related as. A + B=
C. If veotor € is perpendicular to vector A and the
magnitude of C is equal to the magnitude of A, what
will be the angle between vectors A and B?
(a) 45° (b) 90°
fe) 135° (@) 180°
s. The magnitude of the resultant of (A + B) and
(A-B)is
(@ 24 ) 28
© Vere @ Vee
In Q.15, what is the angle between the resultant
vector and vector A?
6) a & a/b
(2) The particle will come back to its starting
point as ¢ > =
‘The variation in the speed of a car during its two
hour journey is shown in the graph of Fig, 231..The
‘magnitude of the maximum acecleration of the ear
‘occurs during the interval
100
&
+ 0
ze
Ew
Em
of ds ih is 20
“Time h) —>
Fig. 231
(a) OA (b) BC
(©) cD (a) DE
A parachutist drops fieely from an aeroplane for 10s
before the parachute opens out. Then he descends
with a net retardation of 2.5 ms-*. IP he bails out of
the plane at a height of 2495 mand g=10 ms”, his
velocity on reaching the ground will be
(a) 2.5ms" (b) 75 ms
(©) Sms! (@) 10ms!Kunomatice 249
35, A car accelerates from test at a constant rate ct for
some time after which it docelerates at a constant
rate B to come to rest If the total time elapsed is,
the maximum velocity acquired by the ear is given
by
i mae,
fa) a+B (b) op
ese, a CHB
(©) Bae {d) Bac
36. The distance travelled by the car in Q.35 above is
siven by
ay 1(8_\p 1(a+B 2
sae)’ © ASF)
ofS {ss
37, The acceleration of @ particle, starting from rest,
varies with time according to the relation a = ka + c,
‘where & and ¢ are constants of motion.
‘The velocity isthe particle after a time # will be
(a) krter (b) (12)kF +08
(6) V2 (kr +e (a) he? +12)
38, Theacceleration of particle, starting from rest varies
with time according tothe relation a =—s aF cos 4,
where s and o are constants. The displacement of
this particle at atime ¢ will be
Loe i
(@ ~ 5 (ar sin oF) s sin a1
(©) s @c0s or @ scosot
39, A freely falling body, falling from a tower of height
1h covers a distance f/2 in the last second of its
‘motion, The height of the tower is (lake g~ 10ms)
neatly
(a) 58m (&) 50m
(©) 60m (@) 55m
40. balloon is rising vertically upwards ata velocity
(of 10 ms", When its eta height of 45 m from the
‘ground, a parachutist bails out from it, After 3s he
‘opens his parachute and decelerates at a constant
rate of $ ms". What was the height of the parachut-
ist above the ground when he opened his parachute?
Take g= 10 ms
(a) 13m () 30m
(©) 45m (@) 6m
In Q.40, how far isthe parachutist from the balloon
atr=39?
(@) 1sm (b) 30m
(©) 43m (@) 60m
42, Im Q40, with what velocity does the parachutist hit
the ground?
(a) 10ms () 20 ms!
(©) 30ms* (@) 40 ms!
8
Q40, after how long does the parachutist hit the
‘ground after his exit from the balloon?
(@ 4s (b) Ss
(©) 6s @ Ts
44, Car is moving with a speed of 36 km bh on a
tworlane road. Two cars B and C, each moving with
4 speed of $4 km hin opposite directions on the
other lane are approaching ear 4. Ata certain instant
when the distance 4B = distance AC = 1 km, the
driver of ear B decides to overtake before C does.
‘What must be the minimum acceleration of car B so
as to avoid an accident?
(a) Ims (b) 2ms?
(©) 3ms (2) 4ms?
45, The driver ofa train A moving ata speed of 30 ms"*
sights another train & moving on the same track to-
wards his tran ata speed of 10 ms" He immediate-
ly applies brakes and achieves a uniform retardation
of 4 ms *, To avoid head-on collision, what must be
‘the minimum distance between the trains?
(a) 100m () 200m
(©) 300m (2) 400m
46, A cyclist stats from the centre O of a circular track
of radius r =1 km, reaches the edge P of the track
and then cycles along the circumference and stops
at point Q as shown in Fig. 2.32. If the total time
taken is 10 min, what isthe average velocity of the
eyelist?
Q
Z.\,
Fig. 232
(a) 3kmnt (b) 6kmh*
(©) 9kmirt (@) 12kmh*
47. In Q.46 above, the average speed of the eyclist is
approximately equal to2.20 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
(@) 123 ms" () 13.4 ms!
(©) 44ms* (@) 15.4.ms*
Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 4 ms"!
After some time, wind starts blowing with a speed of
3ms inthe north to south direction. In order to pro-
‘cot himself from rain, a man standing on the ground
should hold his umbrella at an angle @ given by
48,
@
tan-*(2) withthe vria! towards south
4
~ tan-*( 3) with the vertical towards nor
(0 a0'(2) with ei ovo
(©) @=cor" (2) withthe vertical towards south
(0, 0- cat (2) withthe veri vad sath
49. In.Q.48 above, with what speed does the rain strike
the umbrella?
(a) 3ms! () 4ms
(©) Sms" (@) 6ms*
450. A sovitmmer ean swim in sll water witha speed of
Sms, While crossing a river his average speed is
Sims Ihe crosses the iver in the shortest posible
time, whats the speed of flow of water?
@ 2ms! () 4ms?
(© 6ms" (@) Sms?
1, A bods, starting from rest, moves ina straight line
‘with a constant acceleration « for a time interval 1
uring whieh it ravels a distance 5, It continues to
‘move with the same acceleration forthe next time
interval r during which it travels a distance 5, The
relation between 5, and is
@ 0) 5;
Os Ws
InQ.51, if, isthe velocity ofthe body atthe end of.
frst time interval and that atthe endof the second
time interval, the relation between 0, and vis
(@) y=0 (0) 2," 20,
© w= 32, () v= 40,
553. A body dropped from the top of a tower its the
around after 4s. How much time does it take to
cover the first half of the distance feom the top of
the tower?
(@ Is ) 25
@ 22s @) Bs
‘A body moving in a straight line with constant ac-
celeration of 10 ms™ covers a distance of 40 m in
58.
st.
58
59.
the 4" second, How much distance will it cover in
the 6" second?
(@) 50m (6) 60m
(©) 70m (@) 80m
A body, moving in a straight line with an initial ve-
locity of 5 ms ' and a constant acceleration, covers
a distance of 30 m in the 3° second. How much
distance will it cover in the next 2 seconds?
(@) 70m () 80m
(©) 90m (2) 100m
‘A body, moving in a straight tine, with an initial
velocity 1 and a constant acceleration a, covers a
distance of 40 m in the 4" second and a distance of
60 min the 6" second. The values of w and arespee-
tively are
(2) 1ms!, Sms? (b) 10.ms"!, 10m
(©) Sms',Sms? (a) Sms", 10ms?
‘A body, starting from rest and moving with a con-
stant acceleration, covers a distances, in the 4 see-
ond and a distance s, in the 6® second. The ratio
4
oF
7
a 2
OF
Acar, starting from rest, has a constant acceleration
‘9; for a time interval 7, during which it covers a
distance s,. Inthe next time interval, the car has a
constant retardation a, and comes to rest aftr
ering a distance sin time 1, Whieh ofthe following
relations is correct?
@ ) 4a8
In Q. 58, ifthe total distance covered by the ear ss,
the maximum speed attained by it will be
oli) (2
wo (2
|. Acar, starting fom rest, is accelerated at a constant
rate until it attains a speed v.Itis then retarded at
‘constant rate until it comes to rest. The average
speed of the car during its entire journey isKinematics 2.20
6.
0,
65.
6.
(@ 210 we
© os
A simple pendulum is hanging from the ceiling of
‘compartment ofa train, Its observed thatthe string
is inclined towards the rear of the train, If follows
that the train is
(a) atrest (b) accelerated
(6) decelerated (@) in uniform motion,
‘The displacement of a body from a reference point,
is given by
Ve = 2643
here x is in metres and rin seconds. This shows
that the body is
(a) atest
(©) decelerated
(b) accelerated
(@) in uniform motion
In Q.62, what i the initial velocity of the body?
(a) 2ms* (6) 3 ms"
(©) 6 ms" (@) 12ms
1. In Q.62, what isthe acceleration of the body?
(@) 2ms? (b) 3 ms?
(©) 6ms* (@) 8m
‘A car moving at a speed o is stopped in a certain
distance when the brakes produce a deceleration a,
the speed of the ear was ne, what must be the de-
celeration of the car to stop it in the same distance
and in the same time?
(a) via
© wa @ na
A car is moving at a certain speed. The minimum
distance over which it can be stopped is x. Ifthe
speed of the ear is doubled, what will be the mi
mum distance over which the car can be stopped
during the same time?
(a) ar (b) 2«
(©) x2 (@ x4
A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial
velocity of $0 ms. 1 covers a distance Mr during
the frst second and a distance i during the last 3
seconds ofits upward motion. If g= 10 ms, jr, and
‘will be related as
(a) = 3h;
(b) na
) hy
© h @ hy
70.
m.
n.
B.
ball is thrown vertically downward with velocity
1 from the top of a tower. It strikes the ground with
‘velocity 3, The time taken by the ball to reach the
‘ground is given by
@ + oo
& &
© * w@ %
8 «
9. In Q.68, the height ofthe tower is given by
@ © wo)
# ®
© * w
z &
‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a
straight Line in time is given by the relation
2 eaeer
If vis the velocity ofthe body at a certain instant of
time, its acceleration will be
@) - (by -207
(© -30" @ -40°
‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a
straight line in time is given by
+23
‘The acceleration of the body will vary as
1
@
L
©
“The motion ofa body is given by the equation
a(n) 0
oO 60-370)
where V() isthe speed (in ms“ at time # (in sec
cond). Ifthe body was at rest at (= 0, which of the
following statements is wrong?
(@) the terminal speed is 2.0 mst
(b) the magnitude ofthe intial acceleration is 6.0
(©) the speed varies with time as HW) =2(1 ~€)
(@) the speed is 2.0 ms“ when the acceleration is
half the initial value
A body, moving in a straight line, covers half the
distance with a speed ¥, the remaining part of the222
Compete Physics IEE Main
16.
n.
78,
”.
distance was covered with a speed ¥” for half the
time and with a speed ¥” for the other half of the
lime. What is the average speed of the body?
wy anus ves")
(Qverar”) (verse)
wr ver
S Tray ©! TPP
A cat is moving on a straight horizontal road with a
speed 2. When brakes are applied to give a constant
retardation , the ears stopped ina shortest distance
5. Ifthe car were moving on the same road with a
speed 3» and the same retardation « is applied, the
shortest distance in which the cari stopped will be
(a) 35 ) 6s
9s @ 278
The maximum height attained by a projectile and
its horizontal range are equal to each other if the
projectile is projected at an angle 8 given by
(@) @= tan!) (b) @= tan (3)
(©) B=tan'(4) (a) @= tan '(5)
A person aims a gun a a target located at horizon
tal distance of 100 m. Ifthe gun imparts a horizontal
speed of 500 ms to the bullet at what height above
the target must he aim his gun in order to hit i? Take
(©) 206m
(@) 100 em
‘When a projectile is atthe highest point ofits trajec=
tory, the directions of its velocity and acceleration
(a) parallel o each other
(b) anti-parallel to each other
(c) inclined to each other at an angle of 45°
(@) perpendicular to each other
A boll is projected horizontally with a velocity of
Sms" from the top ofa building 19.6 m high. How
Jong will the ball take to hit the ground?
@ Vs tb) 28
© Ss (38
‘A bomb is dropped from an aeroplane when itis at
height ditctly above a target. If the aeroplane
is moving horizontally at a speed 2, the distance by
which the bomb will miss the target is given by
omE off
at
2,
85,
ol wo aE
‘An enemy plane is lying horizontally tan altitude
‘of 2 km with a speed of 300 ms! Amarmyman with
an ant-aiteraft gun onthe ground sights the enemy
plane whenitisdreetly ovetheadand fies asbell with
a muzzle speed of 60 ms" At what angle with the
\ertial should the gun be fred sos obit the plane?
@) 30° @) 4s
(©) 60° @ 18
1.Q.80, at what minimum altitude should the enemy
plane fly to avoid being hit? Take g = 10 ms®
(a) 125 km (b) 13.5 km.
(©) 145 km (a) 15.5 km.
‘The ceiling ofa tunnel is S m high, What is the max-
imum horizontal distance that a ball thrown with a
speed of 20 ms ', can go without hitting the ceiling
of the tunnel? Take g= 10 ms”,
(a) 10¥3 m () 20V3 m
(©) 30¥3 m (a) 4003 m
.. From the top of a tower of height 40 m, a ball is
projected upwards witha speed of 20 m/satan angle
‘of elevation of 30°. The ratio of the total time taken
bby the bal to hit the ground tits time of fight (time
taken to come back fo the same elevation) is (Take
g=10mis)
f@) 2:1 (3:1
(3:2 (@) 15:1
1. In Q.83, the horizontal displacement (from the foot
of the tower) of the ball is approximately equal to
(a) Som () 60m
(©) 70m @ 80m
A.cannon on a level plain is aimed at an angle «
above the horizontal and a shell is fired with a muz-
ale velocity 1 towards a vertical cliff a distance R
‘aay. Then the height from the bottom at which the
shell strikes the side walls ofthe clitsKinomatice 223
86.
a7.
88,
89,
90,
on
92,
93,
Itispossible to projecta particle witha given velocity
in two possible ways so as to make it pass through
4 point P ata distant r from the point of projection
‘The product ofthe times taken to reach this point in
the two possible ways is then proportional to
(@) Ur
(or
or
‘Agan kept on a strsight horizontal roa is used o
hit ear travelling om the same road away from the
um ata unifom speed of 1002 ms The car iat
8 distance of 150 m rom the gun when fied at
fn angle of 45° tothe horizontal, With what speed
Should the shel be projected so that it hits the at?
