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Dynamit Nobel Defence

International Developments of Infantry


Weapons for Missions in Urban Areas
l
an Industrial View
Dr. Herbert P. Weisshaupt
Head of Business Development
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DIN ISO 16016

Urban Scenarios the new challenge to Infantry


what has changed
observations
why direct-fire SLM

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DIN ISO 16016

Due to change of scenarios the requirements have changed

Urban Scenarios

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DIN ISO 16016

Afghan compound

Inner walls and house walls (before


rendering)
Compound walls left: with rendering made of 25%
straw and 75% clay

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DIN ISO 16016

Some major trends for Short-Range ShoulderLaunched Munitions (SR-SLM)

- dedicated, small market for SR-SLM anti-tank


- Short range SLM should be multi-purpose and
have a limited anti-tank capability
- Ranges in urban operations are generally below
250m
- Range requirements up to 800m are motivated by
volley firings of RPG7 etc.

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DIN ISO 16016

SZENARIOS (Open Field Attack)


OPEN SPACE ATTACKS

Range requirement for 800 to 900m


No point target, groups of adversaries

Certain AT and special teams had as many as 50-80% of their


personnel armed with RPGs, carrying as many as 15 of these. In
situations where artillery was insufficient in numbers or
impossible
to use, they were also utilized to provide 'artillery' support for
combat, sometimes even with more effect than real artillery
would have achieved. This also explains the fact that, since the
Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian armed forces issue two RPG-7s for an
11-man squad.
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DIN ISO 16016

SZENARIOS (MOUT)

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DIN ISO 16016

SZENARIOS (MOUT)

For unguided projectiles, direct fire is generally more accurate and of higher
velocity and thus is better for penetrating hardened targets and for quickly
destroying small, discrete targets. As a general rule, direct fire - especially
that from foot soldiers - is required to dislodge enemy units from an area;
indirect fire can repress a target area as soldiers and armored vehicles close
in on it, but indirect fire cannot capture a target on its own.[

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DIN ISO 16016

Guided Missiles
Guided Short Range Missiles in the Market
The French ERYX uses command-to-lineof-sight wire guidance to deliver effective
firepower at ranges of 50 600 meters.
ERYX is designed for urban warfare, and it
can even be fired from inside a building
(needs 2meter space behind it), but the
wire guidance system doesn't work too well
in terrain with trees and telephone/electric
wires where the cable can get caught.
The range of max 600m is not too good
and rocket speed is too slow for an ATGM
so users are now looking for new medium
range AT alternatives.

AT3 Malyutka (SAGGER) is a very old


manual command to line of sight ATGM
with command wire and very low speed
(~120m/s).
Today mainly used by terrorists.
Ranges from 500m to 3000m.

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DIN ISO 16016

Guided Missiles (current developments)


The 4.4 kg Enforcer' missile is fired from the 3.4 kg
Thumper' shoulder-launcher, capable of hitting targets
2.5 km away in the direct fire role and up to 5 km
away in the indirect fire role. Types of warhead
considered include infrared-guided, dual mode
penetrator and blast fragmentation rounds. MBDA
added that it is also working on a tripod for Enforcer.

A modular, low-cost, high precision missile capable of


engaging 'asymmetric aggressors' in complex terrain,
at ranges exceeding 2 miles, with high precision, and
minimal risk of collateral damage. The missile was
designed as very low cost weapon, with unit cost goal
of US$5,000. The Spike weighs about 2.26 kg, and is
63.5 cm long. It uses fire and forget guidance using a
general purpose strap-down electro-optical seeker. It
was designed as a shoulder fired tactical missile
Spike-SR, the short range version of the weapon,
is a single shot, fire and forget, disposable weapon.
It is a 9kg weapon whose minimum range is 50 m
while the maximum range is 800 m. The company
positions the new weapon at a level well above
RAFAELs own Matador rocket system, Talley
SMAW or Saab AT4, as well as the Saab MBT
LAW. According to Rafael, despite the much
improved precision, performance and probability of
kill, Spike SR will be slightly more expensive than
those other unguided rockets.
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DIN ISO 16016

