You are on page 1of 51

Mycomedicinals :

bioactive constituents, biosystemic effects and treatment applications


LightningIce, Feb, 2015

Abstract

Mycomedicinals such as Inonotus Obliquus, Agaricus Brasiliensis, Agaricus bisporus, Cordyceps


sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Hericium Erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula
edodes and Tremella fuciformis have been investigated in a number of studies and found to be able
to balance systemic imbalances as well as exerting high effectiveness and efficacy in the
improvements of a variety of ailments such as immune system enhancements, stimuli and
regulations; diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus < hiv >, human papillomavirus < hpv >, herpes
simplex virus < hsv >,neuroregenerations, epilepsy, neurodegenerations, cerebral strokes, ischemia,
cancers, high blood pressures, overall health restorations while functioning as an antioxidant, with
radioprotective effects, an antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungi, antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory.
Some of their biochemical components along with the various ailments they are able to attenuate are
further discussed.
Introduction
On earth there are about i.v million known mushroom species, only x % of these fungi have been
explored and some of their medical properties elucidated. So far, it has been discovered that about
650 of these are mycomedicinals, with none or low toxicities, exerting positive health effects upon
the biosystem along with functioning effectively to attenuate a variety of health ailments and
systemic dysfunctions.
All aspects of the ailments they can treat, along with the exact mechanisms and bioconstituents have
yet to be fully explored, as well as the many other species of which their medical potentials and
disease curatives are still unknown and remain yet to be discovered. It is most interesting to explore
these mushrooms and their various medicinal healing effects upon the biosystem.
With molecular compositions often analyzed, isolated, identified, characterized and studied, it has
been discovered that many mushrooms contain moieties, some unique to specific mushroom species,
that are cancer targeting specific; such as their polysaccharides, glucans and ergosterols.
Cancers disrupt the entire biosystem, hijacking blood, oxygen and glucose from regional cells and
tissue, along with exerting excessive pressures upon them and disrupting the intravascular, overall
internal systemic pressures essential for regulating basal essential functions such as dilatations /
constrictions of vessels / airways, determining the size of inner vessel diameters which affect the
volumes and rates of fluids that can transverse through, along with affecting their viabilities ad
resilience as slowed transport of solute dense fluids would results in damages to these fragile vessels
i

or increased reabsorptions which would be hazardous to systemic biochemistry, likewise excessively


fast transportations of solute dense liquids could also result in abrasions upon these delicate inner
endothelia cells of the vessel ways thus disrupting this precarious balance of fluid mobilities; aiding
in the compressions / relaxations necessary for mobilities / motilities to occur, or organ compartment
pressures that is essential for cell / tissue and organ developments, locational placement
maintenance, viabilities and functions, while direct pressures placed upon organ structures or parts
of it would result in serious damages to cells and specific functions especially if particular locations
carrying out these functions are affected, along with hindering, disrupting and occluding the overall
mobilities and pathways of the fluids / secretions < blood / lymph / cerebrospinal fluids etc >
circulating within.
Intrasystemic pressure, beautifully created by the outer confines of tightly bound skin is so
important for an organisms viability which is also the precise reason why incisions must never be
made upon an intact system, once perforations reach a certain depth which disrupts this precarious
internal pressure that sustains everything perfectly in place, systemic imbalances would result.
Cancers also kills essential healthy cells via causing them to undergo atrophy / lysis from starvations,
destructions and severe damages from cancerous toxins that these cancer cells secrete, along with
proteolytic enzymes that cause the break down of membranes and proteins that cancers utilize to
carry on their metastasis and extravasations throughout the vessel networks, leeching upon
vasculatures of other healthy cells / tissue within the organ systems. Once systemically compatible
cells and tissues are destroyed, the functions and structures of the organs afflicted are also gone,
whereas cancerous cells just keep multiplying with uncontrolled growth and propagating their
mutated genes, destroying viable healthy systemic cells while not carrying out any of the functions
required for the biosystem to be healthy or cohesively functional with all organ parts running in
perfect synchrony for viability of an organism to occur. They cause mass aggregates of obstructions,
coagulations and blockages as well these can be extremely hazardous by itself especially when major
vasculatures are occluded leading to hypoxia, ischemia or strokes within cardiac, brain or organ
tissue due to these downstream hindrances. As such many ailments, diseases and other
complications arise once cancerous transformations occur.
Eventually cells, tissues and organs of the entity affected die off or cease to function and as the
biosystem starts to wan, mortality is a possibility, normally predefined by remaining life span
durations based upon the extend of spread and organs involved, along with the stage and types of
cancers. As the system dies off, the cancers cease to be viable as well thus necrotic lesions and
vacuoles start to appear within their disorganized angiogenic networks and mutated unstructured
cellular masses of uncontrolled growths.
Direct pressure exerted upon these cancerous mass can cause them to undergo lysis, so can
prevention of their angiogenic formations, or transforming them back to normal cells, if progenitor
cell types are cancerous such as in leukemia, reverting them to differentiate into cells of a different
lineage; however the exact mechanism to terminate them once they are formed from cellular
mutations or growth cycle pathways dysfunctions or dysregulations, as instantaneous, efficiently or
effectively as viruses can be killed, has yet to be elucidated. It remains as perplexing a question as
wondering how prion mediated misfolded proteins can be reverted to systemically compatible
conformations or how misfolded tangles in ailments such as Alzheimer's disease can be
instantaneously eliminated and totally cleansed out from the cerebral system before they can even
ii

cause neuronal damages, apart from with intakes of brain detoxifying herbs which involves a long
term duration and is a lengthly process, or upregulations of systemic misfolded protein clearance
pathways with increased intakes of hydroxy-DHA < Torres, et al, 2015 >. As such, cancer remains
as one of the major causes of suffering, morbidity and mortality in many countries.
Mycomedicinals are effective in their curatives as they function to prevent many of cancers
intravasations, extravasations, angiogenesis and destruction against the biosystem such as through
invasions, metastasis, penetrations, and most importantly alongside the anticancer mechanisms, they
also mediate immune enhancements, immune system regulations, myeloid progenitor
differentiations, maturations and upregulations. Some of the mycomedicinals discussed have been
extensively studied in these antitumor mechanisms, functions and aspects.
Medicinal mushrooms : antitumor with effectiveness and efficacy against diseases.
Kabanoanatake, Inonotus Obliquus
Description
Common names include : Chaga and Birch Mushroom. Found growing in cold, northern regions of
the Boreal forests of Alaska, Finland, Poland, Siberia, Western Siberia, the Baltic, Eastern Europe,
Scandinavia, North America and within the Northern Taiga forests of Russia. Growth occurs upon
trunks of alder or beech, while medicinal mushrooms are only harvested from these mycelium and
fruiting bodies that bloom upon trunks of birch trees. Each only found growing on birch trees some
distance apart from the next. Only about a single woody conk of this mushroom is found growing
wild lodged within trunks of these birches, found upon a single tree out of every thousand birches.
Heights of iv to v feet in length, about x pounds and above in weight. Bears a sweet flavor and is
tumor shape in resemblance. Gnarled surface is hard, dark, cracked and charred, with an interior
cork in shades of yellow to brown tones, these have veins in shades of cream and are striated.
Bioactive constituents
Contains polyphenols, ergosterols, glucans, proteins, amino acids, minerals, ash, vitamins,
carbohydrates and fats.
Functions
Medicinal properties include antioxidative with high o ii anion scavenging activities< Nakajima et al,
2007 >, antinociceptive, being a very strong antitumor, tumor mitosis inhibitor, anti-inflammatory,
immunomodulating, upregulates the immune system increasing their activities and migrations
towards tumor locations, antiviral as it has been found to inhibited influenza and HIV type i
protease, along with being hepatoprotective.
Ailments applications
Harvested and effective in treatments of Hodgkins disease, cancers of pulmonary, lip, skin, breast,
gastric, stomach, parotid glands and rectal regions, tuberculosis, cardiac ailments, ulcers, gastritis,
iii

liver disease, stomach, intestinal disorders, stomachache, and parasitic removals. Also effective as a
pain reliever, tonic and blood purifier, as well as functioning as an internal and external cleanser.
In accordance to traditional chinese medicine, this mushroom functions to remove harmful wind,
smooths the flow of internal qi energy while strengthening the spirit and mind.
Himematsutake, Kawariharatake, Agaricus Brasiliensis
Description
Common names include : Cogumelo Piedade and Sun mushroom. Blooming well within sultry,
humid climates, wet with daily tropical rains; in regions such as Japan, Southeastern United States,
South America and Piedade, near Sao Paulo, Brazil. Growth occurs within lignicolous debris high
soils, alpine meadows, rain forests, mixed woods, deciduous and conifer forest, along forest edges,
and upon sandy salty seashores.
Mildly sweet in flavor it has a fleshy and convex shape, equal in hard and short stalk lengths and
golden brown vii ii cm wide cap diameter. Smooth basidiospores are small and dark brown about
v x iv m in size. They contain fruiting bodies that are large with a pileus in shades of white, yellow
or brown along with pink free lamellae that turn brown with the years.
Bioactive constituents
High in proteins, essential amino acids : alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic; steroids, ergosterol,
polyphenoloxidase < Matsumoto-Akanuma, et al, 2011 >, minerals : magnesium, phosphorous,
potassium; fibers, sodium pyruvate, sodium glutamate, laccase, ash, antitumor polysaccharides <
Mizuno, et al, 1990 >, high quantums of glucans, lectins, vitamins : B i, B ii, niacin, sugars :
glucose, arabitol, mannitol, fructose, trehalose and carbohydrates along with containing key
digestive enzymes : protease, amylase and trypsin.
Functions
Found to be immune enhancing, immunomodulatory, antioxidative, antiallergic, anticancer,
antimutagenic and antiangiogenisis. They contain quantums of beta glucan polysaccharides which
upregulates and stimulates NK, macrophages and T-cells, along with upregulating immunocyte
recruiting cytokines such as secretory lymphokines, and interleukin i and ii; ergosterol which
inhibits neovascularization and angiogenesis thus inhibiting further tumor growths and
developments, metastasis and their subsequent emergence or further reoccurrences.
Ailment applications
Medicinally effective in treatments such as HIV, hepatitis, bacterial septicemia, alopecia,
hepatoprotective effects thus preventing liver toxicity, reduce blood pressure, hyperlipidemia,
lowering of cholesterol during states of hypercholesterolemia, aids in reversal of arteriosclerosis,
rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, systemic lupus, atopic dermatitis and dermatitis.
It is effective against countering the effects of excessive physical and emotional stress, osteoporosis,
iv

peptic ulcer, polio, malignant ulcers of the larynx, Ehrlichs ascites carcinoma, sigmoid colon cancer,
ovarian cancer, breast cancer, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. Protects against radiation and
chemotherapy effects.
Traditional chinese medicinal properties include it as being of neutral temperature.
Agaricus bisporus
Description
Also known as the : White Button Mushroom. Temperatures between xxii xxv C is the optimal
growth climate as growth is inhibited at high temperatures of xxxv C and above. Growing wild in
grasslands of Pennsylvania, most regions of United States of America, Europe and India.
Basidiomycetes that are edible, common in American and Italian cuisine these are small, short with a
cylindrical vi cm stem, stout and about ii- iv inches in overall diameter. They are white, fleshy and
resemble little buttons in appearance. Ranging in shades from white to light brown tones. Consisting
of a pale grey to brown shades of button caps with radiating narrow gills beneath. Crowded gill
shades change with the years, from a pretty pink hue at initial blossoming they progress to shades of
reds and brown tones before finally turning white at the edges and darkish brown in colors.
Consisting of many tiny iv.v v.v x v vii.v m, ovoidal to roundish spores producing prints of dark
brown tones.
Bioactive constituents
Nutritionally these are low in calories and fat, containing essential vitamins such as provitamin d ii,
vitamin c, phenols < Mami, ei al, 2013 > high in antioxidants with high superoxide free radicals
savaging actions, glucans, ergosterol, vitamin D, lypopolysaccharides, exopolysaccharides <
Mahapatra, et al, 2013 >, glycoproteins, phenols, proteins, high antioxidative falvonoids,
fucogalactans, fucomannogalactans, mannogalactans, sodium, phosphorus, essential vitamins,
potassium, and minerals, pyrocatechol, conjugated linoleic acid, protocatechuic acid and 2aminophenoxazine-3-1.
Functions
Found effective as an antioxidant with high ferrous ion chelations and superoxide scavenging
abilities < Babu, et al, 2013 >, effective against cancers as they consist of aromatase inhibitors,
antiestrogenic factors, antiproliferative Gal 13GalNAc , along with immunostimulating,
immunomodulating and dendritic cell enhancing functions, upregulations of lymphocytes, T cells,
NK cells, B cells, increases cytokines : interleukin < IL >ii, x, xii, TNF and interferon gamma
expressions, enhances differentiation of monocytic THP-cells into functional macrophages,
enhances phagocytosis and is an effective anti hepatic steatosis.
Ailment applications
Medicinal properties include treatments for facilitating blood clotting as they enhance
v

hemagglutination, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis and sepsis due to
their anti inflammatory heterogalactan effects, as a mild analgesic due to antinociceptive effects,
against cancers mainly of the breast and in hepatocellular carcinomas as they contain d glucans
that are cytotoxic towards these cancerous hepatocytes and anti viral, antifungal and antimicrobial
action against pathogenic bacteria infections such as Staphylococcus aureus.
Tochucaso, Cordyceps sinensis
Description
Common name : Caterpillar Mushroom. Growth occurs at high altitudes within cold alpine habitats
with low oxygen and temperatures. Endoparasitoids whereby parasitic growth occurs upon the
backs of Lepidoptera ghost moth larvae in the form of threadlike hyphae after spreads from spores.
After winter v years later, perithecial stroma then emerges from the soil after the host is lysed and it
is this portion that contains most of the medicinal properties. However due to the nature of its
growth and uncertain locations of emergence, most medicinal fungi of this variety are lab cultivated
by mycelial fermentation. Commonly found naturally occurring in cold mountains of Tibet,
Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of asia.
Ascomycete fungi are long and orange brown, some are straight others are curved. Has a thicker
stem like base tubular endosclerotium portion and a slimmer dark brown iv x cm upper long and
slim fusiform, clavate or sublanceolate stroma portion. Granular fertile head of the stroma contains
ordinally arranged ostioles of the embedded ovoid perithecia. Growth of these fungi species occurs
by disseminations of their spores, some land upon the month larvae they prey upon while others are
ingested when the larvae feed upon the fungi. Subattenuated at each end portion, these
multiseptate, hyaline, filiform ascospores are tiny with lengths of just about v - xii m.
Bioactive constituents
Containing antioxidants, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, ergosterol, vitamins E, K, B i, B ii, B xii
along with trace elements of iron, copper, antitumor selenium, aluminum, titanium, magnesium,
calcium, sodium, potassium, manganese, chromium, silicon, nickle < Holliday, et al, 2008 > and ash.
Bioactive components include polysaccharides such as H2O2 preventive antioxidative CME-i <
Wang, et al, 2011>, cordycepin which prevents senescence from genotoxicity < Gu, et al, 2013 >,
cordycepic acid < Lee, et al, 2012 >, polysaccharides ergosterol, adenosine, guanosine, adenine,
uridine, hypoxanthine, mannitol and uracil.
Functions
Effective as an analgesic, strong antioxidant with free radical scavenging effect, antioxidative which
aids in alleviating free radical induced stressors from hypoxic conditions < Singh, et al, 2013 >, while
preventing cells from undergoing apoptosis as the free radicals are downregulated along with
apoptotic genes thus decreasing the pro apoptotic signals and keeping cells viable during states of
hypoxia or ischemia < Buenz, et al, 2005 >; immune modulator, anticytotoxic activity, antitumor
activity, metastasis inhibition, tumor antiproliferation < Ko, et al, 2013 >, cytotoxic activity <
Matsuda, et al, 2009 >, inhibits proliferations of glomerular mesangials, antiproliferation activity, cell
vi

proliferation inhibition, gene expression inhibition, hemolysis inhibitory activity, lipid peroxide
formation inhibition, natural killer cell inhibition and tumor necrosis factor inhibition and as an antiinflammatory.
As it balances the immune system during an immunocompromised state, upregulations of the
immune system can also occur as it can upregulate and stimulates macrophages < Koh, et al, 2002 >,
enhances monocyte maturations, upregulates and activates immature dendritic cells < Li, et al, 2009
> while increasing their phagocytic activities < Khan, et al, 2010 > and synthesis of interferons TNF
, IL i , IL vi, and IL xii p70.
Ailment applications
Medicinal properties include upregulations of ATP productions along with increasing stamina <
Herda, et al, 2008 > thus aiding in sports and weakness after long periods of chronic ailments, aids
also in cachexia conditions of cancers; erectile dysfunctions, lifespan extensions < Panda, et al, 2010
>, respiratory disorders, lowering cholesterol, obesity as cordycepin inhibits the accumulations /
formations of adipocytes < Takahashi, et al, 2012 > strengthening the kidneys and liver, renal cell
protective while aiding in attenuating chronic kidney disease < Zhong, et al, 2011 >, nephropathy <
Zhao, et al, 2013 >, hepatocyte protection, cerebral ischemia prevention < Liu, et al, 2010 >, reduces
cerebral reperfusion injury, improves cerebralvasculature, improves cardiovascular, diabetes as it
regulates insulin sensitivity, cancer preventive and curative, steroidogenesis modulator,
upregulations of xvii - estradiol and aromatase < Huang, et al, 2004 >, reducing high plasma
cholesterol, inhibits excessive clot formations, as a tonic, hypotensive, vasorelaxant, anti
inflammatory < Shin, et al, 2009 >, rheumatoid arthritis < Noh, et al, 2009 >, leukopenia < Liu, et al,
2008 > and enhancing the immune system. Effective against pathogens and clears them from the
system due to it's antiviral, antibacterial, larvicidal and antifungal actions.
Traditional chinese medicine < tcm > has been using this mushroom for many years, it is classified as
sweet and warm, beneficial to the kidney and lung meridians while strengthening to the yang aspect
while it nourishes the yin. Apart from the treatment of diseases and ailments, it also helps in the
restoration of vitality during illness, fatigue < Koh, et al, 2003 > and exhaustion.
Kawaratake, Coriolus versicolor
Description
Common names : Trametes versicolor and Turkey Tail mushroom. Growth occurs often during
winter, is favored upon wooden stumps, branches, logs and dead or rotting logs, often growing wild
within woods and forest on trees such as the White Pine and Birch. Found in deciduous, hardwood
tree zones within regions of Europe, North America, Northern Hemisphere and china.
A Basidiomycotina species and an obligate aerobe with a velvety texture. Appearance resembles that
of a ball of puff, turkey's tail or the cerebral structure. Dark brown in color with white, wavy rims, i
iii mm thick, fleshy and rough, growing in a concentrated and compact turf of tiers. Some fruiting
bodies grow singly and appear like flat viii x v x 0.v i roundish, semi circular, ovoidal or triangular,
thin seashells.

