You are on page 1of 58

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Growing native plants by seed....3


Purdue University protocols for propagating by cuttings......5
Water you doing with your water?............................................................................................17
Native Bees..19
Waterwise and native plant resources....20
Demonstration gardens.....21
Indoor Light Garden Construction.....22
Building a modified mist bench...23
Plant Fact Sheets.29

Growing Utah Native Plants from Seed


Susan E. Meyer

Introduction
The purpose of this propagation workshop is to introduce you to some plants that are
not ordinarily found in gardens, but that can be very beautiful additions to home landscapes,
particularly waterwise home landscapes. It will also provide you with the opportunity to become
familiar with the process of development from seed to plant for plants that are adapted to
survival in the real world of Utahs semiarid climate and rocky, infertile soils. Native plants are
enjoyed by many people in the wild, yet they rarely think about how good these plants would
look in a landscape setting. You will have the opportunity to learn to grow some of these
plants from seed, and hopefully to enjoy the plants you have produced after transplanting them
into your own garden.

Growing Tips
While there are many similarities between growing native plants from seed and growing
more familiar garden plants such as vegetables and annual flowers, there are some important
differences.
The first thing you will notice about these growing containers is that, unlike flats used for
vegetables and cultivated flowers, these containers are much deeper than wide. This helps
the plants develop the long roots they will need to become established and drought-hardy as
quickly as possible. First developed for forest tree seedlings, these containers and others of
similar shape, such as Ray Leach containers have proven ideal for most Utah native plants.
Drought-hardy natives generally invest much more in root than plants that require a moist
growing environment. These containers give them room to do that. The book planters have
the added advantage that you can open them to examine the roots or to remove the seedlings
at out planting time. And the channeled sides of these root-trainer books direct the roots to
grow downward, not to spiral as they would in traditional shallow, smooth-sided containers.
Another thing that natives need even as small seedlings is STRONG LIGHT. In fact,
there are three things that native seedlings really need most: light, light, and LIGHT. Please
Dont think that a winter windowsill will be adequate. Fluorescent shop lights--the kind you can
get at K-Mart for ten dollars or so, will work great, and will also give you a good place to grow
vegetable transplants. We have chosen a small flat size so that you will be able to provide
good light. The light should be placed only an inch or two above soil level and raised as the
plants grow. If fluorescent tubes are more than a year old, they should be replaced with new
ones--you can use the old ones in an application where maximum intensity isnt so important.
Our soil mix is made up mostly of peat moss, vermiculite, sand, and calcined
montmorillonite clay (turface or kitty litter)--regular potting mix will have to be cut with coarse
materials like sand or turface, as many of these seedlings are susceptible to damping off if the
soil is too soggy. We have used a slow release fertilizer (Osmocote) in the mix, so you will not
have to worry about fertilizing during the three or four months the plants will live in these
containers. If you make your own mix, any fertilizer that works for vegetable seedlings will do
just as well.
The new seedlings must be kept moist but not soggy--overwatering is a serious risk.
Because of the container shape, the soil dries out slowly, especially when the plants are small
and not using much water themselves. It is OK to let the surface dry out for a day or so
between waterings. By the time the cotyledons (seed leaves) open, most of these plants will
already have roots that are an inch or more long. Most of these plants emerge in nature in the
cool temperatures of very early spring. If you keep the flat in a cool place (50-70F), the plants
will be happier, and drying out will be less of a problem. When you do water, it is best to water
3

very thoroughly and deeply, until you can see water dripping out of the bottom of the books.
This ensures that the entire soil profile is wetted, not just the top layer.
Appropriate planting depth is determined by seed size--the bigger the seeds, the deeper
they should be planted. For fine seeds, less than an eight of an inch of soil, just barely to
cover, is sufficient. An old rule of thumb that also works well for natives is to plant the seeds at
a depth twice their maximum diameter. For long slender seeds like grass seeds, place the
seeds vertically in the soil nose-down, so that their tops are flush with the surface.
If you are planting germinated seeds, pick the seeds with the shortest radicles, as they
are the easiest to plant without damage. Make a hole first with the tip of a pencil, and lay the
seedling into the soil by placing the seed on the edge of the hole with the radicle hanging
down. Always pick the seedling up by the seed coat to avoid injuring the tender radicle. Once
the seedling is placed, press the soil gently around the radicle from the side.
If you have planted extra seeds in each cell to ensure the presence of a plant, it may be
necessary to thin, once the plants are big enough that their survival is likely. The best way to
thin in these small cells is by cutting the extra plants off at or just below ground level with a pair
of nail scissors. This prevents disturbance of the root system of the remaining plant, which
could weaken it and make it less likely to survive after transplanting.
If you are planting several different species in the same box, group them according to
their growth rates. Put the fast growing grasses and shrub at one end of the box, and slow
growing plants like succulents at the other. It is OK to clip the grasses if they get so tall that is
difficult to get the other plants in the box close to the lights.
Once the plants have grown for a few weeks and you think they might be outgrowing
their containers, check their roots by opening the books. If the plants are well-rooted and the
root ball holds together when lifted, it is OK to transplant, either to larger containers or to their
place in the garden. Native seedlings require hardening before planting out just as vegetable
seedlings do, though they are usually not as delicate. The plants may be held in the books for
several additional weeks after they are well-rooted, but the watering must be watched very
carefully, as larger plants in books tend to dry quickly.

Native Plants from Cuttings


Plant grown from cuttings have an advantage in that they are a genetic equivalent from
the parent plant, displacing any variations from plants. Certain species of plants are easily
grown from cuttings with little treatment. Other species can be propagated by cuttings using
several methods that increase the success of rooting.
Cuttings can be taken throughout the year. Cuttings of woody plants taken when the
plant is dormant are called hardwood cuttings. These generally have no leaves, and are less
susceptible to drying out. Not mist bench is needed. Cuttings can either be directly stuck in the
ground during the dormant season, where they will root out in the spring, or forced to root in a
greenhouse with added heat.
Cuttings of woody plants taken when the plant is actively growing or non-dormant are
softwood cuttings. These cuttings have leaves that actively photosynthesizing, and transpiring,
and henceforth are very prone to water loss. These cuttings are generally rooted on a mist
bench, or other controlled environment.
Cuttings are generally stuck in a tray with porous material like vermiculite or a
peat/perlite mix. When they root, they are then transplanted to a container. In order to get
cuttings to root, several treatments are used. Different species are often more likely to root
when taken at specific times of the year, or from specific places on the plant. The end of the
cutting is often treated with a rooting hormone compound including IBA, gibberellic acid, and
NAA (Dip N Grow, Roottone, Hormex etc.)

Purdue University
Consumer Horticulture
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

HO-37
New Plants from Cuttings
Mary Welch-Keesey and B. Rosie Lerner*
Plants can be propagated, or multiplied, in several different ways. Most people are familiar with growing new plants from seeds, but
new plants can also be created by cutting off a portion of an established plant. This "cutting" is placed in an environment that encourages it to produce new roots and/or stems, thus forming a new, independent plant.
There are several advantages to propagating plants using cuttings:
1. The new plant will be identical to the parent plant. For example, if the parent plant has variegated (multi-colored) foliage, the new
plant grown from the cutting will have the same foliage. If the parent plant is female (as a holly or ginkgo might be), the new plant
will also be female. Propagating a plant by cuttings will allow you to keep the special characteristics of that plant. Plants grown from
seed will often be different from the parent plant and from each other.
2. Propagating a new plant via cuttings avoids the difficulties of propagating by seed. For example, by using cuttings you could
propagate a young tree that has not yet flowered (and thus has not yet produced seed), a male tree, or a sterile plant such as a navel
orange. Additionally, some seeds are difficult to germinate, taking two to three years for the seedling to appear.
3. A new plant grown from a cutting will frequently mature faster and flower sooner than a plant grown from a seed.

Types of Cuttings
Cuttings can be made from any part of the plant. Most frequently, however, either a stem or leaf is used. A stem cutting includes a
piece of stem plus any attached leaves or buds. Thus, the stem cutting only needs to form new roots to be a complete, independent
plant. A leaf cutting uses just the leaf, so both new roots and new stems must be formed to create a new plant.

Stem Cuttings
Stem cuttings can be taken from both herbaceous plants (e.g., garden flowers and houseplants) and woody trees and shrubs. Because
the new growth of trees and shrubs hardens as the summer progresses, cuttings taken at different times of the year vary in their ability to form roots. Softwood and herbaceous cuttings are the most likely to develop roots and become independent plants, hardwood
cuttings the least likely.
1. Herbaceous
Stem cuttings from herbaceous plants can be taken any time the plant is actively growing.
2. Softwood
Softwood cuttings are prepared from soft, succulent new growth of woody plants just as it begins to harden (typically May through
July). Shoots at the softwood stage will snap easily when bent. The youngest leaves have not yet reached their mature size.
3. Semi-hardwood

Semi-hardwood cuttings are taken from the current season's growth after the wood has matured. The wood is firm and all leaves are
full size. This occurs in mid-July to early fall for most plants. Many broadleaf evergreens (e.g., boxwood, holly, rhododendron) can
be propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings.
4. Hardwood
Hardwood cuttings are prepared from shoots that grew the previous summer. They are cut in winter or early spring while the plant is
still dormant. The wood is firm and does not bend easily. Some deciduous shrubs and needled evergreens will root from hardwood
cuttings.