‘Take g = 10 ms
(a) 20ms* (b) 30 ms
(©) 40ms* (@) 50 ms
In Q.87, whats the distance of the ear from the gun
‘when the shell hits it?
(@) 250m () 500m
(6) 750m (@) 1000 m_
From the top of @ tower of height 40 m, a ball is
projected upwards with a speed of 20 ms"! at an
angle of 30° to the horizontal. If g= 10 ms, after
‘how Jong will the ball hit the ground?
@ ts (o) 28
(© 3s @ 4s
A projectile has @ maximum range of 200 m. What
is the maximum height attained by i
(@) 25m () 50m
(© 75m (@) 100m
A body thrown along 4 fritionless inelined plane
‘of angle of inclination 30° covers a distance of
440 m along the plane. Ifthe body is projected wit
the same speed at angle of 30° with the ground, it
Will have a range of (take g = 10.ms*)
(@) 20m () 2003 m
(©) 20V3 m (@) 40m
Which ofthe following remains constant during the
motion ofa projectile fired from a planet?
() kinetic energy
(b) momentum
(©) vertical component of velocity
(@) horizontal component of velocity
A body is projected with kinetic energy K at an an-
tle of 60° with the horizontal. Its kinetic energy at
the highest point ofits trajectory will be
95,
o,
98,
100.
101.
(@) 2 i) K
(©) Ke (a) Kis
A body, projected with a certain kinetie energy, has
4 horizontal range R. The kinetic energy will be
minimum at a position of the prajcetile when its
horizontal range is
(@ R () 384
© Ra (@) RM
‘Ac what angle (6) with the horizontal should a body
bbe projected so that its horizontal range equals the
maximum height it attains?
(@) 0 tan" (V3)
(© = tan" (23)
)
tant (22)
(@) O= tan"! (4)
‘The horizontal distance x and the verical height y
‘of a projectile at a time ¢ are given by
x =at and y= be +t
where a, band c are constants. What is the magni-
tude of the velocity of the projectile | second alter
itis fired?
(@) a2 +P!) [2a + 4 ey
(©) (a? + 2b + cf")! (a) fa? + (b+ 2eP 2
tn Q.96, the angle (8) with the horizon
the projectiles projected is given by
at which
« o=wn'(2)
© o=tn'(2) (a o= un (2)
196, the acceleration duc to gravity is given by
(@) -20 () 2
(© 2 (8) ~ae+b
1. In Q. 96, the magnitude of the initial velocity ofthe
projectile is given by
() (+82) +e?
© @+)' (a) (6? —4acy"®
Four projectiles are projected with the same speed
a angles 20°, 35°, 60° and 78° withthe horizon-
tal, The range will be the longest for the projectile
whose angle of projection is
(@) 20° () 35°
© 60° (6) 15°
projectile town at an angle of 30° with the hor
Zonal ha a range Rand attains a maximum height
‘y,. Anosber projectile thrown, withthe same veloc
‘ty, at am angle 30° with the vertical, has @ range224
Compete Physics IEE Main
102.
103.
108,
105.
106,
107.
108.
109,
Ry and attains a maximum height fy, The relation
‘between Rand Ry is
RB
fa) R= b) R= Ry
@ &- = (b) R= Ry
(©) R,=2R (2) R= AR,
In Q.101 what is the relation between and h:
(@) iy () my
4 3
hy
(©) y= (d) y= hy
Om @
The maximum height attained by a projectile is
creased by 10% by inereasing its speed of projec
tion, without changing the angle of projection. The
percentage increase in the horizontal range will be
(a) 20% () 15%
(6) 10% (a) 5%
‘In Q.103, what isthe percentage increase in the time
‘of flight of the projectile?
(a) 20% () 15%
fe) 10% (a) 5%
‘The maximum height attained by projectile is
creased by 10% by changing the angle of projec
tion, without changing the speed of projection, The
percentage increase in the time of fight will be
(a) 20% ©) 15%
(6) 10% (a) 5%
‘The speed of projection of projectile is increased by
596, without changing the angle of projection. The
percentage increase in the range will be
(a) 2.58 () 5%
(©) 75% (@) 10%
In Q. 106, what is the percentage inerease in the
‘maximum height attained by the projectile?
(a) 2.5% ) 5%
(c) 75% (@) 10%
In Q. 106, what is the percentage inerease in the
time of flight ofthe projectile?
(a) 2.5% ) 5%
© 75 (2) 10%
A projectile attains a cortain maximum height when
projected from earth, IP tis projected at the same
dangle and with the same initial speed from the
moon, where the aeceleration due to gravity is one
sixth that on earth, by What factor will the maximum
height of the projectile increase?
mo,
m2,
3.
m4,
us.
6,
f@) V5 tb) 3
© 6 (a 6
[A projectile has a range & and time of fight 7: If the
range is doubled (by increasing the speed of projec:
tion, without changing the ange of projection), the
time of fight will become
() Or
as
r ‘
© > @2T
AA projectile has the same range R when the maxi-
‘mum height attained by itis either hy ot hy. Then R,
1h, and fy willbe related as
2h
( R- Vis )
(©) R= 3Vinhy (a) R= With;
body i projected horizontally from a point above
the ground. The motion ofthe body is described by
the equations
xo2r
and yose
where x and y ate the horizontal and verical dis
placements (in m) respectively at time The trajee-
tory ofthe body is
(@) a straight tne
(©) aneltipse
What isthe veloc
is projected?
@ 2ms" () 25m
(© 35ms" (@) Sms?
What isthe magnitude ofthe velocity ofthe boy in
Q.112,0.2 second after itis projected?
(@ V2 ms" (b) 2 v2 ms"
(©) 33 ms (0) 4 ms"
The velocity ofthe body in Q. 112 at time t= 0.26
is inetned withthe vertical at an angle of
@ 2s (0) 30°
© 4" (6) 60°
[Abody is projected at time =0 from a certain point
‘ona planet’ surface with a erain velocity ata cer
tain angle with the planet’ surface (assumed hor-
zontal). The horizontal and verical displacements x
and y Gin metes) respectively vary with time (in
seconds) a8
r=10N3 1
(b) acirele
(a) a parabola
‘with which the body in Q. 112Kinomatice 225
47,
9,
120.
1.
2.
123.
y= 101
What isthe magnitude and direction ofthe velocity
with which the body is projected?
(@) 20 ms" atan angle of 30° with the horizontal
(6) 20ms atanangle of 60° with the horizontal
(©) 10 ms aan angle of 30° with the horizontal
(@) 10ms ! at an angle of 60° with the horizontal
‘What is the value of acceleration due to gravity on
the planet's surface in Q. 116?
(a) 1.0ms* (b) 2ms?
(©) 4ms* (a) 98 ms
What is the maximum height which the body in
Q.116 wil attain?
(a) 25m (©) 50m
(©) 75m (@) 100m
What is the total time of flight of the body in
Quer
(a) 2s ) 5s
(©) 10s (a) 20s
‘What is the distance between the point from where
the body in Q. 116 is projected and the point where
itstrikes the planet’ surface?
(a) 25¥3 m (6) 50V3 m
(©) 75¥3 m (a) 10093 m
‘Which one of the following statements is NOT true
about the motion ofa projectile?
(a) The time of ight of a projectile is proportional
to the speed with which it is projected.
(b) the horizontal range of a projectile is propor-
tional to the square-root of the speed with
which itis projected,
(6) For a given speed of projection, the angle of
projection for maximum range is 45°.
(@) At maximum height, the acceleration due to
_eravity is perpendicular to the velocity of the
projectile
A plumb line is hanging from the ceiling of ata
If the train moves along a horizontal track with
uniform acceleration a, the plumb line gets inclined
to the vertical at a angle
wan { 3)
om()
A block is placed on the top of a smooth inclined
plane of inclination @ kept on the floor of a lift
‘When the lift is descending with a retardation a,
©) tan! (4)
(@ cos'(£)
124,
128,
126.
12,
128,
129.
the block is released, The acceleration of the block
rwlative tothe incline is
(@) gsino
(©) (a) sino
A ball is projected vertically upwards with a certain
initial speed. Another ball ofthe same mass is pro-
jected at angle of 60° with the vertical with the same
initial speed. At the highest point, the ratio of their
potential energies will be
@ act (322
2:3 @ 2:1
Displacement (x) of a particle is elated to time (2) as
x= artbe—oF
where a, b and ¢ are constants of motion. The
velocity of the particle when its acceleration is zero
is given by
(b) asin @
(a) (e+ aysin@
wert wart
e
ore
oak
%
The angle between vectors A=3i +4] +S and
B=6i +8] + 10k is
(a) ze10 ) 45"
(©) 90° (a) 180°
A vector A isalong the positive z-axis and its vector
‘product with another vector B is 2ero then vector B
could be
@ i+j (oy 4h
@ irk (@) -7k
Aisa vector which when added to the resultant of
vectors Qi -3} +4Ryand(f +5] +2) yields
2 unit vetor along the y-anix, Then veetor Ais?
() 3i-j-ok gsi +j-ok
@si-jtok sis jrok
‘The angle between two vectors A and Bis @. Vector
Ris the resultant ofthe two vectors. FR makes an
(@) 4=28 4
(4-8 (@ 4B-1
1. A river is flowing from west to cast at a speed of
5 miminute, In what direction should a man on the
south bank of the river capable of swimming at
10 m/minute instill water swim to eross the river in
the shortest time?226
Compete Physics IEE Main
1a.
132.
133.
134.
138.
136.
(a) East (b) West
(6) South (@) North
In Q. 130 above, in what direction should the man
‘swim so that he erosses the river by swimming the
shortest distance?
(a) North () 60" west of north
() 30° west of north (d) 30° west of south
A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity It
passes three points 4, B and C in its upward journey
with velocities “, “ and
respectively. The ratio
respectively.
4B ig 3
ae
20
@ 22 2
OFZ )
10
@ a1
o% ®
A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity 1. It
passes a point at a height above the ground at time
1, while going up and at time fs while falling down,
Then the relation between wf and fis
du de
arn) gen
z £
Out Want
® z
In Q. 133 above, the relation between tty and his
n= 2 ane *
® z
wtar= tw arnr=
« «
A body dropped from a height /¥ above the ground
sitikes an inclined plane at a height ft above the
sground. Asa result ofthe impact, the velocity ofthe
body becomes horizontal. The body will take the
‘maximum time to reach the ground if
4 i
(a) a= re
@it OW Se
H Li
© a> Ome
-Aboy is dropped from the roof oF a mulli-storeyed
building. I passes the ceiling of the 15th storey at
4 spocd of 20 ms. Ifthe height of each storey is
44m, the number of storeys in the building is (ake
= 10 ms and neglect ai resistance)
(a) 20 (o) 25
© 30 (o) 35
137,
138.
139,
140.
1.
12,
143,
144,
‘Two balls 4 and B are projected from the same loca
tion simultaneously. Ball 4 is projected vertically
upwards and ball B at 30° to the vertical. They reach
the ground simultaneously. The velocities of projec-
tion of 4 and B are inthe ratio
(oy 1: V5
@ 3:2 (a) 2: V5
[A body is projected with a velocity v=(34 + 49)
ims '. The maximum height attained by the body is
@ Bet
(ake g= 10s)
(a) 08m ) 8m
(©) 80m (2) 800m
In Q. 138 above, the time of fight ofthe body is
(a) 08s (b) Los
(©) 405 @) 805
A body is projected with a velocity w at an angle @
with the horizontal. The velocity of the body will
bbccome perpendicular to the velocity of projection
after atime r given by
@ 2esina 08
€ ©
© Find » gsi
A body is projected at an angle @ with the horo-
Zonta. When it at the highest point, the ratio of
the potential and kinetic energies ofthe body is
(a) wn @ (b) tan?
(©) core (a) core
The equation of motion ofa projectile isy= ax~ ba?
where aand bare constants of motion. The borizan-
tal range of te projectile is
a va
a) £ (oy YE
@ oF
OF OF
In Q. 142 above, the greatest height attained by the
projectile is
a va
@ > o>
oF OF
In Q. 142 above, the time of flight ofthe projectileKinomatice 227
4s,
146.
7.
148.
149.
150,
3 ‘
woz %
OV ° Te
i —
© Vie @ Vag
[A paricle moving ina straight line covers half the
distance with a speed of 3 mvs. The other half of
the distance is covered in two equal time intervals
with speeds of 4.5 ms and 75 m/s respectively. The
average aperl of the pesicl during this mation is
(@ 4omis () 50m
(© 53m (@) 48 ms
Acar is telling ata velocity of 10 kmh on @
straight road, The driver of the ear throws 2 parcel
witha velocity of 102 kh when the cris passing
byaman taning on the side ofthe rou. Ihe parcel
isto reach the man, the direction of throw makes the
following angle with the ditetion ofthe car,
(@) 135° (b) as"
: 14)
(©) tan" (2) « aw (J)
The initial velocity of a particle is u = (43+39)
ms. It is moving with uniform acceleration
(04 + 0.39) ms, The magnitude ofits velocity
after 10 is
(a) 3ms! (©) dims!
(©) Sms" (@) 10 ms"
‘The horizontal and vertical displacements of a pro
jectile at time “7 are x= 36¢ and y = 48r— 4.97
respectively where x and y are in metre and 1 isin
second. Initial velocity of the projectile im m/s is:
(a) 15 ) 30
© 43 (a) 60
‘The displacement x of a particle moving in one
dimension is related 10 time rby the equation
VE +3
‘here xis in metres and tin seconds. The displace-
ment of the particle when its velocity is zero is
(a) ze10 @) 4m
©) 1m (@) 05m
Apartile intially (ie, at = 0) moving with a veloe-
ity wis subjected to a retarding force, as a result of
which it develerates at arate
a=—ke
where vis the instantaneous velocity and 4 s-a po
tive constant, The time T taken by the particle to
come to rests given by
181.