vii

Apical portion has a variety of color tones ranging from shades of red, rust, yellow, green, gray hues
of light to dark brown and appearing in concentric ring regions. Very thin and fine hairs coat certain
parts of the mushroom. While many round pores in white and shades of faint brown hues appear at
about a frequency of ii v pores / mm, their spore sprints are in shades of white. Reproduction is
carried out by wind disseminations of fine white, cylindrical or oblong tiny iv vi x ii ii.v m
spores.
Bioactive constituents
Contains glucose, galactose, frucose, xylose, rhamnose and mannose along with the essential amino
acids valine, leucine, serine, glycine, threonine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Along with
species unique immunomodulating, anti cancer, antimetastatic and carcinogen preventive <
Kobayashi, et al, 1995 > polysaccharide krestin < PSK > < Kim, et al, 2013 >, polysaccharide K,
verisicolor polysaccharide, tumor growth and prolieferation inhibiting polysaccharopeptide < PSP >
< Brown, et al, 2012 >, immunopotentiating polysaccharopeptides < Cui, et al, 2003 >, beta-1,4glucan and polysaccharide peptide.
Functions
This polypore mushroom has been found to upregulate and stimulate the immune system < Chu, et
al, 2002 > and complement cascade, enhancing both the innate and adaptive immune systems,
upregulating NK, T, B cells, monocytes and macrophages, increasing IL I < Spelman, et al, 2006 >,
IL 2, 6, TNF alpha synthesis, upregulate synthesis and expressions of cytokines, interferons, Ig G,
inhibit tumor growths, prevents angiogenesis, suppresses oncogenes, inhibit metastasis through
preventing the process of cellular adhesion, migration and invasion, both intravasation and
extravasation, inhibits matrix metalloproteinases for preservation of cellular matrix integrity and
enhance apoptosis of transformed cells.
Increasing hypothalamus mediobasal neurons discharge frequencies mediated by polysaccharide
peptides < Guang-Di, et al, 1996 >, protective towards hepatocytes, it also has strong antioxidative
effects as it reduces cerebral lipid peroxidation and eliminates free radicals such as nitric oxide,
while preventing neuronal apoptosis brought about by neurotoxic nitric oxide bursts during
neurodegenerations < Kim, et al, 2011 >, along with upregulating productions of free radical
scavengers superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase < Chen, et al, 2013 > while preventing
superoxide anions from forming < Kim, et al, 1999 >.
Ailment applications
Medical properties include treatments of cerebral ischemia, cerebral hypoxia, dysfunctions in
cerebral electrical activity at hypothalamic region affecting estrogen regulations, energy or appetite
control, increasing of appetite, endurance, energy, strength and stamina, improves chronic fatigue
syndrome, cardiac ischemia, pulmonary disorders, liver disorders, phlegm, impetigo, neoblastoma,
colorectal and gastric cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, sarcoma increasing chemotherapy
effectiveness; decreasing chemo / radiotherapy pain and side effects and prevents excessive clot
formations.
Effective as an antipathogen with antiviral actions against HIV type i, HPV, HSV i and ii, hepatitis,
viii

Epstein-Barr virus <EBV>, Coxsackie virus, Varicella-zoster virus, Barmah forest virus, influenza,
most viral infections, upper respiratory, digestive tract and urinary infections and antifungal against
ringworm.
Yamabushitake, Hericium Erinaceus
Description
Common names : Hedgehog Mushroom and Lion's Mane. Found in countries such as North
America, Japan, Korea and China. Shaped like a wing, resembling cerebral white matter tracks in
appearance with many beautiful, slim, long, cascading tendrils hanging down together from logs and
tree trunks. These slim, spike shaped spines are about i cm in lengths. Some spines grow together
forming a beautiful array of heart shaped wing structure, while other spines grow in accumulated
clusters of many of these feathers stacked and overlapping in clumps. Growth often occurs during
fall or the later months of summer season, appearing upon conifers or broadleaf hardwood trees or
such as it's favorite tree is the American Beech.
Bioactive constituents
Composed of high protein concentrations and moderate oxalate quantums. Bioactive components
include blood brain barrier permeable fruiting body's hericenones, terpenoids polysaccharides,
phenols, lectins, proteins and mycelium's erinacines H, I < Lee, et al, 2000 >. Along with
antioxidative D-arabinitol, threitol, heteropolysaccharide 1, 3, beta glucans, tetracosanic acid,
stearic acid, palmitic acid, behenic acid and a variety of other immunomodulating, T cell,
macrophages and dendritic cell enhancing along with increasing their synthesis and expressions of
cytokines IL 1 and TNF , < Khan, et al, 2013 > immunomodulating glucoxylan, heteroxyloglucan,
glucoxylan protein complexes and galactoxyloglucan protein complexes < Lindequist, et al, 2005 >;
anti cancer polysaccharides : 2hydroxymethyl5hydroxyethyl- pyranone, 4-chloro-3,5dimethoxybenzoic methyl ester, 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic-O-arabitol ester, 4-chloro-3,5dimethoxybenzoic acid and 6-methyl-2,5-dihydroxymethyl--pyranone.
Neuronal effects
Discovered to be blood brain barrier permeable and upregulates nerve growth factor < NGF >
secretions by glia cells within hippocampus through enhanced expressions of c-fos gene along with
upregulated phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase < JNK > pathway < Mori, et al, 2008 >.
NGFs are also upregulated by enhancing their mRNA expressions due to hericenones and
diterpenoid erinacines < Ma, et al, 2010 >. When cholinergic neuron enhancing NGF quantums are
high; neurite growths, neuronal synthesis, growth, differentiations and viability occur. When low,
diabetes, neurodegenerative ailments such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia and cardiovascular
complications result.
NGF synthesis are increased by astroglia and neurons at hippocampus and locus coeruleus;
increases the production of myelin, enhances nerve regenerations < Wong, et al, 2010 >, enhancing
neurite extensions, enhancing firing activities of hippocampal CA 3 mossy fibers, increases the
quantum of neurotransmitters synthesized, prevents amyloid plaque formations, attenuates
peripheral neurological dysfunctions, prevents apoptosis of cholinergic neurons while healing them.
ix

The high antioxidant activities protect the entire cerebral structure from oxidative stress induced
injuries as well such as neuronal apoptosis brought about by cerebral reperfusion injuries, reduction
of inflammatory interleukins, downregulates endoplasmic reticulum stress, preventing and healing
neuronal injuries brought about by strokes or ischemia. Erinacine is also a primary afferent neurons
-opioid receptor agonist, thus upon receptor activations, it decreases sensations of pain, functioning
as an analgesic, lowers mood perceptions, and exerts sedative effects of reduced consciousness and
motor control.
Functions
It has also been found to reduce toxicity from beta amyloid peptide accumulates in Alzheimer's
disease, Parkinson's disease < Kim, et al, 2014 >, improve cognitive disorders, speed up the wound
healing process, gastric mucosa ulcers < Wong, et al, 2013 > hypoglycemic effect aiding in
treatments of diabetes, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, hepatocyte protective, enhance
hemagglutinations, hypolipidemic, lowering of blood pressure as it inhibits angiotensin 1 converting
enzyme, strong antioxidant along with free radical scavenging, antimicrobial against Salmonella
spp , Shigella spp, Bacillus spp, Plesiomonas spp and Enterococcus spp.
Ailment applications
Medicinally effective in the treatments of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease,
declines in spatial memory, dysfunctions in visual recognition memory, cognitive impairments,
neurodegenerative conditions, depression, anxiety, peripheral nerve regeneration, stroke, ischemia <
Lee, et al, 2014 > ischemic reperfusion injuries, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular ailments,
thrombosis, aneurysms, high blood pressures, hypotension, anti inflammatory, liver disease, cancers,
imbalances of the immune system, dysfunctions in lipid metabolism, lowers triglycerides, lowers
cholesterol and in treatments of gastric ulcers.
Maitake, Grifola frondosa
Description
Common names : Dancing mushroom and Signorina mushroom. Found growing wild in countries
such as Northeastern Japan, North America, Italy, Europe and China. Often found in clusters
growing wild within northern temperate forest and woods upon oak tree at their bases, during the
seasons of autumn and fall. Other trees that they grow upon include conifers, pines, persimmon
trees, larch, beech, elm, chestnut, sycamore and maple. Growth has also been discovered along
roots, dead trees, logs and stumps.
A polypore, basidiomycete multiple-capped mushroom with i to iii pores per mm upon the decurrent
hymenium with an offset or indistinct curled or semi ovoidal top cap. It has a white spore print.
Cluster of fruiting bodies are big, growing till about 100 cm and weighing up to xx kg. Wave
marginated caps are about lengths of ii - vii cm.
Blooming in shades of light tan, tan, grey or brown these hues become darker if growth occurs
beneath direct sunlight, their curled edges are rimed in pure white with undersides appearing in
shades of white. Internal slim tubes beneath the caps point ground wards, their inner lengths are
x

about iii mm and are visible as fine pores upon surfaces, growing smaller, finer and more tapered
near the circumference edges. Creamy white axial stalks are branch like, rather short and non
visible from the top view when covered by waves of clustered caps, growing stronger and tougher
with the years.
Antioxidants
High in superoxide and free radicals scavenging, high reducing capacity, strong hydrogen donating,
hydrogen abstraction inhibition, metal-chelating, transition metal bindings, stimulations of chain
initiation, terminations of free radical chain reactions, peroxides decomposing antioxidants such as
ferrous ions chelating phenols, superoxide anion scavenging < Yeh, et al, 2011 > and heavy metal
chelating polyphenols gallate and BHT, antitumor, antibacterial, antihypertensive, antirheumatic,
antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory phenols, alpha tocopherol, beta carotene, free radical scavenging
ascorbic acid and transition metal chelating, free radical scavenging, glutathione and superoxide
dismutase antioxidant maintaing flavonoids.
Bioactive constituents
High in vitamins such as Niacin, B i, B ii, B iii, B vi, B xii, C, mushroom or fungi specific
ergosterol / provitamin D2, minerals magnesium, potassium, calcium, folic acid, unsaturated fatty
acids, phosphatidylserine and phospholipids, protein, protease Lys-N; insoluble, various amino
acids, cell wall rodlet forming and water surface tension lowering, hydrophobin HGFI < Yu, et al,
2008 > and proteopolysaccharides.
Consists of free radical scavenging and potent anti tumor polysaccharides, lectins with high binding
affinity towards cellular carbohydrates thus preventing tumors from forming cellular aggregations
and high fibers.
Other bioactive chemicals within include anti tumor grifolan, alpha glucosidase inhibitor, protein
stabilizing trehalose synthesis and phosphorylation mediating trehalose synthase < Saito, et al, 1998
>, mycelia and fruiting body derived, macrophage and T cells activating, tumor inhibiting, NK
secretions of TNF alpha expression upregulating, glucans exert high immunopotentiating and
immunomodulating effects, strong antitumor < Rajamahanty, et. al, 2009 >, NK and dendritic cell
upregulations, antibacterial and anti fungal effects these are contained within polysaccharide Dfraction < Kodama, et al, 2002 > : beta- 1,6 glucan and beta-1,3 glucan, purified and more potent
than it's carcinostatic D fraction precursor from which it is derived, studies have found D-fraction
to be effective in cancer regressions as well as in the antiproliferations and growth inhibitions along
with their subsequent declines in prostate cancer cell lines < Pyo, et al, 2008 >, MD-fraction :
soluble beta-<1,3> <1,6>-glucan, curdlan < Masuda, et al, 2011 >, X-fraction : beta- 1,6 glucan and
alpha-1,4 glucan, blood glucose regulating SX-fraction, inactivation of and inhibition of herpes
simplex virus type-1 replication : protein NH <2>-REQDNAPCGLN-COOH and neuroactive
MEK/ERK1/2 pathway stimulating lysophosphatidylethanolamine.
Neuronal effects
Discovered to increasing NGF upregulations within the central nervous system and peripheral
nervous systems which activate key cell signaling pathways : MEK/ERK i/ii and P xiii K/Akt
xi

stimulating branchings, neurite extension outgrowths and elongations through neuritogenesis <
Seow, et al, 2013 >, these mushroom extracts can also function as agonist, mediating bindings to the
same NGF tyrosine receptor : TrkA which initiates the neuritogenesis cascade pathway. If receptors
expressions were upregulated as well there would be a corresponding neuritogenesis increased
enhancements triggered by both NGF and mushroom extract bindings. Extracts also enhances
expressions of neuron specific proteins, is neuro protective, increasing neuronal survivals,
stimulating neuronal stem cell growths, developments and differentiations.
Functions
Studies have also found that maitake extracts especially their polysaccharides have the strongest
antitumor, antimetastasis < Masuda, et al, 2008 >, antiproliferative effect upon tumor cells, cancer
preventive and immunomodulatory activity as compared to other medicinal mushrooms. It enhances
both the innate and adaptive immune system, stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity,
initiates the complement cascade, regulates and modulates the immune system, upregulates
phagocytosis of monocytes and neutrophils, upregulating IgA expressions, increases cellular
proliferations of macrophages, monocytes, NK, T < Deng, et al, 2009 >, Tc, Th i, dendritic cells and
antigen presenting cells, increases ratios of Th / Ts cells, increases expressions of GM-CSFR,
upregulates lymphocyte and NK cell activities, enhances NK cell toxicity activations, potentiates Th
cell activities, enhances and upregulates granulopoiesis.
Maitake extracts have also been found to increases the production of cytokines by macrophages,
upregulates synthesis of antiviral, cell growth / differentiation regulating, dna fragmenting which aid
in downstream signaling cascades that regulate cell cycle pathways and antitumor interferons,
lymphokines and interleukins : macrophage activating INF gamma, stimulation of IL i secretions,
NK activating IL ii, IL vi, IL x, IL xii < Vetvicka, et al, 2014 > NK cell activating IL xii induction of
apoptosis in cancer cells; slows, declines and inhibits tumor growths and proliferations along with
initiating hemorrhagic tumor cell necrosis and tumor lysis by enhancements of NK's perforin
bindings, prevents metastasis through NK cell proliferations and suppression of cellular adhesion
mediating E-selectin and ICAM i expressions and angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth
factors inhibitions.
Extracts prevent the initial transformations of healthy cells to tumor subtypes, moderate
cyclooxygenase inhibitions, increases antiviral cytokine and macrophage activating TNF alpha < Yu,
et al, 2009 > and inhibits virus some of which are of the cancer initiating oncogenic variety.
Antiviral effects
MD fractions are effective against HIV while decreasing accompanying opportunistic infections in
patients, HSV-i as replications and viral penetrations are inhibited, along with inhibiting
accompanying HSV-i induced neovascularization, HSV i has also been implicated in the further
developments of Alzheimers disease in entities with the genetic predispositions, thus with these
extracts that can control and downregulate viral replications, the accompanying risk of developing
beta amyloid infiltrates characteristics of alzheimer's disease of which theses plagues have a common
protein sequence with HSV i < Fernandes, 2014 > is also lowered; stomal keratitis and blepharitis;
hepatitis B, influenza, hay fever, listeriosis and many various strains of viral induced infections.
Ailment applications
xii

Mycomedicinal treatments include increasing sensitivities of insulin, lowering of blood sugar levels
in diabetes, prevents formation of advanced glycosylation end < AGE > products < sugar
attachments to lipids / proteins > and their additional cross linkage accumulates with other proteins /
adipocytes / hemoglobin in diabetics with high adipocytes concentrates and high blood sugar which
is accompanied by increased quantums of reactive oxidative species and free radicals as well; further
exacerbating AGE formations.
AGE also coagulates the cardiac and kidney regions, inhibiting the proper filtrations of blood and
impairing kidney functions with excessive accumulates. Glycations can also circulate within the
vessels and arteries and may end up being loaded within the cerebral structure leading to ailments
such as impaired cerebral blood circulations, strokes, cerebral ischemias, neurofibrillary blockages
and tangles along with initiation of Alzheimers disease.
Thus when AGE complexes are inhibited from forming through blood sugar and adipocyte lowering
functions, these extracts can prevent occurrences of atherosclerotic plaque accumulates, glycations
coagulation of vasculature, vascular damages, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, fibrosis,
loss of cardiomyocyte and vascular muscle tones, hypertension, strokes, cerebral impairments,
increased oxidative stress, impaired smooth muscle relaxing of vessel walls by AGE inhibitions of
endothelium's nitric oxide or prematured agings as glycations tend to accumulate beneath the skin
forming lots of glycated cross linkages causing prematured wrinklings, due to skin's extensive
vasculature and capillary networks whereby they pass through interacting with the surrounding
structures.
Interactions of AGE and RAGE cell receptors also bring about an entire negative cascade of
ailments as they affect gene expressions and signaling pathways such as arterial stiffness, increasing
inflammations and mediation of cellular injuries, apoptosis, tissue damage and autoimmune
conditions. Thus extracts are also cellular protective in diabetics susceptible to high AGE quantums,
improving endothelial, vascular, arterial and cardiovascular conditions, structures and functions.
Pyridoxal-5-phosphate in vitamin B6 also aids in preventing AGE formations, DNA damages from
the free radicals generated by AGE, along with inhibitions of excessive platelet aggregations.
Effective in treatments of Alzheimers disease, dementia, neurodegenerations, stroke, cerebral
ischemia / hypoxia, cerebral reperfusion injuries, regenerations of injured neurons, immune
enhancements, cancer and the prevention of its recurrence; lessens the toxicity of chemotherapy
along with it's pain and various side effects, while increasing it's effectiveness against tumor
growths.
Effective in treatments of polycystic ovary syndrome as it induces and enhances ovulation, enhances
wellness and vitality, chronic fatigue syndrome, stress reductions, hypertension < Talpur, et al, 2002
> as it decreases and prevents high blood pressure, attenuates high cholesterol, hyperlipidemia,
decreases high vascular adipocyte accumulates; obesity as it increases lipid metabolisms, inhibits
triglycerides accumulations < Minamino, et al, 2008 > and inhibits transcription factor peroxisome
proliferator activated receptor gamma expressions, one of the regulators in the signaling cascade
thus preventing B2C1 pre white adipocytes from differentiating into matured, triglyceride storing
white adipocytes; fatty liver disease, hepatocyte protective for the treatments of liver ailments,
ulcerative colitis as it is improved by high -glucans concentrations, atherosclerosis < Mori, et al,
2008 >, improves the cardiovascular system, cardio protective from reductions in E-selectin thus
xiii

decreasing adhesive bindings of monocytes to aortic vascular surfaces < Martin, 2010> extracts also
reduces NF- b bindings thus inhibiting iNOS expressions along with inhibiting COX i and COX
ii, atherosclerosis, reduces chronic inflammatory conditions, overall cellular healing and necrosis
preventions of traumatized injured cells and tissue.
Mannentake, Rokkakushi, Reishi
Description
Common name : Ganoderma lucidum. Hot and humid subtropical regions favor growth. Growing
wild in the forest and woods of nature near surface soils or soils with buried roots beneath. Regions
of growth occur upon logs, deciduous trees trunks, stumps, dead wood and plants. Growth occurs
upon willow, magnolia, plum trees, elm, oak, locust, maple and sweet gum trees. Found in North
and South American, Europe, Japan, Korea and South China,
A polypore basidiomycetous with double walled basidiospores. Large, kidney-shaped, brilliant,
glossy, shiny thick walled pilocystidia embedded in an extracellular melanin matrix, dark brown to
brown soft and flat exterior with a cork-like woody, polysaccharide chitin containing outer wall that
is fibrous, tough and relatively hard in texture.
Its fruit is in a variety of hues such as shades of red white, blue/green, yellow, black and purple in
color. Some are shaped like hearts others have many lobes while some are more ovoidal.
There are six varieties classified by their various colors, white : Shiroshiba, hot in flavor improving
lungs and the various associated ailments; blue : Aoshiba, sour in taste it aids the eyesight, functions
as a nerve calming tonic and aids in liver dysfunctions; red : Akashiba, bitter in taste it enhances the
memory, improves vitality and internal organ health; yellow : Kishiba, sweet in flavor it enhances
spleen functions; black : Kuroshiba, salty in taste, it improves, enhances and protects the kidneys;
and purple : Murasakishiba, sweet in flavor it improves facial complexions and functions of joints,
musculatures and ears.
Neuroactive constituents
Neuroactive neurite growth enhancing and antioxidative triterpenoids include : methyl ganoderic
acid A, ganoderic acid Me, ganoderic acid S i, ganolucidic acid A, 7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z; 4,4,14trimethyl-5-chol-7,9-dien-3-oxo-24-oic acid and lucidenic acid.
Bioactive constituents
Contains high fiber, protein, immune system function stimulating and hemagglutination enhancing
lectins, carbohydrate, fat, ash, vitamins and minerals, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium,
manganese, iron, zinc, copper, strontium; immunopotentiating, antitumor, antioxidant and
antimutagenic germanium and vitamins A, B i, B ii, C, D.
High in lysine and leucine along with all essential amino acids, silica, sulfur, saponin, nucleosides: 5deoxy-5' methylsulfinylad-nosine, adenosine; laccase < Lyashenko, et al, 2011> and sodium.