Leaf Cuttings
Leaf cuttings are prepared by taking a single leaf from the plant. This leaf must generate not only new roots, but new shoots as well.
The leaf used for propagation usually does not become part of the new plant, but disintegrates after the new plant is formed. Only a
limited number of plants have the ability to produce new roots and shoots from just a leaf.

Root Cuttings
Cuttings taken from roots may also be used but only a few species can be propagated this way. Cuttings are taken when the plant is
dormant and the roots contain the most stored energy. Each root produces two to three new stems and each stem then produces its
own roots. The original root cutting disintegrates.

Propagation Basics
To successfully propagate plants from cuttings, a number of challenges must be overcome. Once a cutting is severed from the parent
plant, it can no longer take up water, and excessive water loss will result in death. The wound from the cut makes it susceptible to
diseases. New roots must be formed as rapidly as possible if the new plant is to survive.

Decreasing Water Loss


Start with cuttings that contain as much water as possible. Water the plant well the day before and take the cutting before the heat of
the day reduces water content.
Once the cutting is harvested, excessive water loss must be prevented. To minimize water loss:
1. Process the cutting immediately. If this is not possible, stand the cut end in water or place the cutting in a plastic bag with a damp
paper towel and store out of direct sun. If the plant is frost-tolerant, store the bagged cutting in the refrigerator.
2. For a stem cutting, remove some of the leaves. Most of the water will be lost through the leaves, so by decreasing the leaf surface
you also decrease the amount of water loss. A general rule of thumb is to remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves. Cut remaining leaves in
half if they are large.
3. Once the cutting has been prepared and placed in the rooting mix, enclose the pot in a plastic bag. Insert straws or wooden sticks
around the edge of the pot to hold the bag away from the cutting. Place the pot in a bright area, but out of direct sunlight, so the
leaves will receive the light they need but the plant will not get overly hot. The plastic bag insures that humidity around the leaves
remains high, which slows the rate of water loss.

Preventing Disease
Take cuttings only from healthy plants. To prevent the spread of disease, use clean tools and pots (clean with 10% bleach, rinse, and
let dry thoroughly). Use fresh soilless potting mix since garden soil can harbor plant diseases.

Encouraging Root Formation


Just like leaves, the roots of plants need air to live. Rooting mix that is continuously waterlogged is devoid of air and cuttings will rot
6

rather than form roots. A mixture of 50% vermiculite/50% perlite holds sufficient air and water to support good root growth, but any
well-drained soilless potting mix is acceptable. If your cuttings frequently rot before they root, you know the mix is staying too wet.
Add vermiculite or perlite to increase its air- holding capacity.
Cuttings use energy to form new roots. If the cutting has leaves, most of the energy comes from photosynthesis. Expose these cuttings to bright light, but not direct sunlight, during the rooting period. If you use hardwood cuttings that have no leaves, the energy
will come from reserves stored in the woody stem. For best results, select shoots that are robust for the species. Since you want all
the energy to go into the new roots, make sure you cut off any flowers or fruits that would compete for energy.
Auxin, a naturally occurring plant hormone, stimulates root formation. Several synthetic forms of auxin are sold as "rooting hormone." Though some plants will root readily without treatment, application of rooting hormone to the base of the cutting will often
improve your chance for success. Two synthetic auxins, IBA (indolebutyric acid) and NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) are most frequently used. They are available in several concentrations and in both liquid and powder form. 1,000 ppm (0.1%) is used most often
for herbaceous and softwood cuttings; 3,000 ppm (0.3%) and 8,000 ppm (0.8%) are used for semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings.
Liquid formulations can be used at low or high concentration for softwood or hardwood cuttings, respectively. To determine the appropriate concentration for your cutting, follow the instructions on the product label and the general guidelines just given, or consult
the references listed at the end of this publication.
To use rooting hormone, place the amount needed in a separate container. Any material that remains after treating the cuttings should
be discarded, not returned to the original container. These precautions will prevent contamination of the entire bottle of rooting hormone.
Cuttings will root more quickly and reliably in warm rooting mix. Keep your cuttings between 65F and 75F, avoiding excessive
heat. If your area is too cold, consider a heating mat or cable especially designed for this purpose.

How to Make Herbaceous and Softwood Stem Cuttings


Many houseplants, annuals, perennials, and woody plants can be propagated by stem cuttings when they are in active growth and the
stems are soft.
1. Cut off a piece of stem, 2-6 inches long. There should be at least three sets of leaves on the cutting.
2. Trim the cutting in the following way:
a. Make the bottom cut just below a node (a node is where the leaf and/or the bud joins the stem) (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Herbaceous and softwood: cutting below a node


b. Remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves, starting from the bottom of the cutting. Cut large leaves in half (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Herbaceous and softwood: trimmed shoot tip


c. Remove all flowers, flower buds, and fruit.
3. (optional) Dip the lower inch of the cutting in rooting hormone.
4. In a pot of damp, but drained, rooting mix, make a hole for the cutting using a pencil. Put the cutting in the hole and firm the rooting mix around it. If any leaves are touching the surface of the mix, trim them back. Several cuttings can be placed in the same pot as
long as their leaves do not touch.
5. Enclose the pot in a plastic bag, making sure the bag does not touch the leaves.
6. Place the pot in a warm, bright spot but out of direct sunlight. Every few days, check the rooting mix to make sure it is damp, and
water as necessary. Discard any water that collects in the bottom of the bag.
7. After two or three weeks, check to see if roots have formed by working your hand under the cutting and gently lifting (Figure 3).
If no roots have formed, or if they are very small, firm the cutting back into the mix, rebag, and check for roots again in one to two
weeks.

Figure 3: Herbaceous and softwood: checking for roots


8. Once roots have formed, slowly decrease the humidity around the plant by untying the plastic bag and then opening it a little more
each day. When it is growing well without a plastic bag, pot in a good quality potting mix and move to its permanent location.

How to Make Semi-hardwood Cuttings


8

Follow the same steps as described for herbaceous cuttings. Semi-hardwood cuttings may need a higher level of rooting hormone
and may take longer to form roots. Wounding the base of the cutting sometimes stimulates root initiation (see Step 5 in "How to
Make a Hardwood Cutting" below).

How to Make Hardwood Cuttings


Take hardwood cuttings in winter or early spring. Deciduous plants (those that lose their leaves every winter) have no leaves at this
time. Thus, water loss is not a serious problems with these cuttings, unless the buds open. Hardwood cuttings are more difficult to
root than softwood cuttings, and it may take two to four months for roots to form. The technique does work well with some shrubs
such as forsythia, privet, and willow. Needled evergreens can also be propagated using hardwood cuttings, but care must be taken to
reduce water loss.

Preparing Deciduous Hardwood Cuttings


1. Select a robust stem.
2. Cut off a length of stem that was formed over the past summer (depending on species, it may be 1-2 feet long).
3. Trim the cutting in the following way:
a.

Working from the base of the stem, cut just below a node (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Hardwood: cutting below a node


b. With a pencil, gently make a line 2 inches above this cut. The portion of the stem between the cut and the line will be in the rooting mix (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Hardwood: 2-inch mark


c. Make a second cut 2-6 inches above the line, making sure that this segment contains at least two buds.
4. Remove buds from the bottom 2 inches of the stem so they will not grow during the rooting period.
5. Wound the cutting by removing two 1-inch slices of bark from opposite sides of the base of the stem. Cut deeply enough to expose
the green layer under the bark, but not so deeply that the stem is cut in half (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Hardwood: wounding


6. Apply rooting hormone to the lowest 1 inch of stem and place it into damp rooting mix up to the pencil line. Firm the rooting mix
around it.
7. It may be possible to get two to five cuttings from each stem. Repeat steps three through six if the remaining stem is long enough.
Make sure you keep track of which end of the cutting is the base and which is the top. The base of the cutting, not the top, should
always be the end placed in the rooting mix.
8. There are now two options, depending on the facilities and equipment available.
a. If you have a cold garage and a heating system to warm the rooting mix, place the pot on the heating system in the cold garage.
The cold air will keep the buds from opening and forming leaves, and the heater will keep the mix warm enough for roots to form
(65 to 75F). It is acceptable for the air temperature to go below freezing as long as the heater can keep the rooting mix between 65
F and 75F. For information on constructing heated beds, refer to HO-53: Hot Beds and Cold Frames (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/
hort/ext/Pubs/HO/HO_053.pdf).
b. If you do not have a cold garage with a heating system, place the pot in a plastic bag as you would for herbaceous cuttings, and
place in a warm room. In two or three weeks the buds will open, but the plastic bag should keep humidity around the leaves high and
prevent excess water loss. Make sure the pot is in a bright spot, that it does not overheat, and that the rooting mix is moist but not
10

waterlogged.
9. Check for roots every two to three weeks.
10. Acclimate rooted cuttings to warmer, less humid conditions as described for softwood cuttings (Step #8).

Preparing Needled Evergreen Cuttings


Needled evergreens are often propagated as hardwood cuttings. Because they still have leaves (needles), these cuttings are handled in
a different manner than hardwood cuttings of deciduous plants.
1. Use shoot tips only, making the cutting 6-8 inches long.
2. Remove the needles from the bottom 3-4 inches of the cutting. To reduce water loss, trim the remaining needles so that they just
cover the palm of your hand (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Needled evergreen: trimmed needles


3. Wound the base of the cutting by drawing a knife point down the lower inch of stem on two sides (Figure 8). Cut into the stem but
do not split it. Apply rooting hormone to the lower inch of the stem and place about 2 inches of the stem into the rooting mix, making sure that no needles touch the surface of the mix. Firm the mix around it.

