You are on page 1of 4

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques Volume 1 Issue 1, 2015




R.Rajkamal, P.Rajenderan
M.Tech Research Scholar, Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib,
Punjab, India

The existing concept of virtualization provides increased system utilization via virtual infrastructure and promotes resource
sharing across an organization. To maximize the effective use of resources, cloud computing is used which uses service oriented architecture
infrastructure with on demand provisioning of software, platform and infrastructure as service. Dynamic service management is achieved by
implementing the cloud where dynamically scalable resources are provided as a service over the internet. This can be viewed as an
extension of grid computing, combined with utility computing and autonomic computing which helps an organization in converting the
capital expenditure into utility expenditure. This paper focuses on the basics of cloud computing technology.

Cloud computing is the use of computing
resources (hardware and software) that are
delivered as a service over a network (typically the
Internet). The name comes from the use of a cloudshaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex
infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud
computing entrusts remote services with a user's
data, software and computation.
There are many types of public cloud

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Platform as a service (PaaS)
Software as a service (SaaS)
Network as a service (NaaS)
Storage as a service (STaaS)
Security as a service (SECaaS)
Data as a service (DaaS)
Desktop as a service (DaaS - see above)
Database as a service (DBaaS)
Test environment as a service (TEaaS)
API as a service (APIaaS)
Backend as a service (BaaS)
Integrated development environment as a
service (IDEaaS)
Integration platform as a service (IPaaS),
see Cloud-based integration

In the business model using software as a service,

users are provided access to application software
and databases. The cloud providers manage the
infrastructure and platforms on which the
applications run. SaaS is sometimes referred to as

on-demand software and is usually priced on a

pay-per-use basis. SaaS providers generally price
applications using a subscription fee.Proponents
claim that the SaaS allows a business the potential
to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing
hardware and software maintenance and support to
the cloud provider. This enables the business to
reallocate IT operations costs away from
hardware/software spending and personnel
expenses, towards meeting other IT goals. In
addition, with applications hosted centrally,
updates can be released without the need for users
to install new software. One drawback of SaaS is
that the users' data are stored on the cloud
providers server. As a result, there could be
unauthorized access to the data.
End users access cloud-based applications through
a web browser or a light-weight desktop or mobile
app while the business software and user's data are
stored on servers at a remote location. Proponents
claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to
get their applications up and running faster, with
improved manageability and less maintenance, and
enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet
fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.The
origin of the term cloud computing is obscure, but
it appears to derive from the practice of using
drawings of stylized clouds to denote networks in
diagrams of computing and communications
systems. The word cloud is used as a metaphor for
the Internet, based on the standardized use of a
cloud-like shape to denote a network on telephony
schematics and later to depict the Internet in
computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the
underlying infrastructure it represents. The cloud

Page 1

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques Volume 1 Issue 1, 2015

symbol was used to represent the Internet as early
as 1994.

demand such that cloud user does not have to

allocate resources manually.

As computers became more prevalent, scientists

and technologists explored ways to make largelarge
scale computing power available to more users
through time sharing, experimenting with
algorithms to provide the optimal use of the
infrastructure, platform and applications with
prioritized access to the CPU and efficiency for the
end users. Cloud computing relies on sharing of
resources to achieve coherence and economies of
scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid)
over a network.

Software as a service (SaaS)

Service models
Cloud computing providers offer their services
according to three fundamental models:
infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a
service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS)
where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model
abstracts from the details of the lower models. In
2012 network as a service (NaaS) and
communication as a service (CaaS) were officially
included by ITU (International Telecommunication
Union) as part of the basic cloud computing
models, recognized service categories of a
centric cloud ecosystem.

In the SaaS model, cloud providers install and

operate application software in the cloud and cloud
users access the software from cloud clients. The
cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastruc
and platform on which the application is running.
This eliminates the need to install and run the
application on the cloud user's own computers
simplifying maintenance and support. What makes
a cloud application different from other
applications is its scalability.
Network as a service (NaaS)
A category of cloud services where the capability
provided to the cloud service user is to use
network/transport connectivity services and/or
cloud network connectivity services. Naas
involves the optimization
on of resource allocations by
considering network and computing resources as a
unified whole.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

In the most basic cloud-service
service model, providers of
IaaS offer computers - physical or (more often)
virtual machines - and other resources.
resources To deploy
their applications, cloud users install operating
operatingsystem images and their application software on the
cloud infrastructure. In this model, the cloud user
patches and maintains the operating systems and
the application
cation software. Cloud providers typically
bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis [citation
: cost reflects the amount of resources
allocated and consumed.
Platform as a service (PaaS)

Deployment models:

In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a

computing platform typically including operating
environment, database, and web server. Application
developers can develop and run their software
solutions on a cloud platform
orm without the cost and
complexity of buying and managing the underlying
hardware and software layers. With some PaaS
offers, the underlying computer and storage
resources scale automatically to match application


Public cloud
Public cloud applications, storage, and other
resources are made available to the general public
by a service provider. These services are free or
offered on a pay-per-use
use model. Generally, public
cloud service providers like Amazon AWS,
Microsoft and Google own and operate the
infrastructure and offer access only via Internet
(direct connectivity is not offered).