xiv

Bioactive molecules include antioxidant, immunomodulating along with macrophage and dendritic
cell maturation initiating < Lin, et al, 2009 >, hepatoprotective, wound healing < Lin, et al, 2014 >
and immunosuppressive mycelia isolated peptide LZ-viii, fruiting body isolated antifungal
ganodermin protein, lipid-lowering and antioxidant terpenoids, triterpenoids < Ma, et al, 2011 >:
renal antioxidant defense upregulating and renal cell protective methanol, ganoderic acids A and B,
ganoderic acid C ii, C vi, D, F, G, H, J, K M i and antitumor, prostate cancer effective ganoderic
acid DM < Johnson, et al, 2014 >.
Functions
Ganoderic acids function as antitumor, antimetastasis < Radwan, et al, 2013 >, low-density
lipoproteins, blood pressure and triglyceride lowering : high tumor cytotoxicity, A which also
prevents tumor cell adhesion, migrations and subsequent invasions, AP 1 and NF-B transcription
factor inhibitions thus preventing urokinase type plasminogen activator secretions; B, AM i,
basophils histamine release inhibition, thus preventing excessive / chronic inflammations /
anaphylaxis reactions : C, C ii, C vi, direct tumor cytotoxicity and inhibitions of histamine release :
D; DM, E < Kikuchi, et al, 1986 >, F, G, H, I, J, K, L and antitumor T that inhibits both invasions
and metastasis whilst preventing matrix metalloproteinase < MMP > ix expressions < Chen, et al,
2010 > ; immune upregulating, inhibitions of tumor cell growth, extracellular matrix degradation
initiators, gelatinase MMP ii, ix downregulations leading to declines in invasion, angiogenesis and
metastasis inhibitions : Me; Mh, R, S, tumor cell extracellular matrix adhesion inhibition, growth
suppression; inhibition of invasions, metastasis < Chen, et al, 2013 > and enhancing genes regulated
by transcription factor NF-B which gives rise to tumorigenesis, via preventing its nuclear
translocation and thus the eventual resulting metastasis, invasions and angiogenesis inhibitions;
matrix metalloproteinase ix inhibitions; cell adhesion, migration, angiogenesis enhancing and extra
cellular matrix cleaving serine protease urokinase type plasminogen activator downregulations and
inhibitions of iNOS expressions which produces angiogenesis mediating endothelial growth factor
nitric oxide.
These inhibitions occur through upstream B breakdown inhibitions and inflammatory
downregulations through phospholipase A ii inhibitions: T; U, V, W, topoisomerase inhibitor and
tumor cell apoptosis initiator : X; Y, Z ; 12-hydroxyganoderic acid D, 12-acetoxyganoderic acid D,
3-acetylganoderic acid H, 12-acetoxyganoderic acid F, ganoderenic acid B, D, E, F, H < Kikuchi, et
al. 1985 >, K, elfvingic acid A, lucidumol B, methyl lucidenate G, 3-hydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl7,11,15-trioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid, 7,15-dihydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-3,11-dioxochol-8-en-24-oic
acid, 12,15-bis< acetyloxy >-3-hydroxy-7,11,23-trioxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid, 12-hydroxy3,7,11,15,23-pentaoxo-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid and terpenoids : lucidone C < Nishitoba, et al, 1986 >,
lucidenic acid A < Nishitoba, et al, 1988 >, tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition lucidenic acid
B, C, D, D i, D ii, E, E i, E ii, F, G, L, N and ganolucidic acid A, B, D, along with triterpenoids :
ganoderiol A and B < Sato, et al, 1986 >, ganodermatriol, ganodermanontriol and neuronal survival
enhancing methyl ganoderic acid A, B < Nishitoba, et al, 1985 >, C and C ii.
Other triterpenoids include ganolucidic acid A, B, D, lucidenic acid A, N, D, E, F, ganoderenic acid
B, D, K, Elfvingic acid A, 12-hydroxy-3,7,11,15,23-pentaoxo-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid, 12hydroxyganoderic acid C2, 3-hydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-7,11,15-trioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid, 7,15dihydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-3,11-dioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid, 12,15-bis(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxy7,11,23-trioxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid, 12-hydroxyganoderic acid D, 12-acetoxyganoderic acid D, 3xv

acetylganoderic acid H and 12-acetoxyganoderic acid F < Yang, et al, 2007 >.
Extracts also contain anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, tumoricidal antitumorigenic and
hypolipidemic terpenes : < monoterpene > menthol, < tetraterpene > -carotene, anti-invasion and
antitumor lucidenic acids A, B, C and N < Weng, et al, 2007 >, ganoderals, ganoderiols, lanosterol,
squalene; tumor proliferation and metastasis inhibitor, lanostane.
Consisting of antitumor long chain fatty acids that induce tumor apoptosis while inhibiting their
proliferations and reductions of inflammatory TNF synthesis : heptadecanoic acid, nonadecanoic
acid, octadecenoic acid and hexadecanoic acids < Fukuzawa. et al, 2008 >; lipid pyrophosphatidic
acid, provitamin, anti aging cell cycle replication lifespan enhancing ergosterols : ganodermasides C
and D < Weng, et al, 2011 >, they are also vitamin D2's precursor the end product after exposures
and reactions with ultraviolet rays; fruiting bodies isolated glucosidase reversible inhibitor SKG-3
with extremely high efficacy and specificity; clotting duration prolonging metalloprotease; steroids,
nucleotides adenosine and guanosine along with their derivatives, nucleosides, glycoproteins; antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antitumorigenic and immunostimulating xylose; mannose,
galactose and fucose containing heteropolymers polysaccharopeptides along with sugars : D glucose,
D glucuronic acid and D glucuronolactone.
Consisting of polysaccharides that are strong antitumors < Sone, et al, 1985 >, antiinflammatory <
Liang, et al, 2014 >, stimulating natural immunity against tumors through enhancing of their
cytokine secretions, antibodies and immune reactions along with maturations < Liao, et al, 2013 >,
enhancing T lymphocytes cytotoxicities against tumors < Li-Zhen, et al, 2003 >, enhancing
maturations of B cells into antibody secreting plasma cells, such as the functions carried out by
stimuli occurring with an F iii fraction < Lin, et al, 2006 > and inducing the maturations of
interleukin secreting, antigen presenting dendritic cells < Chan, et al, 2007 >.
Found to be hypoglycemic through increasing insulin secretions < Zhang, et al, 2004 >, high in
antitumor activities < Sun, et al, 2013 >, tumor apoptosis initiating < Liang, et al, 2014 >, inhibiting
the adhesion of tumor cells to the cellular fibrinogen outer cellular layers and enhancing NK direct
cytotoxicities < Zheng, et al, 2011 >; along with inducing the maturation of monocytic precursor
cells into dendritic cells < Chan, et al, 2008 >, protecting otherwise short lived neutrophils with an
antiapoptotic effect that can prolong and enhance the immunological response against tumors or
pathogens, the activities of these neutrophils are also improved such as inflammatory moieties
secretion and an accelerations in their phagocytotic abilities which would aid in a better attack
against these cancer cells and pathogens < Hsu, et al, 2002 >, PS-G enhances neutrophil phagocytic
abilities thus upregulating immunity and increases their chemotaxis capabilities as well < Hsu, et al,
2003 >.
These immunoenhancing polysaccharides include : acidic polysaccharide GL-A fraction < Seito, et
al, 1989 >, antitumor apoptosis initiating, p38 activating along with intracellular calcium quantum
increasing polysaccharide Khz-cp < Kim, et al, 2014 >, antitumor polysaccharide GL-i < Miyazaki,
et al, 1981 >, Th i cell upregulating, dendritic cell maturation initiating, increasing synthesis and
expressions of interleukins and INF , polysaccharide PS-G < Jan, et al, 2011 >, polysaccharide F iii
that can upregulate the immune system, enhancing expressions and secretions of cytokines, induce
tumor apoptosis as well as their terminations via initiating leukemia cell lines differentiations into
macrophage lineages instead < Hsu, et al, 2009 >, along with polysaccharide metabolizing enzyme
xvi

galactosidase < Sripuan, et al, 2003 >.


High in chemopreventive < Lin, et al, 2004 >, tumoricidal, antioxidative < Kao, et al, 2012 > and
neuroactive polysaccharides that aid in stimulating NGF axonal growth signal inductions include
ganoderans A, B, C a hypoglycemic peptideglycan, cytokine expression upregulating < Hsu, et al,
2004 >, immune enhancing polysaccharides fractions : glycoproteins, heteropolysaccharides and
DNA / RNA bone marrow cell stimulating D glucans isolated from both fruiting bodies and
myceliums but found to be best in antitumor effects of inhibitions and complete regression when
isolates came from the fruiting bodies : antitumor GL i, F i, FI 0, fruiting body derived with strong
activity against tumor, mycelium derived FI 0-a highly active against tumors, FI 0-b, FI 0-c, FI 0-b
with high anti tumor activity when isolated from mycelium, FI 0-, strongly anti tumor FA-i a
fruiting body derivative, FA-ii, FA-i, FA-i-a, FA-i-b, FA-i-c, FA-i-b-,FA-i-b- , F iii; fungi cell wall
located, immune system stimulating, enhances activities of NK, macrophages and neutrophils via
bindings to their dectin-i receptors, effective against viral, fungal, parasitic and microbe infections
and strong tumor proliferation inhibitor -D-glucan polysaccharide which also enhances nitric
oxide productions; peptidoglycans such as antiviral G. lucidum proteoglycan, ganopoly < watersoluble G. lucidum polysaccharides >, tumor cytotoxic lucialdehydes A-C, strong antioxidant
selenium, wound healing enhancing and immunomodulatory protein LZ-viii.
Antidiabetic, antiangiogenesis < Cao, et al, 2004 >, antiretroviral, antihepatitis B, antioxidative,
antibacterial, antiandrogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticomplement, antinociceptive, anxiolytic,
inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme, eukaryotic DNA polymerase selective inhibition, and
antitumor : apoptosis induction, tumor proliferation inhibition, prevention of angiogenesis and
antimetastasis; hepatoprotective triterpenoids such as HIV-i antiviral bitter triterpenes which also
function as immune enhancers, adaptogens, inflammatory reducers and antihypertensives :
ganosporeric acid A, ganoderiol F and ganodermanontriol.
Other compounds isolated include antidiabetic, antioxidative < Wu, et al, 2009 >,
immunomodulatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumour, cardiovascular enhancing, hepatocyte
protective, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic phenolic compounds : coumarin, neuroprotective and
acetylcholinesterase inhibiting quercetin, myricetin, catechin, rutin, cyanidin, thymol, lupane, elagic
acid, ferulic acid, neuroprotective ursolic acid, keampferol and terpeniol; acetylcholinesterase
inhibiting and high antioxidative flavonoids, hydroquinones, antimicrobial ganomycin A and B
lectins, polyphenolic compounds, cerebrosides; photosensitivity reducing, immune enhancing along
with mediating tumor growth inhibition antioxidant canthaxanthin; antimicrobial and histamin
inhibiting lanostane type of triterpenes, 5-reductase inhibitions < Liu, et al, 2006 > through binding
with androgen receptors thus suppressing androgen expressions, ganoderol B.
While spores contain bioactive choline, ergosterol, ergosta-7, 22-dien-3-ol, b-sitosterol, behenic acid,
palmitic acid, stearic acid, tetracosanoic acid, tumor cell necrosis initiating and tumor cell
proliferation inhibiting nonadecanoic acid, betaine, hentriacontane, tetracosane, monounsaturated
fatty acids that downregulate macrophage TNF productions thus functioning as an antiinflammatory; lipopolysaccharide induced TNF synthesis inhibiting unsaturated fatty acids :
moderate tumor cell necrosis initiating cis-10-nonadecenoic acid, cis-9-octadecenoic acid, cis-10heptadecenoic acid and tumor cell proliferation inhibitions cis-9-hexadecenoic acid and some anti
tumor proliferations and tumor apoptosis initiating long chain fatty acids : nonadecanoic acid,
xvii

heptadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acids and hexadecanoic acids.


Anticancer effects
Found to be extremely effective against tumors due to the direct cytotoxicity effects along with the
upregulations and modulations of the immune system bringing about tumor antipromotion,
induction of cell-cycle arrest, antiproliferation, growth inhibitions, antiprogression, antimetastasis,
antiangiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis < Chung et al, 2001 >, such tumor cytotoxic and apoptotic
events are also brought about by effects of extracts upon the Fas/caspase cascades < Liang, et al,
2014 > modulation of tumor signaling cascades, inhibitions of farnesyl protein transferase by
triterpenoids ganoderic acids A and C that lead to halts in Ras dependent cellular transformations
thus preventing onsets of tumor formations and mediating tumor cell apoptosis. Triterpenoids and D-glucan within are modulators of signaling pathways and cascades that affect mitogen-activated
protein, CREB protein, Ras / Erk and c-myc these lead to up / down regulations of expressions of
DNA repairing genes, cell cycle related genes, apoptotic genes and ornithine decarboxylase genes
which function as antioxidants, mediate stabilizations of DNA structures and double strand
breakage repairs, tumor cell communicating gap junction gene upregulations and tumor suppressing
tight junction gene downregulations thus preventing cellular transformations and halting growth of
cancerous cells along with their terminations.
Clinical trials conducted in some gynecological patients displayed a halt in further tumor growths or
metastasis, this stability is one of the many studies that have found reishi to be effective in antitumor
treatments < Suprasert , et al, 2014 >, while other trails conducted have shown better effectiveness
and efficacy halting tumor growths completely, leading to regressions, total tumor clearances and no
further recurrences. Variable results could have occurred due to an entity's individual biochemical
compositions, along with the way they react with these extracts and the locations of tumor growth.
Overall, it has produced effective antitumor effects, however if taken in combinations with other
strong antitumor mycomedicinals the cancer eradication effects would be amplified.
Extracts exert free radical scavenging and antioxidative properties < Joseph, et al, 2009 >,
protecting cells from free radical incurred apoptosis < Lai, et al, 2006 >, carcinogens detoxifications,
downregulation of Phase I enzymes expressions and activities, Phase II enzymes upregulations and
activity enhancements, protection of carcinogens from organs by either preventing their entries or
facilitating their removals, toxic metabolites formation preventions, prevents toxin conjugates with
macromolecules, oncoproteins post translational modification, DNA polymerase inhibitions; with
some studies showing complete tumor regression, while others displayed declines in tumor growth
numbers and sizes, inhibitions of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Radiation therapy alone
enhances the metastasis of tumors as treatments are localized thus their subsequent migrations to
various regions thereafter occurs, however there is a sharp decline in the occurrence of metastasis
when carried out in combination with ingest of extracts as a form of extremely effective
immunotherapy.
Immunoenhancing effects
Immune stimulating extracts immunomodulates < Wang, et al, 2012 > and activates complement C
iii expressions these enhance synaptic pruning, viral and microbe eliminations along with enhance
immunosurveillance; activations and enhanced phagocytic activities of human polymorphonuclear
xviii

neutrophils < Hsu, et al, 2012 >; upregulations of caspase iii, vii and ix activities, downregulations of
Bcl-ii and Bcl-xl expression while enhancing Bax thus upregulating the apoptotic cascade,
cyclooxygenase ii < COX >-ii enzyme expression and increased nitric oxide synthesis, mitochondrial
dysfunctions by upregulation of proapoptotic p xxxxxiii and Bax along with increasing cytochrome
c releases within cytosol thus enhancing tumor apoptotic events, mitochondria membrane potential
disruptions, inhibitions of phosphorylation of ERK i/ii and Akt signaling cascades, thus
downregulating downstream NF-B, c-Jun and c-Fos proto oncoproteins preventing further tumor
growths / metastasis, telomerase downregulations and dna degradations resulting in apoptosis of
tumors along with activations of dendritic cells and macrophages.
Increasing occurrences of macrophage phagocytosis; increasing spleen proliferations of
lymphocytes, heightening CD iv and CD viii productions, increases serum nitric oxide quantums,
enhancing B cells antigen presentations thus increasing T cell tumor recognitions and activities,
increasing T cell quantums, upregulating neutrophils activities through p xxxviii MAPK pathways,
while enhancements of NK cytotoxicities towards tumors and their secretions of INF < Kohguchi,
et al, 2004 > lead to preventions of metastatic tumor formations, neutrophil secretions of bglucuronidase and lysozymes are also upregulated.
Immunostimulating effects
Enhancements of the systemic defense mechanisms occur as polysaccharide fraction < F iii >
stimulates both the adaptive and innate immune system, immunomodulates, enhances immune
surveillance and response, upregulates and enhances the immune system which also results in a
direct attack against tumors and transformed cells by the immune system along with enhancing
DNA and RNA synthesis of splenocytes. G. Lucidum extracts increases the synthesis of cytokines
thus increasing productions of immune system cells and upregulating their overall quantums, some
of the cytokines upregulated include : IL i very effective against Candida spp, IL i, IL ii, IL vi, IL
x, IL xii, tumor necrosis factor < TNF >, interferon < IFN- >, perforin, granzyme B and colony
stimulating factors < CSFs > levels; natural killer < NK > cells and macrophages activities. Increases
the formations and maturations of high quantums of NK cells, T cells, Th, B lymphocytes, dendritic
cells, splenic mononuclear cells and CD iv/CD viii ratios.
Antiangiogenic effects
Antiangiogenic effects through 5 reductase inhibitions were exerted inhibiting tumor growths <
Liu, et al, 2007 > and facilitating their subsequent apoptosis. G. lucidum extracts also upregulates
Bax inducing tumor apoptosis and inhibits Erk i/ii and Akt signaling pathways leading to decreased
synthesis of angiogenesis enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor < VEGF > and transforming
growth factor < TGF >-i. Suppression of the transcription factors NF-B, and AP-i also resulted in
VEGF and < TGF >-i downregulations, while modulations of mitogen activated protein kinase and
Akt signaling inhibits further angiogenesis.
Antimetastatic effects
Metastasis of tumors are prevented by the NK cell activity upregulating beta glucans < beta-Dglucose >, while cell cycle inhibitions of tumor cells during Gi and S phase prevents their
proliferations or further growths through downregulations of cyclin D1 and upregulations of pxxi /
xix