Guided Missiles (Javelin)

USMC anti-armor manual :


The manual, as does ST 7-10-1, includes more emphasis on the ability of the Javelin to
support MOUT operations. This capability is largely due to its soft launch ability. The
manual
does fail to highlight the fact that Javelin has significant limitations of use within a
MOUT
environment if used in densely built-up areas, due to the long duration (10 to 40
seconds
depending on gunner experience) it may take a gunner to achieve a lock on the target
before
being able to reliably fire the missile. In complex terrain, such a long tracking time
may be difficult to achieve.

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DIN ISO 16016

SZENARIOS (Open Field)


ATTACKING MBTs

Short range ATGMs are useful in cases of a clear firing range with armored vehicles, e.g. in the case of tanks approaching
a city (latest examples can be observed in Syria).

US-Army Handbook MOUT : Light and medium recoilless weapons obtain their most effective short-range antiarmor shot
by firing from upper stories, or from the flanksand rear.

Attacking a MBT down a straight alley is extremely hazardous tothe gunner due to the risk of direct counter-fire from other
tanks moving down the same street.

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DIN ISO 16016

Controlled Flight Missiles


PREDATOR

The Predator SRAW, is a lightweight,


close range missile system produced by
Lockheed Martin, developed by
Lockheed Martin and Israel Military
Industries. It is designed to complement
the Javelin anti-tank missile.
In 2003 the US Army decided not to
adopt a version of the USMC Predator
as its MPIM/SRAW (Multipurpose
Individual Munition - Short Range
Assault Weapon) candidate and further
procurement of the Predator was
canceled. And as of 2005, all the FGM172A missiles supplied previously to the
USMC have been retrofitted with the
FGM-172B multi-purpose blast warhead
to replace the top attack anti-armor
warhead
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MBT LAW

Since it's inertial - if the firer moves


even one click, the accuracy is severely
degraded, two+ and it goes down further.
Moral - it's a good defensive weapon, or
if used to stalk victims, taking the shot at
the halt. Not so good if the gunners have
to move & shoot.

DIN ISO 16016

Guided Munitions on UAVs (Alternatives)


The miniature guided weapon from ATK weighs about six
pounds. Fitted with three folding air surfaces and moving tail fins
for flight control, the weapon uses laser and GPS to home in on
targets designated by the UAV or by supported ground forces.
The weapon weighs about 2.7 kg. The Hatchet features a
miniaturized Laser JDAM Seeker warhead, made by Elbit
Systems, and can be guided on to a target by GPS or an inertial
guidance system.

Aerovironment has also been working on a project it calls


"Switchblade" since 2007, which is to deliver a portable, tubelaunched "loitering munition" of the sort now becoming trendy in
some nations' artillery units.
The system can be carried in a backpack (6 pounds) and can be
deployed and launched within 30 seconds.

The weapon of the MBDA system is the 80mm Gladius type


miniature gliders weapons. The Armatus launcher will be able to
carry eight Gladius weapons along with a single Caelus. After
being released from the launcher, the 80 cm long Gladius will be
boosted to subsonic speed and expand the wings over 44 cm
span, to continue on an unpowered glide to the target up to 30
km range. Each Gladius will weigh up to seven kg and be
equipped with an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP) weighing
up to one kilogram.