182.
ve
7-2
ype? aut
7-28
A particle stars from rest, Is acceleration at time
is 5 ms which varies with time as shown in
Fig, 2.33. The maximum speed of the particle will
be
(a) 7.5.ms! (b) 15 ms!
(©) 30ms* (a) 75 ms?
tom
° «!
Fig. 2.33
Figure 2.34 shows the variation of velocity (2) of a
body with position (x) from the origin O. Which of
the graphs shown in Fig. 2.35 correctly represents
the variation ofthe aceeleration (a) with position (x)?
o y=
Fig. 234
4 1
r= 6 =
@ o
! !
9 = 9 =
© @
Fig. 235,2.38 Complete Physice—JEE Main
153. The velocity (0) ofabody moving slong the postive 67. (6) 68. (b) @.@
x-direction varies with displacement (x) ftom the 70. (4) 7.) n.d)
origin as v= AV, where isa constant. Which of 73. (a) ©) 75.0)
the graphas shown in Fig. 2.36 corretly represents 76, (b) nw 18. (b)
the displacement-time (x1) graph ofthe motion? 79, (@) we a 8)
82. (b) 83. (a) 84.)
{ { 85. (c) 86. (b) 87. (d)
x : 88. (o) 89. (d) 90. (b)
91. (©) 92. (d) 93. (a)
94. (©) 98. (@) 96. (9)
9. (@) 98. () 99. (©)
° = oO = 100. (b) 101. (6) 102. (b)
® » 103. (e) 104. (@) 108. (a)
106. (@) 107. (@) 108. (b)
| ! 1.)
‘ ‘ m2. @) 113. (@) 114. ()
118, (©) 116, (@) 117. ()
118. (@) 19. @) 120. @)
1. 122. (@ 123. (@)
= eo Fe 124. (@) 125. (©) 126. (@)
127. @) 18. (@) 129. ()
Fig.2236 130. (@) BL © 132. (@)
133. (@) 134, (@) 138, ©)
136. (@) 132. © 138. (@)
CEE ANSWERS OEE 4.35) (3) 10. @ Mat. @
1) 2© .@ 122, (a) 143, @) 144, (@)
L@ £@ 0) 148. (@) 146. (0) 147. (@)
7b) 26) © 148. @) 149. (@) 150. (0)
10. no @ 131.) 152. (@) 133. (©)
3B. @) 14. @) ©
16, (a) 17.) © > SOLUTIONS
9. @) 20. (©) (0)
2. @) 23. (0) .(@) 1. The magnitude ® ofthe resultant vector R of two
a5) eo © sgetors ‘and B inclined at an angle Bis given by
28. (©) 29. (0) . (0) ROMS BES TAB cos 0
31d) © © 2
4.) @ © cos 4 (roo -uF o
37. (b) ) =) *
40. (6) (0) (2) .
8.0) (0) 45. (b) 20». ence the comect choice i
46. (0) (3) 48.) a
#9. () 0) 51. @) 2. R= AP + B+ 24B 60s 6. his given that R= A = B.
ae oe a Pattng those vals we have
55. (©) - (d) 57. () +4? +24? cos 8
58. (@) @ 60. () 1 ich diene
61. (6) (0) 6. @) Zone ne
64. (@) © 66, (3) Honce the correct choice i (0)From the triangle law of veetor addition, i s clear
that the veetors R, A and B in Q.2 must be rep-
resented by the three sides of an equilateral trian-
tse because the magnitudes ofthe three vectors are
‘equal. Hence the angle a between vectors R and
is 60°. Alternatively, the value of es given by
tana = —83in@__sin@_(. gp)
A+ Boos 1+00s8
= Sin120" a5
T+e0s120°
which gives a = 60°. Hence the correct choice is
@.
1. Let Obe the angle between A and B. Then magni-
tudes of vectors P and Q are given by
Pia a? + P4240 cos 0
and Q?= A" +B 24B 60s 8
Since P = Q, it follows that cos 0 = 0 or O~ 22.
Hence correct choice is (c)
Given ay
fore
60°, Hence correct choice is ().
Given JA Bl = 4B sin
Varia
2 2
‘Therefore @= 30°, Hence the correct choice is (b.
Given AB cos @= AB sin 8 or wn = 1 which gives
I5°. Hence the correct choice is (b).
Since A + B= 0, it follows that A is perpendicular
to B.Also Ax C= 0, Therefore A is perpendicular
oC. Hence B is perpendicular to C. Therefore, the
ccorect choice is (b).
As shown in Fig. 2.37, the angle @ between vectors
‘A and B is 90°, Also 41 ~ B, Therefore, the magt
s given by
= APA 2 c08 90°
Kunomatice 229
or R- 4.
choice is (b).
10. Vector € lies in the plane containing veetors A and
B, and vector D is perpendicular to both A and B.
Hence D must be perpendicular to C. Henee the cor-
rect choice is (c).
‘ince Ax B=-BxA,C=~D, Le. veetors Cand D
are in opposite directions. Hence the correct choice
is(@.
12. Let be the angle between the two vectors. The
resultant is given by
Re 2AB cos @
Putting the values of R, A and B we get
(CF = GP + GP +234 x c08 0
or 0s 8 =~ 1 or = 180"
Now AB = AB cos @= 34x -cos 180° =~ 12
Hence the correct choice is (a).
13. ‘The magnitude of Ax B= AB sin 0= 3 x4 x sin 180°
= 0. Hence the comect choice is (d).
14, Since A+B = C, vector C is the resultant of vectors
A and B. Using the triangle law of vector addition
(ee Fig, 2.38), we have 0= 45° (7 A= C)
‘Thus, the correct choice is (a)
Hence the correct
Fig. 238
15, The resultant R of vectors (A+B) and (A~B) is
R=(A+B)+(A—B)= 24
‘The magnitude of the resulta
correct choice is (a)
ince R = 2A, R is parallel to A. Hence the correct
choice is (a).
14, Hence the
17. Let i and j represent the magnitudes of vectors i
and j respectively. Since 7 and j are unit vectors,
i= tand j
1 Therefore, the magnitude of vector
Vu +0F = 92,
‘Thus, the correct choice is (b).230
Compete Physics IEE Main
1.
20.
‘The angle subtended by vector with the
axisis given by
(
cos = UA aa
(Pe a oa
14040 1
en
oh
Hence the eoreetchoiee is (a).
Here (02)? + (0.67 * a = ora? =
1.6 or a= V0.6 , So the correct choice is (c).
2.
2
mM
‘Thus, the correct choice is (a).
Ax Be (ii)x(ieRlaixi rick eed ejxk
K +i which is choice (4).
The component of vector A along vector B
(A+ B)B where
‘of vector B. Now
(ac) = (2 +3))(i+3)
where B is the magnitude
iabjoabieshi
=2+040+3-5
Also
Sis
‘Thus the answer is (7+) whichis eolee
1 fli) ©.
. vector (Ij) is perpendic
i)
“The required component is
c
(acy &
(a0) G
(> Magnitude o
25,
26,
2.
29,
‘Thus, the correct choice is (a).
Let n seconds be the time taken by the stone toreach
the ground. The distance covered in the ast second
= distance covered in n seconds ~ distance covered
l
1 gn? + gin 1) The dis-
in (a1) seconds = > gn — > a(n 1). The di
tance covered in the first 3 seconds = + gx (3). It
is given that a
1 L :
ds wi xGF
2 ea Gy
or wn 1P=9
which gives 1 = 5s. Hence the correct choice is
.
gr?
te :
since a= #2 wehave = fadt=f 4)
3
an Ate
* s,
a eye 4
Hence the correct choice is ()
For a given initial speed, the maximum height
attained and the downward speed at the point of
projection ate independent of the masses of balls
Hence the correct choice is (4).
Given
2+ 161+ 2, Comparing it with
2
sours © af, wehave w= 16ms" and £=—2 or
2 23
4
ms, Fora body to come to rest, the final
velocity © = 0. Using these values of u, 2 and a in
eeutat
wwe have o-w Sr
3
or elds
Hence the caroet choice is ().
Given w= 30-ms"! From Fig, 2.34 the acceleration
30ms!
a= slope of lis The
maximum height is reached when final velocity 2= 0.
Using the values of , 2 and ein relation 0° ~ a? =
2as, we have
0-30*30 =2x-10xsKinematics 23%
30.
uM.
2
3
4,
30%30
20
Hence the corset choices ().
‘The two arrows wil bes the ste height at
984.9998 (n= 5)—4.9 (4-5) Thieves
12.55. The time to reach the highest point i given
by0=98-9.87i.e, = 10s therefore time o ight
{82% 100205 The seed ofthe fst arrow at =
20 sis 98 ms" ‘while that of the second arrow
is (98 9.8 x 0.5) ms! ie. 49 ms''. The maximum,
eights tained are 490 m each,
Hence the correct choice is (c)
‘The area under the velocity-time graph always gives
the distance covered as it is given by the integral
{dr woh stu inept of whether the body
ee
acceleration. Henee the correct choice is (d).
Velocity ofthe particle is given by
#24] eA.
a ait
ape
Acetration ofthe partici given by
a0 beh) ane
0d (oe) a abe
anal)
6, the displacement ofthe particle is
Hence choice (a) is wrong. At ¢= 0, the values v
and a respectively are v= ae"? = a and a= ~ abe”
=~ ab. Hence choice (b) is also wrong. The dis-
placement x is maximum when fF, Fe. gg—
- Hence choiee (c) is correct,
‘The acceleration is given by the slape ofthe specd—
time graph. The slope of the graph is maximum dur-
ing the interval BC. Hence the corect choice is ().
‘The velocity of the parachutist at the end of 10
seconds = 10 g = 10x 10= 100 ms"! and the dis-
tance fallen in 10 seconds = 2"/2¢ = 100 x 1002
300 m, The distance travelled after he bails
2495 ~ $00 = 1995 m. For this distance
=~ 2.5 ms”. Therefore, the final
velocity vis given by
(100)? - 22.5 x 1995
ms", Hence, the correct choice is
135. Let be the time during which the car accelerates at
a rate c, The velocity atthe end of time f, will be
vat =wray=O+an=an — ( w=0)
‘The time during which the ear decelerates is f,
11), For this time f, the initial velocity is 2, and
the final velocity is zero and the acceleration is ~.
‘Therefore
an,~BU-4)
which gives, = PL therefore, maximum
ich gives t= GBF. mere
obi
velocity = vat = a1, = 24
oem OB
Hence the correct choice is (a.
36, The distance travelled in time ¢ is
(wo)
wi)
= 28s;
‘Therefore,
Hence the correct choice is (a,
te
37, Since a= 12, we have w= fadt= [ltr teyde
7 Jaar= [lar +e)
‘ges
= Lat? ser, Hence the correct choice is (
3 )
38. The vl ofthe prise atte seven by
ae232
Compete Physics IEE Main
9.
40,
2.
Ih
ow te dplasment it en by
x= Jodr=—sfosinorat
* cos) dt
0s or
Thus, the correct ehviee is (),
hol
wehave Ha! g (an— 1) s0 that»
pry een)
Honee his given by
‘Simplifying and puting g= 10 ms”
#? 60h + 100
‘The positive root ofthis quadratic gives = 58 m
Hene
e correct choice is (2).
When the parachutist bails out, he shares the veloc-
ity of the balloon and has an upward velocity of
10ms",ie.u=+ 10m" Alsog=— 10 ms" (acting
downwards). The displacement in ¢~ 3s is given by
1
ute
0x3 Exe x OF
15m
Since the displacement is negative, it is directed
downwards. So the height from the ground when he
15 — 15 = 30-m, Thus, the
‘opened his parachute
correct choice is (b).
Intime 3s, the balloon has risen through 30m (as the
velocity of the balloon ig 10 ms” upwards). lence
the parachutist is now 30 + 15 = 45 maway from the
balloon, Thus, the correct choice is ()
‘The velocity of the parachutist 3s after he bails out
tet
0+ © 10) x 3=— 20 ms"
(directed downwards)
20 ms and
~ 30 m (see,
Att= 3s, his initial veloc
to hit the ground, his displacement 5
solution of Q. 40). Now a = +5 ms” (directed up-
‘wards). The time taken to hit the ground is given
by
smut ge
fe
or ~30 =-207+ 5
2
or #812 =0
or (6-2) =
which gives 1= 6s or2 s.If
with which he hits the ground is @ = w+ ar=~ 20
+ 5%6=10 ms |. This is positive, Le. vis directed
upwards, which is not possible. Thus the correct
answer is = 2, in whieh case, the velocity with
which he hits the ground is
p=-20+5x2=-10ms"
Which is negative as it should be. Thus, the correct
choice is (a).
65, then the velocity
1. The total time the parachutist takes (after his exit
from the balloon) to hit the ground is = 3 s +2 s=
5s which is choice (b),
44, Let us suppose that cars 4 and B are moving in the
45,
positive x-direction. Then car C is moving in the
neyative x-direction. Therefore, v4 = + 36 kmh”
= 10 ms oy = +54 km WE 1S ms and
vo=- Sékmh! = 15 ms! The relative velocity B
with respect to is Y—,= pv
‘he relative velocity of C with respect to A is
Rey =We-B4=— 15 10=— 25s".
distance between 4 and B = distance between 4 and
C= 1 km-= 1000 m, The ear C will cover a distance
AC= 1000 m and just reach ear 4 ata time given by
405
Car B will overtake car A just before car C does
and avoid an accident, if it acquires a minimum ae-
celeration a such that it covers a distance s = AB =
1000 min time 1 40 s, travelling ata relative speed
rms !, Putting these values in relation
1 3
seurt } ae
2
We get 1000 = 5 x40 + > xax(40y?
which gives a = 1 ms which in choice (a).
‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train B
30+ 10= 40 ms". The minimum distance now is
given byKinomatice 233
46.
a7.
48.
which gives »= 200 m which is choice (b).
Average velocity
‘otal time
The displacement of the eyelist in moving from P
to Q along the circumference = shortest distance
between P and Q = straight line distance PQ (shown
bby broken lines in the figure) inthe direction from P
{© O. The net displacement in moving from O to P
and then from P to Q = resultant of vector displace
ment OP and PQ. From the triangle law of vector
addition, the magnitude of the net displacement =
1
2Q= 1 km. Now th tie kan = 10min
Therefore, average velocity is | ka Zh= kmh,
which is choice (b).
total distance
Average speed = ‘21st distance.
Be speed’ total time
‘Total distance = 0 to P (along radius) + P t0 Q
(along the are)
£. Average spect
is choice (a).
Velocity of rain ( “vercalydowamacs
Velocity of wind (0, " from north to south
ditection. A ain drop is acted upon by two veloc
ties 2, and 2, as shown in Fig. 2.43. From the tia
ale lav, the Fesultant velocity ofthe rain drop is
(OW. In order to protect himself from rain, he must
hold his umbrella at an angle @ with the vertical
(owards north) given by
°
South <—
49.
sh.
52.
53.
Thus, the correct choice is ().
The magnitude » of the resultant velocity gives
the speed with which the rain strikes the umbrella,
‘which is given by
P= [16 +9)! =5 me!
Hence the correct choice is (c).
|. In order to eross the river in the shortest time, the
resultant velocity v ofthe swimmer must be perpene
dicular to the velocity 0, of water, s shown in Fig
2.40, 1 follows from the figure that v= y+ vor
y= u;- 0 16 OF V, ms! which is
choice b).
Fig. 2.40
Since the initial velocity is zero, the distance trav
celled in the frst time interval is
sy =0+) af
z
‘The velocity of the body at the end of this time in-
terval iso = 0-+ at = at, This is the initial velocity
for the next time interval r during which the body
twavels a distance.
1 1
sour ator & at a
suThus the correct choice is (e)
Here 9, = 0 + at = at and 0, =v, + af = ar + a=
2 at. Therefore, 0 ~ 20,. Hence the correct choice
is 0.
Late Wee o heone Thn = a =
3 © gay 8g.
The ime rake ofall rough
gf ordg
4 gPorf
38
‘Thus, the correct choice is ().2.34 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
‘54, The distance covered in the mth second is given by
or 40 =u+2 x 100r:
2
=5ms!
n-sttex (6-2)
hi es =m
Thus, the correct choice is (b).
$8. Nomsjeurte (n=!) These,
2
20-5+0(3-1) which gore toms?
ant se25e10(5-4) 50m
doe
$6 Gen ae
:
dona UE
2
‘These equations give w= $ ms“! and a = 10 ms”,
Thm cece
$7 Sine O-nohve
& 042
:
2
2 sylsy = T/L, which is choice
458, Since the inital velocity ofthe ears ze, its veloc-
ity atthe end ofthe first time interval fis
«if, = aif, This is the initial velocity for the next
time interval 1. Since the final velocity is zero, we
have, from o= u + ar
Deana
[Now the distance covered in the first time interval
1 js given by
2a;
wast)
89,
ata i
or sehat o
‘The distance covered inthe next time interval fs
given by
day, = 0-4}
(+ 9 0 and w= ayt now)
or nit aad
aa 2
From (i) and (i) we get
= “1-5 whieh is choice (0.
‘The maximum speed 2 attained by the ear = speed
itattains atthe end of time interval j during which
it is accelerated. As shown above, this speed is
Now 5
and
Hence the correct choiee is (a,
1. The distance s, covered by the car during the time it
is accelerated is given by 2as, = v", which gives 5,
= v'/2ce The distance s covered during the time the
car is decelerated is, similarly given by 5) = 22/29,
‘Theefor, he ol dacs eoveredis.
eld
renene (Lol) @
If he ine of eclerton ad that of des
There, he liek os
(es)
a 8B.
rath
GiKinomatice 235
o.
o.
65.
From (i) and (ii), the average speed of the car is
sive by
total distance _s_@
toualtime 12
Honee the correct choice is (4),
the train atest or in uniform motion its aeeclera=
tion is zero. The only acceleration aeting on the bob
is the acceleration due to gravity. Hence the sting
al. Hence choice (a) and (a) re not pos-
is inclined along the direction ofthe
resultant of the acceleration a of tain aeting bo:
zontal and the acceleration due to gravity g acting
vertically. In Fig. 241, vector a isthe resultant of
veotors a and g (use triangle law). Hence, the string
is inclined opposite to the direction ofthe accelera-
tion ofthe train, Thus the correct choice is (b)
Fig. 2.41
Squaring both sides, we have
2+ ae +9
Since displacement x changes with time f, the body
‘cannot be at rest The velocity of the body is given by
v= Sense
a
Since the velocity v changes with time tthe body
isnot in uniform motion; itis accelerated because
increases with 1, Hence the correct choice is ().
We have seen that 0= 12 + 81. Comparing it with 7
1 + at we find that w= 12 ms", Hence the correct
shove is.
Now »= 12+ 8. Comparing it wth » = u-+ af, we
find that a= 8 ms Altematively, acceleration ais
aivenby
doa
He 4ar es,
dt a ”
ora = Sms", Hence the correct choice is (4).
‘The distance over which the ear can be stopped is
given by 2 ay =v" or a=w'/2s. [fv becomes nv, the
value a° of ato stop the car in the same distance is
1.
mL.
at = (no)? = ws, Thus a” = na, Hence the
correct choice is (),
Leta be the maximum retardation the brakes of the
car can produce, Then 2ar = 0”, If v is doubled to
20, then the minimum distance x” is given by 2ax"
(20) = dv". Thus x" = 4x, Hence the eorreet choice
is @.
‘The total time taken by the bullet to reach the high-
est point (where its velocity becomes zero) is given
by =u — gr or f= nig = 50/10 =5 s, The distance
it covers in the first 1 second of its upward motion
ishy-ut— 4 gP=soxi-} x 10x(y'=50-5
=45 m. 2
Now, the velocity of the bullet at the end of frst 2
seconds is v= u— gi=50—10x2=30 ms". Thisis
the initia velocity forthe last 3 seconds of upward
motion, The distance covered in the last 3 seconds is
yn30x3-1 31030) 90-45=45 mT
1h, = hy, which is choice (c).
From v =u + gi, we have 3u= w+ gi or 20
u/g. Hence the correct choice is (b).
From 2gh = v* ~ u', we have 2gh = (3u)" — a? = Bu?
or A= Air ig. Henee the correst choice is ().
stor
Differentiating 27 + 3x ~ f with respect to 1 we
have
de, 3d
aft Me oy i
a dt 9
Now & =a, Therefore, 4x0 + 30= 1 or 4x + 3=
Vo, Differentiating Eq. (i) with respect to time 4, we
have
(acy
(#} sae
(G+ °
or 40? + dxa +300
aa
a3
~~ =>. Putting 1—>
v= 2-e%) w
We have
V(o)= 2 (1 -€7)= 21 -0)=2 mst
Hence, choice (a) is correct. Finally, let us check
choice (@). The acceleration will be half the initial
value, ée., it will be equal to 6.0/2 3.0 ms atime
1° given by [use Eq. (i)]
30-60-30")
or very=1
m
m4
18.
16,
or 31" Ine! =n)
or <3 = =0,693
or f=02318
Putting this value of in Eq. (if) we have
V (at r= 0.231 5) =2(1 7"
=2(1-¢ *) = 2(1 0.5)
=1.0ms"
so choice (d) is wrong.
)
Let the total distance be 2 and let f and 4, be the
times taken to averse the frst half and the second
half ofthe distance respectively. Then f,~ s/V. For
the second half of the distance, the distance 5, is
tb
covaedintime 2 with ped Ys s,= 7" and
the distance sis covered in time wih peed ¥”
isey- 072, sothats=sp+s)- 1 2er7e =
ee 2
2s
°°
“Total time taken = 4, + fy
sy 2s _sQv+y's¥")
veer)
vee
I distance
Total time
Hence average speed =
asxvve+v")
sQV4040"
ws")
arene)
‘Thus, the correct choice is (a).
‘The shortest stopping distance S is given by
o-v? =-2a8,
or Thus, for a given value of a $c 0* IF
2a
1s increased by a factor of 3, $ will increase by a
factor (3)* = 9. Hence the correct choice is (€).
‘The maximum height ( sin® @/2g) and the horizon-
tal range (= 1 sin 20) are equal if sin” 6 = sin 28
= 2 sin @ cos @ortan @= 4 of @= tan" (4), Hence
the correct choice is (c).
‘The bullet covers a distance of 100 m in time
100/500 =0.2s. The vertical downward distance
moved intime1= 0.2818 + g= 1 x 10x (02F
= 0.2 m= 20 em, Hence the correct choice is (b)Kinomatice 237
7.
78.
1.
[At the highest point of the trajectory, the velocity
of the projectile is parallel to the ground but its ae~
celeration is ditected vertically downwards. Hence
the correct choice is (2),
‘The time taken to reach the ground is independent
oF the horizontal velocity of projection, Since the
initial downward velocity is zero (the initial velocity
hhas only a horizontal component), the time of fight
is given by
heat
(2 y
whichgives r= J =[ 24.0 36)"
z
Honee the correct choice is ©
‘The time taken by the bomb 10 hi
given by (as shown above)
the ground is
Bh
1
Ve
‘Now, the horizontal speed of the aeroplane (and also
of the bomb) is v
Horizontal range ~ horizontal velocity x 1
— oft
¢
eit sre eons
aL. G be th poten of ie pun a that of
ae pe ap ST a
ms', when the shell is fired with a speed t = 600
ms” in a direction @ with the horizontal (Fig, 2.42).
Thehrtogael comgancat a lt
cos 8
Fig. 2.42
[Let the shell hit the plane at point P and let ¢be the
time taken forthe shell to hit the plane, It is clear
that the shell will hit the plane, if the horizontal
distance EP travelled by the plane in time r= the
distance travelled by the shell in the horizontal di-
rection in the same time, Le,,uX¢= 0,Xoru=2,
=vycos Bor cos 0= 1 = 3% <5 of 0-60"
% 600
Therefore angle with the vertical =
Honce the correct choice is (a),
81. To avoid being hit, the plane should have @ mini-
op
30°
mum altitude ~ maximum height attained by the
shell which is
vjjsin® @ _ (600)" xsin® (60°)
ina 2g 2x10
= 13.5% 10? m= 13.5 ke,
which is choice (b).
82, Giver higg, = 5m,
know that
20 ms" and ¢= 10 ms". We
2e
¥ [Eis = 35 APTOS
10°. Therefore
Honee the correct ch
183, The time of
zi
2s. The inital downward velocity ~ 20 sin 30° =
10 ms", The time taken to fall through a height of
40 m with velocity 10 ms" is given by
40 = 10x04 b xtoxe
or A 421-8 0
which gives ¢= 2s. Hence the total time to hit the
ground. Thus, the correct choice
is.
‘84, The horizontal distance covered in 4s = 20x c0s 30°
x4 = 70 m, Hence the correct choice is (c).
‘The time taken to move a horizontal distance R is =
‘Rio c08 @). Therefore, the vertical distance moved
in this time is given by
h
Loe
t- 5 a
wana ?*(aena2.38 Complete Physice—JEE Main
ak
= Runa
I cosa
which is choice (c).
86. The range of a projectile is r= 203 eos @ sin Bg
the two possible angles of projection are @and (90°
4). The time of flight carresponding to these wo
angles are
2eysind 4
&
0 sin(90°-8) _ 20 c088
* €
0 that ¢,y Thus 4n © r
Heenee the correct choiee is (b),
87, Let at = 0, O and A are the positions of the gun
and the car (Fig. 243). Let us say that at time
1= fy the shel and the car each B simultaneously so
‘thatthe shell hits the ear when itis at a distance OB
from the gun. Let w be the speed of projection of the
shell, Then initial horizontal component of velocity
of the shell = 1 608 45° = Tan inal vera
w/J2 . Therefore, the time
of flight = Vwig. The car takes this time
i” ‘@
to cover the distance 4B while the shell eovers the
distance OB in this time, Now OB = O4 + AB
150m + AB. Distance 4B is given by
Su i 3
fH 150 m—
Fig. 2.43
joV2 x V2 x% = 20 wg
®
and ial ee
1. The horizontal range R
3
or wf =20u~ 1500 =0 (+ g=10ms4)
‘The positive root of this quadratic equation is
v= 50 ms". Hence the correct choiee is (d).
“The distance of the car
hits is
som the gun when the shell
op = 50x50
= 250 m, which is choice (a
8 10 a ©)
= 2005 m
ACC, the velocity ofthe ball is again 20 ms! directed
ddowa as shown in Fig. 2.44,
Fig. 2.48
‘The downward vertical component ofthis velocity
is 20 sin 30° = 10 ms |The ball will hit the ground
at D after travelling @ vertical distance h = 40m. If
1 Js the time taken for this, then
omy et
or 4o=101,55¢8
or f+2n-8-0
The postive rot of his quadmtic equation sr, = 2s.