Waf i, inhibitions of phosphatidylinositol and NF-B along with F/G-actin ratio modulations
stimulating actin remodeling preventing further tumor metastatic events and their usual process of
focal adhesions, cellular adhesion, colony formations, invasion, and migrations are thus halted.
Antioxidative effects
High antioxidant compositions suppress oxidative stress, protects dna from radiation damages and
against oxidative damages from H2O2O, inhibits dna strand breakages by hydroxyl free radicals,
high free radical scavenging of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, contains superoxide dismutase
functionally similar polysaccharide peptide and protein bound polysaccharide which protects
immune system cells from oxidative stressors caused by reactive oxygen species <ros>. While
triterpenes enhances tumor selective cytotoxicity, increasing generations of ros by tumors thus
causing increased dna damages and subsequent apoptosis.
Antipathogenic effects
Phosphorylation of Erk i/ii resulting in downregulation of c-fos expressions, which leads to
subsequent inhibition of transcription factors AP-i and NF B with antiviral effects, hepatocyte
protective, enhancements of bone mineral densities, stimulates blood clotting as it initiates onsets of
red blood cell haemagglutinations, antimicrobial against Gram + and some of Gram - bacteria, found
to be very effective against strains of Escherichia spp, Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp, Proteus spp,
Klebsiella spp, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus spp and Salmonella app.
Antiviral effects were also discovered in studies, found to inhibit viral adsorption and replication
against herpes simplex virus type i < HSV-i >, herpes simplex virus type ii < HSV-ii > due to
blockage of viral charges thus preventing their subsequent attachments and further penetrations
within the cells < Li, et al, 2004 >, and vesicular stomatitis virus < VSV >while DNA polymerase
and inhibiting triterpenes lucidenic lactone and lucidenic acid O are effective against HIV-i
protease and reverse transcriptase activities.
Strong inhibitions of HIV protease are carried out by ganoderiol B and ganoderic acid B with
moderate inhibitory effects occurring mediated by ganoderic acid , ganolucidic acid A, lucidumol B
< (24S)-lanosta-7,9(11)-diene-3 beta,24,25-triol >, ganodermanontriol and ganodermanondiol with
milder protease inhibitory effects initiated by ganoderic acid A, C1, H, antimetastatic, antiinvasion
and antiadhesion ganoderiol A < Wu, et al, 2013 > and 3b-5a-dihydroxy-6b-methoxyergosta-7,22diene; while HIV viral replications are inhibited by ganodermanontriol and ganoderiol F; ganoderic
acid B, C1, H, also demonstrate HIV i protease inhibitory effects < Akbar, et al, 2011 >.
Antiviral ganoderic acid inhibits hepatitis B viral replications, stimulating the healing of herpes
lesions and wounds while polyoxygenated lanostanoid triterpenes, Lucidenic Acids P, Q and Methyl
Lucidenate P within inhibits carcinogen causative associated Epstein Barr virus. Antiviral activities
along with reduction of cellular injuries and toxicities were also found in studies to be effective
against vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A.
Antifungal activities were also discovered in studies as the extracts were found to inhibit and
eliminated candida albicans < Chen, et al, 1992 >. They upregulate and increase the potency and
xx

differentiation of macrophages and neutrophil quantums along with other immune cells and their
cytokine secretion expressions especially IL i, interferons and cytokines, dendritic cells along with
their surface expressions of toll like receptor ii is also unregulated, these recognize fungal zymogens
and thus are able to mount a sufficient immune attack against them.
Neuronal effects
Studies have found extracts to be neuroprotective < Shen, et al, 2013 >, regulating intracellular
calcium by preventing excessive accumulations, preventing neuronal apoptosis, inhibiting activities
of acetylcholinesterase < Hasnat, et al, 2013 >, thus increasing Ach neurotransmitter quantums,
while protecting neurons from free radical damages through halting their chain reactions or initial
generations, especially after brain trauma or neuronal injuries such as stroke, ischemia or cerebral
reperfusion injuries. Cerebral vasculature circulations are also enhanced due to the vasodilating
effects, improvements in vessel tones and maintenance of vessel elasticities. Neurotransmitters
acetylcholine, serotonin, norepinephrin and dopamine are regulated with their activities enhanced,
thus improving brain function while stimulatory effects occur within the hippocampus regions
enhancing cognitions and memory processes. Slow brain waves are stimulated by extracts, these aid
in insomnia / anxiety / stress as they bring about relaxations.
Free radicals are the by products of heavy metal poisoning, neuronal injuries or cellular death,
however the excess accumulations of free radicals also lead to further neuronal injuries or the onset
of new cerebral diseases from the breakage of bonds that hold the chemical moieties together that
constitute these cells and their cellular components or their essential molecules, proteins are
denatured along with damages caused to the essential protective polyunsaturated phospholipid cell
bilayers.
Thus once free radical quantums are decreased, preventions of further neuronal injuries,
prematured cellular agings, neuronal death or neurodegenerative ailments onsets from the free
radical incurred neuronal damages or ros generated as a byproduct of these ailments such as
reperfusion injuries, cerebral ischemia, Alzheimers disease, Huntingtons disease, Parkinsons
disease, multiple sclerosis a condition that is also temperature dependent reflected by the high
incidence of occurrences in cold climates as blood flow in impeded due to cold temperatures and
thus circulation is slowed, concentrating excessive immune system cells at regions of myelin
increasing their susceptibilities to inflammations along with ros generations and inflammatory
cytokine releases thus contributing to their subsequent break downs, demyelinations and eventual
scar formations; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and macular degenerations from excessive ros
mediated damages can also be brought about. Other high ros quantums associated ailments include
diabetes mellitus, cardiac infarctions, cardiac ischemia, acute hypertension, hemorrhagic shock,
atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Extracts activates antioxidant enzymes while being high in antioxidants that scavenge hydroxyl and
superoxide radicals, functioning as an effective hydrogen donor, singlet oxygen quenching, along
with inhibiting other reactive oxygen species, reducing phospholipid cell membrane bilayer
damaging lipid peroxidation thus preventing myelin destructions along with rbc haemolysis and a
good heavy metal chelator along with upregulating gene expressions of innate antioxidant activities
mediated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.

xxi

Lipid peroxidations < LPS > also induce protein denaturations, dna damages, increased neuronal
injuries, along with excessive microglial mediated inflammations, as lipid barriers start collapsing
and risk of intracellular pathogenic entries are high, thus initiating synthesis and release of
inflammatory cytokines IL i, IL vi, prostaglandin E ii and TNF , along with reactive oxygen
species and nitric oxide.
As inflammatory mediators are harmful towards neurons as well, especially when in excess, extracts
decreases these inflammations < Yoon, et al, 2013 > and resulting risks of neurodegenerations,
preventing further neuronal lysis and releases of synuclein in Alzheimers disease, reducing
inflammations and resulting neuronal injuries of dopaminergic neurons at the substantia nigra
region often degenerated in Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons disease, multiple sclerosis,
cerebral ischemia and brain injury / trauma by downregulating LPS induced NF-B and TLR
signaling pathways along with inhibiting expressions of inflammatory mediators, neurodegenerative
iNOS and COX-ii. Studies have found that dopaminergic neurons were protected from excessive
LPS induced, activated microglia stimulated neuroinflammations by extracts of G. lucidum, in a
dose dependent manner.
Attenuating of neurodegenerative ailments and neuronal dysfunctions
Aids in healing Alzheimers disease, neuroinflammations, epilepsy as studies have found that
extracts inhibits the excessive accumulations of calcium ions within hippocampal neuronal
cytoplasm while enhancing expressions of calcium binding, neuronal regulator CaMK II , thus
decreasing the excessive firings associated with onsets of seizures, Neurotrophin iv expressions are
also increased thus preventing neuronal injuries / apoptosis, excessive calcium toxicities, protections
from exitotoxins, neuronal morphology preservations, increasing quantums of choline
acetyltransferase within cholinergic neurons and enhancing cellular protections of hippocampal
cholinergic neurons, cortical neurons, dopaminergic neurons, noradrenergic neurons and striatal
GABA-ergic neurons, stimulations of neurite sprouting, formations of intercellullar neuromuscular
junctions and giving rise to neural plasticity during injuries / growth and developments.
N-Cadherin expressions were also found to be inhibited by the extracts thus preventing formations
of mossy fiber sprouts and new excitable circuitries occurrences mediated by granular cells within
dentate gyrus < Wang, et al, 2013 >, a common event after epilepsy to compensate for the injured,
dying and lysed neurons, along with the waning activities of current brain circuit; that if left in place
would worsen seizures as epileptiform discharges would be heightened thus increasing the onsets of
seizures. However once the brain cognitive sector afflicted with excessive discharges is shut down
for some time and circuits no long utilized, thus the cessations of seizures, sproutings and synaptic
plasticity is favored as it would give rise to developments of compensatory new brain cognitive
sectors and circuitries as an effective mechanism for new cognitive abilities.
Neurodegenerative ailments would also benefit with synaptic plasticity occurrences from the same
mechanism, studies found that neuritogenesis inducing G. lucidum < Phan, et al, 2013 > gives rise to
developments of the longest neurite sprouts, while other neuroprotective mycomedicinals that
enhance dendritic sproutings include Lignosus rhinocerotis, Hericium erinaceus which induces
dendritic sproutings more effectively than NGF, Pleurotus giganteus, Pleurotus pulmonarius,
cyathane diterpenoids scabronines A and G from Sarcodon scabrosus, Sarcodon cyrneus, Grifola
frondosa, Termitomyces albuminosus, amnesia attenuating Tremella fuciformis, cognition
xxii

impairment attenuating Cordyceps militaris and by hepatoprotective and antioxidative Imazeki,


Ganoderma neo-japonicum, which stimulates highest neuritogenesis at the lowest intake
concentration dose as compared to the other mycomedicinals.
Most mycomedicinals enhance expressions of NGF and induce neurite sprouting < Seow, et al, 2013
> by the same mechanisms of action. As blood brain barrier impermeable NGF expressions within
the central nervous system declines with age and during neurodegenerative ailments, but are
essential to neurite outgrowths, neuronal growth and differentiations along with proper
developments, maintenance, survival, regenerations and synaptic plasticity these mycomedicinals
induce NGF actions by bindings to the same receptors thus stimulating P xiii K/Akt and MEK/ERK
i/ii signaling pathway resulting in neuritogenesis.
H. erinaceus enhances c-Fos expression via stimulating JNK signaling for astrocyte NGF
expressions by inducing phosphorylations of JNK and c-Jun. While G. lucidum enhances
phosphorylations of CREB, Erk i and Erk ii thus stimulating the neuronal differentiating CREB
signaling pathways. Other pathways / mechanisms could also be involved as in depth analysis of the
various modes that trigger neuritogenesis in each of these mycomedicinals have yet to be fully
elucidated in cultured cells or clinical trials. However quite a number of studies have been
conducted, that confirm their effectiveness and efficacy in neuroregenerations and treatments of
various neurological ailments.
Synaptic densities and neuronal signaling pathways were also found to be kept in tact as extracts
preserve synaptophysin, maintaining synaptic densities affected by accumulates at the same time
preventing synaptotoxicities from occurring while preventing onsets of of A peptides mediated
DEVD cleavages from causing further neuronal apoptosis and destructions of neurite connections
along with their circuitry and signaling pathways < Lai, et al, 2008 > thus aiding in eliminating A
disruptions of key neuronal circuitries along with attenuating their damages while maintaining
synaptic connections, transmissions and viabilities within cardiac, restorations of the brain inflicted
by Alzheimers disease, along with other related neuro / synaptic degenerative conditions.
Extracts protect opioid receptor signaling pathway regulations, along with short and long term
synaptic plasticity regulating synaptophysin, thus preventing their decline and density loss due to
alpha beta accumulates that occur in Alzheimer's disease, this keeps the brain circuits involved in
tact preventing them from waning and affecting cognitions. Due to alpha beta toxcitcies, neuronal p
xxxviii MAP kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and c-Jun phosphorylations are affected, extracts
reverses the damages thus preserving structures, vesicles and signaling pathways inflicted, one of
which affects neuroimmunomodulatory, food intake and insulin regulating serotonin metabolism
thus preserving downstream synaptic plasticities at the pre frontal cortex, preventing neuronal
degradations and subsequent cognitive dysfunctions.
Effective for treatments of other cerebral and neuronal ailments such as excessive muscular
contractions, spasms, hyperkalemia, cramps, epilepsy < Wang, et al, 2014 >, reconstruction of
disrupted, waning or new neurocircuits, synaptic plasticity, dementia, neuronal stimulating effects,
cognitive declines, memory impairment, multiple sclerosis, Myastenia Gravis, Huntingtons disease,
Parkinsons disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral trauma, cerebral hypoxia; decreases
neuronal apoptosis, neuronal inflammations by inhibiting excessive secretions of pro inflammatory
cytokines TNF , IL vi and IL viii expressions and size of infarction areas in cerebral ischemia while
xxiii

enhancing activities and quantums of antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione
peroxidase, increasing expression of IL ii, IL iv and IL x, stimulating MAPK, ERK i/ii and Akt
signaling cascades that function like NGF, for synthesis of axonal protein to enhance growth cone
formations along with neurite sproutings and neuronal growths and differentiations after peripheral
nervous system injuries, brain injuries and neurodegenerations along with their initial preventions of
occurrences.
Ailment applications
Other ailments G. lucidum is effective for include cardiac ischemia, heart disease, cardioprotective
while protecting from nonfunctional overreaching after extensive periods of intensive training
exercises, or overtraining thus affecting overall athlete performance in terms of continued sustained
performances, endurance and stamina < Rossi, et al, 2014 >, enhances blood volume perfusions and
microcirculations within vital organs, increases blood pressure < Kabir, et al, 1988 >, relaxes smooth
muscles, thrombosis, depression < Matsuzaki, et al, 2013 >, anxiety, autoimmune conditions,
modulation of the immune system, bacteriostasis, high cholesterol conditions as cholesterol
biosynthesis is inhibited by oxygenosterols ganoderol A, B, ganoderal A and ganoderic acid Y <
Hajjaj, et al, 2005 > and tonifying effects.
Enhancing of vital energy as it functions as a blood tonic upregulating the quantums of platelets,
hemoglobin and white blood cells, while enhancing mitochondria productions of ATP, antiaging,
strengthening cardiac function, inflammation, leukopenia, arthritis, bronchitis, asthma due to its
antihistamine effects, alleviating lower urinary tract symptoms < Noguchi, et al, 2008 >, ulcers,
ganoderic acids and triterpenes within are antihepatoma with tumor specific cytotoxicity inducing
cellular atrophies, lysis and apoptosis; whilst mycelia isolated proteoglycans < Yang, et al, 2006 >
function as a hepatoprotective for liver hepatocytes < Su, et al, 2013 > wounds or cellular / tissue
injuries, antiviral against chronic hepatitis B while healing the hepatocyte viral induced injuries.
Fruiting body extracts of antioxidative, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating
polysaccharides ganoderans A, B, C initiates a hypoglycemic effect and downregulates hepatic
PEPCK gene expression thus decreases blood glucose levels. Declines in oxidative stress, lipid
peroxidation, hepatic glycogen levels, elevations of circulating insulin, modulations of blood glucose
and hepatocyte glucose-metabolizing enzyme modulations were carried out by ganoderan B.
Effective in treatments of diabetes mellitus type ii as it aids in the control of blood glucose levels,
enhancing phosphorylations of AMPK thus stimulating glucose intake within adipocytes.
While polysaccharides upregulates collagenase activity and is effective in treatments of cirrhosis,
preventing excessive scar tissue or keloid formations that would further impair liver functions,
downregulating excessive collagen < i > mRNA expressions, actin within smooth musculatures,
along with metalloproteinase-i and metalloproteinase-xiii enzymes; restorations / increasing mucus
and prostaglandin productions thus attenuating the acidity while speeding wound healing in gastric
and duodenal ulcers, accelerations of wound healing < Cheng, et al, 2013 > during injuries / lesions
as collagen synthesis is upregulated for sufficient tissue remodeling to occur.
Free radicals are scavenged by flavonoids preventing further oxidative injuries to proteins,
molecules, wounded and newly differentiated cells that affect their cellular functions and integrities;
along with enhanced migrations of macrophages and endothelia cells towards the injured area
xxiv