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DIN ISO 16016

..... NOW THE TRENDS :


(1) High precision munition with multi-purpose warheads (breaching, anti-armor, fragmentation) in the range 20 to
800m
(2) Designing a portable weapon that will providing a significant effect yet, remain compact and lightweight
enough for dismounted combat poses a great challenge for designers. Some favor the 'smart ammunition' strategy
while others opt for 'smart launcher' approach.
Most of the ballistic weapons suppliers (DND, SaaB Bofors, Instalaza, Talley-SMAW) are offering fire-control
sights.
(3) Guided Missile Suppliers take efforts to offer a low cost short range missile to enter the lower end of heavy
infantry weapons (Rafael, MBDA,Diehl, US Navy Spike)
(4) For precision strikes with limited warhead effect a serious competition is arising from UAV suppliers with
adapted submunitions (US spike, Hatchet, Switchblade)
(5) Customers :
- Germany puts its money on medium range ATGM (Spike) and short range ballistic weapons with FCS (fire control
sight)
- Netherlands puts its money on medium range ATGM (Spike) and short range ballistic weapons with FCS
- Italy puts its money on medium range ATGM (Spike) and short range ballistic weapons with FCS
- UK puts its money on medium range ATGM (Javelin) and short range ballistic weapons (ASM)
- France puts its money on medium range ATGM (Javelin) and short range ballistic weapons with FCS
- Singapore puts its money on medium range ATGM (Spike) and short range guided missile (Spike SR)
- Japan puts its money on medium range ATGM (own development) and short range ballistic weapons (CG and
Pzf3)
- South Korea puts its money on medium range ATGM (own development) and short range ballistic weapons (Pzf3,
future?)
- Peru puts its money on medium range ATGM (Spike) and short range ballistic weapons with FCS (Pzf3 and
Alcotan)
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(6) Cost
: short
range Nobel
guided/flight-controlled
systems

are at 30k$+, fire-controlled balistic weapons are at 10k$DIN ISO 16016

Shoulder-Launched weapons are of


growing importance
High value for Infantry

Requirements changed for


Shoulder Launched Weapons

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DIN ISO 16016

Industry approach to engage new challenges in MOUT

Saab Bofors Dynamics Carl Gustaf

Nammo Talley SMAW D

Saab Bofors Dynamics AT4 CS AST

Talley M 72 ASM
Instalaza Alcotan 100 ABK

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DIN ISO 16016

Development from AT to MP weapons

Non-disposable weapons:
cartridge + firing device/FCS

Pzf 3
Pzf 3-T
Bkf
Pzf 3-IT600
Fully disposable MP-weapons with add-on devices

RGW 60
RGW90 HEAT/HESH

RGW90 AS
Effector 90 mm
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DIN ISO 16016

MOUT-Scenarioes
complex situation
low possibility for detection/recognition/identification
close-packed area with
covers of substantial stopping power
no use of typical fire arms
ambush situations

Requirement for weapons that


can destroy structure as well as vehicles
clear machine gun positions

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DIN ISO 16016

Adobe wall 800 mm

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DIN ISO 16016

Reduce the burden

1.

Reduce weight and length

1.
2.

Firing from eclosures/narrow streets


Ruggedness and reliability

Make it better
1. Increase range
2. Ensure close range suitable for UO
3. Increase accuracy

The challenge
down to 10 kg/1m

1200 m
all-arm at 10 m
SRM (Sustainer Rocket Motor):
cross wind effects neutralized

Make it more universal


1. Variety of targets
2. Multi-target capability, scalability
3. Taking care of collateral damage

multi-purpose warheads
mode selection of w/h
accuracy and mode selection

Increase the value


1. Add-on equipment
2. Night fighting capabilities

Fire Control Units to be adapted


adapting existing NV devices

3.

Platform integration

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21

DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90
Recoilless Grenade Weapon 90mm
the baseline for current and future customers
needs

Fully disposable, light-weight anti-armour / anti-structure weapon


True FFE/CS capability
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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 Urban Warfare Weapons the answer


RGW 90 HH

RGW 90 AS

RGW 90 MP

RGW 90 WBR
RGW 90 AD

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 family of weapons


- Common features -

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90

DND RECOILLESS WEAPONS True CS capability

15 m3
(Minimum Room Size)
>2,5 m

In MOUT scenarios:
Firing in narrow streets!

