July 3, 2006

David A. SANTOS dsantos@ccp.edu

REVISION

M M ath D at em N D isc he m atic N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete s N ot es D iscr ete Ma N otes D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot isc et M th ma ics es D em ti a r e D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et M th c re e M ath em atic s N ote te a s o s M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete isc et at em tic N te e he s D m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete s N ot es D iscr ete Ma N otes D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot es D iscr ete Ma them mat ics i D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et t e Mat hem ati cs N ot re te Ma he a cs o es M th ma tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete i et at em tic N te e he s D sc m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete Ma s N ot es D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot es D iscr ete Ma them mat ics i D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et M th c re e M ath em atic s N ote te a s o s M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete isc et at em tic N te e he s D m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete s N ot es D iscr ete Ma N otes D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot m ic isc et M th es D em ati s a r e D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et t e Mat hem ati cs N ot re te Ma he a cs o es M th ma tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete i et at em tic N te e he s D sc m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete s N ot es D iscr ete Ma N otes D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot es D iscr ete Ma them mat ics i D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et M th cs re e M ath em atic N ote te a s o s M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete i et at em tic N te e he s D sc m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete Ma s N ot es D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot isc et M th ma ics es D em ti a r e D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs N isc et M th c re e M ath em atic s N ote te a s o s M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes M ath ema tics No tes D M ath ema tics No tes D iscr M ath ema tics No tes D iscr ete em ti isc et at c N tes D e he m atic s N otes D isc rete at r ic s N otes D iscr ete s N ot es D iscr ete Ma N otes D iscr ete Ma the N otes D iscr ete Ma the mat ot es D iscr ete Ma them mat ics i D iscr ete Ma them ati cs D iscr ete Ma them ati cs isc et M th c re e M ath em atic s te a s M ath ema tics No at em tic N te he s m atic s N otes at ic s N otes s N ot ot es Dis es D cr D iscr ete isc et re e te

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Contents
Preface 1 Pseudocode 1.1 Operators . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 If-then-else Statements 1.5 The for loop . . . . . . . . 1.6 The while loop . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii 1 1 2 3 4 5 8 10 11 14 14 15 17 19 20 22 26 26 29 31 33 34 36 36 38 38 40 5 Number Theory 5.1 Division Algorithm . . . . 5.2 Greatest Common Divisor 5.3 Non-decimal Scales . . . . 5.4 Congruences . . . . . . . 5.5 Divisibility Criteria . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 46 48 49 51 53 54 57 57 59 60 62 64 66 67 72 73 78 78 82 85 86 87 88 89 89 92 93 93 95 97 97

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2 Proof Methods 2.1 Proofs: Direct Proofs . . . . . . 2.2 Proofs: Mathematical Induction 2.3 Proofs: Reductio ad Absurdum . 2.4 Proofs: Pigeonhole Principle . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Enumeration 6.1 The Multiplication and Sum Rules . . . . 6.2 Combinatorial Methods . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Permutations without Repetitions 6.2.2 Permutations with Repetitions . . 6.2.3 Combinations without Repetitions 6.2.4 Combinations with Repetitions . . 6.3 Inclusion-Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sums and Recursions 7.1 Famous Sums . . . . . . . 7.2 First Order Recursions . . 7.3 Second Order Recursions . 7.4 Applications of Recursions Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Graph Theory 8.1 Simple Graphs . . 8.2 Graphic Sequences 8.3 Connectivity . . . 8.4 Traversability . . . 8.5 Planarity . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . .

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3 Logic, Sets, and Boolean Algebra 3.1 Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Boolean Algebras and Boolean Operations 3.4 Sum of Products and Products of Sums . . 3.5 Logic Puzzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Relations and Functions 4.1 Partitions and Equivalence Relations . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Preface

These notes started in the Spring of 2004, but contain material that I have used in previous years. I would appreciate any comments, suggestions, corrections, etc., which can be addressed at the email below. David A. Santos dsantos@ccp.edu

Things to do: • Weave functions into counting, a la twelfold way. . . `

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Legal Notice

This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, version 1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/ THIS WORK IS LICENSED AND PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR A WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE SOLD FOR PROFIT OR INCORPORATED INTO COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS WITHOUT EXPRESS PERMISSION FROM THE AUTHOR(S). THIS DOCUMENT MAY BE FREELY DISTRIBUTED PROVIDED THE NAME OF THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR(S) IS(ARE) KEPT AND ANY CHANGES TO IT NOTED.

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Chapter

1

Pseudocode
In this chapter we study pseudocode, which will allow us to mimic computer language in writing algorithms.

1.1 Operators
1 Definition (Operator) An operator is a character, or string of characters, used to perform an action on some entities. These

entities are called the operands.
2 Definition (Unary Operators) A unary operator is an operator acting on a single operand.

Common arithmetical unary operators are + (plus) which indicates a positive number, and − (minus) which indicates a negative number.
3 Definition (Binary Operators) A binary operator is an operator acting on two operands.

Common arithmetical binary operators that we will use are + (plus) to indicate the sum of two numbers and − (minus) to indicate a difference of two numbers. We will also use ∗ (asterisk) to denote multiplication and / (slash) to denote division. There is a further arithmetical binary operator that we will use.
4 Definition (mod Operator) The operator mod is defined as follows: for a ≥ 0, b > 0,

a mod b is the integral non-negative remainder when a is divided by b. Observe that this remainder is one of the b numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., b − 1.

In the case when at least one of a or b is negative, we will leave a mod b undefined.
5 Example We have

38

mod 15 = 8,

15 mod 38 = 15, 1961 mod 37 = 0, and 1966 mod 37 = 5, for example. 1

2

Chapter 1

6 Definition (Precedence of Operators) The priority or precedence of an operator is the order by which it is applied to its

operands. Parentheses ( ) are usually used to coerce precedence among operators. When two or more operators of the same precedence are in an expression, we define the associativity to be the order which determines which of the operators will be executed first. Left-associative operators are executed from left to right and right-associative operators are executed from right to left. Recall from algebra that multiplication and division have the same precedence, and their precedence is higher than addition and subtraction. The mod operator has the same precedence as multiplication and addition. The arithmetical binary operators are all left associative whilst the arithmetical unary operators are all right associative.
7 Example 15 − 3 ∗ 4 = 3 but (15 − 3) ∗ 4 = 48. 8 Example 12 ∗ (5 mod 3) = 24 but (12 ∗ 5) mod 3 = 0. 9 Example 12 mod 5 + 3 ∗ 3 = 11 but 12 mod (5 + 3) ∗ 3 = 12 mod 8 ∗ 3 = 4 ∗ 3 = 12.

1.2 Algorithms
In pseudocode parlance an algorithm is a set of instructions that accomplishes a task in a finite amount of time. If the algorithm produces a single output that we might need afterwards, we will use the word return to indicate this output.
10 Example (Area of a Trapezoid) Write an algorithm that gives the area of a trapezoid whose height is h and bases are a and

b. Solution: One possible solution is  Algorithm 1.2.1: A REAT RAPEZOID(a, b, h) return (h ∗  a+b ) 2

c) return (.25 ∗  We have used Heron’s formula Area = where s= is the semi-perimeter of the triangle. b.2. . 12 Definition The symbol ← is read “gets” and it is used to denote assignments of value. 11 Example (Heron’s Formula) Write an algorithm that will give the area of a triangle with sides a.2: A REAOF T RIANGLE(a. b. and c. Solution: A possible solution is  Algorithm 1.

(a + b + c) ∗ (b + c − a) ∗ (c + a − b) ∗ (a + b − c)) s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) = 1 4 (a + b + c)(b + c − a)(c + a − b)(a + b − c). a+b+c 2 2 .

y) x←5 y←6 x←y y←x comment: First store x in temporary place comment: x has a new value.3: S WAP(x. Solution: We introduce a temporary variable t in order to store the contents of x in y without erasing the contents of y:  Algorithm 1. .4: S WAP W RONG (x. the contents of x becomes that of y and viceversa. comment: y now receives the original value of x.2. that is.2. y) t←x y←t  If we approached the problem in the following manner Algorithm 1.Arrays 3 13 Example (Swapping variables) Write an algorithm that will interchange the values of two variables x and y.

Solution: The idea is to use sums and differences to store the variables. we do not obtain a swap. comment: y = a + b − b = a and x = a + b.. y) x ← x+y x ← x−y  y ← x−y comment: x = a + b and y = b.2. comment: y = a and x = a + b − a = b.e. the contents of x becomes that of y and viceversa. .5: S WAP 2(x.  Algorithm 1. x←y comment: x = 6 now. Assume that initially x = a and y = b. without introducing a third variable. 6. comment: y takes the current value of x. that is. 14 Example (Swapping variables 2) Write an algorithm that will interchange the values of two variables x and y. i.

3 Arrays 15 Definition An array is an aggregate of homogeneous types. . Y [1][0] Y [1][1] Y [1][2] 3 . 1. The length of the array is the number of entries it has. A 2-dimensional array is akin to a mathematical matrix. Thus if X is 1-dimensional array of length n then X = (X[0]. Thus if Y is a 2-dimensional array with 2 rows and 3 columns then å è Y= Y [0][0] Y [0][1] Y [0][2] . A 1-dimensional array is akin to a mathematical vector. X[1]. .. We will follow the C-C++-Java convention of indexing the arrays from 0. X[n − 1]) and all the n coordinates X[k] belong to the same set. . We will always declare the length of the array at the beginning of a code fragment by means of a comment.

else statementB − J and evaluates as follows. statementA − I statementB − 1 . . . Otherwise all statementB’s are executed.4 Chapter 1 1.4 If-then-else Statements 16 Definition The If-then-else control statement has the following syntax: if expression statementA − 1 . then . If expression is true then all statementA ’s are executed. . 17 Example (Maximum of 2 Numbers) Write an algorithm that will determine the maximum of two numbers.  Algorithm 1.2: M AX(x. y) if x ≥ y then return (x) else return (y)  . Solution: Here is a possible approach.4.

y) ≥ z then return (M AX(x. Solution: Here is a possible approach using the preceding function. z) if M AX(x. y.  Algorithm 1. 18 Example (Maximum of 3 Numbers) Write an algorithm that will determine the maximum of three numbers.4.3: M AX 3(x. y)) else return (z)  .

etc.  Algorithm 1.) else output (Goodbye. Solution: Here is a possible answer.)  then . or.4: H ELLO G OOD B YE(x) if x >= 4 if x <= 6 then output (Hello.4.) else output (Goodbye. 19 Example (Compound Test) Write an algorithm that prints “Hello” if one enters a number between 4 and 6 (inclusive) and “Goodbye” otherwise. You are not allowed to use any boolean operators like and.