Figure 8: Needled evergreen: wounding


The potted cuttings may be placed in an unheated area with a heating element to warm the rooting mix if the area is well lit. If not,
cover the pot and cuttings with a plastic bag and place in a warm, brightly lit room, as with deciduous hardwood cuttings. Providing
light is essential for successful rooting of these cuttings. Check for roots once a month. It may take three or four months for roots to
develop. Acclimate rooted cuttings as described above.
11

How to Make Specialized Stem Cuttings


Some houseplants can be propagated most easily using these variations of stem cuttings.

Cane
Cane cuttings are used for Dieffenbachia, Dracaena (including corn plant), and other plants with thick stems. The stem, or cane, is
cut into segments and placed into rooting mix. New shoots emerge from the buds that are on the cane; roots grow from the portion of
the cane in the rooting mix (Figure 9). The initial absence of leaves reduces water loss.

Figure 9: Cane: Dieffenbachia bud and roots


1. Cut the cane into segments that contain several buds (usually 2-3 inches in length).
2. Select a healthy bud and place the cane horizontally into the rooting mix so that this bud points up and only the bottom half of the
cane is in the rooting mix. The portion of the cane placed in the rooting mix may be treated with rooting hormone.
3. Alternately, the end of the cane closest to the base of the plant can be treated with rooting hormone. The cutting is then placed into
the rooting mix vertically, about 1/2-inch deep (Figure 10).

Figure 10: Cane: Dieffenbachia segments placed vertically

Leaf-bud
12

Leaf-bud cuttings use just a small portion of the stem (up to 1 1/2 inches) that contains a single bud and single leaf. The stem portion
produces roots, and a new shoot develops from the bud (Figure 11). Treat the stem with rooting hormone, then place in rooting mix
so that the bud is below the surface and the leaf is exposed to light. This method is used with grape ivy, geranium, philodendron,
English ivy, and the fleshy-leaved peperomias.

Figure 11: Leaf-bud: rooted cutting


Since both types of specialized stem cuttings will lose water easily, place the pot in a plastic bag until roots form.

How to Make Leaf Cuttings


Some plants can be propagated from just a single leaf. Many of these plants have compressed stems, making it impossible to take
stem cuttings. These include African violets, bush-type peperomias, and Sansevieria. Some succulents, such as jade plant and jelly
bean plant, can also be propagated from a single leaf.

Leaf Petiole
African violets and bush-type peperomias are propagated from the whole leaf, that is, the blade (the flat part of the leaf) plus the petiole (the leaf stalk). Break off a robust leaf, trim the petiole so it is no more than an inch long, apply rooting hormone, and sink the
petiole into the rooting mix. The base of the leaf blade should just touch the mix (Figure 12). Place the pot in a plastic bag in a bright
spot. In a few weeks roots will form and new plantlets will develop from these roots. When they are large enough to handle, gently
divide them, making sure each plantlet has roots, and plant in individual containers. A single leaf will give rise to several small plantlets (Figure 13).

Figure 12: Leaf petiole: leaf blades stuck in Figure 13: Leaf petiole:
medium
rooted cutting with plantlets

13

Leaf Blade
Some succulent plants (for example, jade plant and jelly bean plant) have leaves that lack petioles (Figure 14). These leaves can simply be broken off the stem, the broken end dipped in rooting hormone, and the leaf inserted about 1/3 of its length into rooting mix.
Since these plants are very sensitive to excess water, make sure the rooting mix stays damp but DO NOT enclose the pot in a plastic
bag. Roots and then new shoots will develop at the base of the leaf and can be separated into individual plantlets (Figure 15). If the
leaves rot instead of root, start over with fresh cuttings and media, add vermiculite or perlite to your rooting mix, and water only
when the upper 1/4 inch of mix has dried.

Figure 14: Leaf blade: succulent leaves with Figure 15: Leaf blade: succulent leaf with
no petioles
plantlets
Although not a succulent, Rex begonias can also be propagated from just the leaf blade. Two techniques can be used.
Method 1: With a knife cut the major veins on the underside of the leaf (Figure 16). Dust with rooting hormone. Place the leaf flat
onto a bed of rooting mix, underside down. Use small wire hairpins or bent paperclips to hold the leaf firmly against the rooting mix
(Figure 17).

Figure 16: Leaf blade: major veins cut on


Rex begonia

Figure 17: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf


pinned flat

Method 2: Roll up the leaf blade, dip the base in rooting hormone, and insert about 1/3 of the roll into the rooting mix. Place extra
mix into the center of the leaf roll to hold it in place (Figure 18). Rolling should break some of the veins, so cutting is not required.

14

Figure 18: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf rolled and stuck in medium
For both methods, enclose the pot in a plastic bag as with softwood cuttings. Check the pot frequently to make sure the veins are in
contact with the rooting mix. If the leaf pulls away from the mix, no roots or plantlets will form. Each wound in a major vein will
give rise to roots and small plantlets (Figure 19). Transplant each plantlet into a separate pot when large enough to handle (Figure
20).

Figure 19: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf


with plantlets

Figure 20: Leaf blade: separating Rex begonia plantlets

Leaf Section
Sansevieria, or mother-in-law's tongue, has long, sword-like leaves attached to a compressed stem. Cut off one of the leaves at its
base, then cut it into 2-4 inch segments. Dip the basal end (the end of the segment that was closest to the base of the plant) of each
segment in rooting hormone and then insert 1-2 inches into the rooting mix. If the segments are put into the mix upside down, no
roots will form. Put the pot in a plastic bag and place in a bright spot. After several weeks, first roots, then shoots, will develop at the
base of the cutting (Figure 21). Each new shoot with roots can become a separate plant.

15

Figure 21: Leaf section: rooted and growing Sansevieria section

How to Make Root Cuttings


Though very few plants can be propagated from root cuttings (for example, oriental poppy, phlox, and horseradish), the technique is
simple and should be tried if you wish to propagate these species. When the plant is dormant, dig it up and cut off robust segments of
the root, 2-3 inches long (replant the parent plant). If the roots are thin, lay them horizontally on the rooting mix and cover with 1/2
inch of the damp mix. If the roots are thick, lay them horizontally or place them vertically into the rooting mix, covering them completely. If placing the root vertically, make sure the end of the cutting that was nearest the crown of the plant points up. Put the pot in
a plastic bag and place in a bright spot. In several weeks, shoots should emerge from the rooting mix. Keep the pot in the plastic bag
until new roots have formed on the shoots.

References:
General:
Hartman, H.T. et al (1997) Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Toogood, Alan, (1999), American Horticulture Society Plant Propagation: The Fully Illustrated Plant-by-Plant Manual of Practical
Techniques, AHS.
Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The Complete
Book of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.
Woody plants:
Dirr, M.A. and C.W. Heuser (1987) The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, Varsity Press, Inc. Athens GA.
Perennials:
Jim Nau, (1996), Ball Perennial Manual; Propagation and Production, Ball Publishing.
Houseplants:
Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The Complete
Book of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.
Jantra, I. and Kruger, U. (1997), The Houseplant Encyclopedia, Firefly Books, Inc. Buffalo, New York.

16

Water You Doing with Your Water?


- Loralie Cox

Cache County Water


>Utah second driest state in the nation with 13 annual precipitation
(Cache Valley 16 annually).
>Kentucky bluegrass lawn requires about 24 inches of water annually to maintain. Generally,
land owners apply over twice that amount.
>Snow and rainfall come during January through May, highest demand occurs in July and
August.
>Over 65% of Utahs municipal water is used for outdoor landscapes.
>Cost of culinary water for landscape use (based on two 5/8 hoses at 60 psi):
Denver, CO .80/hour
Boulder, CO 2.15/hour
Pine Brook Hills, CO $18.50/hour
Santa Fe, NM $42.00/hour (96 emergency rate)
Five percent of the population used 25-40% of water
>Multiple years of low water reserves have increased need to conserve available sources.
>Continuing growth and development have placed increasing demands on current supplies.
>Conservation is the least-cost alternative to new water supplies.
Effects of poor landscape watering practices:
-Concrete losses strength and cracks, weeds grow in sidewalk cracks, and excessive runoff
-Carries nutrients away from the landscape
-Too much water applied too quickly causes runoff and shallow-rooted turf
-A properly irrigated and fertilized lawn will out-compete weeds
-Trees and shrubs have different water requirements than turf water deeper and less
frequently
Strategies to conserve water in the landscape:
-Planning and design
-Reduce turf areas
-Appropriate plant selection
-Soil amendments
-Efficient irrigation systems
-Mulch to conserve soil moisture
-Proper maintenance

17

18

Native Bees
Utah is home to some 800 species of wild bee. (There are over 4000 named species worldwide.) They
are mostly solitary bees, do not produce honey, usually produce only one or two generations per
year, and generally go about their business with little interference with people. They are very important, though, in the pollination of many plants. They use pollen and nectar from plants to provide
food for the next generation of bees and by doing so, they pollinate plants.
We can help bees and other pollinators by increasing the diversity of plants in our yard, making sure
that there are plants blooming from early spring until fall to provide season long pollen and nectar,
leaving areas wild for ground nesting bees, cutting down on our use of broad spectrum pesticides
and even putting up nest boxes for bees that nest in holes in trees.
There are several websites to check out that have a great deal of good information on native bees.
The extension website has a fact sheet that lists nearly 200 species of flowering plant that grow well
in Utah and are good for bees. Go to extension.usu.edu, click the tab gardening, then Utah pests,
then fact sheets. Search native bees. The USDA Bee Lab in Logan also has a website
(ars.usda.gov) with many articles about growing plants for bees and the Xerces Society (xerces.org) is
an organization devoted to invertebrate conservation, including pollinators such as bees.

