16 views

Uploaded by shan0214

dynamic Charisteristic of Instrument

- Bosch HFM5 Sensors
- mech auto
- Icossar Sample Paper Stay Cables
- Detection of Structural Damage in Building using Changes in Modal Damping Mechanism (2012) - Paper (6).pdf
- Jefcott Model With Ofset Disc
- Dynamic Anlysis
- Modeling of the Damped Oscillations of the Viscous Beams Structures With Swivel Joints for Harmonic Mode
- Mass-Spring-Damper Parameter Identification
- Nemec_I_2
- SRV02 Workbook
- Ondas Dinâmicas
- Oscilador Com Atrito (Artigo)
- Vibration and Damping
- 10
- mche210d
- 18_JPE-10289
- CAMS M6 FD Seakeeping Models
- DOM 2 MARK
- Vibes 2
- Things to Take Care While Designing an LC

You are on page 1of 25

OF INSTRUMENT

INTRODUCTION

Instrument

changes in the measured variables

Instead,

they

exhibit

a

characteristic

slowness/sluggishness due to

mass, thermal

capacitance, fluid capacitance or electric capacitance

Pure delay in time is often encountered where the

instrument are wait for some reaction to take place.

The dynamic behavior of an instrument is

determined by subjecting its primary element to

some known and predetermined variation in

measured quantity

INTRODUCTION contd

Dynamics characteristic determined by analyzing the

The reason for dynamics characteristic

is the

presence of energy- storing elements:

- Inertia (mass)

- Capacitances (electrical, thermal)

The dynamic response characteristic - desired input is not

The dynamic inputs to an instrument may be of the

following types:- Periodic input-Varying cyclically with time or repeating

itself after a constant interval. The input may be of

harmonic or non harmonic type.

signal is of a definite duration and becomes zero after a

certain period of time.

definite period and amplitude. This may be continuous,

but not cyclic

1) Impulse function if a system is subjected to

shock input

2) Step function if a system is subjected to

sudden disturbances

3) Ramp function if the inputs are gradually

changing function of time

4) Sinusoidal function oscillation of spring,

ocean waves

Consider first the ramp function shown in the upper left. It is zero

for t<0 and one for t>T, and goes linearly from 0 to 1 as time goes

from 0 to T.

If we take the derivative of our ramp function (lower left), we get a

rectangular pulse with height 1/T (the slope of the line) and width

T. This rectangular pulse has area (heightwidth) of one.

If we take the limit as T0, we get a pulse of infinite height, zero

width, but still with an area of one; this is the unit impulse and we

represent it by (t). Since we can't show the height of the impulse on

our graph, we use the vertical axis to show the area. The unit

impulse has area=1, so that is the shown height.

For studying the dynamic, it is necessary to represent

which the governing relation between its input &

output is obtained as below figure,

input

Xi (t)

K

1+D

output

Xo (t)

(1+ D) Xo = K Xi (t)

where, Xo is output signals in function of time

Xi is input signals in function of time

K is constant

is time constant

D is the time derivative operator

With the term in the block diagram above as transfer function of the

instrument,

K

= Xo (t)

(1+ D)

Xi (t)

dxo

a1

ao xo bo xi (t )

dt

where,

or

K

= Xo (t)

(1+ D)

Xi (t)

= a1/ao is time constant

D = d/dt is time derivative operator

For the static case, D = 0 , which is a zeroth order system for which

xo (t ) Kxi (t )

Where K is the static sensitivity

for 1st order instrument with sinusoidal input

Xo/Xi = 1/ [1+ ()2] = 0.8

1/ [1+ (0.2)2] = 0.8

=3.75 rad/s

where = 2f, so f = 0.597 Hz

(b) Xo/Xi = 0.8 and = 0.2 s

for 1st order instrument with step input

Xo/Xi = 1 e t/ = 0.8

0.2 = e t/0.2

t = 0.322 s

The simplest time response is shown in Figure 1 as

Figure 2.

differential equation.