mediated by glucans, while proliferations of fibroblast are upregulated towards the region of
injury, thus stimulating the wound healing processes of angiogenesis, collagen synthesis and
epithelialisations.
Whilst expressions of inflammatory NF B, caspase iii and cellular apoptosis is reduced,
endothelium cell proliferations within vasculatures and microcirculations are enhanced along with
increasing mitosis, DNA synthesis and enhanced cellular proliferations by upregulating cell
quantums undergoing G ii - M and S cell cycle phrases thus extracts are effective towards healing <
Qian, et al, 2004 > slow or non healing diabetic wounds and open lesions, accelerating their
otherwise slow progressive healing speeds due to excess sugar accumulates outside the cells which
further injure them and low intracellular glucose quantums within reduced cellular energy
generations, inhibiting / decreasing mitochondria's ATP productions thus preventing proper wound
closures and the accumulated ulcerative lesions that consequently form as well.
Extracts are also effective in treatments of cancers, prostate cancer, liver disease, hepatitis,
nephritis, hypertension as it was found to contain DEAD / DEAH box helicase like protein, alpha /
beta hydrolase like protein, paxillin like protein and cystathionine beta synthase like protein, these
inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme activities, regulates actin remodeling of vascular smooth
musculature and prevents cardiac hypertrophy through inhibitions upon cell cycle cardiomyocyte
proliferations thus lowering blood pressure whilst exerting a vasodilatory effect < Ansor, et al, 2013
>; prevention of blood pressure spikes, neurasthenia, insomnia, hypercholesterolemia < Duk, 2010 >,
and dyslipidemia < Hu, et al, 2014 >.
Modulation of the immune system during states of immunodeficiencies or imbalances, bacteriostasis
thus effective during microbe infestations, exerting organ tonifying effects, antiaging with cellular
life cycle prolonging effects, strengthening of cardiac function, increasing memory, strokes /
aneurysms as it inhibits aggregations of platelets, as a poison neutralizer, lowering of high liver
triglycerides and obesity as it downregulates lipid accumulations within adipocytes and decreases
their differentiations through SREBP-i c, PPAR-g, and C/EBP-a transcription factors suppressions
along with downregulating adipogenesis and genes involved in lipid synthesis, transport and
storage : FAS, ACS i; FABP iv, FATP i and perillipin while plasma lipid and glucose quantums are
also decreased thus effective in diabetic conditions, obesity reductions and visceral fat removals.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome or other endocrine disorders such as hypersexuality, benign prostatic
hyperplasia, BRCA ii gene mutational prostate cancer of which triterpene, ganoderic acid DM is
highly cytotoxic and anti metastatic against tumor leading to their apoptosis, acne vulgaris,
hirsutism, Cushings syndrome and androgenic alopecia that occur due to an excess of androgen
secretions can also be treated, as triterpenoids ganoderol B, ganoderic acid G, ganoderic acid C ii
and ganodermanontriol within G. lucidum extracts decrease the productions of androgens thru
inhibiting testosterone conventions into DHT by downregulating quantums of it's converting
enzyme 5-alpha reductase < Grant, et al, 2012 > isozymes type i and ii.
Often utilized in tcm, it's herbal principles classify it as a Qi replenisher, enhancing vital energy thus
a revitalizing tonic. Utilized as a sedative and a tonic, for soothing and relaxing of the mind and
spirit, in the relieve of respiratory ailments such as cough and asthma; antiaging, dizziness, shortness
of breath, fatigue, cardiac palpitation / weakness, lung ailments, liver diseases, low / imbalanced
xxv

immunity physical weakness and insomnia.


Shiitake, Lentinula edodes
Description
Common name : Golden Oak Mushroom, Sawtooth Mushroom and Black forest Mushroom.
Found growing upon dead and rotting logs or at the base of decomposing trunks and foliage of
broadleaf, hardwood trees such as the Ironwood, Oak, Beech and Poplar. Growth occurs best at v
xxxii degrees celsius, within dark, cool and damp conditions. Countries they are found growing
naturally in include Japan, United States, South Korea, Taiwan and China
An umbrella shaped mushroom with a conical pileus, in shades of light brown to dark brown, with a
broad convex cap lighter in shade when still developing during the fruiting stage, gills appear
beneath the cap regions these are slim slits that are white in color, they consist of ovoidal spores that
appear as white spore prints, whitish milk colored stems and fibrous stipes.
Bioactive constituents
Consists of essential amino acids, carbohydrates, fat, sugars, fibre, protein, minerals < Mallikarjuna,
et al, 2013 >, vitamins, vitamin D ii precursor ergosterol, carciferol, lignin digest, fibre, minerals:
iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, calcium, copper, potassium, phosphorous, zinc, sodium,
strontium, zinc, antitumor selenium, vitamins A, B i, B ii, B iii, B v, B vi, B ix, C, D, D ii, D iii, D iv
< Phillips, et al, 2012 > , panthothenic acid antimicrobial glucanases and antitumor phenolic
compounds.
Along with many stipe dense located, moderately so within pileus and lowest within the mycelia
immunomodulating < Mizuno, et al, 2013 >, antidiabetic, anti cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic
and antiviral, immunostimulating towards both cellular and humoral immunity and
immunoenhancing polysaccharides such as d glucan < Vetvicka, et al, 2014> : strongly antitumor <
Vannucci, et al, 2013 >, antimetastatic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antifungal, lentinan with
immunocyte upregulating activities as they stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune system,
incurring morphological changes within macrophages, enhancing their activations, potentiating their
functionalities such as an increase in their dendritic processes, amplifying immunoenhancing
activities such as phagocytosis along with the upregulations of macrophages < Yeon, et al, 2008 >
and other phagocytotic mediating cells such as dendritic cells thus enhancing and potentiating their
quantums and activities; initiate direct tumor cellular toxicities < Yukawa, et al, 2012 >.
Stimulatory of complement system's normal and alternative cascades, along with their synthesis and
secretions of nitric oxide, reactive oxidative species and superoxide anions, cytokines IL i, vi, viii, x,
xii, xxiii, MCP i, MIP ii, c reactive protein, interferon , tumor cytotoxic TNF and other
cytokines; regulations of T regulatory cells < Tanaka, et al, 2011 >, stimulations of Th cells,
reduction of TGF during tumor infiltrations, upregulating and enhancing cytotoxic T cells, B cells,
macrophages, lymphocytes, Nk cells, dendritic cells, hematopoietic stem cells along with increasing
quantums of antibody productions, synthesis, secretions and cytokine upregulations.
At the same time these extracts pass within the circulations and into the cerebral regions where they
are uptaken by microglia's dectin i receptors < Shah, et al, 2008 > which stimulates brain immunity
xxvi

thus enhancing both innate and adaptive defense and surveillance system against tumor growth
onsets and developments, prevents pathogenic invasions by virus, microbes and fungi along with
their subsequent eliminations as cytokines and chemokine expressions are not correspondingly
enhanced by bindings due to the inactivation of upstaeam NF kb; excessive / chronic
neuroinflammations that might lead to fragile neuronal damages and their subsequent downstream
ailments however are not excessively stimulated and thus do not occur. Stimulations of cerebral
dendritic cells is another occurrence along with their cytokine releases of IL xii, TNF and IFN
thus enhancing the immunological reactions within.
Contained within are also the existence of high glucan immune stimulating and enhancing,
phagocyte potentiating, NK and macrophage quantum upregulating, stress reducing, infection
resisting, serum cholesterol reducing, hypoglycemia inducing, lowering of blood pressure, tumor
resistance enhancing, wound improving with healing of conditions such as ulcerative colitis as found
to occur in studies when these carbohydrate moieties were added to ill subjects; upregulating active
hexose correlated compound which aids in its antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral activities,
hypercholesterolemic balancing, hypocholesterolemic attenuating eritadenine and immunoregulating
and enhancing arabinoxylan like polysaccharide with xylose and arabinose, highly antioxidative,
free radical scavenging, with bindings to free radicals ROS / NOS, lipid peroxidations along with
their high reducing powers and antiinflammatory, antioxidative ergothioneine < Ito, et al, 2011 >;
immunopotentiating, hepathocyte protective, antiarthritic, antiatherogenic and antiviral lenthionine.
While antioxidative protein latcripin iii induces cellular halts of tumor at s phrase of the cell cycle
pathway, thus inducing apoptosis of tumor cells, studies have discovered inhibitions occurring in
tumor growth along with decreases in their growth mass when these extracts were isolated and
added to tumor cells, thus increasing their tumoricidal and anti tumor activities < Ann, et al, 2014 >.
Immunomodulating KS ii < Lindequist, et al, 2005 > strong against tumors growths and
antipathogenic, along with polysaccharides and lignin LEM are contained within extracts.
Functions
Strong against tumors < Wu, et al, 2012 > as it inhibits their growth and reduces the size of
preexisting tumors. Effects upon the immune system also upregulate the antitumor properties as
they increase the proliferations of immune system cells. While immunoregulating effects occurs as
differentiations of immune suppressor cells are initiated as well. It functions as a cancer inhibitor
and as a preventative regent < Nagashima, et al, 2013 >, carries out immunoregulation while
enhancing immunosurveillance, increases productions of cytokines such as TNF , exhibits direct
cytotoxicity towards tumors, along with inducing apoptosis from triggering their apoptotic cascades,
studies have shown that direct induction of tumor cell death occurs when extracts were added and
these events took place in a dose concentration dependent manner with more apoptosis occurring as
the concentrations were heightened, phagocytic cells were also upregulated and activated while
enhancements and upregulations of macrophage activities also occur.
Reduces high blood pressure along with exerting regulatory effects which also aids in circulatory
flow conditions such as hypovolemia or poor blood circulations along with improving their
associated downstream disorders, upregulating erythrocyte and mononuclearcytes at the peripheral
vasculature regions for an immunoprotective and better circulatory along with enhanced perfusions
effect, arthritis, joint mobility disorders; ergothioneine within extracts exhibit an analgesic function
xxvii

decreasing pain within joints and articular regions thus improving fluidity of movements along with
mobilities, allergic asthma, autoimmune joint inflammation, gut inflammations < Mizuno, et al, 2009
>, antiatherogenic, hypolipedemic, decreases serum cholesterol levels, cardiovascular ailments,
hypertension, hypertension, antiinflammatory, atopic dermatitis while exerting strong antioxidative
properties.
Other effects include reductions of the risk of fractures and bone mass loss as it improves bone
mineral densities and related conditions such as osteoporosis, fragile and frail bone conditions such
as bone structural deformities or slipped disc; improves exhaustion, fatigue, weakness, a declined
constitution after long term illnesses or deliberated conditions after chronic ailments, thus
functioning well as a general health tonic.
Antipathogenic effects
Antiinfection effects occur as it contains protease inhibitions leading to various antiviral effects,
effective in the eradication of hepatitis, whilst found effective in studies conducted against polio
virus < Rincao, et al, 2012 >, HPV i as early stage viral replications are inhibited, extracts are also
effective in treatments against retroviruses HIV, influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis; antifungal;
antimicrobial against strains of streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus
aureus, mycobacterium tuberculosis and listeria monocytogenes; antimicrobial against tuberculosis,
anticarinogenic and prevents the formations of oral bioflim microbial formation colonizations by
Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus < Zaura, et al, 2011 >, carcinogenic dental caries
and tumor inducing gingivitis < Ciric, et al, 2011 >.
Ailment applications
Exacts exerts improvement of cardiac and blood circulatory conditions, prevention of aggregation of
platelets thus inhibiting excessive clot formations which aids in situations such as the occurrence of
thrombosis, cerebral strokes, coagulative strokes or aneurysms, respiratory ailments, liver
dysfunctions, cirrhosis, aids in lipocyte break downs and weight loss as studies have found extracts
effective in lowering the serum triacylglycerol quantums along with decreasing overall body fat and
weight thus applicable to obesity also equally effective in decreasing the liver stores of fatty
phospholipid accumulates and initiating their breakdowns thus helpful in fatty liver disease and its
associated disorders, hepatocyte protective, prevents liver stenosis, functions as a kidney tonic,
treatments of vitamin d deficiencies including rickets, flu, colds, accompanying skeletal defects and
bone mineral densities declines, dysfunctions and other associated disorders, along with mediating
cellular healing functions which aid in wound repair, healing and recovery.
Shiro kikurage, Tremella fuciformis
Description
Common names : Snow Mushroom, White Brain Mushroom, Silver Ear or White Jelly Leaf. Found
growing upon broadleaf trees such as the Sakura or Fagaceae tree with fruiting bodies located on
their falling, decaying or dead branches. Growth occurs in temperate, tropical and sub tropical
countries such as Japan, Brazil, Central, South and North America, Caribbean, Pacific Islands New
Zealand, Australia, sub Saharan Africa, Korea and parts southern and eastern of Asia such as
xxviii

Taiwan and China.


A basidiomycota that is clear, lucid and translucent white, some parts exhibit varying degrees of
translucency, other regions are white, while the basal regions tend to be of denser tones in between
shades of pure white to whitish milky pale yellow shades. Composed of a soft yet firm, jelly texture
with a mucilage feel and is slimy looking, along with gelatinous matrix fruiting bodies of
basidiocarps.
They have wavy seashell like edges and are shaped like waves, each waves is neatly organized in
petal like sections of fronds and many of these sections are organized together in a small to medium
sized coral like growth, about 3 inches in widths, they consist of slim lobes along with being made
up of stalks that are wide, curved and short, and resemble sea anemones in appearance. Tremelloidal
basidia measure xxiii by vi.vx m in size, while smooth, hyaline, ellipsoid basidiospores measure
vviii by ivvi m.
Bioactive constituents
Contains a high quantum of dietary fibers, calcium, vitamin D, disaccharides, insulin sensitivity
increasing and hypoglycemic glucuronoxylomannan, antitumour and immunomodulatory neutral
polysaccharides; o acetyl groups within their molecular forms and sugar containing polysaccharides
fractions A, B,C < Nomura, et al, 1972 >, carbon and hydrogen containing BJ, AC, BC, AJ < Ukai,
et al, 1974 >; high water retention capabilities polysaccharide GXM fraction; anticarcinogenic acidic
polysaccharides that stimulate cytokine and interleukin productions and synthesis by monocytes and
macrophages; lentynian, schizophyllan, antitumor polysaccharides < Ukai, et al, 1972 > and
polysaccharide proteins PSP, PSK with direct tumor cytotoxicities and inhibitions of their further
growths, continued proliferations and developments.
Other bioactive components include neurogenesis stimulating 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-22E,
24R-5, 8-epidioxyergosta-6; disaccharide trehalose dihydrate, heteropolysaccharides T ii, SP i,
SB, F iii-ii-b, D galactose, melibiose, lactose, glucuroxylomannans, monomeric sugars ribose,
glucuronic acid, glucose, arabinose, etythrithol, threitol, xylose, mannose, galacatose, fructose;
anticholesterol, chromosomal mutations preventive, antimicrobial, antitumor with inhibitory effects
towards downregulating their growths and mass developments, immunopotentiating acidic
heteroglycan i->iii glucan; moderate antioxidative phenols that lead to free radical scavenging <
Wang, et al, 2014 >; along with glycosidases : N acetyl D hexosaminidase and D mannosidase <
Sone, et al, 1978 >.
Neuronal effects
In studies, it has to found to improve amnesia < Baradaran, et al, 2012 >, cognitions and learning
speed along with memory retention abilities due to upregulations of acetylcholine < ACh > secretions
within regions of the frontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus, thus facilitating and
increasing the neurotransmissions required for proper neuronal synaptic communications to occur,
improving the circuit connectivity pathways and the subsequent fluidity in memory retrievals and
storages; as ACh quantums are increased, neurodegenerative conditions with waning electrical
activities thus hampering proper neuronal function and whole brain systemic declines can also be
improved this way, they are effective for ailments as as Alzheimers disease, myastenia gravis,
xxix

multiple sclerosis, parkinson's disease, neuro borreliosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and
Huntington's disease, likewise weak musculatures with poor circuitry connection will also be
improved with these additional ACh upregulates.
Neurite growths were also found to be enhances by administration of these extracts < Park, et al,
2007 > as they function like neuronal growth factors and promoted their elongations and subsequent
connections as found in cultured neuronal cells, thus aiding in successful nerve regenerations
facilitating synaptic plasticity formations during growth and developments or recovery after cerebral
injuries, along with restorations of peripheral nerve tracts truncated or worn with lower densities at
certain regions thus requiring some strong denser neuronal mass and bridges to reconnect the
weakened connection regions in between the synapses at their respective gap junctions, events that
might have occurred during illness or as a result of injury onsets. However ever after neuronal
regeneration occurs long term intake of the extracts along with other neurite sprouting herbs and
myelin growth enhancing substances are still required as nerve conduction velocities along the
regenerated regions are still lower than the norm.
As angiogenesis is required as part of the regenerative process for adequate perfusions so that the
neurites and dendrites can sprout, along with enhancing the densities of neuronal formations, blood
nourishers would also aid in hastening the recovery and neurogenesis procedure. It would be some
time till they can regain perfect functionality and densities once more with consistent conduction
velocities occurring along the entire innervation tract and be restore to the transmission speed that
used to occur before injury onset, thus giving rise to a total restoration in structures and
functionality of the innervated region affected.
Antipathogenic effects
Antipathogenic actions are exerted upon infections due to the immunostimulating and upregulating
properties, targeting both gram + and microbial strains as it inhibits their microbe quorum sensing
and communications along with subsequent bioflim formation pathways, eradicating spirochete
Borrelia spp initiated Lyme borreliosis and the associated neuroborreliosis / bacterimia; antifungi
towards eliminating pathogenic opportunistic, gram basiospore candida spp initiated candidiasis
infections often found as part of the microfloral within the gut, but in cases of excessive overgrowths
spread to digestive systems, lungs, cardiac, nails, skin, kidneys, urogenital regions, oral mucosal
membranes and even entering within the csf regions affecting the brain and causatives of urinary
tract infections of which neonates are prone to; along with antiviral effects against hepatitis.
Functions
Effective against tumors as a strong immunostimulant with bi directional immunomodulating effects
that regulate macrophage and monocytes synthesis and secretions of antibodies, interferons and
cytokines such as cell cycle mediated acquired radioresistance development inducing IL i which
enhances the inflammatory responses along with facilitating coagulations, fever onsets and the
synthesis of acute phrase proteins within the liver, IL i , IL ii a T cell growth factor, stimulant and
regulator, NK cell proliferation upregulations and activations, stimulating B cell activations and
antibody productions, lethal irradiation cellular protective IL vi which enhances B cell synthesis
along with their subsequent antibody productions, liver acute phrase protein synthesis; IL viii, TNF
an NK cells and leukocytes activator has antiviral properties, and increases MHC class i expressions
xxx

or if in excess their subsequent downregulations.