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DIN ISO 16016

DND RECOILLESS WEAPONS Davis Gun Principle


projectile launch tube propellant counter
charge
mass

Davis Gun
=

=
m

Examples: Pzf 3, RGW 60, RGW 90


Projectile Propellant Charge Countermass

Typical Propellant Weight


Davis Gun

60 - 75 gr

Rocket

300 - 600 gr

Recoilless Gun

300 - 400 gr

Recoilless Gun

xamples: Carl-Gustaf, RPG 7, AT4


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Rocket

Examples: M 72, LAW 80, Apilas, FT 5


DIN ISO 16016

The basic weapon:


RGW 90 HEAT/HESH
calibre

90 mm

length
transportation mode
anti-bunker mode
anti-tank mode *)

1.0 m
1.0 m
1.15 m

weight

8.9 kg

effective range

500 m

minimum range

20 m

initial velocity (+20C)

240 m/s

mean velocity (500 m)

220 m/s

penetration performance:
armoured steel
masonry

confined space firing


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min 500 mm RHA


triple brick wall,
~400 mm x 400 mm
hole
3 m x 2.5 m x 2 m
room
DIN ISO 16016

DND RECOILLESS WEAPONS - Constant

Gusts of cross-minimizes effect of side wind


winds from side
Hit Pattern
streets
200m
compensated!
Hit Pattern 200 m
+71C
300
250

wind

wind

flight velocity

Hit Pattern 500 m


Ambient Temperature

Hit Pattern
500m
300
250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

50

0
-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
-50
-100

50 100 150 200 250 300

-300 -250 -200 -150 -100

0
-50
0
-50

50

100

150

200

250

300

-100
-150

-150
-200

-200
-250

-250
-300

-300

Acceleration

Constant velocity

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 HEAT/HESH

HEAT Mode

HESH Mode

Dual Purpose :
Instant and delayed fuzing modes
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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 HEAT/HESH

Target Effects

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 HESH 300 mm triple brick wall

before

after, front side

after, rear side

RGW 90 HEAT vs 420 mm RHA + 150 mm mild steel


Marks on capture plate 2 m
behind target

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DIN ISO 16016

Conclusion:
RGW 90 HEAT/HESH is a highly effective dual-mode
weapon
Highly effective against structural targets
Highly effective against armoured vehicles with
penetration of >420 mm RHA + >150 mm mild steel
(> 550 mm RHA)
Off-the shelf product
In service (Singapore, Slowenia)

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS
Recoilless Grenade Weapon 90mm Anti Structure
RGW 90 AS: specialized in structure defeat

In Service with:

- UK (1st delivery March 2010)


- IL
- GE

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DIN ISO 16016

Main features
Multi-target defeat capability with tandem warhead
Selectable fuze mode
Enhanced blast explosive
Fully disposable
Fully operational from within an enclosed space
Davis gun launcher
Weight: 10kg; Length: 1 meter

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Effectiveness:
Behind wall incapacitation
Bunker (ETF) defeat
Light armor defeat
Wall breaching effect
Effective range: 400m

DIN ISO 16016

RGW90 ASM - 2 Warhead Modes

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AS free-field firings


Target
Description

target before

front side

rear side

Triple brick
wall

Adobe wall,
80 cm

160 mm
concrete wall +
concrete
garage

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DIN ISO 16016

Scalability: Bunkerfaust-RGW 90 AS
single mode of action
fragments

lethal in the room hit


but taking cover is possible
small wall opening
efficient also in free-field

BkF

enhancements by using
DYNARANGE/FCU
No effect in neighbouring rooms

Long delay

High blast effect also in


adjacent rooms

Hohe Blastwirkung
(auch in Nachbarrumen)