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0! = 1 and if n > 0 then n! is the product of all the integers from 1 to n inclusive: n! = 1 · 2 · · ·n. Solution: Here is a possible answer. .  Algorithm 1.3: FACTORIAL(n) comment: Must input an integer n ≥ 0. 21 Example (Factorial Integers) Recall that for a non-negative integer n the quantity n! (read “n factorial”) is defined as follows. For example 5! = 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 = 120.The for loop 5 1. Write an algorithm that given an arbitrary non-negative integer n outputs n!.5.5 The for loop 20 Definition The for loop has either of the following syntaxes:1 for indexvariable ← lowervalue to uppervalue do statements or for indexvariable ← uppervalue downto lowervalue do statements Here lower value and upper value must be non-negative integers with uppervalue ≥ lowervalue.

f ←1 if n = 0 then return ( f ) for i ← 1 to n else do f ← f ∗ i return ( f )  22 Example (Positive Integral Powers 1) Write an algorithm that will compute xn . . . . X[n − 1]) is given. 23 Example (Reversing an Array) An array (X[0]. n) power ← 1 for i ← 1 to n do power ← x ∗ power return (power)  In example 34 we shall examine a different approach.5. Solution: We can approach this problem as we did the factorial function in example 21. Thus a possible answer would be  Algorithm 1.4: P OWER 1(x. put its entries in . where x is a given real number and n is a given positive integer. Without introducing another array.

and Java is slightly different and makes the for loop much more powerful than the one we are presenting here. 5 . Solution: Observe that we exchange X[0] ↔ X[n − 1]. X[1] ↔ X[n − 2]. C++. 1 The syntax in C. reverse order.

that is 2i < n − 1. We now use a swapping algorithm.5.Thus a possible answer is  Algorithm 1. which happens if and only if i ≤ ⌊(n − 2)/2⌋. X) comment: X is an array of length n.6 and in general Chapter 1 This holds as long as i < n − i − 1. which happens if and only if 2i ≤ n − 2. say the one of example 13. for i ← 0 to ⌊(n − 2)/2⌋ do Swap(X[i].5: R EVERSE A RRAY (n. X[n − i − 1])  .

5. the programme prints 5. 24 Definition The command break stops the present control statement and jumps to the next control statement. ) prints whatever is enclosed in the parentheses. Since 5 = 7. The command output(. the programme prints 3. š i = 7. Since 4 = 7. . . The programme ends up printing 3456. X[i] ↔ X[n − i − 1]. Since 3 = 7. We will use it here and will abandon it once we study the while loop. the programme prints 4. in sequence. Many a programmer considers using the break command an ugly practice. – i = 3. 25 Example What will the following algorithm print?   Algorithm 1. the programme halts and nothing else is printed. ™ i = 6. ˜ i = 5. Since 7 = 7.6: P RINTING (·) for i ← 3 to 11 if i = 7 then break do else output (i)  Solution: We have. Since 6 = 7. — i = 4. . the programme prints 6.

If an entry is found to be larger than it. X) comment: X is an array of length n. max ← X[0] for i ← 1 to n − 1 if X[i] > max do then max = X[i] return (max)  6 . Then we successively compare it to other n − 1 entries.  Algorithm 1.5. that entry is declared the maximum.7: M AX E NTRYINA RRAY (n. 26 Example (Maximum of n Numbers) Write an algorithm that determines the maximum element of a 1-dimensional array of n elements. Solution: We declare the first value of the array (the 0-th entry) to be the maximum (a sentinel value).

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103 mod 7 = 5. If one of these primes divides 103 then 103 is not a prime.) if n = 3 then output (n is prime. n = 3 are necessary because in our version of the for loop we need the lower index to be at most the upper index. which is a contradiction. If √ every prime factor of n were > n then we would have both a > n and b > n √ √ then we would have n = ab > n n = n.The for loop 7 Recall that a positive integer p > 1 is a prime if its only positive factors of p are either 1 or p.) if n = 2 then output (n is prime. A quick division finds 103 mod 2 = 1. if n > 3 if n mod 2 = 0 then output (n is even. Its smallest factor is 2. Proof: If n is prime there is nothing to prove. The special cases n = 1.) flag ← true √ for i ← 2 to ⌊ n⌋ if n mod i = 0 flag ← false do else then break if flag = true then output (n is prime. Assume then than n is composite.  Algorithm 1. 103 mod 5 = 3. u 28 Example To determine whether 103 is prime we proceed as follows.8: I S P RIME 1(n) comment: n is a positive integer. An integer greater than 1 which is not prime is said to be composite. n = 2. 30 Example (Eratosthenes’ Primality Testing) Given a positive integer n write an algorithm to determine whether it is prime. Then n can be written as √ the √ √ product n = ab with 1 < a ≤ b. 29 Definition (Boolean Variable) A boolean variable is a variable that only accepts one of two possible values: true or false. Otherwise. n smallest factor is i. Thus n must have a prime factor ≤ n. The not unary operator changes the status of a boolean variable from true to false and viceversa.2 To determine whether an integer is prime we rely on the following result. Observe that ⌊ 103⌋ = 10.) .) √ comment: If n ≥ 4. 103 mod 3 = 1. whence 103 is prime since none of these remainders is 0. then ⌊ n⌋ ≥ 2.) else output (Not prime.3 We now divide 103 by √ every prime ≤ 10. Either n is prime or n has a prime factor ≤ √ n. 103 is a prime. 27 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. if n = 1 then output (n is a unit.5. Solution: Here is a possible approach.

then 2 Thus 3 Here  1 is neither prime nor composite. ⌊x⌋ denotes the floor of x. that is. 7 . the integer just to the left of x if x is not an integer and x otherwise.

and so forth till person number n enters and changes the status of door number n.)  . 31 Example (The Locker-room Problem) A locker room contains n lockers. Locker) comment: Locker is an array of size n + 1.5. Person number 2 enters and opens all the doors whose numbers are multiples of 2. for j ← 2 to n for k ← j to n do do if k mod j = 0 then Locker[k] = not Locker[k] for l ← 1 to n if Locker[l] = false do then output (Locker l is closed. otherwise he opens it.9: L OCKER ROOM P ROBLEM (n. for i ← 1 to n do Locker[i] ← false comment: From open to closed and vice-versa in the second loop . Person number 4 enters and changes the status (from open to closed and viceversa) of all doors whose numbers are multiples of 4. Person number 1 enters and closes all the doors. Solution: Here is one possible approach. The value true will denote an open locker and the value false will denote a closed locker.8 Chapter 1  From a stylistic point of view. this algorithm is unsatisfactory. Initially all doors are open. numbered 1 through n. comment: Closing all lockers in the first for loop. We use an array Locker of size n + 1 to denote the lockers (we will ignore Locker[0]).4  Algorithm 1. as it uses the break statement. Person number 3 enters and if a door whose number is a multiple of 3 is open then he closes it. Write an algorithm to determine which lockers are closed. We will see in example 35 how to avoid it.

6 The while loop 32 Definition The while loop has syntax: while test do body of loop The commands in the body of the loop will be executed as long as test evaluates to true.  Algorithm 1. Write an algorithm that finds the number of entries which are different.6. i←0 different ← 1 while i = n − 1 i ← i+1 do if x[i] = x[i − 1] then different ← different + 1 return (different)  will later see that those locker doors whose numbers are squares are the ones which are closed. X) comment: X is an array of length n.2: D IFFERENT(n. . Solution: Here is one possible approach. 33 Example (Different Elements in an Array) An array X satisfies X[0] ≤ X[1] ≤ · · · ≤ X[n − 1]. 1.

4 We 8 .

6. We now write 11 = 8 + 2 + 1 and so x11 = x8 x2 x.The while loop 9 34 Example (Positive Integral Powers 2) Write an algorithm that will compute an . A more efficient approach is the following. where a is a given real number and n is a given positive integer. k  Algorithm 1. which could tax the computer memory if n is very large. For example. n) power ← 1 c←x k←n while k = 0 if k mod 2 = 0 k ← k/2 then c ← c∗c do else return (power)  k ← k−1 power ← power ∗ c . and we stop when 2k ≤ n < 2k+1 . if n = 11 we compute x → x2 → x4 → x8 . We successively square x getting a sequence x → x2 → x4 → x8 → · · · → x2 .3: P OWER 2(x. Solution: We have already examined this problem in example 22. that solution is unsatisfactory. From the point of view of computing time. as it would incur into n multiplications. Basically it consists of writing n in binary.

it is more efficient than it. 9 . For. Also. the code for i ← k to n do something is equivalent to i←k while i <= n i ← i+1 do something But more can be achieved from the while loop. as it is not necessary to divide it by even integers. we could jump t steps at a time by declaring i ← i + t. we do not need to use the break command if we incorporate the conditions for breaking in the test of the loop. 35 Example Here is the I S P RIME 1 programme from example 30 with while loops replacing the for loops. then n is divided successively by odd integers. The while loop can be used to replace the for loop. If n > 3. instead of jumping the index one-step-at-a-time. For instance. and in fact.

n smallest factor is i.) else output (Not prime.10  Algorithm 1.6: I S P RIME 2(n) comment: n is a positive integer. Its smallest factor is 2. if n = 1 then output (n is a unit.6.) if n > 3 if n mod 2 = 0 then output (n is even.) if n = 2 then output (n is prime.) flag ← true i←1 √ while i <= ⌊ n⌋ and flag = true i ← i+2 then do if n mod i = 0 else  then flag ← false if flag = true then output (n is prime.)  .) if n = 3 then output (n is prime.

7: M YSTERY(n) x←0 i←1 while n > 1 if n ∗ i > 4 then x ← x + 2n do else x ← x + n n ← n−2 i ← i+1 return (x) .6. outlining all your steps.  Algorithm 1. Chapter 1 Homework 36 Problem What will the following algorithm return for n = 5? You must trace the algorithm carefully.