Extracts stimulate and potentiate monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells along with other
dendritic cells for an enhanced host mediated response against the invading tumors; while inhibiting
platelet activating factor thus preventing the occurrence of angiogenesis thus inhibiting further
tumor growths and proliferations.
Tumors persist within the host system due to the continued lack of sufficient immunity against them,
thus vis upregulations of host immunity along with stimulating the differentiation, activations and
maturations of the necessary immune cells, recognition of these tumor antigens through MHC class
antigen presentations are enhanced. If localized specifically toward the locations of tumors these
responses can attract increased quantums of newly differentiated NK, T cells, macrophages and
immunocytes upregulated by stimulations with interleukins as they encourage bone marrow lineage
differentiations, thus instigating a strong host mediated defense against these tumor cells ,
diminishing them and aiding in their subsequent elimination.
Direct killings of tumor cells are also further encouraged by upregulation of tumor cytotoxic NK,
dendritic and phagocytic cell lines, they secrete tumor killing lyzozymes and other chemical
moieties, along with increasing inflammatory cytokines that can further enhance the direct killing
action upon these tumor cells. Alongside its natural anti mutagenic and dna protective qualities,
tumors are inhibited from forming initially and thus is also effective an cancer preventive.
Functions include lowering high blood sugar quantums in diabetes due to the presence of a sugar
and starch absorption limiting glucosidase inhibitor < Kardono, et al, 2013 >, quercetin along with
reducing insulin resistance; reducing chromosomal and sperm dna abnormalities, brain nourishing,
protection from radiation and its accumulative damages, antioxidative activities with improved
superoxide anions scavengings, reduces damages from ros induced lipid peroxidations, hydroxyl
free radical neutralizations and the overall decline in free radical quantums thus preventing dna
damages, or further cellular destructions along with their components and critical biomolecules that
contribute towards tissue injuries, Alzheimer's disease, neuroinflammatory conditions, strokes,
traumatic brain injuries, cerebral reperfusion injuries, tumors, cardiac ailments and many other
inflammatory conditions including arthritis or other autoimmune diseases or demyelinating ailments
as free radical are neutralized damages upon these delicate cells are reduce, thus enabling the
healing process to set in rather that further inflicting a negative cascade of increasing damages that
would worsen the preexisting condition/s.
It aids in lowering high serum cholesterol while inhibiting low density lipoprotein build ups,
atherosclerosis, reducing high blood pressure,hepatocyte protective, improves cellular health and
viability thus is applicable to treating injured cells and tissue along with speeding the wound healing
process, reduces chronic inflammations, obesity as it aids in visceral fat lysis and reductions, clearing
off excessive triglyceride accumulates and overall body weight reductions; edema and hyperalgesia
are also improved by glucuronic polysaccharide fractions AC and BC thus indicative of an
improvement in blood flows and clearances along with improved microvasculature circulations
however the exact mechanisms of action has yet to be elucidated.
Ailment applications

xxxi

Other ailments this is effective towards include protecting cells and tissue exposed to radioactive
damage or after tumor radiation and chemotherapy thus preventing further tumor developments or
transformations via reducing and repairing dna strand breaks, occurrences of chromosomal
aberrations, strand nicks or damages, inducing and enhancing dna repair, inhibiting occurrences of
genotoxicity, preventing free radical liberated harm to dna and cells, free radical scavenging
abilities, whilst protecting hematopoietic progenitor lineage cells and inducing the regrowth and
subsequent production of bone marrow stroma cells thus enhancing formation of immunocytes
while replacing dead / damaged cells and protecting newly developed s phrase cells from radiation
induced transformations within the mitotic cycle, thus enhancing their radioresistance during
growth and subsequently upon cellular maturations which will lead to more resilient cells.
Extracts also aid in improvements and curing ailments such as lesions incurred by gastric ulcer
disease, as a regent to decrease cellular cytotoxicity as it is cellular protective, while increasing the
quantums of antioxidant superoxide dismutase thus effective as a brain antioxidant as it passes
within the cerebral circulations and through the blood brain barrier, along with protecting neurons
from the assaults of free radicals within.
Due to high water retaining abilities it functions as a fluid replenisher and excessive heat dissipating
during conditions with low fluid volumes such as hypovolemia, dehydration, sore throats,
inflammations, chronic dry coughs, ailments with excessive dryness and heat retained within the
system and provides fluidity and moistures within regions of dry or desiccated organs such as the
brain, lungs and stomach.
Attenuates and restores irregular cardiac palpitations due to the blood pressure regulating and
balancing abilities, it dissipates excessive melanocyte accumulates thus displaying abilities to
improve skin microvasculature circulations, anti aging effects due to the chromosomal protections,
free radical neutralizations, cellular healing and improvements of its condition along with overall
health restorative functions.
Conclusion
It has been found that priming an entity's own immune system to recognize cancer antigens has
been very effective in their subsequent destruction as T cells would mount an attack against the
cancerous tissue, enhancing a robust immune response and successfully destroying them. Many
clinical trials have produced good results with high remission rates and low recurrences, however
there are some cases whereby patients still develop cancers after the initial cancer terminations and
these patients have short lifespans after the subsequent recurrences. Indicative of the entities
immune system being unable to terminate these cancerous cells completely or further mutations of
the cancers that recur, of which the immune system and initially recognition primed calls are unable
to destroy.
The effectiveness of treatments through upregulating and enhancements of the patients own
surveillance and immune system after recognition priming is also varied, with some systems totally
capable of completely eliminated these cancerous cells, whereas others produce various quantums of
effectiveness with some cancers gone at certain regions whilst others are diminished or reduced in
terms of their growths and cellular sizes, still some cases demonstrate tumor masses that undergo an
overall growth reduction, then they revert back to the original size, then with time, shrink again.
xxxii

Other cases occur with the immune response against cancer being too strong for the system to even
coupe with due to the high and chronic serious inflammations and fevers occurring within. This
could be indicative that this treatment protocol can be further refined, whereby the primed T cells
are specifically targeted only towards the exact location whereby the cancerous cells are situated at,
thus reducing the probability of a severe immune reaction that affects the entire system instead,
including cells and tissue unaffected by cancerous transformations. Region location targeting
towards cancer tissue locations can be further carried out if the first immune response is too
immense and the entities system is unable to cope with that. Yet to be tried out in clinical trials, thus
the effectiveness and long term results of this targeted approach are still unknown.
As the immune system mounts a very immense attack against cancer after their initial primings and
recognitions which are then transferred back to patient system, some entities undergo these
immense immune effects of inflammation from the attacks against cancer, however in the event
whereby the system is affected to a severe point, the inflammations can be attenuated with
inflammatory lowering medications and balanced with the aim of fine tuning it to a moderate
quantum instead, at the perfect state whereby the system can still mount a sufficient immunological
response necessary to eliminate these cancerous growths completely, yet at a safe magnitude to the
biosystem, keeping it within the margins of safety; thus creating a balance within and mediating
healing.
Another probability of such results occurring is that the priming of T cell recognitions are too
sudden thus the onsets trigger an excessive immune reaction mediated by presence of these
cancerous growths. An anticancer vaccine can be further developed whereby immune cells of the
system are primed gradually, whereby the vaccines are given at low dosages, in between intervals,
thus allowing the system time to adapt and be accustomed to these changes without giving rise to
any excessive immunological inflammatory responses, so that eventually they recognize and are able
to fight off cancers effectively and within safe limits of inflammatory states that the whole system
can safely undergo; should any cell within the system ever undergo transformations. However the
effectiveness of such a vaccine would ultimately still be influenced by subsequent cancer mutations
especially if further complicated by accompanying viral infections and the question would be about
whether the primed T cells can continually evolve, recognize these new mutations and mount a
sufficient immune attack against mutated cancer cells.
From results of the studies to date, it seems that the effectiveness and efficacy of this
immunotheraphy treatment is varied and based very much upon an individual entities immune
system and systemic condition. However as compared with other form of cancer treatments, for
example radiotherapy with a high rate of cancer metastasizing to other regions occurring, or
chemotherapy with variable effectiveness and curative results, some results have shown that these
produce complications elsewhere within the system as well, due to non specific cancer targeting, as
all cells are affected including non cancerous ones; some clinical trials have found a combinations of
these two methods rather effective in targeting cancers, however the recognition priming of the
patients own immune system to date has yielded the best results.
For a better outcome after cancer onsets, anticancer herbs such as the mycomedicinals would work
well along with various anticancer natural herbs, many of which function effectively and can be
taken in smooth synergy with mycomedicinals for an extremely strong anticancer effect, however
xxxiii

they are not discussed here as its beyond the scope of this article. These can be done along with
immune targeted treatments.
Prevention is always better than cure, if an entity's system is constantly primed with these effective
anticancer mycomedicinals / herbs along with a constantly healthy vegan diet < McCarty, 2014 > of
carcinogenic pesticide free < Borchers, et al, 2014 > and carcinogenic genetically modified < Cichosz,
et al, 2012 > free, fresh vegetables and fruits that are very effective against cancers and consisting of
effective molecules that mediate their initial preventions. Many studies have shown a low cancer
incidence amongst vegans < Tantamango-Bartley, et al, 2013 > along with reduced cardiovascular <
Huang, et al, 2012 >, ischemic heart disease < Crowe, et al, 2013 >, cerebrovascular < Li, 2014 > risk
and motility < Le, et al, 2014 >; while meat diets increase incidences of cancer developments <
Mahfouz, et al, 2014 > < Bastide, et al, 2015 > < Fallahzadeh, et al, 2014 > and the risk of infections
with carcinogenic viruses < Peretti, et al, 2015 > as well.
It has been shown through population analysis studies that many in china consume an excess of red
meat < Yin, et al, 2014 >, this also displays that a difference in dietary consumptions with heavy
meat diets brings about a population's occurrence of high cancer risk, their developments and
incidences < Li, et al, 2014 >, many incidences of transmissible infectious carcinogenic viruses such
as HPV were also found prevailing, accompanying certain types of cancers amid the populations
there < Wang, et al, 2015 >.
If carcinogens are obliterated, proper nutritions and a vegetarian diet adhered to, the onsets of
cancers even developing would be pale. Thus these mycomedicinals / herbs if taken long term,
which clinical trials and cell culture experiments have found to be safe and non toxic at their
respective moderate daily dosages are effective as an anticancer preventive / curative / recurrence
preventive after an initial healing.

xxxiv

References
Akiko Matsumoto-Akanuma, Satoshi Akanuma, Masuro Motoi, Akihiko Yamagishi and Naohito
Ohno. Partial Purification and Charaterization of Polyphenoloxidase from Culinary-Medicinal
Royal Sun Mushroom ( the Himematsutake ), Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al.
( Agaricomycetideae ). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, (2011)13(1):73-82
Andrey V. Lyashenko, Oksana Belova, Azat G. Gabdulkhakov, Alexander A. Lashkov, Alexandr V.
Lisov, Alexey A. Leontievskyb and Albert M. Mikhailova. Purification, crystallization and
preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the laccase from Ganoderma lucidum. Acta Cryst. (2011).
F67, 926929
Ashok Kumar Panda, Kailash Chandra Swain. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of
Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim. Journal of Ayurveda & Integrative Medicine. Jan-Mar 2011. Vol 2.
Issue 1
Azar Baradaran, Zahra Rabiei, Mortaza Rafieian and Hedayatollah Shirzad. A review study on
medicinal plants affecting amnesia through cholinergic system. J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2012; 1(1):
3-9.
Bastide N, Chenni F, Audebert M, Santarelli R, Tache S, Naud N, Baradat M, Jouanin I, Surya R,
Hobbs DA, Kuhnle GG, Raymond-Letron I, Gueraud F, Corpet D, Pierre F. A central role for
heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake. Cancer Res. 2015 Jan 15. pii:
canres.2554.2014.
Benjamin M. Johnson, Bently P. Doonan, Faisal F. Radwan, and Azizul Haque. Ganoderic Acid
DM: An Alternative Agent for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer. Open Prost Cancer J.
2014; 3: 7885.
Bing-Ji Ma , Jin-Wen Shen , Hai-You Yu , Yuan Ruan , Ting-Ting Wu & Xu Zhao Hericenones
and erinacines: stimulators of nerve growth factor (NGF) biosynthesis in Hericium erinaceus,
Mycology: An International Journal on Fungal Biology, (2010) 1:2, 92-98
Bingji Ma, Wei Ren, Yan Zhou, Jinchuan Ma, Yuan Ruan, Chun-Nan Wen. Triterpenoids from the
spores of Ganoderma lucidum. North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2011 November,
Volume 3. No. 11
Bojiang Shen, John Truong, Ray Helliwell, Suresh Govindaraghavan and Nikolaus J Sucher. An in
vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to
promote healthy ageing and longevity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013,
13:373
Bor-Sheng Ko, Yi-Jhu Lu, Wen-Ling Yao, Tzu-An Liu, Shean-Shong Tzean, Tang-Long Shen and
Jun-Yang Liou. Cordycepin Regulates GSK-3b/b-Catenin Signaling in Human Leukemia Cells.
PLoS ONE. September 2013. 8(9):e76320.

xxxv

Borchers A1, Teuber SS, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Food safety. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010
Oct;39(2):95-141.
Bu-Miin Huang, Kuei-Yang Hsiao, Pei-Chin Chuang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Hsien-An Pan and ShawJenq Tsai. Upregulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes and Ovarian 17b-Estradiol in Human
Granulosa-Lutein Cells by Cordyceps sinensis Mycelium. Biology of Reproduction. (2004) 70,
13581364
Byung-Chul Kim, Youn-Sub Kim, Jin-Woo Lee, Jin-Hee Seo, Eun-Sang Ji, Hyejung Lee, Yong-I
Park and Chang-Ju Kim. Protective Effect of Coriolus versicolor Cultivated in Citrus Extract
Against Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells. Exp
Neurobiol. 2011 Jun;20(2):100-109.
Cao Li-Zhen, Lin Zhi-Bin. Regulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides oncytotoxic Tlymphocytes induced by dendritic cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2003 Apr; 24 (4): 312-326
Chan-Jung Liang, Chiang-Wen Lee, Hsin-Ching Sung, Yung-Hsiang Chen,Yao-Chang Chiang,
Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Ying-Chin Tseng, Chi-Yuan Li, Shu-Huei Wang, and Yuh-Lien Chen. Ganoderma
lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1 Expression in
Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice. Evidence-Based Complementary
and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2014, Article ID 305149
Chia-Jui Weng, Chi-Fai Chau, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang and Gow-Chin Yen. Lucidenic acid
inhibits PMA-induced invasion of human hepatoma cells through inactivating MAPK/ERK signal
transduction pathway and reducing binding activities of NF-kB and AP-1. Carcinogenesis. 2008.
vol.29 no.1 pp.147156,
Chia-Wei Phan, Pamela David, Murali Naidu, Kah-Hui Wong and Vikineswary Sabaratnam.
Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity
assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3. BMC and
Alternative Medicine. 2013, 13:261
Chia-Yang Li, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Min-Lung Tsai, Ruey-Shyang Hseu,Wun-Yi Shu,
Chun-Yu Chuang, Yuh-Chang Sun, Yuan-Shiun Chang, Jaung-Geng Lin, Chih-Sheng Chen,
Ching-Lung Huang and Ian C. Hsu. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in
different physiological stages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, June 2009. Volume 85
Cichosz G and Wiackowski SK. Genetically modified food--great unknown. Pol Merkur Lekarski.
2012 Aug;33(194):59-63.
Cora Sau-Wan Lai, Man-Shan Yua, Wai-Hung Yuen, Kwok-Fai So, Sze-Yong Zee, Raymond
Chuen-Chung Chang. Antagonizing -amyloid peptide neurotoxicity of the anti-aging fungus
Ganoderma lucidum. Brain Research 1 1 9 0 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 2 1 5 2 2 4
Crowe FL1, Appleby PN, Travis RC and Key TJ. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic
heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort
study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar;97(3):597-603.
xxxvi

Dandamudi Rajesh Babu & G. Nageswara Rao.Antioxidant properties and electrochemical


behavior of cultivated commercial Indian edible mushrooms. J Food Sci Technol (MarchApril
2013) 50(2):301308. DOI 10.1007/s13197-011-0338-8.
Dorothy Cimino Brown and Jennifer Reetz. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases
and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma. Evidence-Based Complementary
and Alternative Medicine.Volume 2012, Article ID 384301
E.J. Buenza, B.A. Bauera, T.W. Osmundson, T.J. Motley. The traditional Chinese medicine
Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96
(2005) 1929
E.-M. Noh, J.-S. Kim, H. Hur, B.-H. Park, E.-K. Song, M.-K. Han, K.-B. Kwon, W.-H. Yoo,
I.-K. Shim, S. J. Lee, H. J. Youn and Y.-R. Lee. Cordycepin inhibits IL-1b-induced MMP-1 and
MMP-3 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Rheumatology 2009;48:4548
Egija Zaura, Mark J. Buijs, Michel A. Hoogenkamp, Lena Ciric, Adele Papetti, Caterina
Signoretto, Monica Stauder, Peter Lingstrom, Jonathan Pratten, David A. Spratt and Michael
Wilson. The Effects of Fractions from Shiitake Mushroom on Composition and Cariogenicity of
Dental Plaque Microcosms in an In Vitro Caries Model. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology.
Volume 2011, Article ID 135034
Eun Woo Lee, Kazue Shizuki, Satoshi Hosokawa, Masami Suzuki, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Takahiro
Inakuma, Jingxuan Li, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Tadahiro Nagata, Shoei Furukawa, Hirokazu
Kawagishi. Two Novel Diterpenoids, Erinacines H and I from the Mycelia of Hericium erinaceum.
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2000. 64(11), p. 2402- 2405
Faisal F. Y. Radwan, J. Manuel Perez and Azizul Haque. Apoptotic and Immune Restoration
Effects of Ganoderic Acids Define a New Prospective for Complementary Treatment of
Cancer. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2013 ; Suppl 3: 004.
Fallahzadeh H1, Cheraghi M, Amoori N, Alaf M. Red meat intake and risk of non-hodgkin
lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(23):10421-5.
Fang Zhong, Xia Liu, Qiao Zhou, Xu Hao, Ying Lu, Shanmai Guo, Weiming Wang,
Donghai Lin and Nan Chen. 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis of metabolites in the kidneys provides
new insight into pathophysiological mechanisms: applications for treatment with Cordyceps
sinensis. Nephrol Dial Transplant (2012) 27: 556565
Gary Deng, Hong Lin, Andrew Seidman, Monica Fornier, Gabriella DAndrea, Kathleen Wesa,
Simon Yeung, Susanna Cunningham-Rundles, Andrew J. Vickers and Barrie Cassileth. A phase
I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer
patients: immunological effects. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009 September ; 135(9): 12151221.
Guo-Sheng Wu, Yue-Lin Song, Zhi-Qi Yin, Jia-Jie Guo, Sheng-Peng Wang, Wen-Wen Zhao,
Xiu-Ping Chen, Qing-Wen Zhang, Jin-Jian Lu and Yi-Tao Wang. Ganoderiol A-Enriched Extract
Suppresses Migration and Adhesion of MDA-MB-231 Cells by Inhibiting FAK-SRC-Paxillin
xxxvii

