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Speech is

the

vocalized

form

of human communication.

It

is

based

upon

the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about
10,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination
of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which
structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the existence of many thousands
of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Most human speakers are able to
communicate in two or more of them,[1] hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans
to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.
A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language.
Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its
vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation calleddiglossia.
Speech in addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such
as Vygotsky is internally used by mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of
an interior monologue.
Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of
the sounds used in vocal language. Other research topics concern speech repetition, the ability to
map heard spoken words into the vocalizations needed to recreate them, that plays a key role in
the vocabulary expansion in children and speech errors. Several academic disciplines study these
including acoustics,psychology, speech

pathology, linguistics, cognitive

science, communication

studies, otolaryngology and computer science. Another area of research is how the human brain in
its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech.
It

is

controversial

how

far human speech

is

unique

in

that other

animals

also

communicate with vocalizations. While none in the wildhave compatibly large vocabularies, research
upon the nonverbal abilities of language trained apes such as Washoe and Kanziraises the
possibility that they might have these capabilities. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to
much debate andspeculation.
There
Source
Message
Encoding
Channel
Receiver
Decoding
Feedback

are

seven

elements
idea

of

communication:
(Source)

The Source idea is the process by which one formulates an idea to communicate to another
party. This process can be influenced by external stimuli such as books or radio, or it can come
about internally by thinking about a particular subject. The source idea is the basis for the

communication.
The Message is what will be communicated to another party. It is based on the source idea,
but the message is crafted to meet the needs of the audience. For example, if the message is
between two friends, the message will take a different form than if communicating with a superior.
Encoding is how the message is transmitted to another party. The message is converted into
a suitable form for transmission. The medium of transmission will determine the form of the
communication. For example, the message will take a different form if the communication will be
spoken
or
written.
The Channel is the medium of the communication. The channel must be able to transmit the
message from one party to another without changing the content of the message. The channel can
be a piece of paper, a communications medium such as radio, or it can be an email. The channel is
the path of the communication from sender to receiver. An email can use the Internet as a channel.
The Receiver is the party receiving the communication. The party uses the channel to get the
communication from the transmitter. A receiver can be a television set, a computer, or a piece of
paper
depending
on
the
channel
used
for
the
communication.
Decoding is the process where the message is interpreted for its content. It also means the
receiver thinks about the message's content and internalizes the message. This step of the process
is where the receiver compares the message to prior experiences or external stimuli.
Feedback is the final step in the communications process. This step conveys to the transmitter
that the message is understood by the receiver. The receiver formats an appropriate reply to the first
communication based on the channel and sends it to the transmitter of the original message.

Levels of Communication
The five levels of speech communication are:
1. Intrapersonal or thinking and/or talking to yourself in preparation to speak.
2. Interpersonal, which means communication between two or three other people.
3. Next is Small Group, consisting of four to twelve people.
4. Public Speaking , one person who is communicating with many people, face to face with non
verbal feedback.
5. Finally, mass communication or watching or viewing a speech via mass media such as by
television, radio or the internet.
Types of communication

Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the use of symbols in the form of spoken words to transmit
messages. Verbal communication is complicated by the fact that language is arbitrary, meaning
that words change over time; ambiguous, meaning that many words lack clear-cut meanings; and
abstract, meaning that words are not the phenomena to which they refer. Thus,
miscommunication occurs when the meaning we attach to a word changes with time, when a
word lacks a clear-cut, precise meaning or when words are used that are too general. For
example, the word "love" is a very imprecise term; one person's definition of love may differ
substantially from another person's.

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication refers to the use of symbols other than words to transmit messages. It
includes gestures, body language, how we utter words, aspects of our environment that influence
meaning and objects such as jewelry, furniture and clothing that send people messages about
ourselves. Research suggests that nonverbal communication constitutes anywhere between 65
and 93 percent of all human communication. Just like words, nonverbal symbols are ambiguous.
What is a polite gesture to one person may be considered rude by another person. Certain forms
of nonverbal communication may also have different meanings in different cultures. For
example, direct eye contact is appropriate in U.S. society but considered disrespectful in many
Asian countries.

Intrapersonal Communication
Intrapersonal communication is also known as self-talk or thinking, and refers to the ways we
communicate with ourselves. We use intrapersonal communication to plan our lives, rehearse
scenarios before we act them out, and tell ourselves what to do or not do. The way we
communicate with ourselves greatly affects our self-esteem. A person who tells himself, "I'm so
stupid" when he fails an exam will likely have poorer self-esteem than someone who thinks, "I
did really well on the previous four exams. I must have just been having an off day, and I'll do
better next time."

Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication is the communication we have with other people. This type of
communication varies from highly impersonal to extremely personal. The degree to which we
communicate, or fail to communicate, with others influences how our relationships with them
develop, continue or come to an end.

Mass Communication
Mass communication refers to any type of media that is used to communicate with mass
audiences. Examples of mass media include books, television, radios, films, computer
technologies, magazines and newspapers. Although mass communication does include certain
computer technologies, it does not include technologies like email that are used to communicate
one-on-one with someone. Mass communication is responsible for giving us views of events,
issues and people from cultures that differ from ours. It enables us to learn what is going on in
distant places in the world and lets us learn the viewpoints of people and cultures with whom we
do not have direct contact.

A newspaper is a periodical publication

containing news, other

informative articles (listed below), and usually advertising. A newspaper is usually printed
on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. The news organizations that
publish

newspapers

are

themselves

often metonymically called

newspapers.

Most

newspapers now publish online as well asin print. The online versions are called online
newspapers or news sites.
Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly. News magazines are
also weekly, but they have a magazine format.
PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:
Headline
The words printed in large type across the top of a newspaper article to catch the reader's
attention.
Dateline
The words at the beginning of a news article that tell when and where the story was
written.
News article
In a newspaper, a story about an event that has just taken place.
Feature article
In a newspaper, a detailed report on a person, an issue, or an event.
Editor
One of the people who runs a newspaper.
Editorial
An article in which the people who run a newspaper give their opinion on an important
issue.
International
The international section of a newspaper tells you about news in different continents, such
as Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia.
Business
The business section is for things that are happening business-wise. For example, the
business section might contain media and advertising, world business, the economy of the
country that you live in, the stock markets, company researches, mutual funds, and stock
portfolios.
Technology
The technology section contains things that are going in and out of style in the technology

world, things that are coming out, and things that have been out, but they're coming back
in style.
Science
The science section in a newspaper contains things that are happening in our medical world
today. For example: a science section in a newspaper might contain what's happening in
outer space, and it might contain things that are happening in and around our
environment.
Health
The health section in a newspaper would usually contain the things that are happning to a
modern day person's health. For example: they might have come out with a new medicine
that could clear the human race totally of allergies. In a health section, there might be news
containing things about fitness and nutrition, new health care policies, and mental health
and behavior.
Sports
In a sports section, you may find out about last night's baseball, basketball, and football
game. That's the second thing besides asking your buddies down at the pizza parlor. It may
also tell you about a player on a team that might have gotten injured and cannot play. In a
sports section, you can find out things about basketball, professional basketball, golf,
soccer, tennis, professional football, and different sports that maybe you'd want to look for.
Education
The thing that a student favors the most: the education section. In the education section
you might be able to find out the overall average for students in a partucular school, and
maybe even a couple of awards that a student won for the school that they attend, or doing
something that would help their school do better.
Weather
In a weather section, you can find the weather, where ever you may need to know.
Obituaries
In an obitary, you cn find out about people who passed on recently, and people think that
their death should be mentioned to the community. When you would go to this section in a
newspaper, you can most likely find a picture about someone and a short biography.
The cover page story
In this section, you'd just find the story that has the cover page has on it. It has more
detail, and is usually found in the first few pages in the newspaper.
Table of contents
This is the most important part of a newspaper. This part of the newspaper shows where to
find all of these newspaper sections. Without it, reading the newspaper would take hours to
read!

As you can see, There are many sections to a newspaper. They all play an important part,
and when they act together, they make a newspaper.
A newspaper is any published paper that purports to report news of some kind of interest to
a local community or to s specialized group (like lawyers or stockbrokers).
Since no newspaper can survive just on selling its papers, newspapers also carry
advertising, usually divided into "showcase" or "display" ads that can take two pages, a
whole page, half a page, a quarter of a page, etc., and "classified" ads that are only a few
lines each and a lot cheaper than the display ads.
Modern newspapers also carry things to entice people who don't care for news, but are
interested in entertainment, self-improvement, etc.
To provide some stimulus to people to buy their papers, many also carry "op-ed" columns,
opinion pieces written by people who are known and sometimes respected for their
opinions.
Many local newspapers also carry items like obituaries, foreclosures, bankruptcies, court
proceedings, etc., out of a feeling they are "newspapers of record" and have a duty to
report this information so members of the community know what is happening in the
community.
So, there is no one definition of a newspaper and no standard divisions into sections.