8: M YSTERY(n) x←0 while n > 0 for i ← 1 to n for j ¨ i to n ← do do x ← i j + x n ← n−1 return (x) do .  37 Problem What will the following algorithm return for n = 3?  Algorithm 1.6.

 10 .

if 123476 is the input. 10. f2 = 1. 9. . f1 = 1. < X[m + n − 1]. without taking the order of the summands into account. . one mod operation. 42 Problem Write an algorithm that reads an array of n integers and finds the second smallest entry. . in the sequence 7. Hence x = 16 is returned. For example. of length 5. i = 1. n = 5. i = 3. the output should be 674321. For example 5/2 = 2. Finally. . and the loop stops. For instance. 10. → X[m − 1]. n ∗ i > 4 and thus x = 10. Now n = 3. 8. n ≥ 1. For example. 3 + 1. one multiplication by 10 and one division by 10. 1. 10. 10. x←0 while n = 0 comment: x accumulates truncated digit. i = 2. fn+1 = fn + fn−1 . 9. the partitions of 4 are (in “alphabetic order” and with the summands written in decreasing order) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. 5/3 = 1. Use only one while loop.9: R EVERSE(n) comment: n is a positive integer. do x ← x ∗ 10 + n mod 10 comment: We now truncate a digit of the input. 9. 4. 2. which is sorted in increasing order: X[0] < X[1] < . 8. 40 Problem The Fibonacci Sequence is defined recursively as follows: f0 = 0. Assuming this write an algorithm that reverses the digits of a given integer. Without using another array reorder the array in the form X[m] → X[m + 1] → . . 2 + 1 + 1. 7. 43 Problem A partition of the strictly positive integer n is the number of writing n as the sum of strictly positive summands. 7. n = 1. . a/b truncates the decimal part of the quotient. 9. x = 10 + 2 ∗ 3 = 16.  Algorithm 1. 9. . Do this using algorithm R EVERSE A RRAY from example 23 a few times. 8. < X[m − 1] < X[m] < . the longest non-decreasing subsequence is 7. → X[m + n − 1] → X[0] → X[1] → . 41 Problem Write an algorithm which reads a sequence of real numbers and determines the length of the longest non-decreasing subsequence. 39 Problem Given is an array of length m + n. 2 + 2. .Answers 11 38 Problem Assume that the division operator / acts as follows on the integers: if the division is not even. Since n ∗ i > 4.6. Write an algorithm that finds the n-th Fibonacci number. 38 Here is a possible approach. Answers 36 In the first turn around the loop. 9. and we go a second turn around the loop. Write an algorithm to generate all the partitions of a given integer n. .

> X[m] > X[m − 1] > . 11 . → X[m + n − 1] → X[0] → X[1] → . . X[m] → X[m + 1] → . . > X[0]. . .  39 Reverse the array first as n ← n/10 return (x) Then reverse each one of the two segments: X[m + n − 1] > X[m + n − 2] > . . . . → X[m − 1]. .

10: F IBONACCI(n) if n = 0 then return (0) last ← 0 current ← 1 for i ← 2 to n ´ temp ← last + current last ← current current ← temp return (current) else .6.12 40 Here is a possible solution. Chapter 1  Algorithm 1.

eof means “end of file. dMax is the length of the longest run.11: L ARGEST I NCREASING S EQUENCE( f ) 1←d 1 ← dMax while not eof if newEl >= oldEl d ← d +1 ´ if d > dMax do then else then dMax ← d d←1 oldEl ← newEL if d > dMax then dMax ← d .  41 Assume that the data is read from some file f . d is the length of the current run of non-decreasing numbers.6.” newEl and oldEl are the current and the previous elements.  Algorithm 1.

6.12: S ECOND S MALLEST(n. second ← x[0] minimum ← second for i ← 0 to n − 1 if minimum = second ´ if X[i] < minimum then then minimum ← X[i] else second ← X[i] if X[i] < minimum do second ← minimum then else minimum ← X[i] else if X[i] > minimum and X[i] < second then second ← X[i] .  42 Here is one possible approach.  Algorithm 1. X) comment: X is an array of length n.

. We store them in an array of length n + 1 with X[0] = 0.  43 We list partitions of n in alphabetic order and with decreasing summands. The length of the partition is k and the summands are X[1] + · · · + X[k]. Initially k = n and X[1] = · · · = X[n] = 1. At the end we have X[1] = n and the rest are 0. 12 .

13: PARTITIONS(n) s ← k−1 while not ((s = 1) or (X[s − 1] > X[s])) ¨ s ← s−1 X[s] ← X[s] + 1 sum ← 0 for i ← s + 1 to k ¨ sum ← sum + X[i] for ¨ i ← 1 to sum − 1 X[s + i] ← 1 k ← s + sum − 1 13 .Answers  Algorithm 1.6.

 13 .

the product of three consecutive integers. › Let 2n be an even integer and let 2o + 1 be an odd integer. 2(2no + 1) is an even integer. ˜ Let 2 f be an even integer and 2g + 1 be an odd integer. Since 2ml + l + n is an integer. Among three consecutive integers there is at least an even one. We assume as known that the sum of two integers is an integer. ˜ the sum of an even integer with and odd integer is odd. — If 2c + 1 and 2d + 1 are odd integers. ™ Let 2h 2k be even integers.Chapter 2 Proof Methods 2. š Let 2l + 1 and 2m + 1 be odd integers. so 2(a + b) is an even integer. • an integer a is divisible by an integer b if there exists an integer c such that a = bc. 45 Example Prove that if n is an integer. š the product of two odd integers is odd. — the sum of two odd integers is even. – If 2a and 2b are even integers. Then (2h)(2k) = 4(hk). then 2c + 1 + 2d + 1 = 2(c + d + 1). and so n3 − n is divisible by 6. › the product of an even integer and an odd integer is even. Solution: We argue from the definitions. 14 . Now c + d + 1 is an integer. then n3 − n is always divisible by 6. 4(hk) is divisible by 4. ™ the product of two even integers is divisible by 4. where k is an integer. and exactly one of them which is divisible by 3. Now a + b is an integer. then 2a + 2b = 2(a + b). Since hk is an integer. 2( f + g) + 1 is an odd integer. Since f + g is an integer. Prove that – the sum of two even integers is even. 44 Example Recall that • an even number is one of the form 2k. Since 2 and 3 do not have common factors. Facts previously learned help many a time when making a direct proof.1 Proofs: Direct Proofs A direct proof is one that follows from the definitions. so 2(c + d + 1) is an even integer. Since 2no + 1 is an integer. Then 2 f + 2g + 1 = 2( f + g) + 1. Solution: We have n3 − n = (n − 1)n(n + 1). 6 divides the quantity (n − 1)n(n + 1). 2(2ml + m + l) + 1 is an odd integer. Then (2n)(2o + 1) = 4no + 2n = 2(2no + 1). Then (2l + 1)(2m + 1) = 4ml + 2l + 2m + 1 = 2(2ml + l + m) + 1. • an odd integer is one of the form 2l + 1 where l is an integer.

suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n − 1-th task. . if we have a base case). Solution: An integer is either even (of the form 2k) or odd (of the form 2k + 1). then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. Then which reduces to 33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 27 · 33n − 26n − 27 = 27(33n − 26n − 1) + 676n 27 · 169N + 169 · 4n. 1. and then to the case following that. Thus if we are ever able to start the job (that is. 50 Corollary (Strong Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains m + 1.” We will prove that P(1) is true and that P(n − 1) =⇒ P(n). then S = N.2 Proofs: Mathematical Induction The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. . .e. 15 . 1 or 2 when divided by 4. Then we try to settle whether information on P(n − 1) leads to favourable information on P(n). Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is true for some base case k0 (usually k0 = 1). 33n+3 − 26n − 27 Solution: Let P(n) be the assertion “∃T ∈ N with 33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 169T . The assertion is thus established by induction. since we are taking the square roots of non-negative real numbers. For n = 1 we are asserting that 36 − 53 = 676 = 169 · 4 is divisible by 169. 51 Example Prove that the expression is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n. We have (2k)2 (2k + 1)2 = = 4k2 . We shall now give some examples of the use of induction. n. where n > m. Since the square of any real number is greater than or equal to 0 we have √ √ ( x − y)2 ≥ 0. Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction. Suppose that we are to perform a task that involves a certain number of steps. etc. . 48 Theorem Principle of Mathematical Induction If a set S of positive integers contains the integer 1. 2. and also contains the integer n + 1 whenever it contains the integer n. where n > m. Now. which is evident. P(n − 1) means there is N ∈ N such that 33(n−1)+3 − 26(n − 1) − 27 = 169N. Finally. then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. Expanding x+y √ √ x − 2 xy + y ≥ 0 =⇒ ≥ xy. Thus squares leave remainder 0 or 1 when divided by 4 and hence their sum leave remainder 0.). ∀y ≥ 0 x+y √ xy ≤ .. or 2. 47 Example Prove that a sum of two squares of integers leaves remainder 0. for n > 1. 49 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains n. 2 yielding the result.Proofs: Mathematical Induction 15 46 Example Use the fact that the square of any real number is non-negative in order to prove the Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequal- ity: ∀x ≥ 0. The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious. 33n − 26n − 1 = 169N for some integer N. which is divisible by 169. i. 2 √ √ Solution: First observe that x − y is a real number. m + 2. 4(k2 + k) + 1. then we should be able to finish it (because starting with the base case we go to the next case.