Cascade Pathway. PLoS ONE. October 2013. Volume 8. Issue 10. e76620
Hao Wu, Ning Tao, Xiaoman Liu, Xiao Li, Jian Tang, Chungwah Ma, Xiaofei Xu, Haitao Shao,
Baidong Hou, Hui Wang and Zhihai Qin. Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Inhibits the
Immunosuppressive Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Plos One. Dec 2012. 7(12):
e51751
Hao-Jan Lin, Yushan-Sophie Chang, Li-Hsiang Lin, Chiung-Fang Haung, Chia-Yu Wu and KengLiang Ou. An Immunomodulatory Protein (Ling Zhi-8) from a Ganoderma lucidum Induced
Acceleration of Wound Healing in Rat Liver Tissues after Monopolar Electrosurgery. EvidenceBased Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2014, Article ID 916531
Hassan Hajjaj, Catherine Mace, Matthew Roberts and Peter Niederberger. Effect of 26Oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and Their Activity as Cholesterol Synthesis Inhibitors.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005, 71(7):3653.
Hiroji Sato, Tsuyoshi Nishitoba, Sachiko Sakamura. Ganoderiol A and B, New Triterpenoids from
the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Agric. Bioi Chern. 1986, 50 (ll), 2887-2890
Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Yuta Shimizu, Naohiro Iwata, Shinya Kamiuchi, Fumiko Suzuki, Hiroshi
Iizuka, Yasuhide Hibino and Mari Okazaki. Antidepressant-like effects of a water-soluble
extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia in rats. BMC Complementary and
Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:370
Hiroshi Kobayashi, Kenichi Matsunaga and Yoshiharu Oguchi. Antimetastatic Effects of PSK
(Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes : An Overview. Cancer
Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. April/May 1995. Vol. 4. 275-281
Hiroshi Yukawa, Satoru Ishikawa, Takashi Kawanishi, Makoto Tamesada and Hironori Tomi.
Direct Cytotoxicity of Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell
Line. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2012. 35(7) 10141021
Hisashi Matsuda, Junji Akaki, Seikou Nakamura, Yoshie Okazaki, Hiroaki Kojima, Makoto
Tamesada and Masayuki Yoshikawa. Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Sterols from the Dried Powder
of Cultured Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2009)57(4) 411414
Hour-Young Chen, Chien-Ho Chen, Min-Yang Yeh, Jau-Shin Wu, Katsukiyo Yazawa and Yuzuru
Mikami. In vivo Anti-candidal Activity Induced by a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine,
Ganoderma lucidum. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol.1992.Vol. 33, 505-512
Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Kuo-Feng Hua, Chun-Cheng Lin,Chun-Hung Lin,Jason Hsu and
Chi-Huey Wong. Extract of Reishi Polysaccharides Induces Cytokine Expression
via TLR4-Modulated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways. J Immunol 2004; 173:5989-5999
Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, Li G, Wahlqvist ML and Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and
cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab.
2012;60(4):233-40.
xxxviii

Hui-na Zhang and Zhi-bin Lin. Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Acta
Pharmacol Sin. 2004. Feb; 25 (2): 191-195
Hyun-Min Yoon, Kyung-Jun Jang, Min Seok Han, Jin-Woo Jeong, Gi Young Kim, Jai-Heon Lee
and Yung Hyun Choi. Ganoderma lucidum ethanol extract inhibits the inflammatory response by
suppressing the NF-B and toll-like receptor pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2
microglial cells. Experimental And Therapeutic Medicine, 2013. 5: 957-963
Hyung Sik Kim, Sam Kacew and Byung Mu Lee. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant
polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinud edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus
versicolor). Carcinogenesis. 1999. vol.20 no.8 pp 1637-1640.
Jan-Ying Yeh, Li-Hui Hsieh, Kaun-Tzer Wu and Cheng-Fang Tsai. Antioxidant Properties and
Antioxidant Compounds of Various Extracts from the Edible Basidiomycete Grifola Frondosa
(Maitake). Molecules 2011, 16, 3197-3211;
Jia-Wei Hsu, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Shui-Tein Chen, Chi-HueyWong and Hsueh-Fen Juan.
Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides InduceMacrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia
THP-1 Cells via Caspase and p53 Activation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative
Medicine. Volume 2011, Article ID 358717.
Jian Cui, Yusuf Chisti. Polysaccharopeptides of Coriolus versicolor: physiological activity, uses, and
production. Biotechnology Advances 21 (2003) 109 122
Jiayu Chen, Xiaoyan Jin, Liting Zhang and LinjunYang. A Study On The Antioxidant Effect Of
Coriolus Versicolor Polysaccharide In Rat Brain Tissues. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med.
(2013) 10(6):481-484
Jie Liu, Kenji Kurashiki, Kuniyoshi Shimizu and Ryuichiro Kondo. 5a-Reductase Inhibitory Effect
of Triterpenoids Isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006. 29(2) 392395
Jie Liu, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Fumiko Konishi, Kiyoshi Noda, Shoichiro Kumamoto, Kenji
Kurashiki, Ryuichiro Kondo. Anti-androgenic activities of the triterpenoids fraction of
Ganoderma lucidum. Food Chemistry 100 (2007) 16911696
Jing-YangWong, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Jegadeesh Raman, Chia-Wei Phan, Umah Rani
Kuppusamy, Shahram Golbabapour and Vikineswary Sabaratnam. Gastroprotective Effects of
Lions Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract
against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 492976,
John Holliday and Matt Cleaver. Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the
Genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A Review. International Journal of Medicinal
Mushrooms, (2008)10(3):219234
Jong-Ho Koh, Kwang-Won Yu, Hyung-Joo Suh, Yang-Moon Choi and Tae-Seok Ahn. Activation
of Macrophages and the Intestinal Immune System by an Orally Administered Decoction from
xxxix

Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2002. 66 (2), 407-411
Jong-Ho Koh, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Jae-Chul Song and Hyung-Joo Suh. Antifatigue
and Antistress Effect of the Hot-Water Fraction from Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol. Pharm.
Bull. 2003. 26(5) 691694
Kah-Hui Wong, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Noorlidah
Abdullah, Umah Rani Kuppusamy and Vikineswary Sabaratnam. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract ofMedicinal Mushroom
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae). Evidence-Based Complementary
and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2011, Article ID 580752
Kai Zhao, Yongjian Li, Hong Zhang. Role of Dongchongxiacao (Cordyceps) in prevention of
contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with stable angina pectoris.J Tradit Chin Med. 2013
June. 15; 33(3): 283-286
Kam-Fai Lee, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Chih-Chuan Teng, Chien-Heng Shen, Meng-Chiao Hsieh,
Chien-Chang Lu, Ko-Chao Lee, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Chin-Chu Chen, Wen-Shih Huang
and Hsing-Chun Kuo. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated
Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38
MAPK and Nitrotyrosine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 15073-15089
Kar Neng Lai, Loretta Y. Y. Chan, Sydney C. W. Tang and Joseph C. K. Leung. Ganoderma
extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human
proximal tubular epithelial cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant (2006) 21: 11881197
Katherine M. Phillips, Ronald L. Horst, Nicholas J. Koszewski, Ryan R. Simon.Vitamin D4 in
Mushrooms. August 2012. Volume 7. Issue 8. e40702
Katsuhiko Minamino, Yuri Yanaga and Masaru Ohtsuru. Bioactive Substance from Grifola
frondosa ( Maitake) Mushroom Inhibits CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein and Expression on
C3H10T1/2 B2C1 Adipocyte Cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2008. 54. 240-254
Kazuo Saito. Motohiro Nishijima and Toshio Miyazaki. Structural Analysis of an Acidic
Polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum (Studies on Fungal Polysaccharides. XXXV). Chem.
Pharm. Bill. 1989. 37(11) 3134-3136
Keith R Martin. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and
in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment.
Martin Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:29
Kevin K. W. Chu, PhD, Susan S. S. Ho, PharmD, and Albert H. L. Chow, PhD. Coriolus
versicolor: A Medicinal Mushroom with Promising Immunotherapeutic Values. Journal of Clinical
Pharmacology, 2002;42:976-984
Kim, Shin Duk. Isolation and Structure Determination of a Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitor
from Ganoderma lucidum. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2010), 20(11), 15211523
xl

Kevin Spelman, MS; JJ Burns, ND; Douglas Nichols, ND; Nasha Winters, ND; Steve Ottersberg,
MS; Mark Tenborg, ND. Modulation of Cytokine Expression by Traditional Medicines: A Review
of Herbal Immunomodulators. Alternative Medicine Review June 2006. Volume 11, Number 2
Koichiro Moria, Chinatsu Kobayashi, Takako Tomita, Satoshi Inatomi and Masahiko Ikeda.
Antiatherosclerotic effect of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi), Grifola frondosa
(Maitake), and Hypsizygus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) in apolipoprotein Edeficient mice. Nutrition
Research 28 (2008) 335342
Koichiro Mori, Yutaro Obara, Mitsuru Hirota, Yoshihito Azumi,c Satomi Kinugasa,Satoshi Inatomi
and Norimichi Nakahata. Nerve Growth Factor-Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in
1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull. September 2008. 31(9) 17271732
Koki Saito, Toshiya Kase, Eiichi Takahashi, Eisaku Takahashi and Suehara Horinouchi.
Purification and Characterization of a Trehalose Synthase from the Basidiomycete Grifola frondosa.
Applied And Environmental Microbiology. Nov. 1998,Vol. 64, No. 11, p. 43404345
Kousuke Tanaka, Satoru Ishikawa, Yasunori Matsui, Makoto Tamesada, Nanae Harashima and
Mamoru Harada. Oral ingestion of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract inhibits B16 melanoma growth
via mitigation of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression. Cancer Sci. March 2011. vol. 102.
no. 3. 516521
Kum Ju Park, Sang-Yun Lee, Hyun-Su Kim, Matsumi Yamazaki, Kenzo Chiba and Hyo-Cheo
Ha.The Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Effects of Tremella fuciformis in PC12h Cells.
Mycobiology (2007) 35(1): 11-15
Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Susan L. Morris-Natschke, Xiaoming Yang, Rong Huang, Ting Zhou, Shou-Fang
Wu, Qian Shi, Hideji Itokawa. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and
other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Complement Med. 2012. 2(2):
84-95
Kuo-I Lin, Yeong-Yi Kao, Hui-Kai Kuo, Wen-Bin Yang, Alice Chou, Hsin-Hung Lin, Alice L. Yu
and Chi-Huey Wong. Reishi Polysaccharides Induce Immunoglobulin Production through the
TLR4/TLR2-mediated Induction of Transcription Factor Blimp-1. The Journal Of Biological
Chemistry, August 25, 2006. Vol. 281, NO. 34, pp. 2411124123
Le LT and Sabat J. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist
cohorts. Nutrients. 2014 May 27;6(6):2131-47.
Lee, Ji Yeon, Joo Young Kim, Yong Gyu Lee, Man Hee Rhee, Eock Ki Hong and Jae Youl Cho.
Molecular Mechanism of Macrophage Activation by Exopolysaccharides from Liquid Culture of
Lentinus edodes. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2008), 18(2), 355364
Lei Yu, Baohua Zhang, Geza R. Szilvay, Ren Sun, Janne Janis, Zefang Wang, Shuren Feng, Haijin
Xu, Markus B. Linder and Mingqiang Qiao. Protein HGFI from the edible mushroom Grifola
frondosa is a novel 8 kDa class I hydrophobin that forms rodlets in compressed monolayers.
Microbiology (2008), 154, 16771685
xli

Lena Ciric, Anna Tymon, Egija Zaura, Peter Lingstrom, Monica Stauder, Adele Papetti, Caterina
Signoretto, Jonathan Pratten, MichaelWilson and David Spratt. In Vitro Assessment of Shiitake
Mushroom(Lentinula edodes)Extract for Its Antigingivitis Activity. Journal of Biomedicine and
Biotechnology. Volume 2011, Article ID 507908
Leonardus B.S. Kardono, Isaura P. Tjahja, Nina Artanti and Jeremia Manuel. Isolation,
Characterization and -glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Crude Beta Glucan from Silver Ear
Mushroom ( Tremella fuciformis ). Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013. 13(5): 406-411.
Li D. Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases. J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Jan
30;94(2):169-73.
Li X, Zheng S, Chen S, Qin F, Lau S and Chen Q. Trends in gynaecological cancers in the largest
obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Tumour Biol. 2015 Feb 4.
Li-Xin Sun, Zhi-Bin Lin, Xin-Suo Duan, Jie Lu, Zhi-Hua Ge, Min Li, En-Hong Xing, Tian-Fei
Lan, Miao-Miao Jiang, Ning Yang and Wei-Dong Li. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides
counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon
lymphocyte activation. Experimental And Therapeutic Medicine. 2013. 5: 1117-1122
Liubao Gu, Hisashi Johno, Shotaro Nakajima, Tatsuya Yoshitomi, Shuhei Takahashi and Masanori
Kitamura. Intervention in Genotoxic StressInduced Senescence by Cordycepin Through
Activation of eIF2 and Suppression of Sp1. Toxicological sciences 2013. 134(2), 345354
Luca Vannucci, Jiri Krizan, Petr Sima, Dmitry Stakheev, Fabian Caja, Lenka Rajsiglova, Vratislav
Horak and Mustafa Saieh. Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans
(Review). International Journal Of Oncology, 2013. 43: 357-364
Mahfouz EM, Sadek RR, Abdel-Latief WM, Mosallem FA, Hassan EE. The role of dietary and
lifestyle factors in the development of colorectal cancer: case control study in Minia, Egypt.Cent
Eur J Public Health. 2014 Dec;22(4):215-22.
Manuel Torres, Amaia Marcilla-Etxenike, Maria A. Fiol-deRoque, Pablo V. Escrib and Xavier
Busquets. The unfolded protein response in the therapeutic effect of hydroxy-DHA against
Alzheimers disease. Apoptosis. Feb 2015.
Masanori Noguchi, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Katsuro Tomiyasu, Yoshiko Kurita, Hiroko Kukihara,
Fumiko Konishi, Shoichiro Kumamoto, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Ryuichiro Kondo and Kei Matsuoka.
Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study. Asian J Androl 2008; 10 (4): 651
658
Masashi Mizuno, Yosuke Nishitani, Takashi Hashimoto and Kazuki Kanazawa. Different
Suppressive Effects of Fucoidan and Lentinan on IL-8 mRNA Expression in Vitro Gut
Inflammation. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem, 2009. 73(10), 2324-2325.
Masashi Mizuno and Yosuke Nishitani. Health Beneficial Effects of Food Factors Can Be
xlii

Applicable to Humans? J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. May 2013. Vol. 52. no.3. Pg 202 207.
Masataka Fukuzawa, Rie Yamaguchi, Izumi Hide, Zhiqing Chen, Yuko Hirai, Akiko Sugimoto,
Tadashi Yasuhara and Yoshihiro Nakata. Possible Involvement of Long Chain Fatty Acids in the
Spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to Its Anti-tumor ActivityBiol. Pharm. Bull. 2008.
31(10) 19331937
McCarty MF. GCN2 and FGF21 are likely mediators of the protection from cancer, autoimmunity,
obesity, and diabetes afforded by vegan diets. Med Hypotheses. 2014 Sep;83(3):365-71.
Md. Abul Hasnat, Mehnaz Pervin and Beong Ou Lim. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro
and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice.
Molecules 2013, 18, 6663-6678
Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Dian-zheng Zhang and Han-chun Chen. Cordyceps
Mushroom: A Potent Anticancer Nutraceutical. The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 2010, 3, 179-183
Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Mousumi Tania, Rui Liu and Mohammad Mijanur Rahman. Hericium
erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values. J Complement Integr Med. 2013; 10(1): 16
Miao Hu,Weiwei Zeng, and Brian Tomlinson. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula
for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2014, Article ID 365742
Michihiro Kohguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Hikaru Watanabe, Naoki Kudo, Takashi Shibuya, Tatsuya
Ishihara, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Shigehara Fukuda and Masashi Kurimoto. Immunopotentiating Effects of the Antler-shaped Fruiting Body of Ganoderma lucidum ( Rokkaku-Reishi ).
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2004. 68 (4), 881-887.
Min Yang, Xiaoming Wang, Shuhong Guan, Jiameng Xia, Jianghao Sun, Hui Guo and De-an Guo.
Analysis of Triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2007, 18, 927939
Ming-Jen Hsu, Shiuh-Sheng Lee, and Wan-Wan Lin. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma
lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation
of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. July
2002. Volume 72. Pg 207 216
Ming-Jen Hsu, Shiuh-Sheng Lee, Sho Tone Lee & Wan-Wan Lin. Signaling mechanisms of
enhanced neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis by the polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma
lucidum. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 139, 289298
Mrinalini Singh, Rajkumar Tulsawani, Praveen Koganti, Amitabh Chauhan, Manimaran Manickam
and KshipraMisra. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells. BioMed Research
International Volume 2013, Article ID 569206
xliii

Nadeem A. Talpur, Bobby W. Echard, Arthur Yin Fan, Omeed Jaffari, Debasis Bagchi and Harry
G. Preuss. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its
fractions in two rat strains. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 237: 129136, 2002.
Nian-Hong Chen, Jian-Wen Liu and Jian-Jiang Zhong. Ganoderic acid T inhibits tumor invasion
in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of MMP expression. Pharmacological Reports. 2010. 62. 150163   

Noriko Kodama, Kiyoshi Komuta, Norio Sakai and Hiroaki Nanba. Effects of D-Fraction, a
Polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa on Tumor Growth Involve Activation of NK Cells. Biol.
Pharm. Bull. December 2002. 25(12) 16471650(2002)
Nurhuda Mohamad Ansor, Noorlidah Abdullah and Norhaniza Aminudin. Anti-angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE) proteins from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum(Curtis) P. Karst. BMC
Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:256
Pai-Feng Kao, Shwu-HueyWang, Wei-Ting Hung, Yu-Han Liao, Chun-Mao Lin and Wen-Bin
Yang. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies. Journal of
Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Volume 2012, Article ID 673764.
Paola Rossi, Daniela Buonocore, Elisa Altobelli, Federico Brandalise, Valentina Cesaroni, Davide
Iozzi, Elena Savino and FulvioMarzatico. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance
Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2014, Article ID 979613,
Paul Grant and Shamin Ramasamy. An update on plant Derived Anti-Androgens. Int J Endocrinol
Metab. 2012; 10(2):497-502.
Paul Pyo, Brandon Louie, Srinivas Rajamahanty, Muhammad Choudhury and Sensuke Konno.
Possible immunotherapeutic potentiation with D-Fraction in prostate cancer cells. Journal of
Hematology & Oncology 2008, 1:25
Pei-Yu Hsu, Jiun-Liang Chen, Hsing-Yu Chen and Sien-Hung Yang. Extract of SporodermBroken Germinating Spores of Ganoderma lucidum Activates Human Polymorphonuclear
Neutrophils via the P38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway. Chang Gung Med J .MarchApril 2012. Vol. 35 No. 2
Peng-YunWang, Xiao-Ling Zhu and Zhi-Bin Lin. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of
polysaccharides from broken-spore of Ganoderma lucidum. Frontiers in Pharmacology.
Ethnopharmacology. July 2012. Volume 3 . Article 135
Peretti A, FitzGerald PC, Bliskovsky V, Buck CB, Pastrana DV. Hamburger polyomaviruses. J
Gen Virol. 2015 Jan 7. pii: vir.0.000033.
Poh-Guat Cheng, Chia-Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam,Noorlidah Abdullah, Mahmood Ameen
Abdulla and Umah Rani Kuppusamy. Polysaccharides-Rich Extract of Ganoderma lucidum (M.A.
xliv

Curtis:Fr.) P. Karst Accelerates Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.


Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2013, Article ID 671252
Qi-zhen Cao and Zhi-bin Lin. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides peptide. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004 Jun; 25 (6): 833-838
Rahmad Akbar and Wai Keat Yam. Interaction of ganoderic acid on HIV related target: molecular
docking studies. Bioinformation. 2011. 7(8): 413-417
Rong-Hwa Jan, Teng-Yi Lin, Ya-Chun Hsu, Shiuh-Sheng Lee, Shih-Yen Lo, Mingi Chang, LiKuang Chen and Yu-Li Lin. Immuno-modulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum-derived
polysacharide on human monocytoid dendritic cells pulsed with Der p 1 allergen. BMC
Immunology 2011, 12:31
Ruizhe Qiani, Luchun Hua, Toshiaki Kunimura, Hironori Nakamura, Hiroshi Ishino, Masanobu
Iri, Hisashi Hosaka, Fengdi Zhao, Guoping Zhang, Masao Mori, Zhong Wang, Huiming Jin
and Toshio Morohoshi. Effect of Ganoderman lucidum on Proliferation and Apoptosis
of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells in vitro. Showa Univ J Med Sci, September 2004.
16(3), 231 - 236
S. E. Mallikarjuna, A. Ranjini, Devendra J. Haware, M. R. Vijayalakshmi, M. N. Shashirekha and
S. Rajarathnam. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms. Journal of Chemistry. Volume
2013, Article ID 805284
Sanhong Yu, Veronika Weaver, Keith Martin and Margherita T Cantorna. The effects of whole
mushrooms during inflammation. BMC Immunology 2009, 10:12
Seong-Eun Kim, Byung Soon Hwang, Ja-Gyeong Song, Seung Woong Lee, In-Kyoung Lee and
Bong-Sik Yun. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms. Mycobiology. 2013
December, 41(4): 171-176
Seulmee Shin, Sunhee Moon, Yoonhee Park, Jeonghak Kwon, Seungjeong Lee, Chong-Kil Lee,
Kyunghae Cho, Nam-Joo Ha and Kyungjae Kim. Role of Cordycepin and Adenosine on the
Phenotypic Switch of Macrophages via Induced Anti-inflammatory Cytokines. Immune Network.
December 2009. Volume 9 Number 6
Sheng Zheng, Yanping Jia, Jun Zhao, Qun Wei and Yuehua Lin. Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides eradicates the blocking effect of fibrinogen on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma
cells. Oncology Letters. 2012. 3: 613-616
Shigeo Ukai, Kazuo Hirose, Tadashi Kiho, Chihiro Hara, Tsutomu Irikura, Tsuneki Kanechika and
Yoshinari Hasegawa. Antitumor Activity on Sarcoma 180 of the Polysaccharide from Tremella
fuciformis Berk. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1972. 20(10)2293-2294.
Shigeo Ukai, Kazuo Hirose, Tadashi Kiho and Chihiro Hara. Polysaccharides in Fungi. I.
Purification and Characteization of Acidic Heteroglycans from Aqueous Extract of Tremella
fuciformis Berk. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1974.22(5)1102-1107
xlv

Shih-Fen Liaoa, Chi-Hui Liang, Ming-Yi Ho, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Tsung-I Tsai, Yves S.-Y. Hsieh, ChihMing Tsai, Shiou-Ting Li, Yang-Yu Cheng, Shu-Ming Tsao, Tung-Yi Lin, Zong-Yan Lin, Wen-Bin
Yang, Chien-Tai Ren, Kuo-I Lin, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Chun-Hung Lin, Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Chung-Yi Wu
and Chi-Huey Wong. Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom
induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes. PNAS. August 20, 2013. vol. 110.
no. 34. 1380913814
Shiu-Nan Chen, Ching-Sheng Chang, Ming-Hsin Hung, Sherwin Chen, William Wang, ChengJeng Tai and Chung-Lun Lu. The Effect of Mushroom Beta-Glucans from Solid Culture of
Ganoderma lucidum on Inhibition of the Primary Tumor Metastasis. Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2014, Article ID 252171
Shu-Qiu Wang, Xiao-Jie Li, Shaobo Zhou, Di-Xiang Sun, Hui Wang, Peng-Fei Cheng, Xiao-Ru
Ma, Lei Liu, Jun-Xing Liu, Fang-Fang Wang, Yan-Feng Liang and Jia-Mei Wu. Intervention
Effects of Ganoderma Lucidum Spores on Epileptiform Discharge Hippocampal Neurons and
Expression of Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin. Plos One. April 24, 2013. 8(4): e61687.
Shu-Qiu Wang, Xiao-Jie Li, Hong-Bin Qiu, Zhi-Mei Jiang, Maria Simon, Xiao-Ru Ma, Lei Liu,
Jun-Xing Liu, Fang-Fang Wang, Yan-Feng Liang, Jia-Mei Wu, Wei-Hua Di and Shaobo Zhou.
Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular
Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII a in Epileptic Hippocampal
Neurons. Plos One, July 2014. 9(7): e102161
Shuhei Takahashi, Minori Tamai, Shotaro Nakajima, Hironori Kato, Hisashi Johno, Tomoyuki
Nakamura and Masanori Kitamura. Blockade of adipocyte differentiation by cordycepin. British
Journal of Pharmacology (2012) 167 561575
Shwu-Huey Wang, Wen-Bin Yang, Yin-Chen Liu, Yi-Hua Chiu, Chien-Tsu Chen, Pai-Feng Kao
and Chun-Mao Lin. A potent sphingomyelinase inhibitor from Cordyceps mycelia contributes its
cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress in macrophages. Journal of Lipid Research. 2011
Volume 52
Soniamol Joseph, Baby Sabulal, Varughese George, Thozhuthumparambal P. Smina, Kainoor K.
Janardhanan. Antioxidative and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Chloroform Extract of
Ganoderma lucidum Found in South India. Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 111121
Srinivas Rajamahanty, Brandon Louie, Cormac ONeill, Muhammad Choudhury and Sensuke
Konno. Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen.
International Journal of General Medicine 2009:2 1517
Subhadip Mahapatra and Debdulal Banerjee. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition
and Applications. Microbiology Insights 2013:6 116.
Syntyche Ling-Sing Seow, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Kah-Hui Wong and Vikineswary
Sabaratnam. Potentiation of neuritogenic activity of medicinal mushrooms in rat
pheochromocytoma cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:157

xlvi

Tae Hwan Kim, Ju Sung Kim, Zoo Haye Kim, Ren Bin Huang, Young Lye Chae and Ren Sheng
Wang. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and
Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and
activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU1cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:236
Takashi Mizuno, Ryuichi Inagaki, Tetsuro Kanao, Toshihiko Hagiwara, Takuji Nakamura, Hitoshi
Ito, Keishiro Shimura, Toshimitsu Sumiya and the late Akihiro Asakura. Antitumor Activity and
Some Properties of Water-insoluble Hetero-glycans from "Himematsutake," the Fruiting
Body of Agaricus blazei Murill. Agric. Biol Chem., May 9, 1990. 54 (ll), 2897-2905, 1990
Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G.Vegetarian diets and the incidence of
cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-94.
Taro Nomura and Hiroshi Mitsuhashi. Isolations and Characterizations of Polysaccharides from
Tremella fuciformis Berk. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1972. 20(6)1347-1348.
Thida Sripuan, Kazuhiro Apki, Kenji Yamamoto, Dararat Tongkao and Hidehiko Kumagai.
Purification and Characterization of Thermostable -Galactosidase from Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci.
Biotechnol. Biochem., 2003. 67(7), 1485-1491
Tito Fernandes. Link between Herpes Simplex Virus and Alzheimer's Disease Potential Role of
Mushroom Nutrition Supplementation in Prevention. Clinical Journal of Mycology. January 2014,
Volume IV, Page 10
Tohru Kikuchi, Satoko Matsuda, Shigetoshi Kadota, Yoshihiro Murai and Zenichi Ogita.
Ganoderic Acid D, E, F, and H And Lucidenic Acid D, E, F, New Triterpenoids From Ganoderma
Lucidum. Bhem. Pharm. Bill. 1985, 33(6)2624-2627
Tohru Kikuchi, Satoko Kanomi ( nee Matsuda), Shigetoshi Kadota, Yoshihiro Murai, Koji Tsubono
and Zen-ichi Ogita. Constituents of the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum ( Fr. ) Karst. I. Structures of
Ganoderic Acids C2, E, I and K, Lucidenic Acid F and Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull.
1986. 34(9)3695-3712
Tomomi Ito, Manami Kato, Hironobu Tsuchida, Etsuko Harada, Toshio Niwa and Toshihiko
Osawa. Ergothioneine as an Anti-Oxidative/Anti-Inflammatory Component in Several Edible
Mushrooms. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2011, 17 (2), 103 110
Toshio Miyazaki and Motohiro Nishijima. Studies on Fungal Polysaccharides XXVII Structural
Examination of a Water-soluble, Antitumot Polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem. Pharm.
Bull. 1981. 29(12)3611-3616
Trent J Herda, Eric D Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout and Joel T Cramer. Effects of a supplement designed
to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and endurance. Journal of the
International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008, 5:3
Tsuyoshi Nishitoba, Hiroji Sato and Takanori Kasai. NewBitter C27 and C30 Terpenoids from the
xlvii

Fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Agric. Biol Chem. 1985, 49 (6), 1793-1798
Tsuyoshi Nishitoba, Hiroji Sato and Sadao Sakamura. New Terpenoids, Ganolucidic Acid
D, Ganoderic Acid L, Lucidone C and Lucidenic Acid G, from the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum.
Agric. Biol. Chem. 1986 , 50 (3), 809-811
Tsuyoshi Nishitoba, Hiroji Sato and Sadao Sakamura. Bitterness and Structure Relationship of the
Triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Agric. Biol. Chem. 1988, 52 (7), 1791-1795.
Ulrike Lindequist, Timo H. J. Niedermeyer and Wolf-Dieter Julich. The Pharmacological Potential
of Mushrooms. ECAM 2005;2(3)285299
Vaclav Vetvicka, Jana Vetvickova. Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts. Ann Transl Med 2014;2(2):14
Vaibhav B. Shah, Yongcheng Huang, Rohan Keshwara,Tammy Ozment-Skelton, David L. Williams
and Lakhu Keshvara. -Glucan Activates Microglia without Inducing Cytokine Production in
Dectin-1-Dependent Manner. J Immunol 2008; 180:2777-2785
Vinicius Pires Rincao, Kristie Aimi Yamamoto, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo, Sandra Aguiar
Soares, Luzia Doretto Paccola Meirelles, Carlos Nozawa and Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares.
Polysaccharide and extracts from Lentinula edodes: structural features and antiviral activity.
Virology Journal 2012, 9:37
Wang L, Wu B, Li J, Chen L. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336
invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China. J Med Virol. 2015
Mar;87(3):516-21.
Wei-Chung Liu, Wei-Ling Chuang, Min-Lung Tsai, Ji-Hong Hong, William H. McBride and ChiShiun Chiang. Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced
Leukopenia. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 April ; 233(4): 447455.
Wing Keung Chan, Helen Ka Wai Law, Zhi-Bin Lin, Yu Lung Lau and Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan.
Response of human dendritic cells to different immunomodulatory polysaccharides derived from
mushroom and barley. International Immunology, 2007. Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 891899.
Wing Keung Chan, Christopher Ching Hang Cheung, Helen Ka Wai Law, Yu Lung Lau and
Godfrey Chi Fung Chan. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic
leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function. Journal of Hematology &
Oncology 2008, 1:9
Woo Teak Chung, Seo Ho Lee, Jong Dai Kim, Young Sik Park, Baik Hwang, Shin Young Lee and
Hyeon Yong Lee. Effect of Mycelial Culture Broth of Ganoderma lucidum on the Growth
Characteristics of Human Cell Lines. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2001. Vol.92, No.
6, 550-555.

xlviii

Xiao-Hua Ann, Yong-Zhi Lun, Wei Zhang, Ben Liu, Xing-Yun Li, Min- Tao Zhong, Xiao-Li Wang,
Jing Cao, An-Hong Ning and Min Huang. Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-3,
an Antioxidant and Antitumor Molecule from Lentinula edodes C91-3. Asian Pacific Journal of
Cancer Prevention, 2014. Vol 15, Pg 5055 - 5061
Xiao-Jun Yang, Jing Liu, Lin-Bai Ye, Fan Yang, Li Ye, Jin-Rong Gao and Zheng-Hui Wu. In vitro
and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on
carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. World J Gastroenterol 2006 March 7; 12(9):1379-1385
Yalin Wu and Denong Wang. A New Class of Natural Glycopeptides with Sugar Moiety dependent
Antioxidant Activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies. J Proteome Res. 2009
February ; 8(2): 436442
Yaqvob Mami, Gholamali Peyvast, Mahmood Ghasemnezhad and Farhood Ziaie. Supplementation
at casing to improve yield and quality of white button mushroom. Agricultural Sciences. Vol.4,
No.1, 27-33 (2013)
Yearul Kabir, Shuichi Kimura and Tsutomu Tamura. Dietary Effect of Ganoderma lucidum
Mushroom on Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). J.
Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 1988, 34, 433-438.
Yin X, Wang L, Li Y, Zhang M, Wang Z, Deng Q and Wang L. Red meat intake among employees
of floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi.
2014 Nov; 35(11):1202-7.
Yoshiaki Sone and Akira Misaki. Purification and Characterization of -D-Mannosidase and -NAcetyl-D-Hexosaminidase of Tremella fuciformis. J. Biochem. 1978. 83, 1135-1144
Yoshiaki Sone, Reiko Okuda, Noriko Wada, Etsu Kishida and Akira Misaki. Structures and
Antitumor Activities of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body and the Growing Culture
of Mycelium of Ganoderrna lucidum. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1985, 49 (9), 2641 -2653
Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee and Jin Seong Kim. A comprehensive review of the therapeutic
effects of Hericium erinaceus in neurodegenerative disease. J. Mushrooms 2014 June, 12(2):77-81
Yu Guang Di, Yin Qi-Zhang, Hu Yu-Ming, Yin Zhi-Wei, Gu Zhen-Lun, Qian Zheng-Nian,
Qian Zhong-Ming. Effects of Coriolus versicoior polysaccharides peptides on electric activity of
mediobasal hypothalamus and on immune function in rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 1996. May;
17 (3): 271 274
Yu-Li Lin, Yu-Chih Liang, Yu-Shan Tseng, Hsin-Yi Huang, Shu-Yu Chou, Ruey-Shyang Hseu,
Ching-Tsan Huang and Bor-Luen Chiang. An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, induced
activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-B and MAPK
pathways. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. October 2009,Volume 86
Yufang Weng, Jun Lu. Lan Xiang, Akira Matsuura, Yang Zhang, Qianming Huang and Jianhua
Qi. Ganodermasides C and D, Two New Anti-Aging Ergosterols from Spores of the Medicinal
xlix

Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2011. 75 (4), 800-803


Yuki Masuda, Yukihito Murata, Masahiko Hayashi and Hiroaki Nanba. Inhibitory Effect of MDFraction on Tumor Metastasis: Involvement of NK Cell Activation and Suppression of Intercellular
Adhesion Molecule (ICAM)-1 Expression in Lung Vascular Endothelial Cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull.
(2008) 31(6) 11041108
Yuki Masuda, Takuya Togo, Shigeto Mizuno, Morichika Konishi and Hiroaki Nanba. Soluble glucan from Grifola frondosa induces proliferation and Dectin-1/Syk signaling in resident
macrophages via the GM-CSF autocrine pathway. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. April 2012.
Volume 91, Pg 547 556.
Yuki Nakajima, Yuzo Sato, and Tetsuya Konishi. Antioxidant Small Phenolic Ingredients in
Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga) Chem. Pharm. Bull. June 8, 2007, 55(8) 12221226
(2007) Vol. 55, No. 8
Yukiko Nagashima, Noriko Maeda, Shigeru Yamamoto, Shigefumi Yoshino and Masaaki Oka.
Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with
combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract.
OncoTargets and Therapy 2013:6 853859
Yuxi Wang and Baojun Xu. Distribution of Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic Contents in
Acetone, Ethanol, Water and Hot Water Extracts from 20 Edible Mushrooms via Sequential
Extraction. Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2014. Volume 2. Issue 1
Zengenni Liang, Yu-Tong Guo, You-Jin Yi, Ren-Cai Wang, Qiu-Long Hu and Xing-Yao Xiong.
Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides Target a Fas/Caspase Dependent Pathway to Induce
Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2014 Vol 15
(9), 3981-3986
Zengenni Liang, Youjin Yi, Yutong Guo, Rencai Wang, Qiulong Hu and Xingyao Xiong. Chemical
Characterization and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9103-9116
Zheng-Yuan Su, Lucy Sun Hwang, Been-Huang Chiang, Lee-Yan Sheen. Antihepatoma and Liver
Protective Potentials of Ganoderma Lucidum Fermented in a Medium Containing Black Soybean
and Astragalus Membranaceus. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (2013). Vo1.
3, No. 2, pp. 110-118
Zhenquan Liu, Pengtao Li, Dan Zhao, Huiling Tang and Jianyou Guo. Protective effect of extract
of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Behavioral and Brain Functions 2010, 6:61
Zhi-bin Lin and Hui-na Zhang. Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum
and its possible mechanisms. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004 Nov; 25 (11): 1387-1395
Zubing Li, Jing Liu and Yifang Zhao. Possible Mechanism Underlying the Antiherpetic Activity of
a Proteoglycan Isolated from the Mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum in Vitro. Journal of Biochemistry
l

and Molecular Biology, January 2005, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 34-40

li