[Now the time of fight from 4 to C via Bis
2usind _ 2>(20)xsin30°
@ 10
= 2x20xsin30? _ 5,
10
2s-+ 2s = 4s, Hence
2 Total time taken = 1 +f,
the correct choice is (a),
Pig and
30m,
For maximum range 8= 45°, Hence Ry
= Reg! = 200/4
Hence the correct choiee is (b).Kinomatice 239
91, Let u be the initial speed with which the body is
thrown along the inclined plane. As shown in Fig,
2.45, the effective deceleration is given by
a=gsind
‘The body stops after covering a distance, say, ¢
along the plane, which is given by ~ 2as = 0— v2
or BxSx40 =20ms'. A projectile
projected at angle @= 30° with this speed will have
a range of
? sin20 _20%20xsin 60°
£ 10
R 203 m
Fig. 245,
Henee the correct choice is (c).
92, Since the velocity ofthe projectile changes continu-
ously, both kinetic energy and momentum undergo
‘a change with time. Only the vertical component of
‘velocity changes due to gravity; the horizontal com-
ponent always remains constant. Hence the correct
choice is (d).
93, At the highest point, the velocity has only the hori-
zontal component v, = v cos @= v €0s 60° = v2.
Now kinetic energy + m0 is proportional to
Since the velocity is reduced to half, the kinetic en-
ergy becomes one-fourth, /e, K/4. Hence the cor-
rect choice is (0).
94, Kinetic energy is minimum when the projectile is
atthe highest point of its trajectory. At the highest
point, its range = half the horizontal range. Hence
the correct choice is (c).
w sin29
g
_ Wisin? @
aa”
Now R= and h, Given
R= higyye Therefore sin 20 = 59° © 92 sin Bos 6:
z
sin’ @
ortan 8= 4, Hence the correct choices is (),
96, The horizontal component of velocity is
7
98,
100.
101.
102.
103.
1. We have seen above that u cos
aed
a ge i)
‘The vertical component of velocity is
oy, =2btte i)
=A GP vet) =2me6 GD)
Theva fo at1= 4s Qh 0, Theo, the
regio ofan atte
ae
va elt) 2s [a+ Qb+ gy!
‘Ts, the correct choice is (a)
Ifa projectile is projected with an initial velocity
at an angle @ with the horizontal, the horizontal
and vertical components ofits velocity at time fare
aiven by
2, =ucos @ (i
andy, =usin @- gr &)
‘Comparing (ii) and (iv) with () and (i) above we
have w eos 8= a and w sin 8= e
tan
iding, we get,
Ja. Hence the correct choice is (4)
‘Comparing (iv) with (ii) we have g =~ 2b. Hence
the correct choice is (b)
and ysind=c
‘Squaring and adding we get: uv? = a + c? or
w=(a’ + c*)', Hence the correet choice is (c).
Range R = asin 20. For the same R= sn 20
Since sin 20s the largest for @= 35°, the comest
choice is (b).
The range isthe same for @ and (90° ~ 6), Hence
2, =Rylor0=30°or60°,Thasthecorrectchoiein()
ct hans ~
e same for both
projectiles, we have
fi
fy
‘Thus the correct choice is (b).
Wisin?
2g
when w changes by 8 can be obtained by partially
differenting this expression. Thus
We know that
‘The increase 5h in h
_ Iudusin®
whites
24
chistes 10% <0. Th,2.40
Compete Physics IEE Main
104.
10s.
106.
07.
284 gy
Now, range SHO theetoe
ag = 2edusinzo
f
oh oy
i
‘Thus 5R = 0.1 R. Hence R also increases by 10%,
‘Thus, the correct ehoice i ()
“The ime of fight is 7 = 2508
26usin
r=
€
which give
‘Therefore
ou #988 tet 2 008
or 8T= 0.05 7. Hence T inereases by 5%. Thus, the
correct choice is (a.
Given h = 489°@ pitterentiating partially we
2g
et 04 costan d= 2 sin B cos 0 5
te
an _ 2008080
ris 2808088 9. given,
h sin er
Therefore, S82 — 9.05. We also have
2asind 1208088
which gives 67 = ‘Thus
£
oso
But
«ine
= 0.05, Therefore,
SF 005 or 87 = 0.05 7, Hence P increases by
‘5% Thus the correct choice is (2).
28u
we en te at #8525 <2 05
wos (84
ime 10% Ta he cont ie i
08) or 01
We have seen that 54 = 284. 9
6h = 0.1 h, Hence fe increases by 10%. Thus, the
correct choice is (dl).
0.05
109.
110,
m2.
m3,
0.05 or 67 = 0.05 T. Thus, 7
Tow
increases by 5%. Hence, the correct ehoice is (b).
Let h, and hy be the maximum heights attained by
the projectile when projected from earth and moon
respectively. Now
pw E028 ag pg WB
2k.
which give
<= 6, Hence the correct choice is (4),
inBeos
e
From these two equations we have 7°=22 tan @ or
T VR . Hence the correct choice is (b).
Now R
‘The range ofa projectile isthe same for two angles
‘of projection @ and 90° ~ 8, For these two angles of
7, the maximum heights are
2 dutsin? Oc0s"@
&
Which give &? = 16 igh or R= 4.JF; Fy - Hence
the comectchoiee is).
Given x = 2r and
3x
ye
body is parabolic, Thus, the correct choice is
Let ube the velocity with which the body is pro-
{ected and g be the acceleration due to gravity. Then,
we have
Also &
Eliminating swe get
i.e. y= 24 Hence, the trajectory of the
+ gf
ze
x =wrandy
‘Thus, the magnitude of the velocity of projection
isthe coefficient of in the expression for x. Now
given that x= 2k Hence w= 2m * which is choice
,Kinomatis 241
114, ‘The x and y components of velocity are
aed ;
#4 ey 2m
de ae »
ad a
am 2, = #454) =10
" = Bef esh) = 101
Atr=0.2 5,0, = 10% 0.2=2 ms“, The magnitude
02sis
= (=F as
Hence the correet choice is (b).
‘The angle of the velocity vector:
time tis given by
of velocity at?
the vertical at
lelt
ms, Comparing
tan a
We have seen that
Lap :
4 at? with y= 50, we get, —
5H SP we
10 ms”, Therefore, at
_— a _.
1x02
which gives = 45°, Hence the correct choice is(c).
25,
116, We know thatthe position coondinaes x and y are
given by
°
and usin 8) 4 —— gf )
Comparing Ea. @) with x = 104 1, we have,
10/3 ms '. Also, comparing Eq. (ii) with
101-2, we have, usin @= 10 ms". These eq
10? + 10? x 3 = 400 oF w= 20 ms!
cos @
L
and tan which gives @= 30°, Hence the
Man O= ives = 30)
correct choice is (a).
117, Comparing y = 101 ~ ? with Eq, (i) above, we get,
1s
is 0)
We have seen above that w= 20 ms", @= 30° and
ms”, Now, the maximum height attained is
or g = 2 ms. Hence the correct choice
2
sin? @ _(20)? xsin? 30° _
2g 2x2
h
25m
Hence t
119, The time of fight is
e correct choice is (2).
120.
nt.
12.
123.
124,
128,
usin _2%20xsin30°
2x20%sin30" 195
z 2
Tus, the correct choice is ().
‘The horizontal range is
kt (20)? 8in60" = 69 5 pp
g 2
Hence, the correct choice is (4).
Since R17, choice (b) is incorrect.
‘When the tain is at rest or moving with 2 uniform
velocity, the plumb line hangs vertically along OB
(Fig. 246). I'he train moves with an aceeleration a,
the plumb line gets inclined along QC, the direction
of the resultant of accelerations a and g. It is clear
from the figure that tan O ~ aig. Hence the correct
choice is (a).
Fig. 2.46
‘When the lift is descending with a retardation (nega
tive acceleration) a, the effective value of 8 gag =
e+. The component ofthis acceleration slong the
inclined plane is gq sin 8= (g +a) sin @. Hence the
‘correct choice is (.
‘The maximum height attained by the first bal is
ayete
2g
where u is the initial speed of projection. The
‘maximum height attained by the second ball is
(= 90" 60° = 30°)
Nov, PE of ball at height hy = mh and that of
ball 2 at height Ay = mghy. Therefore, the ratio of
Sz
hw
potential energies © 4 tence the
Eomect choice sa). #2 28
ity isv= 2% =a 261 30° ‘
Velocity iso = 2 = 04 2-3 0242
126.
127.
1s.
129.
Compete Physics IEE Main
#x
Acceleration isa = © = 26 — ber
rT
Acceleration is zero at
me s given by 0
© puting this value of Eq
We have
‘Thus, the correct choice is ()
We know that AB cos 0
+4j sk)
+8] +k)
3x6+4x8+5% 10
00 wo
‘The magnitudes of A and B are
4-3 +P +6" = 50 iid)
and B= Yo? +18)" +10)" = V200 vy
Using (i, (ii) and (iv) in (i), we have
100 = V0 x ¥200 cos @= 100 cos 8
for cos 8= | oF 8= zero, which is choice (a).
‘The vector product of two non-zero vectors is zero if
they are in the same direction. Hence, vector B must
‘be parallel to vector A, ie. along * z-axis, Thus the
correct choice is (dl).
Given A+ (21-35 +4ky+Ci +5] +2K) <1]
or A=~31 ~] ~ 6h, which is choice (a).
The angle & which the resultant R- makes with A is
given by
Bsind
tan c= Bsn
A+ Boos
given a= ©. Hence
130.
131.
132.
(0)
which gives 4 + B cos @= 2B co (2
warafeee(]
soe(8
which gives A = B, which is choice (c).
Refer to Fig. 2.47, where w is velocity of water eur
rent, Let v be the velocity of the man and let AB
vibe the width ofthe river. The river is erossed with
4 velocity equal to the component of v along AB,
which is v cos @, where @ is the angle between the
north direction and the direction of velocity v.
4 Time taken to eross the river = —"”
e086
Fig. 247
‘This time is the shortest if @= 0°. Hence the man
should swim in the north direction, which is choice
(@.
‘The distance will be the shortest if the resultant of
velocities w and v is along 4B. Thus,
4 Sm/min
or = 30",
i.e,, He should swim 30° west of north, which is
choice (6).
sum (5)-(5)
TOm/min ~ 2
iy
4B _ 20
Dividing (by Gd, we get 4% = 22 when is
choice (a. goKinomatice 243
‘The roots ofthis quadratic equation are f,and f-The
sum ofthe roots is 1, +f)~ 2 Hence the correct
choice is (a. 8
24 which is choice (a.
z
138. The time f, taken by the body to strike the inclined
plane is given by
134, Product of roots ist
4
Ve
The time f taken by the body to reach the ground
after striking the plane is
ie
ne
Ve
put = ny &
nth +
Ve z
Time ¢ will be maximum it “= 0,40, #¢
a (=F no
dh & &
1
han
3a
‘Total time 7
L L
oF he = or hah of h=
Vimar 2
Hence the correet choice is (c.
136. Letsnbe the number of storeys above the |Sth storey
‘Then height fallen is h= 4n metees.
Using va? = 2h, we have
(20)? -0= 2 104"
which gives n= 40 5, Therefore, the total number
80
of storeys = 15 + 5 = 20, which is choice (a).
_ 2upsin® _ 2uy sin6o*
137. 1,= 244 and tp
e
_ Sia
«
Given f4~ tp Therefore
uy
2a = tn og
ee me?
Hence the correct choice is ()
138, v= (34 +45) ms"! The magnitude of velocity is
v= (GF)? = 5 ms! The angle subtend-
ed by the velocity vector with the horizontal
(axis) is given by
4
| which gives sin
3 which
NOW; fgg =§ SE
2
Hence the correct
139, 1,= 2288 2454 955, Hence the corset
£ 3x10
choice is ().
140. Velocity of projection is vy = (u eos Oi + (w sin 8)j.
‘Actime the velocity of the body is
v= (cos Oi + (wsin O- gj
‘The dot product of vy and v is
u cos? 8+ usin O(wsin 8-20)
a wee =i —(usin Oat 0
Since vi perpendicular tov. ¥p: ¥~0. Using this
in(@, we have
0 =u*-(wsin@dgr or ¢=—"
eset oT in
Hence the correct choice is (@),
Mi, PE mt hag =
in(ur cos
PE
KE
wan’
Thus, the correct choice is (b)
142, Given y= ar — be?, Comparing this equation with
y= (tan Oe2A4 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
Wehave a= tan @ and b= —&—_
Dw cov 8
Horizontal range R= #28028 _ 24?sindo0s0
Honee the correct choice is (a,
wisn’ _ wcost@
ee)
2w cos" ag 2
wae On
Hn te ante (0,
144. 2usin® _ 240086 ay gy wo
:
“
Now bE or noe [Eo
wera br
Using ii) in (i), we get
fz
ima po ich is coi (a
148,
Let the total distance be S. The time taken to travel
s
the firsthalf, te. is
si2_s
36
Lotz, be the time taken to cover a distance 8, with
speed 4.5 mvs and f, that to cover distanee S; with
4
yes7sms
ie SKsiaasa7sy
tien s:5)= 5 sadign Shel
5
There Sos4s,
Sass,
astton one
2. Taaltine tens) ty= 5+ S = 38
cr aeyy
total distance
‘Average speed =
eres 5108
‘otal time
146.
147,
148.
= 4 asms,
3
which is choice ()
In the figure 2, represents the velocity ofthe ear and
1, that of the parcel. M is the position of the man,
From parallelogram law, the direction of the resul
tant velocity 2, must be along the direction along
Whieh the man is standing. Ic follows from Fig. 2.48
that angle @is given by
wt
= oro=ase
a Tor EP
Hence the correet choice i
Fig. 248
vous ar= (4i+3))+(041+0.3) x10
(8i+6)) ms
‘The x and y components of v and 2, = 8 ms! and
19, = 6 ms, The magnitude of 9 is
+2; = VG)? +10" = 10ms"
Hence the correct choice is (4),
Given: x= 367 “
and y= 484.97 Gi)
For a body projected with a velocity w at an angle
@ with the horizontal, the x and y displacements at
time fare given by
x= (u 00s Oy Gi
= (usin @r- 4 ge iv)
and y= (usin Or 5 ww
‘Comparing (i) with (i) and (i) with (iv), we have
6
8
Squaring and adding, we have
and wsinKinomatice 245
19.