A general equation can be written for this response

independent of the sensor, the variable being

measured, or the static transfer function.

The equation gives the sensor output as a function of

time following the step input:

The

actual variable value was changed

instantaneously to a new value at t = 0.

Equation (I .7) describes transducer output very

well except during the initial time period-that is, at

the start of the response near t = 0.

Thermometer, thermocouples & pressure gages

(bellow/diaphragm) may be called first order

type.

seen by writing Equation (1.7) as:

that will occur.

The square-bracketed term is the fraction of total

change as a function of time

find

value has changed by approximately 63% of the total change.

is sometimes referred to as the 63% time, the response time,

or the e-folding time.

For

approximately reached its final value after five time

constants, since from Equation (1.8) we find

Example:

A sensor measures temperature linearly with a static

constant. Find the output 0.75 s after the input

changes from 200C to 410C. Find the error in

temperature this represents.

Solution :

So

temperature is 410C

0C.

Real-Time Effects

discontinuous change of the input value

In the real world, such instantaneous changes occur

rarely if ever, and thus we have presented a worst

case situation in the time response.

In general, a sensor should be able to track any

changes in the physical dynamic variable in a time

less than one time constant

Second-Order Response

A step change in the input causes the output to

down to a value that corresponds to the new input

Such oscillation (and the decay of the oscillation

itself) is a function of the sensor

This output transient generated by the transducer is

an error and must be accounted for in any

measurement involving a transducer with this

behavior.

Liquid manometers & pressure gage (mass in system,

spring & viscous damping mean) second order type

A typical output curve that might be expected from a

transducer having a second-order response for a

discontinuous change in the input.

sensor

response.

The general behavior (the general nature of the

response) can be described in time as:

natural frequency, fn are characteristics of the

transducer itself and must be considered in many

applications.

Solution :

Solution :

- Bosch HFM5 SensorsUploaded byrestinho
- mech autoUploaded byapi-236544093
- Icossar Sample Paper Stay CablesUploaded byNagar Nitin
- Detection of Structural Damage in Building using Changes in Modal Damping Mechanism (2012) - Paper (6).pdfUploaded byJulio Humberto Díaz Rondán
- Jefcott Model With Ofset DiscUploaded byPravesh S Nair
- Dynamic AnlysisUploaded byMuhammad Hassan
- Modeling of the Damped Oscillations of the Viscous Beams Structures With Swivel Joints for Harmonic ModeUploaded byesatjournals
- Mass-Spring-Damper Parameter IdentificationUploaded byAlbert Kaltenthaler V
- Nemec_I_2Uploaded byMehdi Zejnulahu
- SRV02 WorkbookUploaded byMikayel Aghajanyan
- Ondas DinâmicasUploaded byivyjeann
- Oscilador Com Atrito (Artigo)Uploaded byitamar_jr
- Vibration and DampingUploaded byptriantafylloy
- 10Uploaded bymellah
- mche210dUploaded byCyrillJohnArellano
- 18_JPE-10289Uploaded bycellsk8
- CAMS M6 FD Seakeeping ModelsUploaded bycharlie lim
- DOM 2 MARKUploaded byashoku2
- Vibes 2Uploaded byYuanGao
- Things to Take Care While Designing an LCUploaded bydivya k s
- Modelling v;dvd;d;Uploaded bySoufianeBenhamida
- ME-TEST-10Uploaded byKishorSevada
- e Qeng Str Dyn PaperUploaded byabhay
- OscillatorUploaded bya,,df,,dsdfd
- OMAE2003-37004Uploaded byJean David Chan
- HD 8 Prop Damped Modal AnalysisUploaded byAnonymous lEBdswQXmx
- The Dynamics of Monopile-supported Wind Turbines in Nonlinear SoilUploaded byMa Rco
- Berg R.E., Stork D.G.-the Physics of Sound-Pearson PH (2005)(1)Uploaded byDusan Rula
- Mathieuinstability of a Spar Platform With Mooring and RisersUploaded byAlhaz Uddin
- UK ARC - Analysis of Short Period Longitudinal Oscillations of an AircraftUploaded byWade Langford