19

Waterwise Landscapes and Native Plant Resources


Extension publications on landscape water use:
Designing a low water use landscape: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg525.pdf
Water-wise landscaping:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg518.pdf
Water-wise landscaping: Soil preparation and management:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg522.pdf
Basic turfgrass care: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg517.pdf
Turfgrass water use in Utah:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/engrpubs/biewm36.pdf
Garden water use in Utah:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/engrpubs/biewm37.pdf
Selecting and planting landscape trees:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/natrpubs/nr460.pdf
Efficient irrigation of trees and shrubs: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/hg523.pdf
Specific irrigation scheduling information:
www.conservewater.utah.gov
Plant Maintenance:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Landscaping_2008-01pr.pdf
Water-wise landscaping/Practical turf areas
http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Turf_2006-01.pdf
Water-wise landscaping/Mulch
http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG_Landscaping_2007-01pr.pdf
Water wise plants for Utah landscapes:
http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HG-2003-01.pdf

Other related web sites:


Central Utah Water Conservancy District: http://cuwcd.com
Water Wise Landscaping, Utah Botanical Center: http://www.usu.edu/ubc/waterpage.html
WaterWiser: www.waterwiser.org
http://www.wildflower.utexas.edu
http://www.unps.org
http://www.utahschoice.org
http://www.NativePlantNetwork.org
http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org/network/

Books:
How to grow the Wildflowers, E. Johnson and S. Millard
Native Plants for High Elevation Western Gardens, J. Busco and N. Morin

Water-Wise and Native Plants:


Utah Water-Wise Plants list: www.waterwiseplants.utah.gov
Plant Select: www.ext.colostate.edu/psel/index.html
Wildland Nursery: http://www.wildlandnursery.com
Great Basin Natives: www.grownative.com
Willard Bay Gardens: www.willardbaygardens.com
A High Country Garden: www.highcountrygardens.com
USDA Plant Database: www.pants.usda.gov

20

Demonstration Gardens:
Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District
8215 South 1300 West
West Jordan, UT 84088
www.slowtheflow.org
Red Butte Garden & Arboretum
300 Wakara Way
Salt Lake City, UT 84108
http://www.redbuttegarden.org
Utah Botanical Center
725 South Sego Lily Drive
Kaysville, UT 84037
http://utahbotanicalcenter.org
Greenville Farm
1850 North 800 East
North Logan, UT

21

INDOOR LIGHT GARDEN CONSTRUCTION


Maggie Wolf, USU Extension Agent
Salt Lake County
FRAME
PVC FRAME MATERIALS
schedule 40 PVC pipe:
4 ea 4 ft lengths
4 ea 20 in lengths
8 ea 4 in lengths
4 ea 10 in lengths
(total of about 29 feet pipe)

Connectors:
12 Ts
4 Ls
4 hooks or screw eyes
OTHER MATERIALS:
2 each 4 ft long shop light fixtures
4 each shop light fluorescent bulbs (cool white,
warm, or full-spectrum
Surge-protector power strip OR
GFI-protected electrical outlet:
Outlet box
GFI-protected outlet
Outlet box cover, with gasket
2 each machine screws, 1 to 2 long
2 each, locking nuts to match screw diameter
3-prong extension cord
Heavy duty electrical timer (3-prong)
Fabricated sheet metal pan, or plywood pan with thick plastic liner.

TOOLS for assembly:


PVC cutters or hacksaw
Electric drill and drill bits
Wire cutters/strippers
Needle-nose pliers
Screwdriver
Adjustable wrench

Directions for assembly of PVC frame:


1. Cut PVC segments to correct lengths.
2. Drill pilot holes for hooks at the ends of the 4 ft segments 1 in from the edges. Be sure
that the holes line up so both will be at the bottom of the pipe. Insert the screw eyes or
hooks into the pilot holes.
3. Taking care not to jam the pieces too tightly together, attach connectors to PVC
segments.
4. Assemble the structure as illustrated on front page, but leave out one of the 4
segments (to be used in the electrical outlet assembly). Again, do not jam the pieces too
tightly together.
If a power strip is being used rather than the GFI outlet, go ahead and assemble the
entire frame.

22

Directions for wiring the GFI-protected outlet:


1. Gather the outlet, outlet box, outlet face plate, extension cord, the 4 PVC segment,
machine screws and nuts.
2. Drill holes through the back of the outlet box and 4 PVC pipe to attach the box to the
pipe. Fit machine screws through the holes and attach nuts.
3. Cut the female end off the extension cord and strip outer wire cover a bout 2 inches.
Strip inner wire covers to about .
4. Feed the stripped extension cord end up through the bottom hole of the outlet box.
Attach the stripped wires to the outlet wire connections, matching wire cover color to the
matching color terminals.
5. Attach the wired outlet into the outlet box.
6. Attach the outlet face plate to the outlet and outlet box.
7. Insert the 4 PVC segment (with electrical outlet now attached) into he Indoor Light
Garden frame structure.

Completing the Indoor Light Garden Assembly:


1. Install fluorescent tubes into shop light fixtures.
2. Attach chains to the light fixtures and hang from the screw eyes or hooks.
3. Plug the light fixture electrical cords in the GFI-protected outlet or power strip. Plug the
outlet cord into heavy-duty timer. Plug the timer into the nearest electrical outlet then
turn the timer ON. If your lights do not light up, unplug the main cord and push the GFI
reset button or switch on the power cord. Try plugging the main cord in again. If the
lights still won't light, you will need to recheck your wiring. Set the timer to light 14 to 16
hours per day when seeds are sprouting.
4. Place the sheet metal pan at the base of the frame.

Other options:
-Use three shop light fixtures instead of two for more uniform light coverage.
-Make a wood tray to fit on the bottom of the Indoor Light Garden rather than a
fabricated metal tray. Use plywood with a fir strip or molding tacked on the outer
edge as a lip. Line the wood tray with plastic.
-Grow twice as many plants in a double-decker Indoor Light Garden! Use 1 diameter
PVC instead of for extra sturdiness.

23

Building a Modified Mist Bench for a Hobby Greenhouse


Almost all commercial growers utilize what is known as a mist bench. Mist benches can speed
seed germination and growth for vegetative propagation. Commercial systems are composed of
irrigation nozzles that emit a fine mist, a bottom heating system that warms the soil to an optimal
temperature for germination and rooting, a covering that maintains high humidity and a specialized
clock capable of activating the system for seconds at a time several times an hour. These systems can
cost from hundreds to thousands of dollars.
Many hobbyists desire to have a similar system, and they can be ordered from multiple
companies starting at a few hundred dollars. However, a modified system can also be constructed of
parts available from local hardware and irrigation stores at a reduced cost. To lower the cost of the
modified system, one item that may be dispensed with is the bottom heat system. A less expensive lawn
sprinkler clock can also help reduce costs. Eliminating bottom heat and replacing the clock may limit
the times of year when using the system is practical. Additionally, propagation of some species may
become more difficult. However, the modified system is generally sufficient to germinate most seeds
efficiently and successfully propagate many plants asexually, especially when used in the spring and
summer.
The following mist irrigation system can be constructed of either -inch or
-inch PVC, schedule 40, irrigation pipe. It is intended to be connected to culinary water. If secondary
water is used, filtration will be necessary. The parts list provides enough material to create a mist bench
approximately 7 feet long. However, especially as the system is modified, required parts will differ. It
can be connected directly to a pressurized system or connected to a hose. Appropriate fittings to connect it to a hose can be purchased from many garden centers, irrigation supply stores or hardware
stores.
Parts list for mist bench irrigation system:
Nine (9) feet of PVC pipe.
6 each- slip x -inch threaded x slip tees (threaded to accept a -inch riser)
6 each- 3 to 6-inch long -inch risers
1 each- slip x slip x slip tee
2 each- slip caps
PVC glue and primer
1 each- role of Teflon tape
1 each- role of electrical tape
2 each- wire nuts
1 each- electric sprinkler valve
1 each- outdoor 4-8 station sprinkler clock. A 4 station clock is suitable, but the more times per
day the sprinklers are activated increases success slightly.
Enough sprinkler wire to run from the valve to the sprinkler clock.
6 each- mist nozzles that spray 3 feet wide threaded to fit on the -inch risers. You may need to
purchase additional adapters for the mist nozzles to fit on the risers or to tap a threaded -inch
cap for the nozzle to fit, depending on the mist nozzles you purchase. The company where
nozzles are purchased will provide specific information.
You may also need the following:
-An appropriate filtration system for use with a secondary water
-An PVC pipe to hose end adapter
-Additional PVC pipe and fittings to plumb into a pressurized system

24

Illustration 1. Assembling your mist system

Step 1. Cut 2 pieces of PVC pipe six inches long and one (1) piece to two (2) feet long. Set these aside.
Step 2. Obtain the 6-foot long piece of PVC pipe. Cut 6 inches off either end of the pipe. Then cut the
remaining pipe into 5 pieces, 12 inches each.
Step 3. Reassemble and glue all the pieces from step 2 back together using the slip x threaded x slip
tees, making sure that the pieces cut to six inches are at either end. Be sure that the tees are glued so
that the risers will rise straight into the air when they are screwed in.
Step 4. Wrap Teflon tape around both threaded ends of each riser. Insert and
hand tighten the risers into the threaded part of the tees.
Step 5. Attach the mist nozzles to the other end of the tees.
Step 6. Glue the 2-foot section of pipe from step one (1), using a coupler, to the
end of the system where the electric valve will be eventually be attached. Keep
in mind that the valve placement should be customized to fit your situation. It
especially should be placed so that the electric wires are not
regularly exposed to water.
Step 7. Attach the slip x slip x slip tee to the other end of the line, gluing the two
six-inch pieces from step one into either side of the tee. Glue the two slip caps
onto the other ends of the six-inch pieces.
Step 8. When the valve is glued in, attach a hose end adapter to the PVC pipe to or plumb the system
into your pressurized irrigation.

