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Abutment Design

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT
INPUT DATA
Levels
Proposed road level
Existing ground level
Depth of foundation
Founding level
Depth of superstructure
Size of bearing
Size of pedestal
Number of bearings
Bed block level
Thickness of wearing coat
C/C distance between face of dirt wall
Projection of girder
C/C distance between bearing

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Dimensions
Top width of abutment
Bottom width of abutment
Back batter
Size of foundation
Width of toe
Width of heel
Length of abutment

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

750 mm
900 mm
1
in
5600
x
3200 mm
1500 mm
8.20 m

Dirt wall thickness


Dirt wall height
Top width of Return wall
Bottom width of Return wall

=
=
=
=

400
0.825
0
0

Fly wing
Depth of wing wall
Thickness of wing wall

=
=
=

No
0.00
0.00

Concrete data and Permissible stresses


Grade of concrete
Grade of steel

=
=

M 25
Fe 415

Unit weight of Concrete

25 kN/m3

Allowable Bending Stress


(IRC:21-2000,Table - 9,Page18)

8.33 N/mm2

Allowable stress in Steel


(IRC:21-2000,Table - 9,Page18)
Modular ratio

200 N/mm2

100.773
94.823
900
93.623
600
400
700
5
99.948
75
6400
200
6000

10

mm
mm
x
x

mm
m
m
m

Unit weight of Soil

18 kN/m3

Angle of internal friction of soil

30

Surcharge angle
Angle of inclination of wall from
verticle face

88

Angle of friction between wall


and soil

20

x
x

36.166667
8200

50
100

mm
mm
mm
mm

Soil data

Safe bearing capacity of soil

630
930

150 kN/m2

KLESCET Consultants

900

Abutment Design

Arrangement of Abutment System


e2
300
3500
300

400

700

RL 100.773 Formation Level in Metre

Approach Slab

300
150

200
500

750
RL 99.948 Top of Abutment Cap in Metre

Abutment Cap

400

750

RL 99.548 Top of Abutment stem in Metre


350

375

998
750

6175

7150

5425

60
G.L

RL 94.823

RL 94.523
Top of Footing in Metre

A
1.20

0
900

1728

900

1500

150

750

RL 93.623
Foundation Level in Metre

3200

900
5600
SECTION OF ABUTMENT SYSTEM

Longitudinal eccentricity between CG of


Bearing and CG of Abutment Stem

e1

0.225 m

Longitudinal eccentricity from centre of dirt


wall to centre of pedestal
Self Weight of Abutment Structure

e2

0.525 m

Element
No.

Description of
structure

Footing

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Shape

Rectangle
Triangle
Rectangle
Abutment Wall Rectangle
Triangle
Rectangle
Triangle
Abutment Cap Rectangle
Dirt Wall
Rectangle
Approach slab Rectangle
bracket
Triangle
Return Wall
Rectangle
Triangle
Pedestal
Rectangle
Fly wing
Rectangle
Triangle
Soil over burden Rectangle
Triangle
Triangle
TOTAL
C.G of abutment about A

Dead load from superstructure

Nos.

Length
(m)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
5
0
0
1
1
1

8.2
8.20
8.20
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2
1.50
0.15
0.93
1.728
1.728
8.2
8.2
8.2

Lever
Arm
Bredth
Depth (D) Area (m2) about
(B)
point A
(m)
3.65
1.50
1.50
0.75
0.15
0.75
0.35
1.1
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.00
0.00
0.70
0.00
0.00
1.50
0.15
1.5

0.90
0.00
0.90
5.425
5.425
0.35
0.35
0.4
0.75
0.3
0.15
6.25
5.425
0.10
0.00
1.00
6.250
5.425
0

3.285
0
1.35
4.06875
0.406875
0.2625
0.0613
0.440
0.300
0.09
0.0225
18.75
0.81375
0.35
0.000
0.000

30.20
=
=
=

128.26
30.20
4.25
m
394.36 kN

KLESCET Consultants

3.650
4.600
4.850
3.575
4.000
3.575
4.067
3.750
4.100
4.450
4.400
4.850
4.050
3.700
6.464
6.176
4.850
4.050
5.10

Weight
(kN)

Moment @
Toe of
Footing
(kN.m)

673.43
0.00
276.75
834.09
83.41
53.81
12.56
90.20
61.50
18.45
4.61
0.00
0.00
8.14
0.00
0.00
1383.75
83.41
0.00
3584.11

2458.001
0.000
1342.238
2981.885
333.637
192.380
51.062
338.250
252.150
82.103
20.295
0.000
0.000
30.109
0.000
0.000
6711.187
337.808
0.000
15131.10

Abutment Design

SUMMARY OF LOAD CALCULATION

CASE1: WORKING CONDITION

Moment due to Active Earth Pressure

Moment due to Live load Surcharge

133.51 x

400.942

kN.m/m

=
=

44.816
160.217

7.15

0.5
kN.m/m

0.42

7.15

Total Moment due to soil & surcarge


For
8.20
m carrigeway
Total Moment due to soil & surcarge

561.16

4601.503

kN.m/m
kN.m

CHECK FOR STABILITY


(Refer IRC : 78 - 2000, Cl.No.706.3.4, Pg.No.21)
Sl.No.
DESCRIPTION VERTICAL HORIZONTA RESISTING OVERTURNI
OF FORCES
FORCE L FORCE (kN) MOMENT NG MOMENT
(kN)
(kN-m)
(kN-m)
1
2
3
4

Dead load from


superstructure
Live Load from
Superstructure
Load from
Abutment
structure
Active Earth
Pressure &
surcharge