modified firing device and sight

lethal effects over several


rooms
defeat of cover in closed
buildings

taking cover not possible

RGW 90 AS

small wall opiening


reduced blast effect, non-lethal

Short delay

Reduced blast effect


behind wall, but big
hole

taking cover not possible


highly efficient in confined
space
big hole in wall

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DIN ISO 16016

Aspects of scalability: short delay: high load outer side of wall only

1,9 bar/3,12 ms

0,7 bar/2,79 ms

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DIN ISO 16016

Conclusion RGW 90 AS
Hier
Multi-purpose
due
to
mode-select
eine Tabelle aller Waffen
Adaptable to target type
mit
key
data
Behind-wall incapacitation
Highly effective against a variety of
structural targets
Effective against IFV/LAV
Off-the shelf product
Combat proven
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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 WB (Matador WB)

Wall Breaching Round

Patented Warhead Technology


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DIN ISO 16016

Requirement:
Move through
obstacles

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 WB firings
Target
Description

target before

entry side

exit side

Triple brick
wall

Adobe wall,
80 cm
preliminary
shot

Adobe wall,
second hit

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AD

Requirement:
Range up to 1200m (enemy HMG positions range)

1. Detonation on Impact

2. Airburst

3. Delayed Detonation

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AD meeting the challenge of precision ballistic flight to target

Disposable
weapon
(Ammunition)

Reusable
Ballistic
Computer
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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 with Dynahawk and NSV 600


Dynahawk

NSV 600

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DIN ISO 16016

RGW 90 AD operation in
airburst mode vs.
dismounted and spread
troops

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Lethal area:
16x8 m
Criterion of lethality:
3 fragments/m
to penetrate 1.5 mm mild
steel plate

DIN ISO 16016

Multi Purpose

Target Practice
incl. Flash / Smoke effect

Fog

Illumination (IR)
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DIN ISO 16016

RGW mobile trainer, scenario-creator, mobile device classroom/outside

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DIN ISO 16016

Conclusions Shoulder-Launched weapons for UOP


1. warhead aspects/weapons effects
Multi target effectiveness
a) Dismounted troops, HMG positions, at high distance
b) structures
wall penetration (breaching capability) various types
behind-wall incapacitation
mobility corridors
c) Vehicles
(limited) MBT defeating capabilities
LAV, IFV defeat
technicals
2. Operational requirements
Hit Pattern 200 m
+71C

a) accuracy, effectiveness, collateral damage

300
250
200
150
100

High accuracy, short range (10 m) to medium (100-500m) and long range (100m+)

50
0
-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
-50

50 100 150 200 250 300

-100
-150
-200

use of Fire Control Systems

-250
-300

low weight, single-soldier operation


Firing From Enclosure (FFE) capability
Night fighting capability
b) Others
training, ergonomics, platform integration, vehicle integration kits

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DIN ISO 16016

Filme bei den Waffen,

Goggles for
Night sightResidual Light
Amplifier

IR night sight

IR Laser
LRF

HESH
HEAT

MPR
HEAT = high explosive anti tank
HESH = high explosive squash head
MPR = multi purpose round (blast)
ASM = anti structure munition
WBR = wall breaching round
LRMP = long range multi-purpose

LRMP
ASM land
.and sea

Dynasim Mobile Trainer


WBR

223 m

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Terror Boat Defeat

DIN ISO 16016

Conclusion RGW 90 family


Structure defeat
Effective against various types of
structures
wall penetration
behind-wall incapacitation
mobility corridors

Vehicle defeat
MBT-capability
LAV, IFV defeat
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DIN ISO 16016

Still open questions, answers needed, by R&D

Blast vs. structures

suitability of weapons and structural behaviour (avoid overkill)

scalability of effects (Blast, fragments, less-lethal effectors.)


vulnerability models and application
supply of such data
reduce collateral damage by
high accuracy (Fire Control Systems, guidance,)
limited or scalable effects (w/h mode selection, munition selection)
Blast vs. Human body

fragments vs. Human body

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DIN ISO 16016