150.
12 (cos? 0+ sin? 6) = (36)* + 48)
or =3600 oF = 60 ms", which is choice (),
Givens = Ve +3. Squaring, we have
x= Porto.
@
dx
a
fh
a
velocity v = 61+9)=21-6
Find from Eq, Gi) when v = 0. Use this value of ¢
is Bq, (i). The correct choice is (a,
Given @=— V8 or @ =~ ke. Thus wv"? do
we a
Integrating, we got 20"
initial condition (© = w at
‘Thus, we have
Are, Using the given
0), we get c= 2Vue
20
A) =k
Now, use r= Tand v= 0. The correct choice is (a,
Sng?
© ms per second and
gms er
its intercept is e= Sms. Using y = mx c, the
celeration a (in ms *) as function of time ris given
by
‘The slope ofthe line ism
or 0
where & isthe constant of integration. Since the par-
ticle starts from rest, 0 = Oat = 0. Using this in (i)
we ger k= 0. Hence
va Seas ww
1 follows from the graph that the deceleration be-
comes zeroat 6's Hence, the speed of the particle
will be maximum at = 6, Putting ¢~ 6s in Eg (i),
we have
ing
2
(+56
15 +30= 15 ms"
Hence the correct choice is (b).
152,
153.
‘The slope of the given o versus.x graph ism
and intercept is c=+ 0, Hence v vaties with x as.
“
where 9 and xy are constants of motion, Differenti-
ating with respest to time f, we have
«a
Using Eq, (i) in Eg. Gi), we get
~()e)
‘Thus, the graph of a versus xis a straight line hav-
~ ee te cones hie
Given = kV >
have
Wr, Differentiating, we
wit
dr
‘Thus x =. Hence the correct choice is (©)2.46 Complete Physice—JEE Main
SECTIONII
Multiple Choice Ques!
ns Based on Passage
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1
emust be clearly understood that distance is not the same
as displacement, Distance isa scalar quantity and is given
by the total length of the path travelled by the body in a
certain interval of time. Displacement isa vector quantity
and is given by the shortest distance (in a specified diree-
tion) between the initial and the final positions of the body.
‘The direction ofthe displacement vector is from the initial
position (starting point) to the final position (end point) of
the motion. Speed is a scalar quantity. The average speed
is defined as
= total distance travelled
total time taken
Velocity isa vector quantity. The average velocity is defind
snetdisplacement
timetaken
The direction of the velocity vector isthe same as tha of
the displacement vector, Acceleration is defined as the rate
of change of velocity and itis a vector quantity
1, A cyclist starts from centre O ofa circular track of
radius r~ km, reaches edge P ofthe track and then
cycles along the circumference and stops at point
Q as shown in Fig. 2.49. the displacement of the
cyclists
r)
out) we
r) nr
© (18) oF
Fig. 2.49
2. In Q.1 above the magnitude of the velocity in
km h “of the cyclist is
(@ 123 ) 120
(©) 30 (a 60
43. In QL the distance travelled by the cyclist is ap-
proximately
(a) 2km (b) 2.01 km
(©) 2.05 km (@) km
4. Im QL, the average speed (in km hr!) of the eyclist
(@) 123 () 6.5
(©) 60 @ 120
> SOLUTIONS
1, Net displacement is OO ~ shortest distance bet
the starting point O and end point @ = 1 km = 7,
‘Therefore, the correct choice (b.
2. Average velocity
Hence the correct choice is ().
43. Distance travelled = OP + PQ (along the are)
E49)
=14m(1+214) = 2.05 4m
3
Hence the correct choice is ()
4. Average seca = sisamee 2.08
time 7
6
2.3 km he!
‘Thus the correct choice is (a).
‘Questions § to 7 are based on the following passage.
Passage I
Ball Ais rolled along the postive x-direetion with a speed
of 5 ms! towards a bigger ball B 20 m away. After col-
lision with ball B, ball A retraces the path and reaches its
starting point with a speed of 4 ms!
5, The average velocity of ball A during the time inter-
val from 0to4 sis,
(a) Sms along positive
(b) Sms“ along negative x(6) © ms" along negative x-direction
(a) ms" along positive x-direction
6. The average valoity of ball A during the time inte-
val 0109 sis,
(a) 4 ms" along positive -tetion.
(0) 4.5 ms" along negative «-irecton
40
(e) “2 ms along negative x-direetion
oF 1 nega
(8) zer0
7. The average velocity of ball A during the time inter
sal 10 68%
(a) 2s" along positive x-direction.
(b) 2m along negative x-direction,
(@) Emax" along positive direction
; mg pos
(© "angst
> SOLUTIONS
5. Tine atenby ll Ato etch al Bi
:
Daring the ine 8 4h td
Theft vlsy a balls rng
‘Sms ‘along positive.x-direction, which is choice (a),
6. Time taken by ball Ato retrace its path and reach the
starting point afte collision with ball B is
= ass
go Des
‘Therefore, the net displacement i time interval 0 to
9=0, Hence average velocity =0, whichis choice
@.
During the time interval 0 10 6 s, ball A covers a
distance of 20 m along, positive x-direction up to
ball B (which takes 4s) and in the next 2s, it covers
a distance of 4 ms ' x 2 s= 8 m along the negative
direction. Therefore,
Ketdsphemerot fon 00 65-20-8-12m
eneng ons
‘Thus the correct choice is (a).
Kinomatis 247
‘Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following passage.
Passage II
The speedstime graph of the motion of a body is shown,
in Fig. 2.50,
Time (s)§ —
Fig. 250
'8. The accelerations ofthe body during the last 2 see-
conds is,
20 2
(@) Sms
(©) 10m @ 210
9. The ratio of distance travelled by the body during
the last 2 seconds tothe total distance travelled by
itis
® 2
9
4
© wi
10, ‘The average speed ofthe car during the whole jour-
ney is
(a) 10ms (b) 20 ms
30 40
(© Sms () Pins
> SOLUTIONS
8. Acceleration during last2 seconds = slope of Hine BC
= 2 <0 ms?
“Thus the eorrect choice is (e)
9. Distance travelled in last two seconds
= area of triangle BCD2.48 Complete Physice—JEE Main
txapxpe
2
4x 20%2=20m
2
‘Total distance travelled = area of trapesium OABC
=! us e008
L
=1e+nx20=90m
zern
Hence the correct choice is (bp.
10 Average speed = 2listancerraveled
toialtimetaken
90m
737
‘Thus the correct choice is (e).
(Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage.
Passage IV
A particle initially (cat time r= 0) moving with a veloe-
ity wis subjected to a retarding force, asa result of which
it decelerates at arate
a=-kve
Where o is the instantaneous velocity and & is @ positive
constant
The particle comes to rest ina time
a fe
oe
(©) 2kvw (a) Rie
12, The distance covered by the pate before coming
@ = wo
xe? a?
©) 2k @ evs
> SOLUTIONS
ng ae
Given
Ths ©
Integrating, we ave
forte
afar
or Dw =_k+e @
‘where ¢is the constant oF integration. Given that at
2a. Using this in () we get 20! = e. Using
this value of ¢ in (i),
we have 20"? 0!) =k Ga
Let r be the time taken by the particle to come to
rest. Then, 0 = at ~ 7. Using this in (ii), we get
au!
20-u!y=—kt or T=
Hence the correct choice is (a)
‘To find the distance s covered in this time, we use
Eg. (2) t0 get
2.
‘Squaring, we have
But
Therefore,
Integrating from ¢= 0 tor = 4, we have
wt eee
Substituting the value of from (iil)
ue? qu?
2k
which is choice (dl)
we we
12k 3k
‘Questions 13 to 17 are based on the following passage.
Passage V
Relative Velocity
If'two objects A and B are moving in a straight line with
velocities ¥, and vy respectively, the relative velocity of
‘object 4 with respect to object B is given by
It follows thatthe relative velocity of object B with respect
to object A will be
objects 4 and 8 are moving along different directions in
1 plane, the relative velocity of one object with respect tothe other is found by using the parallelogram law of vee-
for addition. To find vj, We find the resultant of vectors
Yqand~ vp. To find ¥nq, We find the resultant of vectors
vyand— vj.
13, Two persons P and Q are standing S4_m apart on 2
long horizontal belt moving with a speed of 4 ms *
inthe direction from P to Q. Person P rolls a round
stone towards person Q with a speed of 9 ms! with
respectto the bell. The velocity of stone with respect
to an observer on a stationary platform is
(a) 13 ms" in the direction to motion ofthe belt
(b) 13 ms" opposite to the direction of motion of
the belt
(6) Sms in the direction of motion ofthe bel.
(@) 5 ms" opposite to the direction of motion of
the bel.
14, What will be the answer to Q. 13 above if person
(Qrolls the stone towards person P with a speed of
9 ms"! with respect to the belt?
{@) 13 ms inthe direction of motion ofthe belt
(6) 13.ms" opposite to the direction of motion of
the belt
(©) Sms in the direction of motion ofthe belt
(2) 5 ms“ opposite to the direction of motion of
the bel.
15, In Q.13 above, whats the time taken by the stone
to travel from P vo Q?
34 sé
@ Fs Fs
a0
(©) 6 @ Zs
16, Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 4 ms“
A man riding a bicycle is travelling at a speed of
3 ms in the north to south direction. In order to
protect himself from rain, the man should hold his
umbrella at an angle @ given by
(0 ws" (2) inhesovn dntin
(6 a" (2) inthe sonnet dcotn
(6 wo" (4) inthe son distin
(0 sm! (2 ate ct ion
17, InQ 16 above, with what speed does the rain strike
his umbrella?
Kinomatice 248
(a) Ims" (b) Tims"
(© Sms" (a) 35 ms"
> SOLUTIONS
13, Let us choose the positive direction to be the dite
tion from P to Q. Le, the direction of motion of the
bolt, Then, the velocity ofthe belt is
vps tAmst
Speed of the stone with respect tothe belt is
Pye +9 ms!
If 0g is the speed of the stone with respect toa sta-
tionary observer, we have
or 4944-613 ms"
‘The positive sign shows thatthe direction of veloe-
ity of stone is ftom P to Q, ie. in the direction of
‘motion of the belt, Hence the corest choice is (a).
4s" but 2
op tg 9+ 4 =~ Sms
ve sign indicates that the direction of
velocity of stone is opposite to the direction of
‘motion ofthe bet, Henes the eorect choice is ()
4 9 ms"! Hence
Inthe ease 0g
18, Since persons P, Q and the stone are located on the
the speed of the stone relative to P or Q will be
Time taken ~ 54
= 65, which is choice (c),
ims
16, Refer to Fig. 2.51
F East
Fig. 251
Let OR =v, and RM =, respectively represent the
velocities of the rain and the man. Given v,~ 4 ms
Vertically downward from west to east direction250 Complete Physice—JEE Man
vy,,=3 ms from north to south direction,
In order to protect himself from rain, the man must
hhold his umbrella in the direction ofthe relative ve~
locity Ve which is given by
Yaw MeN EY)
Thus, We vector Voy is the resultant of vectors v,
and ~ Vp. In Fig. 2.35, vector RM’ = — vj from the
parallelogram law of vector addition, the resultant
velocity is given by vector OM’. If 8 is the angle
subtended by the resultant velocity v,, with the ver-
tical, then from triangle ORM’, we have
n= BM
“a OR
Hence the correct choice is (b)
17, Since v, and vj, are perpendicular to each other,
on (ob +03) Le
Hence the correct choi
a7]? = sms
is.
Questions 18 to 21 are based on the following passage.
Passage VI
Two objects are projected from the same point with the
same speed 1 at angles of projection « and B with the
horizontal respectively. They strike the ground atthe same
point ata distance R from the point of projection. The re-
spective maximum heights attained by the objects are fy
and i and 1, and fare the respective times of fight.
18, Rh and hare related as
(@) R= Vii (o) R= hh
(© R-2Viihe () R~4H
19. The ratio is equal to
@) sine (6) cose
© ana (6) cova
20, The ratio yy is equal to
(a) sin? @ (b) cos? a
(©) tan a (a) cot? ee
21. The sum (hi, +) is equal to
to) Seos
&
@ +
©
OF
> SOLUTIONS
Since the horizontal range in the same & + 6 = 90°. There-
foe pe0" aandelae
0
w
Sermacme Gi
aasing on
:
ie 2 ey
18, From Egs (i), (i) and (ii), we have
Hence the correct choice is (@)
19, From Eqs. (iv) and (v) it follows that the correct
choice is ().
20, Ftom Eas (i), Gand (9), we have
Ay
a
Hence th comet choice is
21, From Eas) and Gi), we find that
2 whichis eboee
28
At
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Passage VII
‘The vertical displacement y ofa projectile varies with the
horizontal displacement x as
year bet
where a and b are constants
22, The trajectory of the projectile is a
(a) straight line (b) eirele
(6) parabola (@) hyperbola
23, The horizontal range of the projectile is
@a wb
@ 2
@24, The maximum height attained by the projectile is
@) z (b) .
of of
28, Theta ght othe pj
a (2
oe wal
Te is
2a [2
« 20
° ie a
> SOLUTIONS
22, Thosivn ono
ye ar~ bx? @
+ he oguton of panto, Hep th eee
Same
28, Thevale fs ze abs“ Dand sR ori
range). Putting y ~ O and x= R in Eq. (9), we get R
= aib, which is choice (@),
24 Differentiating Eq. (1) with respect to time f, we
ine
8 gM ayy He
aa a
s vat, =2 0x0, (a 2h},
Atthe maximum height v,=0. Using this in Eg. (i),
Weget (a~2br) = Oorx a/2b. Putting this value of
sin Eq, (), we have (since y= higay at this value of x)
()-*(8)
Hence the correct choice is (d),
a
25, The time £10 reach the maximum height is given
by
Lee
‘Therefore, the time of fight is
[2
Vig 1 Which is choice ()
Kinomatis 251
Questions 26 to 32 are based on the following passage.