394.36

1459.13

247.42

884.51

3584.11

15131.10

532.24

1462.30

4601.50

Braking force

123.71

1032.96

Secondary force

25.34

158.99

i) Construction stage
a) F.O.S against Sliding

=
=
=

b) F.O.S against Overturning

=
=
=
KLESCET Consultants

0.6 x W
>
H
0.51
4758.12
1611.35
1.51
SAFE

1.5

Mr
Mo
15131.10
5793.46
2.61

>

Abutment Design

SAFE

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

ii) Working condition


a) F.O.S against Sliding

0.5*W
>
H
0.51
4758.12
1611.35
1.51
SAFE

=
=
=

b) F.O.S against Overturning

Mr
Mo
17474.75
5793.46
3.02
SAFE

=
=
=

>

CASE 2 : SEISMIC CONDITION


Moment @ bottom of Toe due
to seismic due to soil

261.81

7.15

0.5

133.51

Moment @ bottom of Toe due


to seismic and static due live
load surcharge

Active earth pressure due to


surcharge for static

617.78

16.52

77.94

0.20

=
Total pressure

=
=

Horizontal component

=
=
=

Moment @ bottom of Toe due


to static

kN.m/m
x

21.60

7.15

xx

0.309

7.15
x
9.54 kN/m

9.538 x
9.538 x
8.963 kN/m

8.96

cos 20
0.94

0.5
32.04 kN-m/m

77.94

32.04

45.90 kN-m/m

m carrigeway
=

0.66
kN-m/m

1.334

=
For
8.20
Total moment due soil and
surcharge

2.38

1.334 kN/m2

=
Moment @ bottom of Toe due
to seismic

376.36 kN-m

KLESCET Consultants

7.15

1.5

Abutment Design

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

CHECK FOR STABILITY


(Refer IRC : 78 - 2000, Cl.No.706.3.4, Pg.No.21)
Sl.No.
DESCRIPTION VERTICAL HORIZONTA RESISTING OVERTURNI
OF FORCES
FORCE L FORCE (kN) MOMENT NG MOMENT
(kN)
(kN-m)
(kN-m)
1
2
3
4

Dead load from


superstructure
Live Load from
Superstructure
Load from
Abutment
structure
Load from soil
pressure &
surcharge

394.36

1409.84

49.48

884.51

3584.11

15131.10

385.09

1058.02

5442.12

85.18

615.44

Seismic force

Breaking force

123.71

1032.96

Secondary force

25.34

158.99

i) Construction stage
a) F.O.S against Sliding

=
=
=

b) F.O.S against Overturning

=
=
=

0.5*W
>
H
0.5
3969.19
1292.25
1.54
SAFE
Mr
Mo
15131.10
7249.52
2.09
SAFE

>

1.25

1.5

ii) Working condition


a) F.O.S against Sliding

=
=
=

b) F.O.S against Overturning

=
=
=

KLESCET Consultants

0.5*W
>
H
0.5
4413.04
1292.25
1.71
SAFE
Mr
Mo
17425.46
7249.52
2.40
SAFE

>

1.25

1.5

Abutment Design

CHECK FOR BASE PRESSURE

For working condition


S.B.C. of soil
Total load

W
ML

x =
Length of footing
Total width of footing

ML/W
L
B
B/6

Eccentricity

150

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4758.12
Mr - Mo
17474.75
11681.29
2.455
8.20
5.60
0.93

=
=

B/2 - x
0.34 m

kN/m2
kN
-

5793.46

kN.m
m
m
m
m

< (B/6)

SAFE

Pressure,
Max Pressure at Base
=
=
=

(W/BxL)x(1+(6e/B)
150.00/(8.20x5.60)x(1+6x0.34/5.60)
141.92

kN/m2

Min Pressure at Base


=
=
Hence

=
< S.B.C

Max Pressure

(W/BxL)x(1-(6e/B)
150.00/(8.20x5.60)x(1-6x0.34/5.60)
65.32

kN/m2
SAFE

For seismic condition


S.B.C. of soil
Total load

W
ML

x =
Length of footing
Total width of footing

Eccentricity

ML/W
L
B
B/6
e

225

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4509.31
Mr - Mo
17425.46
8661.55
1.921
8.20
5.60
0.93

=
=

B/2 - x
0.88 m

kN/m2
kN
-

8763.91

kN.m
m
m
m
m

< (B/6)