- AstroUploaded byshan0214
- Group List and TittleUploaded byshan0214
- Assign 2 Fuels and CombustionUploaded byshan0214
- Distillation ProblemUploaded byshan0214
- Stephen Turns Combustion PreviewUploaded byStephen
- Psychology of TeamsUploaded byshan0214
- TNBUploaded byshan0214
- Activation and Deactivation of CatalystsUploaded byshan0214
- LaPlace TransformUploaded bySuhail Ahamed
- 1Uploaded byshan0214
- Laplace_Table.pdfUploaded byshan0214
- Supplementary for Heat Exchanger Network LectureUploaded byshan0214
- 3_Catalysts and CatalysisUploaded byshan0214
- 3_Catalysts and CatalysisUploaded byshan0214
- Problem_2Uploaded byshan0214
- Exhibitor Directory v1Uploaded byshan0214
- Exhibitor Directory v1Uploaded byshan0214
- Mo10 SampleUploaded byvk100
- Classs Policies(2)Uploaded byshan0214
- Summary ReportUploaded byshan0214
- PSM010_2Uploaded byAsmZziz Oo
- HEAT TRANSFER exp 4.pdfUploaded byshan0214
- SYN GASUploaded byshan0214
- Cost-Benefit Analysis of Food-Waste CompostingUploaded byshan0214
- Chap 1d - Process ControlUploaded byshan0214
- 2001_04_14_malossa_e (1)Uploaded byJorge Gómez
- www.ensogo.com.pdfUploaded byshan0214
- Chemical ReactionUploaded byBen Lv
- Process DescriptionUploaded byshan0214

- File-1409911994Uploaded byIoana Bacancios
- Wireless Network with Privacy Protection and Location MonitoringUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Capacitive Sensors: Design and ApplicationsUploaded bytoby_hendriks
- Delsar USAR KitUploaded byCovalciuc Bogdan
- Graphene Pressure SensorUploaded byjaskaurwork
- AT42QT1010Uploaded byFlavio Henrique de Oliveira
- NI-Tutorial-How to Measure Pressure With Strain GaugeUploaded bys_hassan_167419
- dropTestValidation.pdfUploaded bykhazi
- SMU06C2 V500R001C50 Site Monitoring Unit User ManualUploaded byNascaSebastian
- DetCon20 ManualUploaded byMohand Oubélaid Ait Hammou
- ElectronicComponent INPUT , OUPUTUploaded bytaller avansys
- D85Uploaded byGabriely Murilo
- LX1108Uploaded byMikami Teru
- Heartbeat and Temperature Monitoring System for Remote Patients using ArduinoUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- Mobile Robot With Gas SensorUploaded bytzamli
- 3 1 1 a vex inputsoutputsUploaded byapi-264098585
- GS-133_EN_MEX51012Uploaded byAnonymous 4v7qjiFpOW
- Honeywell Linear Hall-Effect Sensor ICsUploaded byDiego Ricardo Paez Ardila
- Ba Evk Evk2-Cp Evm-cp Lic 01 en Version 02Uploaded bySatish Singh
- uecdUploaded byWilson Polania
- Concrete & Pavement Case StudiesUploaded bycemilagirman
- Cr800 ManualUploaded byFrancis Ford
- tfc02Uploaded byhadrijk
- lm3911n datasheet.pdfUploaded byJulius Carballo
- P_470Uploaded byFemeiaOrtodoxa
- PLTMG Prabumulih 18V34SG Rev.3 OperasiUploaded byOctavianus Harahap
- 05 Thermoresistive SensorsUploaded bymahadikpkm
- New Approch in Tank Gauging Reducing Investment Cost and Downtime (Spc 2006 Paper Rev 5)Uploaded byAndy Ursache
- Soft Artificial Skin with Multi-Modal Sensing Capability Using Embedded Liquid ConductorsUploaded bySaundra
- hmg3000Uploaded byMohamed Elsayed