Page 2

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques Volume 1 Issue 1, 2015

Community cloud
Community cloud shares infrastructure between
several organizations from a specific community
with common concerns (security, compliance,
jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or
by a third-party
party and hosted internally or externally.
The costs aree spread over fewer users than a public
cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some
of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are
Hybrid cloud :


Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more

clouds (private, community or public) that
tha remain
unique entities but are bound together, offering the
benefits of multiple deployment models.

Cloud architecture,, the systems architecture of the

software systems involved in the delivery of cloud
computing, typically involves multiple cloud
components communicating with each other over a
loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging
queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the
use of tight or loose coupling as applied to
mechanisms such as these and others.

By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture, companies

and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault
tolerance combined with locally immediate
y without dependency on internet
connectivity. Hybrid cloud architecture requires
both on-premises resources and off-site
site (remote)
server-based cloud infrastructure.
Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility, security and
certainty of in-house
house applications. Hybrid
Hybri cloud
provides the flexibility of in house applications
with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud
based services.
Private cloud
Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely
for a single organization, whether managed
internally or by a third-party
party and hosted internally
or externally. Undertaking a private cloud project
requires a significant level and degree of
engagement to virtualize the business environment,
and it will require the organization to reevaluate
decisions about existing resources.
ources. When it is done
right, it can have a positive impact on a business,
but every one of the steps in the project raises
security issues that must be addressed in order to
avoid serious vulnerabilities.

The Intercloud
Main article: Intercloud
The Intercloud is an interconnected global cloud
of clouds and an extension of the Internet
"network of networks"" on which it is based.
Cloud engineering
Cloud engineering is the application of
engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It
brings a systematic approach to the high
concerns of commercialization, standardisation,
and governance in conceiving, de
operating and maintaining cloud computing
systems. It is a multidisciplinary method
encompassing contributions from diverse areas
such as systems, software, web, performance,
information, security, platform, risk, and quality

They have attracted criticism because users "still

have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do
not benefit from less hands-on
on management,
essentially "[lacking] the economic model that
makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept.

Hassan, Qusay (2011). "Demystifying Cloud

Computing". The Journal of Defense Software
Engineering (CrossTalk) 2011 (Jan/Feb): 16
Retrieved11 December 2014.


"The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing".

National Institute of Standards and Technology
Retrieved 24 July 2011.


Page 3

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques Volume 1 Issue 1, 2015


What is Cloud Computing?". Amazon Web Services.

2013-03-19. Retrieved 2013-03-20.


"Baburajan, Rajani, "The Rising Cloud Storage

Market Opportunity Strengthens Vendors,"
infoTECH, August 24, 2011". 201108-24. Retrieved2011-12-02.


Oestreich, Ken, (2010-11-15). "Converged

Infrastructure". CTO Forum.
Retrieved 2011-12-02.


Where's The Rub: Cloud Computing's Hidden

Costs". 2014-02-27. Retrieved2014-07-14.


"Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds". The

Economist. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-11-03.


"Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As

Influential As E-business". Gartner. Retrieved 201008-22.


Gruman, Galen (2008-04-07). "What cloud

computing really means. InfoWorld.
Retrieved 2009-06-02.

10. "The economy is flat so why are financials Cloud

vendors growing at more than 90 percent per
annum?". FSN. March 5, 2013.
11. Hongji Yang, Xiaodong (2012). "9". Software reuse
in the emerging cloud computing era. Hershey, PA:
Information Science
12. "A network 70 is shown schematically as a cloud",
US Patent 5,485,455, column 17, line 22, filed Jan
28, 1994
13. Figure 1, "the cloud indicated at 49 in Fig. 1.", US
Patent 5,790,548, column 5 line 5657, filed April
18, 1996
14. Antonio Regalado (31 October 2011). "Who Coined
'Cloud Computing'?".Technology Review (MIT).
Retrieved 31 July 2013.
15. Announcing





(Amazon EC2)


Page 4