SAFE

Pressure,
Max Pressure at Base
=
=
=

(W/BxL)x(1+(6e/B)
150.00/(8.20x5.60)x(1+6x0.88/5.60)
190.70

kN/m2

Min Pressure at Base


=
=
Hence

Max Pressure

=
< S.B.C
KLESCET Consultants

(W/BxL)x(1-(6e/B)
150.00/(8.20x5.60)x(1-6x0.88/5.60)
5.70

kN/m2
SAFE

Abutment Design

DESIGN OF RETURN WALL

0.30

FRL=

RL100.773

Due to surcharge

h= 6.25 m
Top of footing =
RL94.523

Soil parameters

KA

=
=
=
=

30
0
88
20

18

0.309

1). Active Earth Pressure


Active Earth pressure, p=

Total Pressure=

0.5 h

0.42 h

1.2*Ka*

0.90
C/s of Return wall

Due to Soil

Ka**h

kN/m3

=
=

Ka
0.309 x

34.741 kN/m

=
=

h
6.25

p
x
34.741

h
6.25

0.5
0.5

=
=
=

108.565 kN/m
108.565 x cos x 20
102.017 kN/m

Vertical component=

=
=

108.565 x sin x 20
37.131 kN/m

Moment @ bottom of Toe=

=
=

lever arm
h
102.017 x 0.42 x 6.25
267.796 kN.m/m

Horizontal component=

2). Live load Surcharge


(Refer IRC:78- 2000, Cl.710.4.4, Pg.No.55)
Live load Surcharge
=
=

Active Pressure due to surcharge

Total Pressure

1.2
1.2

x Earth fill
18
x

21.600

=
=
=

Ka x 1.2
0.309 x 1.2
6.670 kN/m

6.670

kN/m2

KLESCET Consultants

x
x

18
18

Abutment Design

=
=

6.670
6.25
41.689 kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

Horizontal component

=
=

41.689 x
cos 20
39.175 kN/m

Vertical component

=
=

41.689 x
sin 20
14.258 kN/m

=
=

lever arm
39.175
0.5 x
122.421 kN.m/m

Moment @ bottom of Toe

6.25

Total Vertical Comp.Force due to soil & surcharge


Total Horizontal comp.Force due to soil & surcharge
Total Moment due to soil & surcharge
Hight of Dpro at base of wall
Therefore "d" available = 0.900
Grade of concrete
Grade of Steel
According to IRC-21:2000
Design Constants:
cbc
Modular Ratio
Neutral Axis
Factor

=
=
=
6.250 m
900 mm

=
=

25
415

8.33 N/mm2

st
m

=
=

200 N/mm3
10

m cbc/( mcbc + st)

=
=

Lever Arm
Factor

1-(k/3)

dreq

8.333

200

0.294
3

0.90
0.5 x cbc x j x k

0.5

1.11

10 x 8.333
0.29

=
Moment
Factor

10

51.390 kN/m
141.192 kN/m
390.217 kN.m/m

8.333

390.22 x 1000000
1.11 x 1000

KLESCET Consultants

0.90 x

0.29

Abutment Design

Dia of bar
Overall Depth Provided
Clear Cover
Center of reinforcement
Effective depth Provided

=
=
=
=
=
=

594.2
32
900
50
16
834

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

KLESCET Consultants

< dreq

SAFE

Abutment Design

Area of Steel Required

Area of Steel Required

Minimum reinforcement required

Hence required
Diameter of bar

M x 106
j x st x d

390.22 x 1000000
0.902 x 200 x 834.000

2593.71 mm2/m

=
=

0.12 % of cross sectional area


0.12% x 900 x 1000

1080 mm2/m

Ast,req

>

Astmin

Ast

=
=

Spacing required
Spacing provided

=
=

2593.71 mm2/m
32
mm
310.1
125

mm2

Provide 32mm dia bars @125mm C/C


Total Steel Provided on
Embankment Face

6433.98 mm2
SAFE

Check for Shear


As per IRC-6:2000, Cl:304.7.1.1.1.
Shear Force

141.192 kN

=
=
=
=

141.192 x
1000 x
0.169295

Pt

(100 x Ast) / (B x d)

=
=
=
As per IRC-6:2000, Table 12B, Page no 37.

100 x 6433.98
1000 x 834.00
0.771

Design Shear stress

Pt

1000
834

0.37
0.31

c =

0.375151

>

0.50
c

SAFE

0.771
0.271
0.25

KLESCET Consultants

0.06

0.75

Dirt Wall Design

DESIGN OF DIRT WALL


Dirt wall is designed as a cantilever member subjected to following loads
1)Active earth pressure
2)Live load surcharge
3)Braking force
0.4

Live load surcharge

h=

Active earth pressure

0.825 m
0.5 h

0.42

1.2*Ka*

C/s of Dirt wall

Ka**h

Height of Dirt wall, h = FRL-Top of Abutment cap


FRL=
h

100.773
0.825

99.948
m

h =

Top of Abutment cap=


Soil parameters

=
KA =

30
0
88
20

18 kN/m3
0.309

1). Active Earth Pressure


Active Earth pressure, p

Total Pressure

Horizontal component

Ka

0.309

4.586

kN/m2

0.5 x

0.5

1.892 kN/m

1.892 x cos
1.778

0.825

4.586

0.825

kN/m
x

KLESCET Cosultants

20

100.773 m
0.825

99.948 m

Dirt Wall Design

Vertical component

=
=

Moment @ bottom of Dirt wall

=
=

1.892 x sin
0.647

20

kN/m

lever arm
1.778 x 0.42 x
0.616

0.825

kN.m/m

2). Live load Surcharge


(Refer IRC:78- 2000, Cl.710.4.4, Pg.No.55)
Live load Surcharge
=
1.2 x Earth fill
=

ctive Pressure due to surcharge

Total Pressure

1.2 x

21.600

Ka

18
kN/m2
1.2

0.309 x

6.670

6.670 x

6.670 x 0.825

5.503

1.2 x
kN/m2
h

kN/m

KLESCET Cosultants

18

Dirt Wall Design

Horizontal component

Vertical component

Moment @ bottom of Dirt wall

5.503

cos 20

5.171 kN/m

5.503

sin 20

1.882

kN/m

5.171 x

2.133

lever arm
0.5 x

0.825

kN.m/m

3). Braking Force


Following Vehicles are considered to act on Dirt Wall
a) 70R Bogie
b) Class A ( Two Lane )
According to the IRC-21:2000, Cl:214.20, Page no 33,
braking force is taken as 20% of actual load of wheel on the span
a) 70R Bogie

H
1.2

85.00
2.13

Wheel Load

85.00
1.93

0.825

a=
2.025

In Plan
0.22
0.86

0.86
FOOTING

Minimum Axel width in longitudinal direct

1.37

Effective width of dispersion, beff


1.2a + b1
Braking force acts at 1.2 m above Road level
Thickness of wearing coat =
75.0 mm
b1 = 0.86 + 2 x 0.075

m
(Refer Cl.305.16.2 of IRC:21- 2000)
(Refer Cl.214.3 of IRC:6- 2000)
=

1.010

1.2 x 2.025 + 1.010


=
3.440
beff > Spacing of the wheels (1.2m)
hence dispersion width over laps

beff =

Total Dispersion Width

Tb

Total axel load

2.13

+ 1.93 + 3.440 /

5.780 m

Braking Force(20% of axel load), H


Braking Force per metre width

170 kN
=
=

KLESCET Cosultants

34.0
H/Tb

kN

(Refer Cl.214.2 of
IRC:6- 2000)

