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Q1. Communication skills are of utmost importance in managing information and technology in
any organization. List the characteristics of communication and discuss the seven barriers to
effective communication?
Communication in simple terms is a transfer of information between people, resulting in
common understanding between them. communication has the following characteristics:
It is unavoidable
It is a two-way exchange of information
It is a process
It involves a sender and a receiver of information
It could be verbal or non verbal
It is successful when the receiver interprets the meaning in the same way as that
intended by the sender
Its a dynamic process
It enables understanding
Barriers to communication: communication fails when the message received is not
identical to the message that is sent. noise refers to all these factors that disrupt the
communication and can be classified under the following types 1)physical noise
2)physiological noise 3)psychological noise barriers to communication may be classified
as follows:
Environmental barriers :an environmental barrier is the same as physical
noise ,which could be in the form of distracting sounds ,an overcrowded room,
poor facilities all of which may hinder the ability to listen to and understand the
Individual barriers :a major barrier to interpersonal communication is a tendency
to judge ,evaluate, approve, or disapprove the views of another person. in such
cases we tend to block out the communication and form our own view points.
Organisational barriers: in organisations that are too hierarchical , that is, where
there are multiple layers, messages may have to pass through many levels
before they finally reach the receiver each level may add to, modify or
completely change the message, so much so that it makes distorted by the time
it reaches the intended receiver. in other words, there is likely to be loss of
meaning and the message may not reach the receiver in the same way as it was
intended by the sender.
Channel barriers: wrong choice of channel is one of the main barriers to
communication. using a wrong medium of advertising, or conveying a message
orally when a written letter would be more appropriate, are examples
Linguistic and cultural barriers :when the sender of the messages uses a
language that the receiver does not understand, the communication will not
succeed. either the sender may be using a different or foreign language, or the
language used may be too highly technical for the receiver to understand.
linguistic barriers may also occur in cross-cultural advertising and distort
communication. cultural differences refer to differences in values and
perceptions, which may affect the interpretation of the message by the receiver.
Semantic barriers: the word semantics refers to the meaning of words and the
way in which they are used. different words may have different meanings in
different cultures. failure to take this into consideration could lead to serious
Non-verbal barriers; it includes tone of voice, body language such as gestures

and facial expressions, etc. if the tone of voice and body language are negative,
the communication will fail, however positive the spoken and written message.

Q2. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication and is
ambiguous. List and explain the various types of non-verbal communication in brief?
Non-verbal communication helps us to form first impressions and make judgements of
others. Non-verbal communication is ambiguous, while precise words can be used in verbal
communication to ensure that the message is clearly understood, non-verbal communication
is not always clear and easy to understand.
Types of non verbal communication, with the corresponding communication
Body language
Personal space and distance
Use of time
Tone of voice
Physical environment
Physical context
Kinesics: it refers to body movements of any kind. Different body movements can express
inner states of emotion. different body movements are :

Facial expressions- can convey feelings of surprise, happiness, anger and sadness
Eye movements- the eye movements such as wide open pupils express feelings of
surprise, excitement or even fear. direct eye contact is an indication of intensity and
interest, while lack of it can convey feelings of nervousness and guilt. Different
cultures perceive eye contact differently. In Asia, Latin America and Africa people
avoid direct contact to show respect. Arabs use prolonged eye contact to measure
trust worthiness.
Gestures-the gestures such as movement of the hands while giving lecture or
presentation indicates a high level of involvement in what you are saying.
Head movements-the head movements like nodding the head can convey interest,
appreciation, agreement or understanding.
Posture- it refers to carriage or attitude. Our posture can indicate our feelings.

Physical appearance-our outward appearance, including the way we dress and the
jewellery and make up that we wear can convey an impression of
formality or informality.

Haptic: it refers to communication through touch. we can use touch to communicate

affection, assurance, familiarity, comfort, sympathy. touching can be interpreted as an
assault. Touching can be used for following purposes :

Working- professionals such as doctors, dentists, hair dressers and airport security
staff need to touch people in normal course of their work.
Greetings-we often use handshakes to greet people.
Establishing friendships- a friendly pat or a comforting touch can help in
establishing amicable relationships.
Guiding-a touch on the back, shoulder or arm can help to guide people in the correct
Managing interactions- touching is used to manage interactions. we can gently
touch the shoulder or arm to gain the attention.

Proxemics: it is the term for personal and distance. The different types of spaces are as

Intimate space-our inner most circle is an intimate space, into which we generally
admit only select people such as family and close friends.
Personal space-it might include other friends and colleagues or co workers.
Social and public space-it includes official or workplace.

Chronemics: It refers to the study of usage of time. this includes our attitudes towards
punctuality and willingness to wait. it also deals with the manner in which we structure our
time and interactions. perception of importance of time varies between individuals and
Paralanguage- para means like or similar to, therefore paralanguage means like language.
of all the forms of non verbal communication, paralanguage is closest to verbal how
something is said, and not what is said the .the tone of voice includes the pitch ,the pace,
the emphasis on words and the volume and can convey different moods and emotions.
Physical context-refers to the physical environment or surroundings within which we
communicate it includes following aspects:

Colour and layout

Space management

Q3. Written messages must be as readable as possible. Discuss the two broad principles of
writing. Explain the three stages of writing methodology in detail?

Written messages must be as readable as possible. We need to make them uncomplicated

and easy so that even an average person can understand their meaning. Two broad
principles of writing are write to express, not to impress and keep it short and sweet. a
good writer is one who follows these principles and asks himself/herself even before framing
a sentence what am I trying to say? What words will express it?