Passage VIL
The positon vector r with respeet to the origin ofa particle
varios with time ras
(ani + (bre
where a, band ¢ are constants,
26. The trajectory ofthe particle is a
(=) sight line () cits
(©) parabola (3) mone ofthese
27, The magitde of the ntl velit ofthe prices
awe @ ee
© — @ arh-29
28, The angle @ with the horizontal along which the
pails projected i given by
wiece® — quented
6
wano-% an
29, The time of fish ofthe panes
ws ms
ot ot
30, The ascleaton duc to gravity at that place is
(@) 20 (2%
© 26 (3) none of these
31. The maximum height to which the parole riss is
we 6
we we
e a
oe @
532, The horizontal ange ofthe patil s
a we
ws oe
ot ier
> SOLUTIONS
26, Comparing Eq, (ati + (bt cP) with Eq,
rari +y],we get
et 0252 Complete PhysiceJEE Man
y= beer ii)
atom (8
x= ()# i's gion
rabola, Hence the eorreet choice is ().
27, From Eqs. (i) and (i), we have
«i
«wy
Putting #= 0 in Eq. (ii), the initial values of 2, and
1, are a and b respectively. The initial speed of the
particle is
u = Va? +B" , which is choice (c).
28, If the panicle is projected with an intial velocity u
atanangle 6 withthe horizontal, then the horizontal
displacement x and vertical displacement y at time ¢
29,
30.
3h.
Comparing Eqs. (v) and (wi) with Eqs. (ii) and
(iv) we have » cos @= cand sin 8b which give
tan 0= ia, which is choice (c).
When = fp" 0. Puting y= 0 and ¢= 4;in Eg. (i)
wwe get 0 ~ ib ~ ct) gives (,~ 0 and i,~ Bye. But
17- iis not possible, Hence the correct choieeis (a)
Comparing Fg. (vi) with Eq, (il), we get g = 2c,
‘which is choice is (c)
NOW Y= figa, When
Veae
08 =
and =
x =(u cos 0 By. cid,wegere=
and y= (usin 0 > a wo is.
SECTION
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
In the following questions, Statement-1 (Assertion) is
followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has the
following four options out of which only ONE choice is
correct
(@) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State-
‘ment-2 is the correet explanation for Statement-1
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State~
‘ment-2 is NOT the correct explanation for State-
mentl
(©) Statement-t is tue, Statement-2 is false.
(@) Statement is false, Statement-2 is tue.
1, Statement-1
A body moving in a straight line may have non-zero
Acceleration atan instant when its spoed is zero
Statement-2
Ia body is thrown vertically upwards, its speed at
the instant when it reaches the highest point is zero
butts acceleration is 9.8 ms
. Statement-L
A body moving in a straight Hine with & constant
speed must have a zero acceleration
Statement-2
A body moving along a curve with a constant speed
‘may have a zero acceleration
\. Statement-1
‘A wooden ball and a stee! ball of the same mass,
released from the same height in air, do not reach
the ground at the same time.
Statement-2
‘The apparent weight of a body in « meduim depends
‘on the density of the body relative to that of the me
duim,
Statement-1
If the displacement-time graph of the motion of a
body is. straight line parallel tothe time axis, then
it follows that the body is at restKunomatice 253
Statement-2
Velocity is equal to the rate of change of displace:
5. Statement-1
[the voelocity-time graph of the motion of a body
is curve, them the body is cither uniformly acceler=
ated or uniformly retarded.
Statement-2
‘The slope of the vel
celeration,
time graph gives the ac-
Statement-1
A body is projected horizontally with a velocity
fiom the top of a building of height A. It hits the
‘ground after atime t= J2hig
Statement-2
‘The vertical an
independently.
7. Statement-1
A body is projected from the ground with kinetic
energy Kat an angle of 60° with the horizontal. If
airresistance is neglected, its kinetic energy when it
is at the highest point ofits trajectory will be K’4,
Statement-2
horizontal motions can be weated
Atthe highest point ofthe trajectory, the directions
‘of the velocity and acceleration of the body are per-
pendular to each other.
8 Statement
One end ofa string of eng 2 is ted to stone of
mass mand the other end. smal pivot on a ie-
toaless vertical board, The sone is whiled in a
‘erica tle withthe pivots the centre The it
mum speed the stone must have, when it sa the
topmost point onthe cree, so that he string doss
notslackis et
Statement-2
At the topmost point on the circle, the centripetal
force is provided partly by tension inthe string and
partly by the weight of the stone,
9. Statement-t
‘The maximum range on an inclined plane when
a body is projected upwards from the base of the
plane is less than that when itis projected down-
\wards from the top ofthe same plane with the same
speed
Statement-2
‘The maximum range along an inclined plane is in-
dependent of the angle of inclination of the plane.
10. Statement-1
In projectile motion, the velocity of the body at a
point on it trajectory is equal to the slope at that
Point.
Statement-2
The velocity vector at a point is always along the
tangent to the trajectory a that point.
11, Statement-t
Ina uniform circular motion, the centripetal force is
always perpendicular to the velocity vector.
Statement-2
‘Then the foree does no work on the body and its
kinetic energy remains constant
12, Statement-l
In a non-uniform circular motion, the particle has
{wo accelerations-one along the tangent tothe circle
and the other towards the centre ofthe rele.
Statement-2
In a non-uniform circular motion, the magnitude
and the direction of the velocity vector both change
with ime.
13, Statement
In a non-uniform circular motion, the acceleration
of the particle is equal to sum of the tangential
acceleration and the centripetal acceleration,
Statement-2
‘The two accelerations are perpendicular to each
other,
14, Statement
{In a uniform circular motion, the kinetic energy of
the body remains constant
Statement-2
‘The momentum of the body does not change with
15, Statement-t
In a uniform circular motion, the acceleration is
always directed towards the centre of the eicle
Statement-2
Otherwise the speed of the body moving along the
cirele will change with time.
> SOLUTIONS
1. The correct choice is (b)
2. The correct choice is (c). The velocity of a body
‘moving along a curve continuously changes254
Compete Physics IEE Main
‘because its direction of motion is changing. Hence
a body moving along a curve with @ constant speed
thas acceleration called centripetal acceleration.
1. The correct choice is (a), The effective acceleration
due to gravity in a meduim is given by.
where p~ density of the medium and @~ density of
the body.
1. The correet choice is (a). Ifthe displacement-time
‘raph is parallel to the time axis, then, rate of change
‘of displacement is zero.
The correct choice is (d) IFthe velocity-time graph
is a curve, the slope of the graph is not constant
The correct choice i (a). The time taken by the body
to hit the ground is the same as if it was dropped
from that height and fell frcely under gravity.
1. The correct choice is (b). If m isthe mass ofthe body
and w its velocity of projection, the initial kinetic
energy is
Atthe highest point, the horizontal velocity is (uv e0s
(60°) and vertical velocity is zero, Hence the kinetic
energy atthe highest point is
At the highest point ofthe trajectory the velocity of
the body is horizontal (parallel to the ground) but its
acceleration is g directed vertically downwards
1. The correct choice is (a). When the stone is at the
topmost point 4 on the circle, the centripetal force
is provided by (mg + 7) as shown in Fig, 2.52.
4
Thus
4
18,
‘When the stone isat 4, the string will not slack iter
sion T= 0, which gives "= mg =0= Re.
1. The range along the inclined plane when a body
is projected with velocity w at an angle @ with the
hhotizontal is given by
aw
[sin 2 0) -sin a]
oot
where ois the angle of inclination of the plane
Range 2 witl be maximum of sin(26~ a) = | or 28
= a= 90° in which ease
tse)
Roan = [1-sin y=
00
If the body is projected downwards from the top of
the same inclined plane, the maximum range will be
~ g(l-sing)
"Ths Rgoe> Rea
sec Statement 2is false. Hence the correct choice
is
). The correct choice is (4). Atthe highest point on the
ts
cctory, the slope is zero but velocity is u cos 0.
The correct choice is (a).
3. The correct choice is (a).
1. The correct choice is (d). The acceleration of the
particle is given by
a= yeivet
where o, = centripetal acceleration anda, = tangen-
tial acceleration
‘The coroct choice is (2). The speed ofthe body
remains constant but the momentum changes with
time because the direction ofthe velocity vector
changes with time.
“The correct choices i (a. Ifthe acecleration vector
isnot directed towards the conte ofthe circle, it will
have a component along the tangent, a8 a result the
speed ofthe body will change andthe motion no
longer remains uniform)
RoE) medida)
@ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
1. Newton's First Law of Motion
Newton's first law of motion slates that every bod contin.
tus in its state ofrest or ofuniform motion ina straight line
unless itis compelled to change that state by an external
unbalanced force,
2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
ae i a or a a
ini Ua wma Ta ely pagal
Hat ne tna rere aaa Pe
caer el soe a
Line Mee Neves Sed ie tan
seed oP sn al ar vlog ox be
at
whore intervocy en cerichraration thee:
sag he sucrose aE
oy a
a ae
(+ mis constant)
Fema
dy
wherea=
the acceleration produced,
Mg
() Foree = slope of momentum-time (p ~1) graph.
Q) Change in momentum = area under the force-time
(F=0 graph,
Example 1 _A constant force acts for 0.5s on a body of
mass 1.5 kg initially at rest, When the force ceases to act,
the body is found to travel a distance of 5.0 m in 2.0 sin
the direction of the force. Find the magnitude of the force
applied
Solution According 10 Newton's first law, when the
force ceases to act, the body will move with a uniform
velocity given by
=25ms'
Using u=0,0=2.5 ms and 1=0.5 sin v= u+ar,we
get a=5 ms”, From Newton's second law,
Force F= ma=1.5x$=7.5N,
Example2 Two forees cach of magnitude 10 N act on a
body of mass $ kg at an angle of 120°. Find the magnitude
of acceleration produced
Solution F\~F;=10N and 0.
Fo JRF IF F008
20°, Resultant force
F_10 2
Fn 0 a me
mS
Example3 The velocity ofa body of mass Pkg changes
from vy, =(24+3}- ym +238) ms" in
5.5 Find (a) the magnitude ofthe change in momentum of
the body and (b) the magnitude of the force applied.
Solution
(@) Change im momentum = final momentum — initial
‘momentum
or p= my,—mv,
tows =(
= m{(-ais2}+3%)-@i+3]-2)3.2. Complete Physics JEE Mam
Example 4 _A particle of mass | g is moving along the
positive x-axis under the influence of a force.
10°* Nov, When the particle is at x= 1.0 m, its
Find (a) the magnitude ofits velocity when,
(0.5 m and (b) its position when its speed is
itreaches x
ims!
Solution
Fo mam me mm 2 AE yo l®
ae dt a
Given, F= —
“Therefore
~ mo?» pdv=
Integrating, we have
Joao -Afxtar
k
= pte @
where ¢ isthe constant of integration. Given » = 0 when
x= 1.0 m, Using this in eg, (@), we get e~
becomes fa
Equation
(a) when
(b) when @= ms, 1=
3. Newton’s Third Law of Motion
Newton's third law of motion states that whenever one
bod exerts a force on a second hod, the second body
exerts an equal and opposite force on the firs, oF. to every
action there is an equal and opposite reaction, The action
and reaction forces act on different body.
4. Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum
The law of conservation of linear momentum may be stated
as ‘when no net external force acis on a system consist
Ing of several particles, the total linear momentum of the
stem is conserved, the total linear momentum being the
vector sum ofthe linear momentum of each particle in the
Recoil of a Gan
‘The gun and the bullet constitute a two-body system. Be-
fore the gun is fired, both the gun and the bullet are at ret.
“Therefore, the total momentum of the gun-bullet system is
zero. After the gun is fired, the bullet moves forward and
the gun recoils backwards. Let mand m, be the masses of
the bullet and the gun, If, and ¥, are their respective ve-
locities after fring, the total momentum of the gun-bullet
system after firing is (my, + m, v,), From the law of |
conservation af momentum, the total momentum after and
before the gun is fred must be the same, ie
‘The negative sign indicates that the gun recoil ina direc-
tion opposite to that ofthe bullet. In terms of magnitudes,
we have
Consider a collision between two bodies 4 and 8 moving
in the same straight line. Let Af be the duration of the
collision, ic. te time for which the bodies were in contact
during which time the transfer of momentum took place.
‘We assume that the bodies continue moving in the same
siraight line after the collision with velocities different
from their initial velocities.
Impulse ofa force is the produet of the average force
and the time for which the force acts and itis equal to the
change in momentum of the body during that time. Impulse
isa vector and is measured in kg ms" or Ns
Te Fare ApLays of Motion 33
Example 5 A ball of mass m is moving with @ velocity
¥ towards a rigid vertical wall, After striking the wall,
the ball deflects through an angle @ without change in its
speed. Obtain the expression for the impulse imparted to
the ball
Solution Let v, and v, be the initial and final velocities
of the ball (Fig. 3.1(2)]
Impulse » change in momentum
= my, = my; = mv =v) mls V3)
or Impulse = mav
where Av = ¥; +(¥;) i the resulant of ¥, and —v, [Fig
S.106))
@
Fig. 3.1
Magnitude of Av is
[magnitude of v, = magnitude of
v= fof +07 +20,0,c088
= Yo" +0? +207 e080 = Y20"(1+ 0050)
eew(2)
‘The direction of impulse is perpendicular to the wall
and away from it
6. Contact Forces
(1) Normal Reaction
“The force exerted by one body when placed on the surface
of another body is known as contact force. If the vo
surfices in contact are perfetly smooth (ie, frietionless),
then the contact force acts only perpendicular (normal)
their surface of contact and is known as normal reaction
®)
‘Ifa block of mass m is placed on a horizontal fiction-
Jess surface [Fig. 3.2 (a], the normal reaction & = mg. If
the block is placed on an inclined plane of inclination «
[ig. 32 (] the normal reaction R= mg cos
k
R
me A
8 »
If there is frietion between the surface of contact, then
the component of the contact force perpendicular ta their
surface gives the normal reaction and the other compo-
rent which acts along the tangent tothe surface of contact
gives the foree of ftiction. The normal reaction, tension
and friction are examples of contact force.