Dirt Wall Design

5.882

kN/m

b) CLASS A (2 No.)
57.0
0.9

Wheel Load

In Plan

57.0
1.8

57.0
1.7

0.25

57.0
1.8

0.25

0.5
Minimum Axel width in longitudinal direct

0.5
1.2

b1 =

0.5

x 0.075

0.650

beff =

1.2

x 2.025 + 0.650

3.080

KLESCET Cosultants

Dirt Wall Design

beff > Spacing of the wheels (1.2m)


hence dispersion width over laps
Total Dispersion Width
=
0.5+0.15+0.25+1.8+1.7+1.8+(4.506/2)
Tb
=
7.740 m
Total axel load
=
228 kN
Braking Force(20% of axel load)
=
45.6 kN
Braking Force per metre width
=
5.891 kN/m
Hence Class 'A' 2 Vehicle is critical, hence governs the design
lever arm
Moment due to Braking = 5.891 x 2.025
= 11.93 kN/m
=
=

Total Bending Moment

Design S.F

=
=

Depth Required

11.93 + 0.616 + 0.616 +


15.295 kN.m/m
(1.78+5.17+5.89)
12.840 kN

15.30 x 1000000
1.11 x 1000
117.6 mm

dreq

Overall Depth Provided


Clear Cover
Diameter of bar

=
=
=

400
50
20

mm
mm
mm

Center of reinforcement

10

mm

Effective depth Provided

340

mm

Area of Steel Required

0.20% x 400

=
=

800.00

Spacing required

393

mm

Spacing provided

150

mm

Astreq

> dreq

15.30 x 1000000
0.902 x
200 x 340
j
st. stress eff.depth
249.38 mm2/m

=
=

Astmin

2.133

1000

mm2/m

< Ast min

Astreq =

800.000 mm2

Provide 20mm dia bars @150mm C/C


Total Steel Provided on Embankment Face =
KLESCET Cosultants

2094.40 mm2/m

Dirt Wall Design

SAFE

KLESCET Cosultants

Dirt Wall Design

Check for Shear


(Refer IRC-6:2000, Cl.304.7.1.1.1,
Shear Force

Design Shear stress

100Ast/(bd)

12.840 kN

12.840 x 1000
1000 x 340

0.038

100 x 2094.40
1000
340
x

0.616

N/mm2

0.31
0.23

0.25
As per IRC-6:2000, Table 12B, Page no 37.
c =
c

>

0.347
v

N/mm2

SAFE

KLESCET Cosultants

0.616
0.366
0.25

0.08

0.50

Abutment Design

LOADINGS
70-R Wheeled

170

170

170

1.37

3.05

170
1.37

0.2

120
2.13

120
1.52

80
3.96

6
1.17

RA

RB

RA

170 x 6.2 + 170 x 4.83 + 170 x 1.78 + 170 x 0.41 + 120 x -1.72
+ 120 x -3.24 + 80x-7.2

179

kN

Class A
68

68

68

68

0.2

114
4.3

114
1.2

27

27

3.2

1.1

6
2.8

RA
RA

RB
=

68 x 6.2 + 68 x 3.2 + 68 x 0.2 + 68 x -2.8 + 114 x -7.1 + 114 x


-8.3 + 27x-11.5 + 27 x

-324 kN

For two lane of Class A

-648.0 kN

350

350

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

0.653

0.653

0.653

0.653

0.653

0.653

0.653

Class 70 R Tracked
Total load
=

700 kN

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

4.57
50

50
0.653

50
0.653

50
0.653

0.2
0.453
RA

RA

50
0.653

50
0.653

50
0.653

6
RB

50 x 6.2 + 50 x 5.55 + 50 x 5 + 50 x 4.24 + 50 x 3.59 + 50 x


2.94 + 50x2.28

247

kN

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

Eccentricity in transverse direction


Width of carriageway
No of lanes

=
=

8.20 m
3.00

1 lane of Class A

0.45
0.5

0.15

1.80
8.20

eT

=
=

4.1
2.35 m

1.8

2 lanes of Class A

0.45

0.5

0.15

1.80

1.2

8.20

eT

=
=

4.1
0.60 m

3.50

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

3 lanes of Class A

0.45

0.5

1.2

0.15

1.80

1.2

1.80
8.20

eT

=
=

4.1
1.15 m

5.25

KLESCET Consultants

1.80

Abutment Design

1 lane of Class 70 R

0.45

0.86

0.15

1.93
8.20

eT

=
=

4.1
2.105 m

2.00

1 lane of Class 70 R + 1 lane of Class A

0.45

0.86

0.15

0.5

1.93

1.2

1.80
8.20

500

1.93

500

277

1.88

277

1.80

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

Eccentricity due to load

eT

=
=

4.1
0.770 m

2.30009

3.33

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Abutment Design

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT WALL


The abutment wall is designed as a section subjected to Axial force and Bending moment for the following forces
1) Self weight
2) Dead load from superstructure
3) Vehicular live load from superstructure
e=
0.525
4) Braking forces
5) Horizontal forces due to secondary effects
6) Active Earth Pressure
400
700
7) Live load surcharge
300
750
0.8
FRL=
RL100.773 Due to surcarge
Due to Soil150
0.225
Abutment Cap

h=

6.25 m

400

750
0.5 h

Topof foot RL94.523

1.2*Ka*

99.548

0.42 h
Ka**h

5.025
750
94.523

Soil parameters

=
Ka
=
Ca
=

1). Self weight


1)Dirt wall

Moment @bottom of Wall


2)Abutment cap
Rectangular area
Moment @bottom of Wall
Triangular Area
Moment @bottom of Wall