16 52 Example Prove that 2n > n. Assume that P(n − 1) is true for n > 1. then we see that √ √ (1 + 2)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 6. . we have n + n − 2 ≥ n + 0 = n. fn+1 = fn + fn−1 . 21. This simplifies to Using P(n − 1). 1. Consider now the quantity √ √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) − (1 − 2)2(n−1) = a 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n = (1 + 2)2 (1 + 2)2n−2 + (1 − 2)2 (1 − 2)2n−2 . Therefore P(1) is true. as 20 > 0. 3. and so.e. 1. 53 Example Prove that is an even integer and that for some positive integer b. 2n = 2(2n−1 ) > 2(n − 1) = 2n − 2 = n + n − 2. 2 fn−1 fn+1 = fn + (−1)n . as k2 − 1 = (k − 1)(k + 1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because both n n+1 (k − 1) and (k + 1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. and let us prove that 2n+3 |k2 − 1. assume that √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) + (1 − 2)2(n−1) = 2N for some integer N and that for some positive integer a. the above simplifies to an even integer and similarly √ √ √ √ (3 + 2 2)(1 + 2)2n−2 + (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2 . we see that 2n+2 divides (k2n − 1). 5. This is obviously true since k2n odd makes k2n + 1 even. i. 54 Example Prove that if k is odd. . Prove using the Principle of Mathematical Induction. 2n > n. n+1 n n As k2 − 1 = (k2 − 1)(k2 + 1). Chapter 2 Solution: The assertion is true for n = 0. 13. k2 − 1 n Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1. .. f1 = 1. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n is even and (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2 for some b ∈ N. 16 . for all integers n ≥ 1. 8. Assume that 2n+2 |k2 − 1. 55 Example The Fibonacci Numbers are given by f0 = 0. that is every number after the second one is the sum of the preceding two. for all natural numbers n. Now. then 2n+2 divides √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = 3a 2 + 2 2(2N) = (3a + 4N) 2. The assertion is thus established by induction. Assume that 2n−1 > n − 1 for n > 1. that for integer n ≥ 1.” If n = 1. Thus the Fibonacci sequence then goes like 0. an even integer. This establishes the validity of the n-th step from the preceding step and finishes the proof. n − 1 > 0 =⇒ n − 2 ≥ 0. ∀n ∈ N. and so P(n) is true. so the problem reduces to proving that 2|(k2n + 1). n ≥ 1. √ √ 12N + 2 2a 2 = 2(6N + 2a). 2. . √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2 √ √ √ √ √ Solution: We proceed by induction on n. Now. and √ √ √ (1 + 2)2 − (1 − 2)2 = 4 2.

Proofs: Reductio ad Absurdum Solution: For n = 1. n + 1 and n + 2. .2 and 2. or 10 pesos with the available coinage.} also achievable. But we know from example 47 that sums of squares do not leave remainder 3 upon division by 4. 2. We will shew Figure 2.1 that n = 4 is achievable. Shew that any quantity of pesos greater than or equal to 8 can be paid using the available coins. that is. 2 Using the Fibonacci recursion. 57 Example In the country of SmallPesia coins only come in values of 3 and 5 pesos. that is 2 fn−1 fn+1 = fn + (−1)n . The statement of the problem now follows from Strong Induction. 7. in trying to prove a premise. . so it is impossible to write 2003 as the sum of squares. fn = fn−1 fn+1 − (−1)n . Assume that we are able to pay n − 3. n − 2. 17 and so the assertion is true for n = 1.1: Example 56. . Observe that 8 = 3 + 5. and n − 1 pesos. . 6. now that n = 6 and n = 8 are achievable. Solution: 2003 leaves remainder 3 upon division by 4. we can pay 8. a quartering would make {n. Figure 2. and so if the amounts n − 3. 10 = 5 + 5. and so the assertion follows by induction. and by the induction hypothesis. and this finishes the proof. This means that fn fn+2 = = = = = fn ( fn+1 + fn ) 2 fn fn+1 + fn fn fn+1 + fn−1 fn+1 − (−1)n fn+1 ( fn + fn−1 ) + (−1)n+1 fn+1 fn+1 + (−1)n+1 . fn+2 = fn+1 + fn . But this is easily seen from the figures 2.3: Example 56. for all n = 4. 3x2 + 5y2 = n − 1 =⇒ 3(x2 + 1) + 5y2 = n + 2. If n were achievable. Figure 2.2: Example 56. Solution: A quartering of a subsquare increases the number of squares by three (four new squares are gained but the original square is lost). Now 3x + 5y = n − 3 =⇒ 3(x + 1) + 5y = n. 3x1 + 5y1 = n − 2 =⇒ 3(x1 + 1) + 5y1 = n + 1. Solution: We use Strong Induction. We will shew that we may also obtain solutions for 3x + 5y = k for k = n. n − 2 and n − 1.3. . n + 1. not necessarily of the same size. we have 2 0 · 1 = f0 f1 = 12 − (1)1 = f1 − (1)1 . . n + 9. n + 6. 17 . n + 2. 56 Example Prove that a given square can be decomposed into n squares. 9 = 3 + 3 + 3. n − 2. Suppose n > 1. Figure 2. n + 3. 58 Example Prove that 2003 is not the sum of two squares by proving that the sum of any two squares cannot leave remainder 3 upon division by 4.3 Proofs: Reductio ad Absurdum In this section we will see examples of proofs by contradiction. so. That is. 8. we assume that its negation is true and deduce incompatible statements from this. n − 1 can be paid so can n. that 3x + 5y = k has non-negative solutions for k = n − 3.. 9. and that the assertion is true for n.

Consider the number N = p1 p2 · · · pn + 1. Solution: Assume contrariwise that a > b. p2 . . a < b+ 63 Example (Euclid) Shew that there are infinitely many prime numbers. an be an arbitrary permutation of the numbers 1. since the ak ’s are a reordering of 1. . which is clearly 10 10 √ 1 nonsense. b be real numbers and assume that for all numbers ε > 0 the following inequality holds: a < b + ε. This is impossible. . . . Squaring both sides we obtain 3481 ≥ 3500. without using a calculator. a2 . . pn } divides N. . Observe that none of the primes on the list {p1 . Then 6 − ≥ 35 or 59 ≥ 10 35. p2 . 10 √ √ √ 1 1 Solution: Assume that 6 − 35 ≥ . Since the inequality a < b + ε holds for every ε > 0 in particular it holds for 2 a−b or a < b. This is a positive integer. . that 6 − Chapter 2 √ 35 < 1 . 64 Example If a. Solution: For this proof. . . . b. pn } is a list that exhausts all the primes. with positive integers a. Prove that the product (a1 − 1)(a2 − 2) · · · (an − n) is even. Prove that a ≤ b. c are odd integers. This yields 2b2 = a2 . n. Since N is larger than any of the primes on this list. . clearly greater than 1. Solution: We need to assume for this proof that any integer greater than 1 is either a prime or a product of primes. . √ a Assume that 2 = . . The following beautiful proof goes back to Euclid. . . Now both a2 and b2 have an even number of prime factors. So b 2b2 has an odd numbers of primes in its factorisation and a2 has an even number of primes in its factorisation. . prove that ax2 + bx + c = 0 does not have a rational number solution. We therefore conclude that a ≤ b. 2. The original assumption must be wrong. Thus it must be the case that 6 − 35 < . 61 Example Prove that √ 2 is irrational. This implies that 2 a−b > 0. n. where n is an odd number.18 59 Example Shew. Our initial assumption that all the ak − k are odd is wrong. b. so one of these is even and hence the product is even. it is either a prime or divisible by a prime outside this list. It is enough to prove that some difference ak − k is even. S is an odd number of summands of odd integers adding to the even integer 0. Solution: First observe that the sum of an odd number of odd integers is odd. 2. Thus we have shewn that the assumption that any finite list of primes leads to the existence of a prime outside this list. we will accept as fact that any positive integer greater than 1 can be factorised uniquely as the product of primes (up to the order of the factors). . Hence a−b ε= . . 10 60 Example Let a1 . . This implies that the number of primes is infinite. This is a contradiction. Clearly S = (a1 − 1) + (a2 − 2) + · · · + (an − n) = 0. 62 Example Let a. Assume contrariwise that all the differences ak − k are odd. 2 Thus starting with the assumption that a > b we reach the incompatible conclusion that a < b. 18 . since division by any of these primes leaves a remainder of 1. Assume that {p1 .

. 65 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1. odd. 62} and {63. . by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two integers that belong to one of the pairs. 29. even). 16. even). there are at least three people in NYC with the same number of hairs on their head. there must be two with the same parity patterns in the exponents. . . . {7. we shew that something exists without actually identifying it concretely. all the exponents of its prime factorisation must be even. 2. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets.5: Example 69. 11} prove that there must be two whose product is a square. since the sum of each corresponding exponent will be even. In a group of 9 such integers. . 97}. which satisfy b < a ≤ 2b. This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. Take these two. 126} into the six sets {1. . so either p and q q are both odd. two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets. 2 19 . 66 Example Shew that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126. even. there are always two who have their birthday on the same month. (odd. 30}. Similarly if one of them is even and the other odd then either ap2 + bpq or bpq + cq2 is even and ap2 + bpq + cq2 is odd. odd). . 4. {3. 7. . 3. . . 14}. 8. Thus in any group of 13 people. 100. 64.4 Proofs: Pigeonhole Principle The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n + 1 pigeons fly to n holes. 126}. 6}. {52}. c) has one of the following 8 parity patterns: (even. any such two will satisfy the stated inequality. . . even. 68 Example Prove that if five points are taken on or inside a unit square. (odd. 94}. Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups {1}. . . . and obviously. that is. {49. (odd. {4. Now each triplet (a. there must always be two whose distance is ≤ √ 2 . 61. . (even. odd. 2. (even. Figure 2. (even. Figure 2. 2}. odd). . 5. odd. there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons.4: Example 68. 13. which add to 104. even). say a and b. . odd). {15. . . 55}. b. or one is odd and the other even. . {31. . Solution: For an integer to be a square. and if the average human head has two million hairs. odd. Any integer in the given set has a prime factorisation of the form 3a 7b 11c . even).Proofs: Pigeonhole Principle Solution: Suppose 19 p is a rational solution to the equation. 67 Example Given any 9 integers whose prime factors lie in the set {3. {10. . Their product is a square. (odd. . The Pigeonhole Principle is useful in proving existence problems. 32. . then ap2 + bpq + cq2 is also odd and hence = 0. We may assume that p and q have no prime factors in common. {7. even. . 100}. Solution: Split the numbers {1. even. Now a p q 2 +b p q + c = 0 =⇒ ap2 + bpq + cq2 = 0. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 4. . Prove that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104. This contradiction proves that the equation cannot have a rational root. odd). one can find two of them. If both p and p were odd.