Illustration 2. Reference this illustration when connecting the electric valve

25

Step 9. Wire the valve to the sprinkler clock.


Step 10. Set the clock to water in the early morning, late morning,
mid afternoon and in the evening.
How many minutes to run the clock is variable and is best determined by careful observation. If an 8 station clock is used, stagger
the time appropriately throughout the day. If electricity is not readily
available, battery operated clocks are available.

A complete mist system and cover with


the plastic sheeting removed. This
bench is also a prototype and the fittings used in this unit varies slightly
from instructions given.

Parts List for mist bench cover:


60-80 ft of schedule 40 pipe
8 each 90 elbows
8 each slip x slip x slip tees
5 each slip x slip couplers (These are useful for connecting smaller pieces of pipe to make longer
lengths)
Clear, construction plastic sheeting to fit (This can be purchased at most hardware stores.)

Step 1. Cut to length the following pieces of PVC pipe:

26

Step 2. Using both pieces cut to 7 feet 6 inches and both pieces cut to 3 feet 2 inches, form a rectangular
shape using four (4) elbows (See illustration 3).

Illustration 3. Overhead view of the base of the mist bench cover.

Step 3. Once the pieces are connected, cut the 7 foot 6 inch pipes six inches from the edge on all four
corners. Where the pipes were cut, insert slip x slip x slip tees (see illustration 3).
Step 4. Insert the four (4) pipes cut to 2 feet in length into the four (4) slip tees (See illustration 4).

Illustration 4. Side view of bench cover with 2 ft pipes inserted into slip x slip x slip tees.

Step 5. Next find both pieces cut to three (3) feet in length. Measure 6 inches from each edge and cut
the pipe. You will make four cuts. Obtain the remaining four (4) slip x slip x slip tees and reassemble
the three (3) foot pipes (See illustration 5).

27

Illustration 4. Overhead view of the top of the bench cover.

Step 6. Place the remaining 4 elbows on each edge of the 3-foot pipes and connect these to the upright
2-foot pipes (See illustration 4).
Step 7. Insert the two (2) pipes cut to 6 feet 6 inches into the slip tees from step 5 (See illustration 4).
Step 8. Drape the plastic sheeting over the top of the plastic structure. It may be cut to fit but leave
enough plastic on the bottom edges so that it can be weighted down.

28

FACT SHEET: Alisma sp.


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium

Common Name: Mudplantain


Other Common Names: Water plantain
Scientific Name: Alisma sp. (most likely Alisma subcordatum)
Etymology: Alisma is an ancient Greek name
Family: Alismataceae
Distribution: Genus is distributed nearly worldwide; 3 species occur natively in the
U.S.
Habitat: wetlands, shallow water
Habit: perennial
Height: to 3 ft.
Spread: to 2 ft.
Foliage Color: green

Leaves: oval to elliptic, slender and elongate when underwater


Flower Color: white, sometimes blue or pink tinged
Flower Form: small, occurring in highly branched, whorls
Flowering Season: June - August
Fruit: achenes

Cultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. WATER PLANT! Muddy soil to shallow (to 18 in) water. Does not
tolerate dry soil.

Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 4-6 weeks, keep soil wet (to saturated) once
growth states place pot in shallow water (just above soil surface but not submerging young plant).
Vegetative divisions and rhizomes.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Plants growing in very shallow water resemble the weedy plantain in lawns. Attractive bog
plant, but can become weedy.

Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.


Photos:

29

FACT SHEET: Amelanchier alnifolia


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium

Common Name: Serviceberry, Saskatoon serviceberry


Other Common Names: alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, western juneberry, pigeonberry
Scientific Name: Amelanchier alnifolia
Family: Rosaceae
Distribution: Western & Northern North America,
Habitat: Foothills, canyons, woodlands
Habit: Shrub, usually multi-trunked, slow growing, deciduous
Height: 3-26 (33) ft.
Spread: 3-20 ft.
Foliage Color: green to dark green; yellow to reddish-orange in fall
Leaves: 2-5 x 1-4.5 cm, toothed mostly above the middle
Flower Color: white
Flower Form: 3-20, on short branches (racemes)
Flowering Season: April May, as new leaves expand
Fruit: small purplish pome (apple-like), ripening late summer. Usually has a white bloom
when fully ripe.

Cultural Requirements: Mostly to full sun. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy
clay soils lacking in organic material.
Propagation: Seeds sown immediately when green, or give long cold stratification, germination is slow and can take up to 18 months; plant seedling in permanent place after
they reach 20 cm in height; Vegetative suckers, division of suckers best done in late
winter, or layering in spring (up to 18 months for roots to form).
Uses and Notes of Interest: Fruit has been long harvested as food having a sweet nutty taste, and can be used as a
blueberry replacement in many recipes. The fruit has a similar antioxidant composition to blueberries. Good plant for
hummingbirds. Wood used to make handles.
Disease Issues: Susceptible to cedar-apple rust.

30

FACT SHEET: Astragalus utahensis


Common Name: Utah ladyfinger milkvetch
Other Common Names: Utah milkvetch
Scientific Name: Astragalus utahensis
Family: Pea family (Fabaceae)
Distribution: Northern Great Basin
Habitat: Desert and foothill habitats
Habit: Perennial herb
Height: 2-4"
Spread: 0.5-2'
Foliage Color: Gray green
Leaves: Pinnately compound, densely hairy, sprawling on the
ground
Flower Color: Bright magenta pink
Flower Form: Large (1" long) pea flowers borne in clusters
Flowering Season: early to mid spring
Cultural Requirements: Requires full sun and well-drained soils. Fully cold-hardy. Very drought hardy (i.e.,
needs no supplemental water after establishment on the Wasatch Front), intolerant of overwatering.
Culture: Easily obtained from direct late fall seeding. At dispersal, seeds are hard, i.e., they do not take up
water, and in nature they can live for many years in the ground. Nicking with a razor blade, rubbing on sandpaper, or soaking in hot water breaks the hardseededness. The seeds germinate readily once water uptake
takes place. Plants produced as container stock do not flower until the second year.
Uses and Notes of Interest: We have chosen this attractive little plant as our poster child for the Utah Heritage Garden Program. It is abundant along the foothills of the Wasatch Front, and is one of the very first
plants to flower after the snow melts. Great spreading clumps adorn the most unpromising areas, such as old
gravel quarries and highway rights of way. Its sprawling habit makes the plant a natural for rock gardens and
also as a ground cover on hot, gravelly hard-to-water areas of the yard. It does not do well in the company of
taller plants due to its high light requirement. The pretty magenta flowers are followed by interesting fruits,
pods that resemble little woolly chicks. Seeds are readily collected by shaking them out of the gaping "beak"
of the pod.

Photos by Susan Meyer

31

FACT SHEET: Atriplex canescens


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Fourwing Saltbush
Other Common Names: Chamiso, Chamiza, Hoary Saltbrush
Scientific Name: Atriplex canescens
Etymology:
Family: Chenopodiaceae/ Amaranthaceae
Distribution: Western North America,
Habitat: Basin and Southwest deserts
Habit: evergreen shrub, highly variable in form
Height: to 8 ft.
Spread: to 6 ft.
Foliage Color: gray-green
Leaves: linear, 2 in long, often with rolled margins
Flower Color: yellowish, insignificant
Flower Form: open, disk-like
Flowering Season: May to August
Fruit: 4 wings 1/4 - 1/5 in long, gold-tan when ripe

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils.
Propagation: Seeds plant in fall or cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks, nick seed coat, or leach; Vegetative layering, root cuttings/ rhizomes possible.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Edible (entire plant). Ashes of leaves used as baking powder. Plants tend to be
male or female, but can change sex. Seeds used for flour. Pollen may cause hayfever.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

Photo: Richard J. Shaw, Intermountain Herbarium,


2012. Used with permission

32

FACT SHEET: Baptisia australis


Common Name: False indigo
Other Common Names:
Scientific Name: Baptisia australis.
Family: Pea family, Fabaceae
Distribution: Hardiness zones 4-8
Habitat: borders of woods, along streams or in open meadows
Habit: round form with flowers on taller stalks
Height: 24-48.
Spread: 36-48
Foliage Color: green
Leaves: 3 lobed
Flower Color: bluish purple w/ yellow accents on flower
Flower Form: pea-like flowers on upright stalks
Flowering Season: June/July
Fruit:

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Well-drained


soils. Low water.
Propagation: Seeds, cuttings. Soak seeds for 24-48 hours to improve germination.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Spring brings asparagus-like new
growth. Summer foliage and flowers are beautiful. Fall and winter
holds black shiny seedpods- great contrast with ornamental
grasses. Deer-resistant, easy to grow. Great for cut flowers. Cut
back in early spring for new growth. Drought tolerant.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown.


1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States,
Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 344

33

FACT SHEET: Caryopteris sp.