3)Wall

C/L of wall
30
0
88.4161884
20
18
0.309
0.569

kN/m3

=
=

0.4x0.75x1x25
7.5

=
=

7.5

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.1x0.4x1x25
11
kN/m
11
0.175
x
1.925
0.5x0.35x0.35x1x25
1.53125
1.53125 x 0.491666667
0.752864583

=
=

0.75x5.02x1x25
94.21875
kN/m

3.94

kN/m

lever arm
0.525
kNm/m

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

2). Dead load from super structure


Total, R
Load per meter width
Wd
Long. Moment ( ML )

394.36
=
=
=
=
=

(from staad analysis)


R
8.20
48.09
kN/m
lever arm
x
Wd
e1
48.09 x
0.225
10.82
kNm/m

3). Vehicular live load from super structure


Following Vehicular loads are considered
Eccentricity, e1=
0.225 m

R/meter Moment
Total
Type of Load Reaction
Rm
ML=Rm*e1
in kN
R
A) Class A( 2 No-647.97 -79.02
-17.78
B) Class A( 3 No-971.95 -118.53
-26.67
C) 70R Tracke 494.83
60.35
13.58
D) 70R
-3.97
Wheeled +
-144.62 -17.64
Class
A
(1
No.)
D) 70R
4.69
tracked +
170.85
20.84
Class A (1 No.)
Hence 70R Wheeled + Class A Vehicle governs the design

Long. Moment ML =
Total , R=

13.58
494.83

eT

Resultant

2.35
0.60
2.11
1.15

554
1108
1000
1662

kNm/m
kN

Moment
Type of Load
A) Class A( 1 No
B) Class A( 2 No
C) 70R Wheele
D) Class A( 3 No

E) Class A( 1
0.77
No.) + 70R
Wheeled
Total transverse moment
Total transverse moment/m

1554
=
=

MT=Rm*eT
1301.90
664.80
2105.00
1911.30
1196.44
2105.00 kNm
256.71 kNm/m

4). Braking forces


(20 % of Axle Load upto 2 Lane & 5 % live load for additional lane.)
As IRC-6:2010, horizontal seismic forces in the direction perpendicular to the traffi 20.00 %
Total Axial load(kN) 1st 2nd lane

3rd Lane

For Static

5.00%
-32.40
-48.60

Force
-161.99
-242.99

Type of Load
1) Class A 2 VEH
2) Class A 3 VEH

2 lane
-647.97
-971.95

3 lane
-647.97
-971.95

20.00%
-129.59
-194.39

KLESCET Consultants

(without impact)

Total in Force/A BM at
kN
bt /m Fdl
-161.99 -19.76
-242.99 -29.63

-164.95
-247.43

Abutment Design

3) 70R
tracked +
Class
(1 No.)
4) 70R A
Tracked

170.85

170.85

34.17

8.54

42.71

42.71

5.21

43.49

494.83

494.83

98.97

24.74

123.71

123.71

15.09

125.97

-28.92

-7.23

-36.15

5) Class A( 1
-144.62
-145
No.) + 70R
Wheeled
Effective width of dispersion, 1.2*a+b1
1 for Class A =
0.41
beff=
70R Tracked =
1.00
beff=
70R Wheeled =
1.02
beff=

10.43
11.02
11.04

8.20

KLESCET Consultants

-36.15417 -4.40904 -36.82

Hence bef

Max =

125.97

8.20

Abutment Design

m
Total width of dispersion =
8.20
kN
total force/trestle=
24.74
ng. Moment due to braking = 125.97 kNm/m

lever arm for the


Braking force(m)=

8.35

lever arm for the


secondary forces(m)= 6.275

5). Horizontal forces due to secondary forces


Span length
Length of Bearing
L
Width of Bearing
B
Total depth of Bearing
D
No. of Steel laminates
Thickness of steel laminate
Shear Modulus
G
Modulus of elasticity of concr E
Co efficient of thermal expans
(IRC 6-2010, Cl 218.4, Page 46)
Maximum Temperature
(IRC 6-2010, Fig 8, Page 42)
Minimum Temperature
(IRC 6-2010, Fig 9, Page 43)
Temperatue difference
t

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

6000
630
400
50
4
3
1
25000.0
1.17E-05

mm
mm
mm
mm

Strain due to Temperature

Deformation due to Temperature

=
=
=

Shear deformation

=
=

Deformation / Depth
0.16

Force on each bearing

=
=
=

Shear deformation x Shear modulus

mm
N/mm2
N/mm2
/ oC

37.5 oC

10 oC

27.5 oC

Number of bearings
Force on abutment
Force / meter length along abutment

=
=
=

Moment @bottom of Wall

=
=

0.00032
Strain
x
0.00032
x
1.93 mm

5067.56 N
5.1 kN
5
25.34 kN
3.09 kN/m
3.09

x 6.275
19.39 kN-m/m

KLESCET Consultants

Span
6000

x Area of bearing

Abutment Design

6). Active Earth Pressure


Active Earth pressure, p

18
kN/m2

=
=
=

Ka
0.309
34.741

Total Pressure

=
=
=

0.5
p
x
0.5
34.741
108.565 kN/m

Horizontal component

=
=

Vertical component

=
=

108.565
37.131

ment @ bottom of Abutment

=
=

lever arm
102.017
0.42
6.25
267.80
kN.m/m

=
=
=
=
=

1.2
1.2
21.600
Ka
6.670

Earth fill
18
x
kN/m2
1.2 x
xx
kN/m2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

6.670
6.670
41.689
41.689
39.175
41.689
14.258

=
=

39.175
122.421

274.08

566.59

7). Live load Surcharge


(Refer IRC:78- 2000, Cl.710.4.4, Pg.No.55)
Live load Surcharge

Active Pressure due to

Total Pressure

Horizontal component
Vertical component

Moment @ bottom of Abutment

Total Vertical Force, P


Total Longitudinal Moment ML

h
6.25

h
6.25

108.565
cos 20
102.017 kN/m
sin
kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

h
6.25
kN/m
cos
x
kN/m
sin
kN/m

20

18

20
20

lever arm
0.5
6.25
kN.m/m

kN/m
kNm/m

Abutment Design

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT AS WALL


Longitudinal moment

ML

Effective depth required

dreqd.