Writing methodology- it comprises of three stages 1)prewriting 2)writing 3) reviewing

Prewriting- it is a structured thinking process that helps you to explore and

understand what you have to write the techniques of pre writing help you to
determine the approach to choose and plan to implement the pre-writing stage,
you analyse your audience to determine your audience requirements, anticipate the
audience knowledge and design the strategy that can be adopted to communicate.
Writing-after knowing the audience and developing strategies you can research the
topic and gather essential data. Once you gather the required data, you can organise
your content i.e. decide the flow, group similar facts, identify the important facts to be
mentioned. Later, you begin to compose or write. firstly you draft and write the
information u have researched in your own words then build sentences and
paragraphs even though they are not 100% perfect .You read what you have written

and check whether what you have written is what you mean.
Reviewing-in this stage you revise, proofread and evaluate the message. check
whether the sentences are complete and if the content is correct. Also check for
spelling, capitalisation, punctuation, grammar and parallelism . check for the clarity of
the content written and ensure that no errors are present. The figure depicts the

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5

inverted pyramid
R of review steps.

re v ie w fo r s tra te g ic is s u e s
re v ie w fo r m a c ro
is s u e s
re v ievw
i fo r
m ic roe w
is s u e s
fo r

Q4. There are various techniques of reading out of which SQ3R is most popular. How will you
apply it while reading and research?
SQ3R technique of reading was developed by Robinson in his book effective study.SQ3R
stands for the initial letters of the five steps shown in the table

SURVEY: It refers to a quick glance through the title page, preface and chapter headings of
a text. By surveying, you will be able to gauge the main ideas of the text. Besides ,the
authors name, date, place of publication and tittle page can give you an idea of the general
subject area. the table of contents, preface or foreword in a book would give you an idea of
the themes and how they are organised. A survey of the index or bibliography tells you
immediately whether the books contain what you need.
READING: after surveying and questioning, you begin the actual reading. You need to
develop a critical approach to reading anything for that matter. Read the text over and over
again, each time with a different question and a different purpose in mind. I read it once and

understand everything kind of attitude is nothing but a myth. hence , while reading for the
first time, you must focus on the main points or ideas and supporting details. Make a note of
the important points that you have read.

Q5. Advertisements are used by the organizations to communicate with prospective

customers. What is the meaning and objectives of corporate advertising? Discuss with
Answer :
Corporate advertising can be defined as advertising that sells the organisation to its various
public. corporate advertising is more a public relations activity than a form of advertising, as
it has no immediate commercial purpose. its aim is merely to inform and build a positive
image of the organisation in the society. Some of the specific objectives are as follows:

To create positive attitude towards the organisation-sometimes, consumers may

have negative perceptions towards an organisation, based on the belief that the
organisation is not a responsible corporate citizen. for example, there was a negative
perception among consumers that Nike was using child labour in some of the factories ,
to manufacture sports shoes .Nike made use of corporate advertising to overcome these
To project the personality, cultures and values of an organisation-as Indias leading
industrial groups, the Tatas and Birlas have been the oldest and the most frequent users
of corporate advertising, to communicate about their entrepreneurial ability, culture and
values. for example, Dubai advertises to project an image of itself as a land of
investment, sports and investment opportunities.
To safeguard corporate reputation- this form of corporate advertising is done when the
company is going through a crisis. For example, during the pesticide controversy, coke
released advertisements featuring actor Aamir khan going to the coke factory and
laboratory, along with the managing director, declaring that coke was safe to drink and
free of pesticides. this helped to an extent to restore their damage reputation.
To make an organisation better understood- sometimes organisations go in for this
form of corporate advertising, in order to make themselves more visible and to make
consumers aware that they have a presence in several areas. for example the ITC group
also advertises to highlight their presence in areas as diverse as cigarettes, hotels and
ready-to-eat foods.
to project the organisation as socially responsible- this refers to corporate
advertising for social cause , highlighting the companys role in social development. its
objective is to communicate the companys corporate social responsibility.

Q6. In order to get a job you need to approach an organization with a resume. How does a
resume affect your employability? What are the components of resume ?
A resume is a document that summarizes your background ,educational, qualifications,

experience and interests. It may be sent not only to current employers, but also to potential
employers, who may hire you for a job that has not been announced. From a prospective
employers point of view, it serves as screening device, helping to select the most worthy
candidates for a particular position to eliminate the others. from a job seekers point of view, the
resume conveys how you present your ideas, whether you are organised and what your
strengths are, apart from listing your qualifications.
Components of resumes: irrespective of the type of resume, all resumes must have the same
basic information or standard components. the various components of a resume are:

basic data



ns and

s of



Basic data this includes the name, address, telephone number and email id. The
information provided must allow a prospective employer to reach you easily.
Career objectives An objective must be very specific, stating clearly the position
you are seeking and the area in which you want to work. the objective statement
must consist of two parts:
o Your general goal, mentioning some skills that you feel ,will qualify you for
the job.
o One or more specific areas in which you wish to work.
Education employers are interested in knowing about your academic qualifications
after high school. educational qualifications must be listed in reverse chronological
order, starting with the most recent qualification first. The degree earned, name of the
institution and date of receiving the degree must be mentioned.
Experience work experience must be listed in reverse chronological order. if your
experience is limited, you may also list part time jobs, internships and voluntary work,
under the title work experience.
Skills/other knowledge capabilities such as languages known, computer skills
and special writing skills may be listed.
Organisations and activities- membership of student and professional
associations, clubs and committees, offices held, as well as extra-curricular activities
such as sports, music and photography, must be listed in this section. this information
gives prospective employers an idea of your aptitudes, attitudes and personality.

References- it could be obtained from anyone who is familiar with either your
academic or professional work, such as your professors or immediate supervisor.
Generally , it is sufficient to include the statement references available on request in
your resume and to furnish the names only if you are asked to. when listing
references, the name of the person, designation, institution and contact details must
be provided.