Text by: Diane Baum
Common Name: Bluebeard
Other Common Names: Blue Mist Spirea
Scientific Name: Caryopteris sp.
Family: Lamiaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae)
Distribution: Asia
Habitat: wetlands, shallow water
Habit: Herbaceous perennials or small shrubs
Height: to 4 ft.
Spread: to 5 ft.
Foliage Color: green to gray-green, silvery green, bluish
Leaves: opposite, ovate to lanceolate
Flower Color: white or blue
Flower Form: long flower spikes
Flowering Season: May/June - Fall
Fruit: Capsule with 4 seeds

Cultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. Prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils.
Propagation: Seeds cool stratify for 3-10 weeks (depending on species). Vegetative softwood cuttings,
layering.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Blooms on new growth. Leaves and herbaceous stems have a terpene aroma
(like Eucalyptus) when bruised. Caryopteris x clandonensis, has become more common in xeriscaping in
American Gardens since the 1960s. Several cultivars are now available. Attractive to bees, butterflies and
birds. Heavy clay soils can increase winter mortality.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.
http://public.wsu.edu/~lohr/wcl/shrubs/caryclan/CaryopterisForm.jpg

34

FACT SHEET: Cercocarpus montanus


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Alderleaf Mountain Mahogany
Other Common Names: True Mountain Mahogany, Birchleaf Mountain Mahogany, Tallowbrush, Deerbrush, Lintisco
Scientific Name: Cercocarpus montanus
Etymology: Cercocarpus means hairy tail, referring to the fruit
Family: Rosaceae
Distribution: Western North America,
Habitat: Semi-desert, foothills, montane. Shrublands, canyons,
woodlands.
Habit: Shrub or small tree, deciduous, multi-stemmed
Height: to 20 ft.
Spread: ~15 ft.
Foliage Color: dark green (upper surface) fuzzy silver on lower surface; yellow in fall
Leaves: oval-shaped, rather thick, toothed on margins, 3-10 prominent veins
Flower Color: yellowish
Flower Form: tubular, lacking petals, clustered, not showy individually but sweet smelling
Flowering Season: April June, as leaves emerge
Fruit: dry brownish achenes, silvery white with long feathery extension.

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils.
Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 2-12 weeks; Vegetative root sprouts. Slow to establish,
and slow growing initially.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Reflective nature of hairs on the seeds give the plant a frosted appearance in
heavy fruiting years. Wood used as tools and weapons, bark used to make a reddish-brown dye.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

Photos: Richard J. Shaw, Intermountain Herbarium, 2012. Used with permission

35

FACT SHEET: Clematis hirsutissima


Common Name: Hairy Clematis
Other Common Names: Sugarbowls, Leatherflower
Scientific Name: Clematis hirsutissima
Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)
Distribution: Rocky Mountain states to the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Upper-elevation meadows and open slopes
Habit: Bushy perennial
Height: 1-2 feet
Spread: 1 foot
Foliage Color: Bright green
Leaves: Deeply dissected leaves
Flower Color: Brownish-purple
Flower Form: Nodding bell-shape, 1 inches long
Flowering Season: Early summer
Cultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and well-drained soil. Low to moderate water needs.
Propagation: Seeds require several months of cold, moist chilling (its probably best to plant them outdoors
in the fall).
Uses and Notes of Interest: Unlike other Clematis species, this is not a vine. It is an attractive plant that
would look good in a rock garden or flower bed. The purplish nodding flowers have thick, hairy petals (the
species name, hirsutissima means very hairy). Hairy seed heads develop after flowering, giving it a Dr.
Seuss look. In Northern Utah, you can see this plant growing in meadows along the trail between Tony
Grove and White Pine Lake.

Photo: David Wallace, Cherry Peak trail, 19


July 2008
Photo: Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS
PLANTS Database

36

FACT SHEET: Cleome serrulata


Common Name: Rocky Mountain Beeplant
Other Common Names: Spider plant, beeweed, stinkweed
Scientific Name: Cleome serrulata
Family: Capparaceae
Distribution: Washington to Nebraska, south to California and New Mexico
Habitat: Mixed desert shrub, pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine
Habit: Upright annual
Height: 3-4 feet
Spread: 2 foot
Foliage Color: Green
Leaves: Three leaflets, about to 2 inches long.
Flower Color: Pink-purple
Flower Form: Large, fluffy clusters of small flowers with exserted stamens
Flowering Season: Summer to fall
Cultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and well-drained soil. Low to moderate water needs.
Propagation: Seeds require 6-8 weeks cold, moist chilling, and they will germinate in chilling.
Uses and Notes of Interest: This is an attractive plant, with lacy purple flowers and long, narrow seed-filled
pods. Found in much of the west and throughout much of Utah. Native Americans ate the seeds and greens
for food, and prehistoric Indians of the southwest apparently grew it around their pueblos. Lewis and Clark
collected Rocky Mountain Beeplant in 1804 in what is now South Dakota, and it may be found in commercial
wildflower seed mixes.

http://extension.usu.edu/files/
natrpubs/despub.pdf

37

FACT SHEET: Cornus sericea


Common Name: Redtwig dogwood
Other Common Names: Red osier dogwood
Scientific Name: Cornus stolonifera
Family: Salicaceae
Distribution: Western United States
Habitat: Riparian areas within the Western U.S.
Habit: Perennial shrub/subshrub
Height: 6-12 ft.
Spread: 6-12 ft.
Foliage Color: Green or variegated

Leaves:
Flower Color: White
Flower Form: Clusters of small flowers
Flowering Season: Mid spring to early summer
Cultural Requirements: Native to wet areas; however, once established is relatively drought tolerant. Very adaptable; tolerates
occasional heavy pruning.

Propagation: Because this is a succoring, riparian shrub, it is very easy to propagate. Place 6-12 long cuttings into wet potting soil
and water for 4-8 weeks or until rooted. Cuttings can be taken at various times of the year. If cuttings are taken during the growing
season, strip all but one or two leaves off the branch. Be careful not to tear bark. Have experienced upwards of 80% rooting success.

Uses and Notes of Interest: Renewal prune by removing to 1/3 of branches starting with the most mature annually. Do so because the bark on younger branches has more intense color. Branches are sometimes used to make ornamental wreaths. Commonly used as an informal screening hedge. Needs room to grow. Forms are available with either red or yellow stems, along with
variegated leaf varieties. S. alba is very closely related, and additionally commonly available at garden centers. Botanists have
much difficulty differentiating the two species. There are also several named cultivars that are usually more dwarf than cuttings
taken from wild plants.

38

FACT SHEET: Echinacea sp.


Text by: Diane Baum
Common Name: Purple Coneflower
Other Common Names: Echinacea, snakeroot, Kansas snakeroot, broad- leaved purple coneflower, scurvy root, Indian head,
comb flower, black susans, and hedge hog
Scientific Name: Echinacea sp.
Etymology: from the Greek for hedge hog referring to the spiky
appearance of the cone
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: Eastern and Central North America
Habitat: prairies and open woodlands
Habit: Herbaceous perennials, erect
Height: to 4 ft.
Spread: to 2 ft.
Foliage Color: dark green
Leaves: lance-shaped, coarsely toothed
Flower Color: reddish purple, pink, white
Flower Form: sunflower-like
Flowering Season: May/June - Fall
Fruit: achenes

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils. Not very drought
tolerant.
Propagation: Seeds pretreatment is generally not needed, germination can take up to 30 days; Vegetative
cuttings, divisions.
Uses and Notes of Interest: E. purpurea has been shown to have antidepressant properties in white rats
and is believed by many people to stimulate the immune system. Chemicals found in this plant can cause adverse reactions in people taking some heart medications. Cut flowers typically have a vase life of 5-7 days.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

39

FACT SHEET: Erigeron speciosus


Common Name: Showy Daisy
Other Common Names: Oregon Daisy, Showy Fleabane, Aspen Fleabane
Scientific Name: Erigeron speciosus
Etymology: speciousus from the Latin specios, meaning showy or beautiful
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: common and widely distributed throughout western North America
Habitat: sagebrush-grassland, mountain brush and mountain forest and meadow communities
Habit: rhizomatous perennial herb
Height: 1-1.5'
Spread: 1-several feet, forms patches
Foliage Color: bright green
Leaves: lance-shaped leaves borne alternately along the stems
Flower Color: pink or lavender ray flowers, yellow disk flowers
Flower Form: flowers in heads 1-1.5" across, with numerous narrow ray flowers and numerous disk flowers;
heads borne at the tips of branches in flat-topped inflorescences
Cultural Requirements: Prefers full sun to near-complete shade and relatively rich soils. Fully cold-hardy.
Reasonably drought hardy (i.e., needs little supplemental water after establishment on the Wasatch Front),
but tolerant of overwatering.
Propagation: Seeds are non-dormant and may be direct-seeded in containers. Be sure to thin if you have
over-seeded. This species may be successfully field- seeded in late fall.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Showy daisy commonly carpets the ground beneath aspens, and is also abundant in mountain meadows. It lives up to its name, producing a profusion of blossoms and flowering for a long
time. It will flower a second time if spent stalks are clipped in midsummer. Showy daisy is one of the few rhizomatous native plants that we would recommend for home gardens. It is slow to spread, and this tendency
can be controlled by cutting back on water. It would be a good choice for naturalizing under shade trees
where traditional lawn does poorly, and it can thrive on far less water.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent

Mel Harte/ www.discoverlife.org

Photo: Richard J. Shaw, Used with Permission Intermountain Herbarium, 2012

40

FACT SHEET: Ephedra nevadensis


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Nevada jointfir
Other Common Names: Nevada Mormon Tea, Nevada
Ephedra, Gray Ephedra
Scientific Name: Ephedra nevadensis
Etymology: Nevadensis means from Nevada
Family: Ephedraceae
Distribution: Western North America
Habitat: Basin and Southwest deserts
Habit: shrub, with leafless, jointed evergreen stems
Height: to 4 ft.
Spread: to 4 ft.
Foliage Color: na
Leaves: na
Flower Color: na
Flower Form: na
Coning Season: late winter - midspring
Fruit: small cones

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils.
Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 21 days;
Vegetative cuttings, occasionally from root sprouts.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Stems are a diuretic. Seeds
are edible and sweet. Plants are either male or female.

http://web.gccaz.edu/glendalelibrary/images/Ephedra_nevadensis
-4.jpg

Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

41

FACT SHEET: Forestiera neomexicana


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: New Mexico Privet
Other Common Names: Stretchberry, Wild Olive, Desert Olive
Scientific Name: Forestiera neomexicana/ Forestiera pubescens subsp. neomexicana
Family: Oleaceae
Distribution: Southwestern North America,
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes and canyons in deserts
Habit: Shrub or small tree, fast growing, deciduous, multi-stemmed
Height: to 18 ft.
Spread: ~15 ft.
Foliage Color: grayish-green to bright green; yellow in fall
Leaves: small, to 1 in., often appearing paired
Flower Color: yellow, yellowish
Flower Form: small, clustered
Flowering Season: April May, just before leaves emerge
Fruit: small blue/black berries in autumn.

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils lacking in organic material.
Propagation: Seeds sow directly outdoors, or cold stratify; Vegetative hardwood cuttings, layering
Uses and Notes of Interest: Tolerates harsh winds. Interesting smooth white bark (blackish when young)
a good substitute for aspen. Male & female flowers found on different plants. Tolerant of pruning. Wood very
hard used as tools by Native Americans.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

http://www.delange.org/OliveNewMex/Dsc00152.jpg

42

FACT SHEET: Hymenoxys hoopesii


Common Name: Orange mountain daisy
Other Common Names: Owls claws, Orange sneezeweed
Scientific Name: Hymenoxys hoopesii
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: Western United States, excluding Washington.
Habitat: Found in subalpine meadows.
Habit: Perennial forb/herb
Height: 3 ft.
Spread: 2-4 ft.
Foliage Color: Green
Leaves: Long, smooth leaves
Flower Color: Yellow
Flower Form: Composite
Flowering Season: Early to mid spring
Cultural Requirements: Partial shade; moderate watering.
Propagation: Seeds - cold, damp stratification approximately 5-7 weeks minimum.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Popular in English flower gardens but neglected in the U.S. Sow anytime.

43

FACT SHEET: Iris missouriensis


Common Name: Rocky Mountain Iris
Other Common Names: Western Blue Flag
Scientific Name: Iris missouriensis
Family: Iridaceae
Distribution: From the western great plains to the Pacific Ocean
Habitat: Mountain meadows and stream banks
Habit: Upright perennial
Height: 1-2 feet
Spread: 6 inches per plant, but plants may form larger clumps
Foliage Color: Bright Green
Leaves: Long, narrow upright leaves
Flower Color: Light blue-violet
Flower Form: Large 2-3 inch flowers, usually one per stem, with 3 showy petals
Flowering Season: Early summer
Cultural Requirements: Prefers full sun and moist soil, with lower water needs later in the season.
Propagation: Seeds require at least 3-4 months of cold, moist chilling, and they may begin to germinate in
chilling. Also propagated by dividing the rhizomes.
Uses and Notes of Interest: This attractive plant does well in residential flower beds it looks like a smaller
version of the commonly cultivated iris. Its relatively short-lived large light-blue flowers develop into seedfilled pods. The plant gets its scientific name, Iris missouriensis, because Lewis and Clark discovered it in the
upper Missouri river drainage of western Montana (western Nebraska is the closest it actually gets to the present-day state of Missouri).

Rocky Mountain Iris in a residential


flower bed David Wallace photo,
May 23, 2007

44

FACT SHEET: Krascheninnikovia lanata


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: winterfat
Other Common Names: white sage
Scientific Name: Krascheninnikovia lanata/ Ceratoides lanata/ Eurotia
lanata
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Distribution: Western North America
Habitat: dry valley bottoms, flat mesas and hillsides
Habit: subshrub, semi-evergreen
Height: 1-4 ft.
Spread: 1-3 ft.
Foliage Color: gray-green, hairy
Leaves: to 1.5 long, linear to lance-shaped
Flower Color: white, wooly
Flower Form: nearly inconspicuous, clustered
Flowering Season: April -September

Cultural Requirements: Full sun. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant


of flooding, excess water or acidic soils.
Propagation: Seeds no stratification needed, do not cover seeds as
light is required for germination. Seeds have a short period of viability,
so do not save seeds longer than 2 years.

Photo: USU extension

Uses and Notes of Interest: Good forage for animals and birds especially during winter. Mature seed heads
are wonderful in dried arrangements, but do not cut the plant back more than 50% when dormant. Prune in
early spring for bushier growth. Blackfoot Indians soaked the leaves in warm water for a hair wash.

http://seedsofsuccess.smugmug.com/
Bureau-of-Land-Management/BLMCA930A/15256925_2Ld2NR/58/148931
6971_rWGsc5V#!
i=1489316892&k=sJkkMRK

45

FACT SHEET: Lupinus sericeus


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Silky Lupine
Other Common Names: Purshs lupine
Scientific Name: Lupinus sericeus
Etymology: sericeus means silky, referring to the soft hairs on the
plant
Family: Fabaceae
Distribution: Western North America,
Habitat: Moderately dry, open slopes, plains to montane zones
Habit: bushy perennial, erect
Height: 8-25 in.
Spread: to 18 in.
Foliage Color: silvery green
Leaves: palmately compound with 7-9 leaflets, hairy with silky
hairs on both sides
Flower Color: lavender to blue, sometimes white, rarely yellowish
Flower Form: pea-like
Flowering Season: May-August
Fruit: silky pods, 2-3 cm long with 2-7 lightly pinkish brown seeds

Cultural Requirements: Full sun to part shade, somewhat shade intolerant. Well-drained or dry soils. Intolerant of heavy clay soils.
Propagation: Seeds plant in fall or cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks, nick seed coat for best germination
alternatively place in hot water for 5-10 seconds immediately transfer to cold water overnight prior to placing
into cold stratification; Vegetative root division may be possible. NOTE: inoculate with Rhizobium for best
results.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Nitrogen fixer. Highly toxic to sheep, causes birth defects in cattle.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

46

FACT SHEET: Penstemon centranthifolius


Common Name: scarlet bugler
Other Common Names:
Scientific Name: Penstemon centranthifolius
Family: Plantaginiaceae
Distribution: sea level to 6000 feet
Habitat: deserts, foothills
Habit: large, multi-stemmed
Height: 4-5 feet
Spread: 1-2 feet
Foliage Color: gray-green
Leaves: glaucous by stems
Flower Color: scarlet
Flower Form: tubes
Flowering Season: May-June
Cultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, open land; dry
Propagation: seed
Uses and Notes of Interest: does best where temperature doesnt get below 15F. Ultimate hummingbird
penstemon.

47

FACT SHEET: Penstemon fendleri


Common Name: Fendler penstemon
Other Common Names: Fendlers beardtongue
Scientific Name: Penstemon fendleri
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Distribution: central, eastern NM to OK, TX and southeast AZ
Habitat: hillsides, open areas
Habit: tall, upright
Height: 8-20 inches
Spread: 6-12 inches
Foliage Color: gray-green
Leaves: thick pointed tips
Flower Color: blue-violet
Flower Form: distinct whorls around stem
Flowering Season: April-August- depending on habitat
Cultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, open land; low water
Propagation: seed
Uses and Notes of Interest: early bloomer, space several plants together for good display

http://www.fws.gov/southwest/refuges/newmex/sanandres/
Photoshop_gallery/plants/images/Purple-penstemon.jpg
http://www.wildflower.org/image_archive/640x480/SS1/
SS1_IMG0138.JPG

48

FACT SHEET: Penstemon grandiflorus


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Shell-leaf Beardtongue
Other Common Names: Large-flowered Beardtongue, Wild Foxglove
Scientific Name: Penstemon grandiflorus
Etymology: grandiflorus refers to large flowered
Family: Plantaginaceae (Schrophulariaceae)
Distribution: Great Plains and Front Range of the Rockies
Habitat: prairie
Habit: rather short lived perennial
Height: to 4 ft.
Spread: to 2 ft.
Foliage Color: gray-green to blue-green
Leaves: opposite along stem, oval-shaped with a blunt tip, waxy
Flower Color: pinkish lavender
Flower Form: tubular, to 2 in. long, in pairs (or triplets) along the upper
third of the stem
Flowering Season: May July (usually for 3 weeks)
Fruit: Capsules

Cultural Requirements: Full sun, somewhat shade intolerant. Moist to dry, poor, well drained sandy or gravelly soils.
Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 4-6
weeks. Vegetative careful division of the crown may be
possible.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Flowers mostly lacking in
scent. Dieback after blooming common. Looks best when
massed.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Leaf spots and rusts.