2 2 69 Example Fifty one points are placed on and inside a square of side 1. At least three of the points must fall into one of these mini-squares. 76 Problem The following 4 × 4 square has the property that for any of the 16 squares composing it. √ 1 2 1 Form the circle with centre at the minisquare. b.4. proving the statement. and the sum of their digits is noted. the sum of the neighbors of that square is 1. that is. by the Pythagorean Theorem. 7 Solution: Divide the square into 25 congruent squares. d we have x+y √ xy ≤ in order to prove that for all quadruplets of non-negative real numbers 2 √ a+b+c+d 4 . √ of the points must fall into one of the smaller squares. a e i m b f j n c g k o d h l p 77 Problem Prove. Prove that p + q is a composite number. 71 Problem Prove that there is no primes triple p. c. the neighbors of a are e and b and so e + b = 1. Chips are drawn at random and without replacement from the urn. abcd ≤ 4 Then. w. p + 4 except for 3. and radius of the diagonal of the square. c. d such that x4 + 2x2 + 2x + 2 = (x2 + ax + b)(x2 + cx + d). deduce that √ u+v+w 3 uvw ≤ 3 for all non-negative real numbers u. For example. · > . 2 where the left member contains an arbitrary number of radicals. ( 2 . having at least three. by arguing by contradiction. Demonstrate that there must be three of them that fit inside a circle of radius 1 . 2s] contains a power of 2. numbered 100 through 999. b. v. What is the smallest number of chips that must be drawn in order to guarantee that at least three of these digital sums be equal? 74 Problem Let s be a positive integer. Use mathematical induction to prove that √ √ 1 + 4a + 1 a+ a+ a+··· + a < . Prove that the closed interval [s. 5. then n divides (n − 1)!. 79 Problem Use the AM-GM Inequality: ∀x ≥ 0. 73 Problem An urn has 900 chips. as in figure 2. Find the sum of all the numbers in the 16 squares.5. 20 . and Two 2 1 )2 + ( 1 )2 = the longest distance there is. 72 Problem If x is an integer and 7 divides 3x + 2 prove that 7 also divides 15x2 − 11x − 14. by choosing a special value for d above. 75 Problem Let p < q be two consecutive odd primes. p + 2. 5 2 7 Homework 70 Problem Prove that if n > 4 is composite. 78 Problem Let a > 0. ∀y ≥ 0. that there are no integers a. not necessarily distinct. 4. Õ a. prime factors.20 Chapter 2 Solution: Split the square into four congruent squares as shewn in figure 2.

b.Homework 80 Problem Let a. . and prove by induction. . 82 Problem Find. Use the above two results to prove once again that √ u+v+w 3 uvw ≤ 3 for all non-negative real numbers u. Demonstrate that there is at least a pair of men who are facing each other. 2. three rows. prove that one must select some two that differ by 10. the sum of the first n positive odd numbers. w. 10 yellow marbles. Prove that if a. These cats have 16 kittens among themselves. c are real numbers then 21 a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca ≥ 0. 91 Problem Forty nine women and fifty one men sit around a round table. 89 Problem An urn contains 28 blue marbles. 83 Problem Prove by induction that if n non-parallel straight lines on the plane intersect at a common point. 1 Why is it always eccentric widows who have multiple cats? 21 . Use this to prove that 2001 is not the sum of three odd squares. 85 Problem Demonstrate by induction that whenever the formula makes sense one has (cos θ )(cos 2θ ) · · · (cos 2n θ ) = sin 2n+1 θ . c be real numbers. 0. . or 1. 88 Problem Prove. 2n+1 sin θ 86 Problem Demonstrate by induction that whenever the formula makes sense one has sin x + sin 2x + · · · + sin nx = 87 Problem Prove by induction that 2n > n for integer n ≥ 0. By direct multiplication. 20 red marbles. by induction on n. 84 Problem Demonstrate by induction that no matter how n straight lines divide the plane. or two diagonals) there will always be two that add to the same number. 100}. What is the largest integer n for which one can say that at least one of the five cats has n kittens? 93 Problem No matter which fifty five integers may be selected from {1. . that sin n+1 x nx 2 . How many marbles must be drawn from the urn in order to assure that there will be 15 marbles of the same color? 90 Problem The nine entries of a 3 × 3 grid are filled with −1. 12 white marbles. v. Prove that among the eight resulting sums (three columns. 92 Problem An eccentric widow has five cats1 . and 8 magenta marbles. or otherwise. 81 Problem Use the fact that any odd number is of the form 8k ± 1 or 8k ± 3 in order to give a direct proof that the square of any odd number leaves remainder 1 upon division by 8. x · sin sin 2 2 1 · 2 + 2 · 22 + 3 · 23 + · · · + n · 2n = 2 + (n − 1)2n+1 . they divide the plane into 2n regions. prove that a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca). it is always possible to colour the regions produced in two colours so that any two adjacent regions have different colours. b.

c. two discs “2”. 22 . and so divisible p+q p+q by at least two primes. bc must be odd. But then d + b must be odd. p + 4. . Thus if 27 + 25 + 1 = 53 are drawn. 71 If p > 3 and prime. each of the other 25 sums appears thrice. fifty discs “50”. 72 We have 3x + 2 = 7a. 4. What is the minimum number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label? 95 Problem Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive. that is. prove that there are two disjoint nonempty subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements. we know that p + q is even. with a an integer. Since bd = 2. Assume that s is strictly between two powers of 2: 2r−1 < s < 2r . that 2 2 is. 2 ßÞ √ n radicands Let us prove P(1). a + c = 2. Assume a. 77 We have x4 + 2x2 + 2x + 2 = = (x2 + ax + b)(x2 + cx + d) x4 + (a + c)x3 + (d + b + ac)x2 + (ad + bc)x + bd. and so is an integer. Furthermore. Then s < 2r < 2s < 2r+1 . and so the interval [s. three discs “3”. So p + q = 2 . . n = a2 in which case 2 < a < 2a ≤ n − 1 and hence a and 2a are among the numbers {3. 15x2 − 11x − 14 = (3x + 2)(5x − 7) = 7a(5x − 7). that is ∀a > 0. and so ad + bc = 2 is even plus odd. let’s work backwards. and since d + b + bc = 2. . Answers 70 Either n is a perfect square. . 2s] contains 2r . whence d is even. Put these 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. the other even). Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. d are integers. . But then one of the three consecutive odd numbers p. p + 2. is divisible by the prime 2 and by at least two other primes dividing 2 2 76 The neighbors of a e n o d h is exactly the sum of all the elements of the table. meaning that both b and c are odd. Thus bd = 2. any number between them is composite. Since p and q are consecutive primes. To get this one. p+q p+q 75 Since p and q are odd. the average of p and q lies between them. 2 √ √ 1 + 4a + 1 a< 2 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ √ √ 2 a < 1 + 4a + 1 √ √ 2 a − 1 < 4a + 1 √ √ (2 a − 1)2 < ( 4a + 1)2 √ 4a − 4 a + 1 < 4a + 1 √ −2 a < 0. . bd must be of opposite parity (one odd. Therefore ad is even. But p < q gives 2p < p + q < 2q and so p < < q. Hence the sum sought is 6. n − 1} or n is not a perfect square. If a > 1 4 √ √ 1 + 4a + 1 a< . 73 There are 27 different sums. 78 Let P(n) : a+ Õ √ 1 + 4a + 1 a+ a+··· + a < . d + b + bc = 2. 1 < a < b < n − 1. odd: a contradiction since 2 is not odd. with n = ab. at least. b. whence 7 divides 15x2 − 11x − 14.22 Chapter 2 94 Problem (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”. . a power of 2. 74 If s is itself a power of 2 then we are done. but still composite. p is odd. The sums 1 and 27 only appear once (in 100 and 999). must be divisible by 3 and is different from 3 and hence not a prime. ad + bc = 2. . at least 3 chips will have the same sum.

Then 3 u+v+w+ ≤ 4 u+v+w 3 =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ u + v + w 1/4 u + v + w ≤ 3 3 1−1/4 1/4 ≤ u + v + w (uvw) 3 u + v + w 3/4 (uvw)1/4 ≤ 3 u+v+w (uvw)1/3 ≤ . a contradiction to the assumption that it is a sum of three squares. Thus if 2001 were a sum of three squares. 80 Since squares of real numbers are non-negative. Now. From 23 √ √ 1 then trivially 2 a − 1 < 4a + 1. (8k ± 1)2 = 64k2 ± 16k + 1 = 8(8k2 ± 2) + 1. w = c3 . it would leave remainder 3 = 1 + 1 + 1 upon division by 8. c are non-negative then a + b + c ≥ 0 and also a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca ≥ 0. 3 (uvw)1/4 4 u+v+w uvw 3 whence the required result follows. proving that in all cases the remainder is 1 upon division by 8. a sum of three odd squares must leave remainder 3 upon division by 8. b. b = v. we have (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 ≥ 0 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 − 2ab − 2bc − 2ca ≥ 0 a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca ≥ 0. If a. use the identity x3 + y3 = (x + y)3 − 3xy(x + y) twice. v = b3 . 2 2 =⇒ √ 1 + 4a + 1 = 2 √ 1 + 4a + 1 a+ . This gives 23 . 2 √ √ ( 4a + 1 + 1)2 = 4a + 2 4a + 1 + 2 proving the claim. Thus P(1) is true. Now. 81 We have (8k ± 3)2 = 64k2 ± 48k + 9 = 8(8k2 ± 6 + 1) + 1.Answers all the steps are reversible and the last inequality is always true. But 2001 leaves remainder 1 upon division by 8. Then a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc = = = = (a + b)3 + c3 − 3ab(a + b) − 3abc (a + b + c)3 − 3(a + b)c(a + b + c) − 3ab(a + b + c) (a + b + c)((a + b + c)2 − 3ac − 3bc − 3ab) (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca) a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ abc. 2 n+1 radicands we see that it is enough to shew that Ö a+ But observe that √ √ 1 + 4a + 1 1 + 4a + 1 = . If a ≤ that P(n) is true and let’s derive P(n + 1). c = w and d = √ √ ab · cd ≤ a+b c+d √ √ + ab + cd 2 = a+b+c+d . 3 The desired inequality follows upon putting u = a3 . 79 We have √ 4 abcd = Now let a = u. Assume now 4 Õ a+ √ 1 + 4a + 1 a+ a+··· + a < =⇒ 2 ßÞ √ n radicands Õ a+ a+ ßÞ a+··· + a < √ Ö a+ √ 1 + 4a + 1 . ≤ 2 2 2 4 u+v+w .