Overall depth provided


Clear Cover
Diameter of bar
Half dia. of Bar
Effective depth provided
Area of Steel Required

Ast
Spacing required
Spacing provided

566.59 kNm/m

(M /Q.b)

566.59 x 1000000
1.11 x 1000

=
=
=
=
=
=

715.96
825.00
75.00
25
12.50
737.50

566.59 x 1000000
0.902 x
200 x

4258.8

=
=

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

> dreq
SAFE
737.50

mm2

115
100 mm

Provide 25mm dia bars @100mm C/C


Total Steel Provided

4908.74 mm2/m

KLESCET Consultants

SAFE

Abutment Design

Check for Shear


(Refer IRC-6:2000, Cl.304.7.1.1.1,
Shear Force

Design Shear stress

100Ast/(bd)

141.192 kN/m

141.192 x 1000
1000
x 738

0.19

N/mm2

100
1000

x 4908.74
x 737.5

0.666

0.42
0.37

0.75
As per IRC-6:2000, Table 12B, Page no 37.
c

>

0.353
v

N/mm2
SAFE

KLESCET Consultants

0.666
-0.084
0.25

0.05

1.00

Abutment Design

CALCULATION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

i) Static case
Active earth pressure is calculated using Columb's theory as per IRC:78 - 2000, Cl.710.1.3

Soil parameters

Unit weight of soil


Angle of internal friction of soil
Surcharge angle
Angle of inclination of wall from horizontal face
Angle of friction between wall and soil

=
=
=
=
=

18
30
0
88
20

kN/m3

F.L
Due to surcarge

RL 100.773

Due to Soil

7.15 m

h=

0.5 h

0.42 h

Found. Lvl
1.2 x Ka x

RL 93.623

Ka x x h

Static Earth Pressure Diagram


Active earth pressure coefficient
Ka

sin 2 (- )
sin 2 x

sin ( - )

=
0.930

0.309

Active Earth Pressure


=
=
=

Ka
x

0.309 x
39.743 kN/m2

PA

=
=
=

0.5
p
x
x
0.5
x 39.743 x
142.08 kN/m

Horizontal component

=
=
=

Vertical component

=
=

Active Earth pressure

Total Static Pressure

sin ( + ) sin ( - )
sin ( - ) sin ( + )

0.7735451475
0.99923607x

x
x

PA

cos 20
x
142.083 x
0.94
133.514 kN/m
PA

142.083 x

sin 20
0.34

KLESCET Consultants

h
7.15

h
7.15

0.766 x

0.5

0.930 x

1.000

Abutment Design

48.595

kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

Live load Surcharge


(Refer IRC:78- 2000, Cl.710.4.4, Pg.No.55)
Live load Surcharge
=
=
=
Active Pressure due to surcharge
Total Pressure

Horizontal component

Vertical component

1.2 x Earth fill


1.2 x
18
21.600
kN/m2

=
=
=
=
=

Ka
1.2 x
x
6.670
kN/m
6.670
h
x
6.670 x
7.15
47.692 kN/m

=
=
=

47.692
47.692
44.816

cos 20
0.94
kN/m

=
=
=

47.692
sin 20
x
47.692
x 0.34
16.312xkN/m

x
x

Total Vertical Comp.Force due to active earth


pressure & live load surcharge
Total Horizontal comp.Force due to active earth
pressure & live load surcharge
For

8.20

18

64.907

kN/m

178.330 kN/m

532.235 kN

1462.304 kN

m carrigeway

Total Vertical Comp.Force due to active earth


pressure & live load surcharge
Total Horizontal comp.Force due to soil &
surcharge

ii) Seismic case


Seismic active earth pressure coefficient
Ca

( 1 + Av ) cos2 ( - - )

cos cos cos ( + + )


2

1
sin ( + ) sin (- - )
cos ( - ) cos ( + + )

Where,

Ca

=
=

13.6

1.036
0.794

Total AEP due to


Static and Siesmic

tan-1(Ah/1-Av)

PAE

1
+ 0.766
x
0.999618

0.569

0.5 x x h2 x Ca

KLESCET Consultants

0.282
0.817

Abutment Design

=
=

0.5x18x7.150x7.150x0.569
261.8 kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

F.L
RL 100.773

Due to surcarge

Due to Soil

7.15 m

h=

0.66 h

0.5 h

Found. Lvl
0.2 x 1.2 x x Ca

RL 93.623

(Ca - Ka) x x h

Seismic Earth Pressure Diagram

Active Earth pressure

Total Seismic
Pressure

PAEQ

Horizontal component

Vertical component

=
=

(Ca - Ka) x
0.260 x

33.491

0.5

h
7.15

kN/m2

=
=

0.5
x 33.491 x
119.73 kN/m

=
=
=

PAEQ

PAEQ

=
=
=

Live load Surcharge


(Refer IRC:78- 2000, Cl.710.4.4, Pg.No.55)
Live load Surcharge
q
=
=

7.15

cos 20
119.731 x
0.94
112.511 kN/m
sin 20

119.731 x 0.34
40.950 kN/m

0.2
0.2

4.320

Ca

1.2
1.2

x
x

x Earth fill

18

kN/m

(Refer IRC:6- 2010, Table 1, Pg.No.6)