49

FACT SHEET:

Penstemon secundifloris

Common Name: sidebells penstemon


Other Common Names:
Scientific Name: Penstemon secundifloris
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Distribution: Wyoming to New Mexico in eastern plains, foothills, lower elevations in Rocky Mountains
Habitat: 5400-9000 foot elevation
Habit: tall, upright, smooth, waxy-like
Height: 6-20 inches
Spread:
Foliage Color: blue-green
Leaves: form a rosette
Flower Color: pinks, lavenders
Flower Form:
Flowering Season: May/June
Cultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil
Propagation: seed
Uses and Notes of Interest: Long lived, flowers all point in one direction, earliest bloomer.

NPS Photo by Sally King

http://wildflowerswest.org/Images/Blue-Purple-Page-1/
penstemon_secundiflorus/sidebells_penstemon_1.jpg

50

FACT SHEET: Penstemon spectabilis


Common Name: showy penstemon
Other Common Names: spectabilis
Scientific Name: Penstemon spectabilis
Family:
Distribution: 380-7900
Habitat: dry washes, hillsides
Habit: erect , long stemmed
Height: 8-20
Spread: 12-18
Foliage Color: bluish-gray
Leaves: sharply toothed
Flower Color: red-violet
Flower Form: tubes
Flowering Season: June
Cultural Requirements: full sun; gravelly, sandy soil, low water
Propagation: seed
Uses and Notes of Interest: does best where temperature
doesnt get below 10F. name means highly visible

http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~awolfe/pics/
Pspectabilis.jpg

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/
imgs/512x768/6212_3041/0635/0094.jpeg

51

FACT SHEET: Petalostemum purpureum


Common Name: Purple prairie clover
Other Common Names:
Scientific Name: Petalostemum purpureum
Family: Fabaceae
Distribution: Native to the north central portion of the United States.
Habit: Upright perennial forb
Height: 1-3 ft.
Spread: 1-3 ft.
Foliage Color: Green
Leaves: The sparse leaves are divided into 3-7 leaflets each 1/2 - 3/4" long.
Flower Color: Lavender-purple
Flower Form: Flowers are concentrated on slender cones at the ends of wiry stems.
Flowering Season: May-September
Cultural Requirements: Prefers sandy, sandy-loam, or well-drained soils in full sun.
Propagation: Field seed is planted in the fall, and not placed into cold storage. If unable to plant in the fall try
moist stratification for 2-3 months and the plant. Requires 14-30 days to germinate at 1/16 depth.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Blooms begin to open from the base of the cone and slowly ascend to the tip.
Very drought tolerant due to an extensive root system which may makes transplanting difficult. Excellent high
protein forage for livestock.

http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/

52

FACT SHEET: Phragmites australis subsp. americanus


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: American Common Reed
Other Common Names: Common Reed
Scientific Name: Phragmites australis subsp. americanus
Etymology: Alisma is an ancient Greek name
Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)
Distribution: Worldwide - 2 native subspecies in North
America, 1 introduced from Eurasia
Habitat: wetlands, marshes
Habit: perennial
Height: to 8(10) ft.
Spread: na
Foliage Color: green
Leaves: linear, grassy blade to 20 inches long
Flower Color: na
Flower Form: highly branched inflorescence at top of stem
Flowering Season: June - October
Fruit: grain

Cultural Requirements: Full sun, shade intolerant. WATER PLANT. Muddy soil to shallow (to 18 in) water.
Tolerates moist soil, but not totally dry soil.
Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 4-6 weeks, keep soil wet (to saturated) once growth states
place pot in shallow water (just above soil surface but not submerging young plant). Vegetative divisions
and rhizomes.
Uses and Notes of Interest: Can become weedy, but if kept on drier side should behave. Good plant for soil
stabilization along waterways. Bamboo-like growth and look. Used for roof thatching in Europe. Makes good
nesting tubes for Mason bees. Young stems, seeds and rhizomes are edible.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent.

53

FACT SHEET: Ratibida columnifera


Common Name: Mexican hat
Other Common Names: Prairie coneflower, long-head coneflower
Scientific Name: Ratibida columnifera
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: Widespread in much of North America
Habitat: Prairies and grasslands
Habit: Herbaceous perennial, sometimes treated as an annual
Height: 1-3 ft.
Spread: 1-3 ft.
Foliage Color: Green
Leaves: To 2.5 long, deeply pinnately divided
Flower Color: Mahogany red, sometimes with hints of orange or
yellow (yellow forms are possible)
Flower Form: Composite head; cone shaped, ringed by petaloid flowers
Flowering Season: Summer - fall

Cultural Requirements: Full sun. Well drained soil. Tolerates heat and humidity, but does not like wet feet
during the winter, intolerant of wet, heavy clay soils at any time.
Propagation: Seeds (flowers in second year), division of clumps in spring when plants are young (not
woody).
Uses and Notes of Interest: A good addition to a butterfly garden. May have problems with downy or powdery mildew if watered by overhead sprinklers. Can naturalize under some conditions.

54

FACT SHEET: Rudbeckia sp.


Common Name: Coneflowers, black-eyed-susans;
Alternate Names: Black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan,
Conedisk, Conedisk Sunflower, Gloriosa Daisy Tall Coneflower
Scientific Name: Rudbeckia
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: Throughout the US
Habitat: Zones 4 9, drought tolerant
Habit: Perennial, some annual or biennial) growing to 0.5-3
m tall, with simple or branched stems. The leaves are spirally
arranged, entire to deeply lobed, 5-25 cm long. With yellow or
orange florets arranged in a prominent, cone-shaped head
Height: Varies greatly, from dwarf (1 ft.) varieties like Becky
and Toto, to the giant coneflower Rudbeckia maxima, which
can reach 9' tall. Commonly 12 14
Spread: single stem
Foliage Color: Green
Leaves: Spirally arranged, entire to deeply lobed, 5-25 cm
long.
Flower Form: Daisy-like inflorescences, with yellow or orange florets arranged in a prominent, cone-shaped head
Flower Color: Yellow to orange
Flowering season: Mid-summer to fall.
Cultural requirement: Full Sun / Partial Shade. Best flowering will be in full sun. Medium drought tolerance,
pH 6.0-7.0. Prefers medium textured soil
Propagation: Seed started perennials can bloom the first year if started early.
Uses of interest: are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage
Moth and Dot Moth

55

FACT SHEET: Salix spp.


Common Name: Willow
Other Common Names:
Scientific Name: Salix spp.
Family: Salicaceae
Distribution: Western United States
Habitat: Riparian areas within the Western United States
Habit: Perennial shrub/subshrub
Height: 6-12 ft.
Spread: 6-12 ft.
Foliage Color: varies
Leaves: varies
Flower Color: varies
Flower Form: Clusters of small flowers
Flowering Season: Mid spring to early summer
Cultural Requirements: Native to wet areas; however, once established
is relatively drought tolerant. Very adaptable; tolerates occasional heavy
pruning.
Propagation: Because this is a succoring, riparian shrub, it is very easy http://www.wildutah.us/html/plants_scenery/
to propagate. Place 6-12 long cuttings into wet potting soil and water for h_diamondleaf_willow_salix_planifolia.html
4-8 weeks or until rooted. Cuttings can be taken at various times of the
year. If cuttings are taken during the growing season, strip all but one or two leaves off the branch. Be careful
not to tear bark. Have experienced upwards of 80% rooting success.
Uses and Notes of Interest: May need occasional renewal pruning by removing to 1/3 of branches starting with the most mature annually. This may help to expose younger branches with more intense bark color.
Commonly used as an informal screening hedge. Needs room to grow. No native species commonly available
within the nursery trade. With overwatering, some willow species can become invasive. Under no circumstances should you plant S. exigua (Coyote or Sandbar willow); once established, it is nearly impossible to
remove.

Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS


PLANTS Database

56

FACT SHEET: Wyethia amplexicaulis


Text by: Michael Piep, USU - Intermountain Herbarium
Common Name: Mules ears
Other Common Names: Mule-ears
Scientific Name: Wyethia amplexicaulis
Etymology: named for Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, an early Western explorer
Family: Asteraceae
Distribution: Primarily Northern and Central Rocky Mountain Region
Habitat: dry meadows, open hillsides, foothills, canyons
Habit: long lived perennial with woody taproot
Height: 3 ft.
Spread: 3 ft.
Foliage Color: dark green
Leaves: basal leaves round, shiny; stem leaves shiny, lance-shaped to 16 in.
Flower Color: yellow
Flower Form: daily-like, usually a single large head atop the stem to 4 in. across
Flowering Season: April June
Fruit: dry brownish achenes

Cultural Requirements: Full sun, somewhat shade intolerant. Moist to dry, well drained clay or gravelly soils.
Propagation: Seeds cold, moist stratification for 4 weeks. Vegetative careful division of the crown may be
possible
Uses and Notes of Interest: Strongly aromatic. Reported to be edible.
Disease Issues/Problems: Infrequent. Can be aggressive in
heavy clay soils.

Photo: Roger Banner, Intermountain Herbarium

Photo: Richard J. Shaw, Intermountain Herbarium,


2012. Used with permission

57

Utah State University is committed to providing an environment free from harassment and other forms of illegal discrimination
based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age (40 and older), disability, and veterans status. USUs policy also prohibits
discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in employment and academic related practices and decisions.

Utah State University employees and students cannot, because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or
veterans status, refuse to hire; discharge; promote; demote; terminate; discriminate in compensation; or discriminate regarding
terms, privileges, or conditions of employment, against any person otherwise qualified. Employees and students also cannot discriminate in the classroom, residence halls, or in on/off campus, USU-sponsored events and activities.

This publication is issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Noelle E. Cockett, Vice President for Extension and Agriculture, Utah State University.

58