Assume the statement is true for n − 1. and they are coloured in the desired manner by the induction hypothesis. 2n+1 sin θ (sin nx ) 2 24 . say I and II. We have already established this for n = 1. Let Pn−1 be the proposition 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 3) = (n − 1)2 . demonstrating the assertion. x · sin sin 2 2 sin 2n θ . which we assume true. 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 1). which we will prove by induction. A new line non-parallel to them but passing through a common point will lie between two of the old lines. sin x + sin 2x + · · · + sin(n − 1)x + sin nx n sin 2 x (n−1)x + sin nx x · sin 2 sin 2 nx sin 2 (n−1)x + 2 sin nx cos nx x · sin 2 2 2 sin 2 (n−1)x nx x sin 2 + 2 cos 2 sin 2 (sin nx ) x 2 sin 2 nx cos x − sin x cos nx + 2 cos nx sin x sin 2 2 2 2 2 2 x sin 2 x x sin nx cos 2 + sin 2 cos nx 2 2 (sin nx ) x 2 sin 2 sin n+1 x 2 nx x · sin 2 . For. This line splits the plane into two regions. sin 2 sin n x (n − 1)x 2 . 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 42 . then they are coloured in the prescribed manner because we switched the colours in the second region. We suspect that 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 1) = n2 . If one lies in region I and the other in region II. 1+3+5 = 32 . We now do the following: in region I we leave the original coloration. the proposition that this is possible for n − 1 > 1 lines is true. that n − 1 non-parallel straight lines intersecting at a common point divide the plane into 2(n − 1) = 2n − 2 regions. 83 The assertion is clear for n = 1 since a straight line divides the plane into two regions. 1+3 = 22 . So consider the plane split by n − 1 lines into regions and coloured as required. In region II we switch the colours. Assume that sin x + sin 2x + · · · + sin(n − 1)x = Then sin x + sin 2x + · · · + sin nx = = = = = = = where we have used the sum identity sin(a ± b) = sin a cos b ± sin b cos a. 2n sin θ (cos θ )(cos 2θ ) · · · (cos 2n−1 θ )(cos 2n θ ) sin 2n θ (cos 2n θ ) 2n sin θ sin 2n+1 θ . 85 For n = 0 this is the identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ . either the two regions lie completely in region I or completely in region II. 84 For n = 1 straight lines this is clear. Now 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 1) = = = = 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 3) + (2n − 1) (n − 1)2 + 2n − 1 n2 − 2n + 1 + 2n − 1 n2 . Assume Pn−1 . that is. Consider now a new line added to the n − 1 lines. 86 The formula clearly holds for n = 1. assume that (cos θ )(cos 2θ ) · · · (cos 2n−1 θ ) = Then (cos θ )(cos 2θ ) · · · (cos 2n θ ) = = = as wanted. and divide the region between them into two more regions. We now have a coloring of the plane in the desired manner.24 82 We are required to find Observe that 1 = 12 . producing then 2n − 2 + 2 = 2n regions. that is. Chapter 2 establishing the truth of Pn . Assume Pn−1 .

forty nine. . Examine 2n = 2(2n−1 ) = 2n−1 + 2n−1 > n − 1 + n − 1 ≥ n − 1 + 1 = n. {21. {61. {41. proving P(n + 1). By the Pigeonhole Principle. there must be two that differ by 10. 93 First observe that if we choose n + 1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers. . there will always be some two that differ by n. “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”. that is. . Assume the assertion is true for n − 1 > 0. . and for n = 1 we have 21 = 2 > 1 so the assertion is true when n = 0 and n = 1. Therefore. and so the statement is true for n = 1. 90 There are seven possible sums. −1. . . assume P(n) : 1 · 2 + 2 · 22 + 3 · 23 + · · · + n · 2n = 2 + (n − 1)2n+1 . 14 of the red and 14 of the blue marbles are drawn. forming a “diameter” on the table. assume that 2n−1 > n − 1. But adding (n + 1)2n+1 to both sides of P(n) we obtain 1 · 2 + 2 · 22 + 3 · 23 + · · · + n · 2n + (n + 1)2n+1 = 2 + (n − 1)2n+1 + (n + 1)2n+1 = 2 + 2n2n+1 = 2 + n2n+2 . then in among these 8 + 10 + 12 + 14 + 14 = 58 there are no 15 marbles of the same color. we must perforce choose eleven from some group. a + 3. From that group. 1. . . 92 We have 16 5 = 4. all the white. .Answers 25 87 For n = 0 we have 20 = 1 > 0. . {81. . 0. . 40}. 3}. a + n + 2}. . . . To each of these subsets we associate the sum of its elements. 80} and If we select fifty five integers. . 42. using the induction hypothesis and the fact that n − 1 ≥ 1. a + 2n} into the n pairs and if n + 1 integers are chosen from this. . {a + 2. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 + 91 + · · · + 99 = 945 < 1023. a + n + 1}. If all the men were on one side of the diameter then we would have a total of 49 + 1 = 50. . there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum. . 94 If we draw all the 1 + 2 + · · · + 9 = 45 labelled “1”. {a + 1. We would like to prove that we indeed have P(n + 1) : 1 · 2 + 2 · 22 + 3 · 23 + · · · + (n + 1) · 2n+1 = 2 + n2n+2 . . . by the above observation (let n = 10). . . On either side of the diameter there must be an equal number of people. a + 2n}. 82. we have drawn 45 + 9 · 41 = 414 discs. So now group the one hundred integers as follows: {1. 89 If all the magenta. 95 There are 210 − 1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set. 60}. that is. 25 . 22. . 91 Pick a pair of different sex facing one another. 88 For n = 1 we have 1 · 2 = 2 + (1 − 1)22 . that is. “50”. 100}. . . 2. Thus we need 59 marbles in order to insure that there will be 15 marbles of the same color. a contradiction. 20}. Assume the statement is true for n. . The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label. 62. −2. that is. 2. . a + 2. . there must be two that belong to the same group. each one a number in {−3. all the yellow. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers {a + 1. . two of the eight sums must add up to the same. . . {a + n. . . so there is at least one cat who has four kittens. .

99 Definition A boolean operator is a character used on boolean propositions. One only needs to know that its certainty can be established. or b is true. ( true ) ž Every even integer greater than 6 is the sum of two distinct primes.Chapter 3 Logic. ( true ) — 5 > 6. 97 Example The following are boolean propositions and their values. Its output is either true or false ˜ y ← x. (unknown) 98 Example The following are not boolean propositions. ( false ) ™ There exists infinitely many primes which are the sum of a square and 1. — Sit on a potato pan. They are listed in order of operator precedence and their evaluation rules are given in Table 3. Otis! ™ This sentence is false. (unknown) › There is a dog. or both a and b are true. — ∧ (and or conjunction) – ¬ (not or negation). We will consider the following boolean operators in these notes. ( true ) œ I am the Pope. and Boolean Algebra 3. ( false ) ˜ If p is a prime then p is odd.1. meaning that if a ∨ b then either a is true. since it is impossible to assign a true or false value to them. if known: – 72 = 49.  The ∨ = or is inclusive.1 Logic 96 Definition A boolean proposition is a statement which can be characterised as either true or false . 26 . ˜ ∨ (or or disjunction) ™ =⇒ (implies) š = (equals) ¬ has right-to-left associativity. Whether the statement is obviously true or false does not enter in the definition. – Whenever I shampoo my camel. Sets. all other operators listed have left-to-right associativity. (unknown) š There is a G-d. ( false )  Every prime that leaves remainder 1 when divided by 4 is the sum of two squares.

I will not go jogging. 103 Example a ∧ ¬b =⇒ c is equivalent to (a ∧ ¬b) =⇒ c by the precedence rules. c > 0.1. decides whether they form the sides of a triangle. b. 101 Example ¬a =⇒ a ∨ b is equivalent to (¬a) =⇒ (a ∨ b) upon using the precedence rules. but I will not go jogging.Logic a F F T T b F T F T (¬a) T T F F (a ∧ b) F F F T (a ∨ b) F T T T (a =⇒ b) T T F T (a = b) T F F T 27 Table 3. Sides of length a.1: I S I TAT RIANGLE((a. c form a triangle if and only they satisfy the triangle inequalities:: a + b > c. c + a > b. 102 Example a =⇒ b =⇒ c is equivalent to (a =⇒ b) =⇒ c upon using the associativity rules. – (b ∨ ¬b) =⇒ c: Whether or not it is snowing. b > 0. I will go jogging. 104 Example Write a code fragment that accepts three numbers. b. The sentences below are represented by means of logical operators.  Algorithm 3.1: Evaluation Rules 100 Example Consider the propositions: • a : I will eat my socks. c)) if ((a > 0) and (b > 0) and (c > 0) and ((a + b > c) and (b + c > a) and (c + a > b)) then istriangle ← true else istriangle ← false return (istriangle) . b + c > a. I will eat my socks. Solution: First we must have a > 0. • c : I will go jogging. ˜ b =⇒ (a ∧ ¬c): If it is snowing. — b =⇒ ¬c: If it is snowing. • b : It is snowing.