Active Earth pressure
due to surcharge

=
=
Horizontal component

Vertical component

0.569 x x
17.58
kN/m

7.15

=
=
=

17.58
17.58
16.52

=
=
=

17.58
sin 20
x
17.58
x 0.34
6.01xkN/m

Total Vertical Comp.Force due to active earth


pressure & live load surcharge

cos 20
0.94
x
kN/m
x

KLESCET Consultants

46.962

kN/m

Abutment Design

Total Horizontal comp.Force due to active earth


pressure & live load surcharge
For

8.20

129.027 kN/m

385.088 kN

1058.020 kN

m carrigeway

Total Vertical Comp.Force due to active earth


pressure & live load surcharge
Total Horizontal comp.Force due to active earth
pressure & live load surcharge

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT STEM


The length of column (Height)
The following details obtained from Abutment Stem Design:
(Nd)
Load

6250mm

274.08kN

Moment

(Md)

566.59kN

Stem thickness

(h)

900mm

Breadth

(b)

1000mm

Grade of concrete

M25

Grade of steel

Fe415

Tension face reinforcement

20

Area of

20 mm dia. bars

Compression face reinforcement

180 c/c
314sq.mm

12

No. of bars in tension face

11.11

[or]

12

No. of bars in comp. face


Area of steel in tension face ( AS )

5.56

[or]

3770sq.mm

Area of steel in comp. face ( A'S )

679sq.mm

Area of

12 mm dia. bars

Modular ratio

180 c/c
113sq.mm

10

As per page 365 of Reynold's Handbook


To find eccentricity,
Md
e =
Nd
h
6
h
2
3h
2
Therefore,

566.59

x
274.08
900

6
900

=
=
>

1000

2
3

900

2
h/2

>

2067.2mm

150.0mm

450.0mm

1350.0mm

3h/2

Effective cover to tensile steel

Effective depth

50

20

60mm

840mm

2
900 - 60
fcu
x
h = 900

d = 840
60
b=

Assumed depth of N.A

1000
=

243.00mm

SAFE

KLESCET Consultants

0%

Abutment Design

K1

= b.x

1,000 x 243

243000sq.mm

To determine the centroid of stressed area


K1.x + e.As.d + (e-1) A's.d'
1/2
x
=
K1 + e.As + (e-1)A's
0.50x243,000x243 + 10x3,770x840 + (10x1.5-1)x679x60

= 212.83mm

243,000 + 10x3,770 +1.5x(10-1)x679

e-x

1-

2d

1-

d'

243

1-

2x840

840

3d

(e - 1)

2,067.25 - 212.83

(10x1.5-1) x

1-

243
3x840
60
243

Compressive stress in concrete


Nd.1
Fcs

2.b.d + 3.A's.

1-

274.08
=

d'

1000

0.131x1,000x840 + 10.543x679x

d
x

3.208
1-

60
840

= 7.551Mpa

FC

Nd
bx+eAs+(e-1)A'S
274.08x 1000
1000x243+10x3,769.91+(10-1)678.58
274077.95
286806.37

= 0.956Mpa
Fcs max

( Fcs + FC )

7.55

0.96

8.51MPa

>

8.33Mpa

UNSAFE

KLESCET Consultants

= 3.208

= 0.131

= 10.543

Abutment Design

Calculation of Tensile stress in steel


Permissible tensile stress in steel
=
fcs (0.5 K1 + b3 A's) - Nd
fst
=
As
=

200.00Mpa

7.551x (0.5x243,000 + 10.543x679) - 274

1000

3769.9111843078

= 184.992Mpa
fst max = ( fst + Fc )
184.99

= 184.04MPa

0.96

<

200.00Mpa

SAFE
Check for the depth of Neutral Axis:
Actual depth of Neutral Axis based on the stress level in concrete and steel and the effective depth is calculated from the
formula
d
xa

1+

840
fst

e.fcs

% error is assumed N.A

184.99

1+

243.49mm

10x7.55
243.49 - 243.00

243.49

100

0.20%

<

5 %

SAFE

CHECK FOR MINIMUM REINFORCEMANT IN THE SECTION :


The length of column
Min. radius of gyration

Effective length factor

6250.0mm

sqrt(I/A)

sqrt[(1,000x900^3) / (12x900x1,000)]

259.8mm

1.75

(Refer IRC:21-2000, Cl.306.1, Table 13)


leff

Effective length

=
leff/r =

Slenderness ratio,

Min. steel in pedestal

1.75 x 6,250

42.10

0.30%

(Refer IRC:21-2000, Cl.306.2.2, Pg.No.59)

20 f

Actual area of steel provided

180 c/c +

10937.5mm
SHORT COLUMN

of gross area

0.30 x 1,000 x 900


=

(Ast + Asc)(

10,937.50 / 259.81

12 f

2700sq.mm

180 c/c )

= 3769.91118431
>

100

678.58401 =

2700sq.mm

KLESCET Consultants

SAFE

4448sq.mm

Abutment Design

SEISMIC COEFFICIENT
Seismic coefficient is calculated as per provisions made in IRC 6 - 2010, IS 1893 - 1984 and IITK
guidelines.
Soil type
=
Medium soil
Zone number
=
V
Zone factor
Z
=
0.36
(Refer IRC 6 -2010, Table 6, Pg.No.47)
Importance factor
I
=
1.20
(Refer IRC 6 -2010, Table 7, Pg.No.51)
Reduction factor
R
=
2.50
(Refer IRC 6 -2010, Table 8, Pg.No.52)
CALCULATION OF TIME PERIOD
(Refer IRC 6 -2000, Appendix - 2, Pg.No.61)
T
=
2D/(1000F)
Where,
T
=
Fundamental period of the pier/abutment in secs for horizontal vibrations
D
=
Appropriate dead load of the superstructure and live load in kN
Horizontal force in kN required to be applied at the centre of mass of
superstructure for one mm deflection at the top of the pier/abutment
F
=
along the considered direction of horizontal force.
=
=
=
=
=