(2) Tension
‘The force in a string is called tension (7). Ifthe string is
‘massless, the tension has the same magnitude at all points
of the string. Tension in the string always acts away from
the body to which it is attached. Ifthe string passes over
a fiietionless pulley and its ends are attached to two bod-
ies, the tension in the entire string has the same magnitude
and its direction is towards its point of contact with the
pulley.
6. Friction
Friction isthe force which comes into play when one body
slides or ros over the surface of another body and acts ina
direction tangential tothe surfaces in contact and opposite
to the direction of motion of the body.
‘The maximum (or limiting) force of ftiction when a
body just begins to slide over the surface of another body
is called the limiting friction. The force of fietion just
before one body begins to slide over another is ealled the
Uimiting or static fiction.) The coe cient of limiting oF
slatie friction (4) i defined as
where & isthe normal resetion, i. the normal force press
ing tho two surfaces together.
“The force necessary to maintain a body in uniform mo-
ion over the surface of another body, after motion has
started, i called the kinetic or sliding fitiom (f,). The
coeficien of kinetie friction Qh) is defined as
fe
ho
Note thats is alays less than 4,34 Complete Physes JEE Mam
Angle of Friction Angle of friction isthe angle between
the resultant of the force of limiting frition (/) and the
normal reaction (R). In Fig. 3.3, 8s the angle of friction,
which is given by
tan o~ £
R
= tan (a)
x +
Fig. 3.3
Angle of Repose Suppose a body is placed on an inclined
plane. The angle of inclination is gradually increased until
the body just begins to slide along the plane. When this
happens the angle of inclination cof the inclined surface
‘with the horizontal is called the angle of repose (see Fig,
3.4). I follows from the figure that
Force of limiting friction (/) ~ mg sin o
Force of normal reaction (R) = mg cos a
R
Ing cos
me
Fig. 3.4
‘Therefore, tan or tan 0
or a= = tan! (u)
7. Solving Problems in Mechanics by Free Body
Diagram Method
In mechanics, we often have to handle problems which
involve a group of bodies connected to one another by
strings, pulleys, springs, et. They exert forces on one an-
other Furthermore, there are frictional forces and the force
of gravity acting on each body in the group. To solve such
complicated problems, it is always convenient to choose
fone body in the group, find the magnitude and the diree~
tion of the forces acting on this body by all the remaining
bodies in the group. Then we find the resultant of all the
forces acting on the body to obtain the net force exerted
fn it, We then use the laws of motion to determine the
ddynamies of the body. We apply this procedure to all other
bodies in the group one by one, Its useful to draw a sepa-
rate diagram for each body, showing the directions of the
different forces acting on it. Such a diagram is called the
{roe body diagram (B.D) of the body.
(D) Two masses tied to a sting going over a frictionless
pulley Consider two bodies of masses m, and m, (mn >
1m,) connected by a string which passes over a pulley, as
shown in Fig. 3.5(a). When the bodies are released, the
hncavier one moves downwards and the lighter one moves
up.
FBD.ofm, — FBD.ofm,
KO i
ny o
ms
Fig. 35
Net force in the direetion of motion of my is mig ~ 7.
‘Therefore, the equation of motion of m; is
mg —T= ma 0
Net force in the direction of motion of mis (7— ms)
‘Therefore, the equation of motion of m, is
Tome ma
(ism)
(sn)
2) Two masses in contact Figure 3.6(a) shows two
blocks of masses m, and m; placed in contact on a hori-
zontal frictionless surface. A force F is applied to mass m),
‘As a result, the masses move with a common aeceleration
4. To find o and the contact force on mis, we draw the free
body diagrams as shown in Figs. 3.6(0) and (c).
ony
andLays of Motion 38
FED. of m, EBD. ofa
f Ff t 2fm
Ss o ©
Fig. 3.6
R= normal reaction foree between the blocks. From
Figs. 3.6(b)and (c), we get
F-R=ma G}
and R=mge wi)
‘Adding (i) and (i) we get
F=(m+ma
= a-—*
im +m)
Contact force on ms is
Fyomya~ ah
oem Tm mg)
6) Three masses in contact Figure 3.7(a) shows three
blocks of masses m, ms, and m placed in contact on a
horizontal fritionless surface, A force F is applied to m,.
‘Asa resul, the three masses move with a common accel
eration. To find a and the contact forees on m, and m,
we draw the free body diagrams as shown in Figs. 3.7(b)
()and (@),
r—
@
FBD.ofm, EBD. of ms EBD. ofms
eof RL
» @ @
® saction force between m,
and my
‘R= contact force on m, = reaction force between m, and
"follows from Figs. 3.7(b), () and (A) that
F-R=ma @
R-R= ma (i
and Rema ai)
Adding (i, (i) and Gi) we get
_
(mt, +m)
Contact force on m, is F, = R which from (ii is given
by
F,
Using Gi) we have
Fy mat ma
Rema
= (m+ my0
(+m)
Tat +m)
Contact force on mt
Fy= R= mgs MF _
aaa
(4 Two masses connected witha string Figure 38()
Shows two blocks of masses my and my connected with
i atig and ping on a botioatal EicGoales arfcn A
force Fisapnliadiom,- Asa result themassesmove with
a common seceleration a To find @ and fro exerted on
mj we drew tho fe body diagrams as shown in Figs.
3.806) and () 7 is the tension nthe sting.
my String
Go #
ERD. of m,
mper rv F
» ©
Fig. 3.8
It follows from Figs. 3.8(b) and (e) that
T=ma @
and PoP ma Gi
‘Adding (i) and (i) we get
at
‘Tension in the string is
mE
If force F is applied on mass m, as shown in Fig. 3.9,
then3.6 Complete Physies JEE Mam
‘Tension in the string is
(5) Three masses connected by strings Figure 3.10 (a)
shows thrve blocks of masses m,m, and m; connected by
two strings and placed on a horizontal frictionless surface.
A force F is applied 10 m,. As a result, the blocks move
with a common acceleration a To find «and the forces act-
ing on m, and ms, we draw free body diagrams as shown
in Fig. 3.10(b) and (¢) and (4). 7s the tension in the string.
between m, and m, and 7” is the tension in the string be-
twwoen m, and ms,
yr
m ber ref ber re fmf
fe 230
11 follows from Figs, 3.10(b), (c) and (d) that
@
ww
ii)
a=-—_+ __
(om, +m, m5)
The tension inthe string between m, and m, is T, which
is obtained by adding (i) and (i)
(im, +m)
T= (m+ mja= ma tma
(sm Tama +5)
‘The tension inthe string between m, and m, is 7% which
from (i is given by
T= ma=— ah __
im +m, +m)
(6) Two masses connected by a string and suspended
from a support Two blocks of masses my and my are
‘connected by two strings and suspended from a support as
shown in Fig. 3.11(a). Mass m is pulled down by a force
The tension Fis the string between m, mand tension 7”
inthe string between m, and the support can be found from
the free body diagrams as shown in Fig. 3.11(b) and (c).
a FBDotm BDO my
r r
Pome x ee
@) o eo
Fig. 3.7
1 =Teme 0
=Ftmg wo
Using (i) and (), we get
T= FH Om, + mg
(7) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a
‘Jrictionless pulley fixed at the edge of « horizontal
table Consider a block of mass im, lying on a frietion-
less table connected through a pulley to another block of
‘mass mi, hanging vertically (Fig, 3.12). When the system
is released, et acceleration of the blocks be a
From free body diagrams, the equations of motion of m,
and m, are
ma 0
«i
and mg —T
‘Adding (i) and (i), we get
Also
im +m)
@ERD.otm FRD.otm,
i
mi ter om t
]
1
o
Fig. 3.12
Ifthe tabletop is frictionless, the blacks wll move even
itm,~~ T-ymg=ma
z ~ Ler
Fig. 3.13
(8) Two blocks connected by a string passing over
4 frictionless pulley fixed at the top of an inclined
plane Let Tbe the tension in the string. Sinee the pul-
ley is frictionless, the tension isthe same throughout the
string (Fig. 3.14). There are the following two eases:
(@) Mass m moving up along the incline with acceleration
(Fig. 3.14]
ame mecos 0
Fig. 3.14
Laws of Moon 37
The equations of motion of m, and ms [see Fig.
3.1406)]
To mgsin Oma o
mgt ome w
wrhich give = Cems
and T=m(¢-@)
If sis the coefficient of friction between m, and the
inclined plane, the frictional fore, img cos will
act down the plane because the block m, is moving up the
plane. In this ease, Ea, (i) is replaced by
T—mye sin 8-f:
mg sin 8 nmyg cos 6
(8) Mass m, moves down the incline with acceleration a
In this case, we get mg sin @-7=m,a and T— mg
= ma which give
ae (nisin)
(im +m,
and T=m,(e+a)
(9) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a
‘Srictionless pulley fixed at the top of a double inclined
lane Let the block of mass m, move up along the in-
clined plane of angle of inclination @,, and the block of |
‘mass ni; move down the inclined plane of angle of inclina-
tion 8, (Fig. 3.15). Let Te the tension in the sting. Then,
form, and ms, we have
T—mg sin
and mg sin
Eliminating 7, we get
(m, sind, —m sind.)
(rm +m)
Also. T= m(a+gsin 6)
= mz(g sin O,a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.(a) the surface is frictionless and
(b) the coefficient of kinetic frietion between the sur-
face and the block is 4 ~ 0.2, Take g ~ 10 ms *.
F
Fig. 3.18,
Solution The free body diagrams ofthe block inthe two,
cases are shown in Fig. 3.19.
Psino
t
°
Feas@
om
cy)
Fino
zn
g
é
Feos@
Sout
»
Fig. 3.19
(a) From Fig. 3.19(@)
Feos 8 = ma
108010 xe0860"
(b) From Fig, 3.19(b)
Feos 0-f
Lays of Motion 3.9
= Feos 8 ~ jtmg = ma
a= Peos8— bmg
= 1Weos60"- 0.2110
7
=3ms?
From Fig. 3.19(b) we also have F sin 0+ R= mg or
Fsin @= mg — R. Since F sin @< mg, the block does not
move upwards.
Example 7 Two blocks of masses m, = 2 kg and
im, = 3 kg are suspended from a rigid support by means of
strings AB and CD as shown in Fig, 3.20. String 4B has
negligible mass and string CD has mass 0.5 kg/m. Each
string has length 50 cm. Find the tension (a) at mid-point
P of string AB and (b) at point Q of string CD where CO
0 cm. Take g = 10:ms".
Fig. 3.20
Solution Mass of string CD is m= 0.5 x 0.5=0.25 kg
Since string 4B is massless, the tension in 4B is the same
at every point.
(2) Total mass below point P =m, +m +m
= 24025 +3=5.25ke
Tension at P= 5.25 % I
52.5
(©) Total mass below point Q= mass of length QDs
05%03+3=3.15 kg
Tension at Q=3.15% 10=31.5N
Example @ A block of mass m= 100 gis placed on an
inetned plane of inclination 8 30° as shown in Fig 3.2
There is no fiction betwoen the block and the inclined
plane. What minimum acceleration @ shouldbe given to
the system to the let so that the block docs no slide doven
the plane?a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.a
You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his
book.3.18 Complete PhysiceJEE Main
any}
» p> OR
€
v= 30 revimin= °2 0.5 na,
0
/=03 mand g
in
Yen ~
«
4x (3.14) x (0.5) x03
98
=03
Example 25. A small sphere of mass m = $00 g mov-
ing on the inner surface of a large hemispherical bow! of
radius R = Sm describes a horizontal ciele ata distance
OC= 2.5 m below the centre 0 of the bow! as shown in
Fig. 3.47, Find the foree exerted by the sphere on the bowl
and the time period of revolution of the sphree around the
circle, Take g = 10 ms.
Fig. 3.47
Solution Given OP = 5 mand OC = 2.5 m. Therefore
1
cos 0= OC = | 9 oor,
op 2
Radius of circle is r= CP = OP sin @= 5 sin 60° =
su ,
Fig. 3.48
Figure 3.48 shows the forces acting on the sphere, Nis
the normal reaction.
[Net force towards centre C of the circle = N sin @
> mre = N sin @
Also. mg = N cos Gi)
Fram (i cos8 cos 60° ion
From (i), may R sin@ = N sin@
= Pee AO a ads!
- oe (oss?
rime period 7 = 2% ~ gsecond=3.145
Example 26 A steel metre rod of mass m= 1.5 kg ress
with its upper end against « smooth vertical wall and its
lower end on rough horizontal floor. What should be the
‘minimum coefficient of frietion between the ground and
the rod so that it can be inclined at an angle of 30° with the
floor without slipping?
Refer to Fig. 3.49. Length of rod
1N, = normal reaction of the wall
IN, =normal reaction ofthe floor
‘The frictional force () between the rod and the floor
acts along AD. The weight mg of the rod acts at its mid
point (centre of mass) C so that AC = AB2,
Fig. 3.49
For translational equilibrium,
Nz "mg and N,=f
‘Taking moments of forces about 4, we have for rota
tional equilibrium
Ny xO-mgxAD + Nx BE=0
= O-N,XAD +X BE =0(2 me= Na =)

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