If proposition P is equivalent to proposition Q we write P = Q.2. Solution: Since there are three variables. the truth table will have 2n lines. 106 Example Construct the truth table of the proposition a ∨ ¬b ∧ c. Notice that by the precedence rules the given proposition is equivalent to a ∨ (¬b ∧ c). 107 Definition Two propositions are said to be equivalent if they have the same truth table. If there are n variables. The truth table is in Table 3. 27 .  105 Definition A truth table is a table assigning all possible combinations of T or F to the variables in a proposition. the truth table will have 23 = 8 lines. since ∧ has higher precedence than ∨.

u 109 Theorem (De Morgan’s Rules) ¬(a ∨ b) = ¬a ∧ ¬b and ¬(a ∧ b) = ¬a ∨ ¬b. whose truth or falsity depends on the values assigned to the variables.2: Example 106.28 a F F F F T T T T b F F T T F F T T c F T F T F T F T (¬b) T T F F T T F F (¬b ∧ c) F T F F F T F F a ∨ (¬b ∧ c) F T F F T T T T Chapter 3 Table 3. 112 Definition A predicate is a sentence containing variables. Solution: Using the De Morgan Rules and double negation: ¬(A ∨ ¬B) = ¬A ∧ ¬(¬B) = ¬A ∧ B.” 114 Definition (Universal Quantifier) We use the symbol ∀ to mean “for all. 113 Definition (Existential Quantifier) We use the symbol ∃ to mean “there exists. 111 Example Let p and q be propositions.” 28 . proving the assertion.3: Theorem 108.3 the entries for a and ¬(¬a) produce the same output. a F F T T b F T F T (a ∨ b) F T T T ¬(a ∨ b) T F F F (¬a) T T F F (¬b) T F T F (¬a ∧ ¬b) T F F F a F F T T b F T F T (a ∧ b) F F F T ¬(a ∧ b) T T T F (¬a) T T F F (¬b) T F T F (¬a ∨ ¬b) T T T F Table 3.4 proves that ¬(a ∨ b) = ¬a ∧ ¬b and truth table 3. p must be false and we must have ¬p ∧ q. 108 Theorem (Double Negation) ¬(¬a) = a. Proof: Truth table 3. Solution: By the conditions of the problem. Similarly if q is true. but not both simultaneously. Translate into symbols: either p or q is true. a F T (¬a) T F (¬(¬a)) F T Table 3. Proof: From the truth table 3.5 proves that ¬(a ∧ b) = ¬a ∨ ¬b. if p is true then q must be false. which we represent as p ∧ ¬q. Table 3.4: ¬(a ∨ b) = ¬a ∧ ¬b . u 110 Example Negate A ∨ ¬B.5: ¬(a ∧ b) = ¬a ∨ ¬b. The required expression is thus (p ∧ ¬q) ∨ (¬p ∧ q).

is the set A ∪ B = {x : (x ∈ A) ∨ (x ∈ B)}. If x ∈ B then B \ {x} is a set with n − 1 elements and so by the induction hypothesis it has 2n−1 subsets. a subset of {a. Solution: They are S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 117 Example Find all the subsets of {a. We use the boldface letters N to denote the natural numbers (nonnegative integers) and Z to denote the integers. a} {a. c. For each subset S ⊆ B \ {x} we form the new subset S ∪ {x}.2 Sets We will consider a set naively as a collection of objects called elements. ¬(∃x ∈]0. +∞[) = (∀x ∈]0. Since the subsets of {a. d} {a. We denote by card (A) the cardinality of A. Proof: We use induction and the idea of example 117. d} either contains d or it does not. b. b. If a set A is totally contained in another set B. then we say that A is a subset of B and we write this as A ⊆ B (some authors use the notation A ⊂ B). +∞[)(nx < 1). If S is a set and the element x is in the set. b. and so B has a total of 2n−1 + 2n−1 = 2n subsets. Now. d} {b. d} {c. b. d}. which we write as A ⊆ B. 4. c} Solution: The idea is the following. If ∃x ∈ A such that x ∈ B. b. 116 Example Find all the subsets of {a. 3. b. If x does not belong to S we write x ∈ S. c. c. then 4 ∈ S but 2 ∈ S. We use the result of example 116. b. For example if S = {n ∈ N : n is the square of an integer }. b. The boldface letters R and C shall respectively denote the real numbers and the complex numbers. For example. u 119 Definition The union of two sets A and B. d} {b. = = = = = = = = ∅ {a} {b} {c} {a. +∞[) and ¬(nx < 1) = (nx ≥ 1). b. c} S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 = = = = = = = = {d} {a. There are 2n−1 such new subsets. c} and then to each one of them we add d. that is. 115 Example Write the negation of (∀n ∈ N)(∃x ∈]0. c. a} {a.Sets Observe that ¬∀ = ∃ and ¬∃ = ∀. d} {a. 16} is a subset of S. Let B be a set with n elements. then we say that x belongs to S and we write this as x ∈ S. then A = {1. the number of elements that A has. This is a subset of B. we simply list all the subsets of {a. the required statement is (∃n ∈ N)(∀x ∈]0. c} {c. c} {c. b} {b. d} {c. Assume every set with n − 1 elements has 2n−1 subsets. b} {b. a. This gives S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 = = = = = = = = ∅ {a} {b} {c} {a. d} 118 Theorem A finite n-element set has 2n subsets. Clearly a set A with n = 1 elements has 21 = 2 subsets: ∅ and A itself. then A is not a subset of B. if S = {squares of integers}. +∞[)(nx ≥ 1). 29 . 29 Solution: Since ¬(∀n ∈ N) = (∃n ∈ N). Two sets A and B are equal if A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A. c}. 9. c} do not contain d.

The intersection of two sets A and B. This is read “A set minus B. Observe that ∁A is all that which is outside A. 3.4: ∁A Figure 3. Since we have shown that the two sets contain each other. This is the same as x ∈ ∁A ∩ ∁B. 4.4.2: A ∩ B Figure 3. that is. 5. Observe that We also have the De Morgan Laws: if A and B share the same universal set. Chapter 3 ∁A A A B A B A B Figure 3.” See figure 3. 121 Example Let U = {0. Thus x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B.2) (3. (3. The difference of two sets A and B. 9} be the universal set of the decimal digits and let A = {0. ∁(A ∩ B) = ∁A ∪ ∁B. 5.3. 7.” See figure 3. is A \ B = {x : (x ∈ A) ∧ (x ∈ B)}. This is read “A intersection B. x ∈ ∁A ∧ x ∈ ∁B. 2. 6. 1. 2. 9} is the set of odd digits.30 This is read “A union B. we have ∁(A ∪ B) = ∁A ∩ ∁B. 6. (3. But this last statement asserts that x ∈ ∁(A ∪ B). Usually we assume that A is a subset of some universal set U which is tacitly understood. it must be the case that they are equal.2. is A ∩ B = {x : (x ∈ A) ∧ (x ∈ B)}.1: A ∪ B Figure 3. Solution: We have x ∈ A \ (B ∪C) ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ (B ∨C) (x ∈ A) ∧ ((x ∈ B) ∧ (x ∈ C)) (x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B) ∧ (x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ C) (x ∈ A \ B) ∧ (x ∈ A \C) x ∈ (A \ B) ∩ (A \C) 30 . Hence ∁A ∩ ∁B ⊆ ∁(A ∪ B).3) ∁A ∩ A = ∅. This means that x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B or what is the same x ∈ A ∪ B.3: A \ B 120 Definition Let A ⊆ X.1) We will now prove one of the De Morgan’s Rules. Now. let x ∈ ∁A ∩ ∁B. The complement ∁A represents the event that A does not occur. Therefore ∁(A ∪ B) ⊆ ∁A ∩ ∁B. We represent ∁A pictorially as in figure 3. 3. Then x ∈ A ∪ B. 7. Then x ∈ ∁A ∧ x ∈ ∁B. 4. 122 Example Prove that ∁(A ∪ B) = ∁A ∩ ∁B. 8. 8} ⊂ U be the set of even digits.1.” See figure 3. 123 Example Prove that A \ (B ∪C) = (A \ B) ∩ (A \C). The complement of A with respect to X is ∁A = X \ A. Solution: Let x ∈ ∁(A ∪ B). Then ∁A = {1.

. . Solution:  Algorithm 3. m.2. 31 Solution: The sets A. y2 .C \ (A ∪ B) are clearly disjoint and A ∪ B ∪C = A ∪ (B \ A) ∪ (C \ (A ∪ B)). x2 .Y ) comment: X is an array of length n. . . Write an algorithm to determine {x1 . B \ A. . ym }. comment: Y is an array of length m. n1 ← 0 m1 ← 0 common ← 0 while (n1 = n) and (m1 = m) if X[n1 + 1] < Y [m1 + 1] then n1 ← n1 + 1 else if X[n1 + 1] > Y [m1 + 1] then m1 ← m1 + 1 do ´ n1 ← n1 + 1 else m1 ← m1 + 1 common ← common + 1 .1: I NTERSECTION(n.Boolean Algebras and Boolean Operations 124 Example Shew how to write the union A ∪ B ∪C as a disjoint union of sets. X. xn } ∩ {y1 . . . 125 Example Let x1 < x2 < · · · < xn and y1 < y2 < · · · < ym be two strictly increasing sequences of integers. .

and = ¬. and A = . 6. T } constitute a boolean algebra. A + (BC) = (A + B)(A +C) (distributive law) 7. 2. A + A = 1 10. A + (B +C) = (A + B) +C (associativity of addition) 4. AB = BA (commutativity of multiplication) 3. A1 = A (1 is the multiplicative identity) 9. AA = 0 127 Example If we regard 0 = F. The additive identity is 1 and the multiplicative identity is 30. (We use the juxtaposition AB to denote 1. · = ∧. A(BC) = (AB)C (associativity of multiplication) 5. + = ∪. · = ∩. = ∁. A(B +C) = AB + AC (distributive law) 6. 3. and a boolean algebra.3 Boolean Algebras and Boolean Operations 126 Definition A boolean algebra consists of a set X with at least two different elements 0 and 1. 129 Example Let X = {1. + = ∨. 30 · as the greatest common divisor of two elements. 1 = U (the universal set). A + 0 = A (0 is the additive identity) 8.  3. A + B = B + A (commutativity of addition) 2. We define + as the least common multiple of two elements. Under these A operations X becomes a boolean algebra. 30}. 31 . two binary operations + (addition) and · (multiplication). 10.) (called complementation) satisfying the following axioms. then the logic operations over {F. and a unary operation the product A · B. then the set operations over the subsets of U constitute 128 Example If we regard 0 = ∅. 15. 1 = T . 5. the set of positive divisors of 30.