Grade of concrete
Dead Load
Live load
Self Weight of Abutment
Total ( w )

25
394.36
494.83
983.87
1873.07

kN
kN
kN
kN

Height of abutment

5425 mm

Breadth of abutment

8200 mm

Thickness of abutment wall

750 mm

Young's Modulus

5000Fck

25000

(B x t3 / 12)

Moment of inertia

Igr

KLESCET Consultants

N/mm2

8200 x 4.22E+08
12

Abutment Design

=
T=2W/(1000F)
FL3 / 3EI
F

3EI/L3

x25000.00 x2.88E+11

1.60E+011

135.418635 kN

0.235 Sec

Sa /g
=
2.50
( Refer IRC:6-2010, Cl.219.5.1, Pg.No.50)
Design horizontal seismic coefficient
Z I Sa
Ah
=
2Rg
=
=

(0.36x1.2x2.5)
2x2.5
0.216

Av is taken as (1/2)Ah as per IS: 1893: 1984


Av

0.108

KLESCET Consultants

2.88E+11 mm4

Abutment Design

For

8.20 m carrigeway

Seismic force at
bearing level

0.216 x 394.36

=
Longitudinal
moment upto
footing top level

85.18 kN

85.18

Longitudinal
moment upto
footing bottom
level

6.325

538.77 kN-m

85.18

7.225

615.44 kN-m

Per running meter carriage way


Seismic force at
bearing level

10.39 kN/m

Longitudinal
moment upto
footing top level

65.70 kN/m

Longitudinal
moment upto
footing bottom
level

75.05 kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

Abutment Design

DESIGN OF FOOTING
Abutment hight above footing
Unit weight of soil
Unit weight of concrete

=
=
=

1.5

6.3 m
18.0 kN/m3
25.0 kN/m3

1.0

3.2

A
0.9

0.9

0.9
5.6
65.319 kN/m2

141.916 kN/m2
85.836 kN/m2
99.514 kN/m2
Upward pressure diagram
112.5 kN/
11.655kN/

22.5 kN/

mm

22.5 kN/

mm

Downward pressure diagram

Design of toe slab


Outstand w.r.t face of Column
Design Bending Moment at face of support

dreqd.

Overall depth provided


Clear Cover
Diameter of bar
Half dia. of Bar
Effective depth provided

=
=

3.2
m
144.73 +
509.51
triangle
rectangle

539.05

(M /Q.b)

115.20
rectangle

kN-m/m

539.05 x 1000000
1.11 x
1000

=
=
=
=
=
=

698.34
900.00
75.00
25
12.50
812.50

539.05 x
0.902 x

3677.8

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

> dreq

SAFE
Are of Steel Required

Ast
Spacing required
Spacing provided

=
=

1000000
200 x

812.50

mm2

133
120 mm

Provide 25mm dia bars @120mm C/C


Total Steel Provided =

4090.62

mm2/m

KLESCET Consultants

SAFE

Abutment Design

Check for shear stress


Shear is critical @ distance 'd' from face of support
Centre line of abutment
critcal section
0.8125

2.3875

99.51

141.916

kN/m2

kN/m

110.280 kN/m2
3.2
Shear Force across the
critical section

37.77

triangle

Developed Shear Stress

247.34

V
bd

=
=
100 As

bd

53.72

rectangle

rectangle

kN/m

247.34 x 1000
1000
x 812.50
0.30

N/mm2

4090.62 xx
1000 x

263.3

0.50

100
812.50

Permissible Shear Stress


(Refer IRC:21 -2000,Cl.304.7.1.3.3, Table 12B, Pg.No. 37)
For 100 As/bd
0.50
0.75
Allowable Shear Stress, c=

0.311

MPa

c (Mpa)
0.31
0.37

>

SAFE

Design of heel slab


Outstand w.r.t face of Column
Design Bending Moment at the face of
support

1.5

126.56 +

13.11

8.74
7.69

KLESCET Consultants

73.48

Abutment Design

67.24

(M /Q.b)

67.24
1.11

246.64

Overall depth provided


Clear Cover
Diameter of bar
Half dia. of Bar
Effective depth provided

=
=
=
=
=

900.00
75.00

Are of Steel Required

67.24
0.902
j

Ast

456.22

Ast(min)

0.12%

1080

mm2/m

1080

mm2/m

dreqd.

Ast,required
Spacing required
Spacing provided

kN-m/m

x 1000000
1000
x

mm

mm
mm
16 mm
8.00
mm
817.00 mm

=
=

> dreq

SAFE

1000000
817
x 200 xx
st. stress
eff depth

mm2/m
900

< Ast(min)
x

1000

186
150 mm

Provide 16mm dia bars @150mm C/C


Total Steel Provided Ast,provided

1340.41

SAFE

mm2/m

Check for shear stress


Shear is critical @ face of support
critical section
1.5

65.32

kN/m2
85.8

kN/m2

1.5
Shear Force across the
critical section

168.75

89.13

+ 33.75
kN/m

KLESCET Consultants

113.37

Abutment Design

Developed Shear Stress

V
bd

89.13
1000

0.11

1000
817

x
x

N/mm2

(As per IRC: 21-2000, Table 12A)


100 As

bd

1340.41 x
1000 x
0.164

100
817

Permissible Shear Stress


(Refer IRC:21 -2000,Cl.304.7.1.3.3, Table 12B, Pg.No. 37)
For 100 As/bd

Allowable Shear Stress, c=

0.204

c (Mpa)

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.23

MPa

>

KLESCET Consultants

SAFE