u 132 Theorem (Domination Laws) A + 1 = 1 and A · 0 = 0. 0 = 0 + 0. u 32 . Proof: We have A + 1 = A + (A + A) = (A + A) + A = A + A = 1. 0 + 0 = 1 and thus 0 = 0 + 0 = 1. u A · 0 = A(A · A) = (AA)A = AA = 0. 1 · 1 = 0 and thus 1 = 1 · 1 = 0. Also. But by axiom 9. we have the identities 1 = A + A and A · A = 0. 133 Theorem (Uniqueness of the Complement) If AB = 0 and A + B = 1 then B = A. 1 = 1 · 1. Proof: Since 0 is the additive identity. since 1 is the multiplicative identity.32 A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A 1 1 0 0 A+B 0 1 1 1 AB 0 0 0 1 Chapter 3 Table 3.6. But by axiom 10. The following properties are immediate. 130 Theorem 0 = 1 and 1 = 0. u 131 Theorem (Idempotent Laws) A + A = A and AA = A Proof: We have A = A + 0 = A + A · A = (A + A)(A + A) = (A + A)(1) = A + A. Also.6: Evaluation Rules The operations of complementation. B = BA = AB = A. addition and multiplication act on 0 and 1 as shewn in table 3. Thus u 134 Theorem (Involution Law) A = A A = A1 = A(A + B) = A · A + AB = AB. Proof: By axioms 9 and 10. By uniqueness of the complement we must have A = A. Proof: We have B = B1 = B(A + A) = BA + BA = 0 + BA = BA. Similarly. Similarly A = A1 = A(A + A) = AA + A · A = AA + 0 = AA.

u 138 Theorem (Absorption Laws) A + AB = A and A(A + B) = A. then multiply the variables forming a term. Taking complements once again we have A + B = AB =⇒ A + B = AB. write the variable if the variable input is 1 or write the complement of the variable if the variable input is 0. To obtain the other De Morgan Law put A instead of A and B instead of B in the law just derived and use the involution law: A + B = A · B = AB.Sum of Products and Products of Sums 135 Theorem (De Morgan’s Laws) A + B = A · B and A · B = A + B. — for each such row. (A + B)A · B = AA · B + BA · B = 0 + 0 = 0. — for each such row. write the variable if the variable input is 0 or write the complement of the variable if the variable input is 1. 33 Proof: Observe that and (A + B) + A · B = (A + B + A)(A + B + B) = (B + 1)(A + 1) = 1. u 3. then add the variables forming a sum ˜ multiply all such sums. ˜ add all such terms. Proof: Factoring and using the domination laws: A + AB = A(1 + B) = A1 = A. A + AB = (A + A)(A + B) = 1(A + B) = A + B. This can be done by either finding a sum of products (SOP) or a product of sums (POS) for the table.4 Sum of Products and Products of Sums Given a truth table in some boolean variables. Thus A · B is the complement of A + B and so we must have A · B = A + B. Proof: Multiplying A(A + B) = AA + AB = 0 + AB = AB. Expanding and using the identity just derived: A(A + B) = AA + AB = A + AB = A. u 137 Theorem A(A + B) = AB and A + AB = A + B. we would like to find a function whose output is that of the table. To find a product of sums from a truth table: – identify the rows having output 0. To find a sum of products from a truth table: – identify the rows having output 1. Using the distributive law. u 136 Theorem AB + AB = A. Proof: Factoring AB + AB = A(B + B) = A(1) = A. 33 .

each one of them only indicated correctly either the make of the car or only its colour. and (iv) A = 1. or transform a SOP into a POS or viceversa. Chapter 3 A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Z 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 Solution: The output (Z) 1’s occur on the rows (i) A = 0. 140 Example Convert the following POS to a SOP: (A + BC)(A + BD).C = 1. (iii) A = 1. 142 Example Write W XY +W XZ +Y + Z as a sum of two products. B = 0. B = 1. B = 0. giving the term A + B +C. B = 1. (ii) A = 0. B = 1. What colour was the car and of what make? Solution: Consider the sentences 34 . and (iv) A = B = C = 1. The thieves escaped in a car that was waiting for them. so we form the term ABC. Johns and Landau are charged with bank robbery. (iii) A = 1. Solution: AB +CD = = (AB +C)(AB + D) (A +C)(B +C)(A + D)(B + D).C = 0.C = 0. so we form the term A + B +C.34 139 Example Find a SOP and a POS for Z. and Landau said that it had been a Ford Granada and by no means blue. B = 0. giving the term ABC. Johns stated that it had been a black Chevrolet. The required POS is Z = (A + B +C)(A + B +C)(A + B +C)(A + B +C). so we form the term (A)(B)(C). At the inquest Brown stated that the criminals had escaped in a blue Buick. Solution: (A + BC)(A + BD) = = = AA + ABD + ABC + BCBD A + ABD + ABC + BCD A + BCD. 141 Example Convert the following SOP to a POS: AB +CD. so we form the term ABC. so we form the term A + B +C. so we form the term A + B +C. Solution: We have W XY +W XZ +Y + Z = = = W X(Y + Z) +Y + Z W X +Y + Z W X +Y · Z. where we have used the fact that AB + B = A + B and the De Morgan laws. It turned out that wishing to confuse the Court.C = 0.C = 1. (ii) A = 0. The required SOP is Z = (A)(B)(C) + ABC + ABC + ABC.5 Logic Puzzles The boolean algebra identities from the preceding section may help to solve some logic puzzles. The output (Z) 0’s occur on the rows (i) A = 0. 143 Example Brown. B = 0. 3. Using the axioms of a boolean algebra and the aforementioned theorems we may simplify a given boolean expression.C = 1.C = 0.

and Rachel ran a race. ¸ Etienne is the murderer. Margie was second.” If each of the girls made one and only one true statement. then either Etienne is the murderer or Francois is ¸ ¸ lying. it follows that Brown’s declaration A + B is true. Upon multiplying this out. From the hypothesis that each of the criminals gave one correct answer. except the fifth. we obtain (A ·C · A) + (A ·C · E) + (A · D · A) + (A · D · E) + (B ·C · A) + (B ·C · E) + (B · D · A) + (B · D · E). Solution: Represent the following sentences as: A B C D = = = = Francois was drunk. e = = = = = = April was first April was second Mimi was second Margie was second Rachel was third Rachel was last “Maigret here . Justin is of the opinion that either Etienne is the murderer or Francois was not drunk and the murder occurred after midnight. Any news?” “Yes Chief. is false. Multiplying this out ABF + ABD + AEF + AED +CBF +CBD +CEF +CED = 1. Johns’s declaration C + D is true. who won the race? Solution: Consider the sentences A B C D E F Since each of the girls gave one true statement we have that (A +C)(B + E)(F + D) = 1. ¸ the murder took place after midnight. it follows that each of the summands. 144 Example Margie.” April: “Rachel was last. Now ¸ everything was clear to him. they replied: Margie: “April won. Francois is telling a lie. . Mimi. Torrence thinks that if Francois was drunk.” Mimi: “April was second and Rachel was third. Thus B ·C · A is true. Maigret rang his office on quai des Orf` vres.Logic Puzzles A B C D E = = = = = the car is blue the car is a Buick the car is black the car is a Chevrolet the car is a Ford Granada 35 Since each of the criminals gave one correct answer. Mimi was second. AB = EF = BC = CD = 0 so the only surviving term is AED and so April was first. . He knew that when Francois was sober he never lied. Similarly. Rachel was third. with proof. It now follows that (A + B) · (C + D) · (A + E) is true. That’s enough!” The commissar replaced the receiver. and Landau’s declaration A + E is true. April. Now. Asked how they made out. Find. then either Etienne is the murderer or Francois is lying. the murderer. thanks. and so the criminals escaped in a black Buick. Inspector ¸ Lucas asked me to tell you that if the murder had occurred after midnight. . and Mimi was last.” “That’s all. 145 Example Having returned home. Margie was second. Then there ¸ was a ring from . 35 . The inspectors have reported.

Using the identity X =⇒ Y = X +Y. Etienne is the murderer. Answers 146 p F F T T q F T F T p =⇒ q T T F T (p =⇒ q) ∧ q F T F T 36 . 2.36 We then have A =⇒ (B +C). you want to compare the outputs of (p∧q)∨(¬p) and p ∨ (¬p). i. But Maigret knows that AC = 0. That is. D =⇒ (B +C). 148 Problem Explain whether the following assertion is true and negate it without using the negation symbol ¬:   ¡ ∀n ∈ N ∃m ∈ N n > 3 =⇒ (n + 7)2 > 49 + m 149 Problem Explain whether the following assertion is true and negate it without using the negation symbol ¬:   ¡ ∀n ∈ N ∃m ∈ N n2 > 4n =⇒ 2n > 2m + 10 150 Problem Prove by means of set inclusion that (A ∪ B) ∩C = (A ∩C) ∪ (B ∩C). or the following events occurred simultaneously: Francois lied. 151 Problem Obtain a sum of products for the truth table A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Z 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 152 Problem Use the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle to determine how many integers in the set {1. Chapter 3 So. decide whether (p∧q)∨(¬p) = p∨(¬p). we see that the output of the product of the following sentences must be 1: (A + B +C)(B + AD)(D + B +C). we obtain B +CAD.e. 147 Problem By means of a truth table. either Etienne is the murderer. . Francois was not drunk and the murder ¸ ¸ took place after midnight. . B + AD. 200} are neither divisible by 3 nor 7 but are divisible by 11. . Homework 146 Problem Construct the truth table for (p =⇒ q) ∧ q.. . After multiplying the above product and simplifying. thus it follows that E = 1.

x ∈ (A ∪ B) ∩C ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ x ∈ (A ∪ B) ∧ x ∈ C (x ∈ A ∨ x ∈ B) ∧ x ∈ C (x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ C) ∨ (x ∈ B ∧ x ∈ C) (x ∈ A ∩C) ∨ (x ∈ B ∩C) x ∈ (A ∩C) ∪ (B ∩C). q F T F T p∧q F F F T ¬p T T F F p ∨ ¬p T T T T (p ∧ q) ∨ (¬p) T T F T 37 which establishes the equality. 150 We have. (n + 7)2 > 49 + m ⇐⇒ n2 + 14n > m. taking m = n2 + 14n − 1 for instance (or any smaller number). 151 A · B ·C + A · B ·C + A · B ·C + A · B ·C 152 10 37 . We have Hence.Answers 147 The desired truth table is p F F T T 148 The assertion is true. will make the assertion true.

−6.Chapter 4 2Z = {. 8. 9. −8. let 3Z = {. y) ∈ A2 ). . . the integral divisor must be made explicit. . 38 . . −2. −5. and let 3Z + 2 = {. . . 2Z + 1} is a partition of Z. (3Z) ∩ (3Z + 1) = ∅. −5. 2. 158 Definition Let A be a set and R be a relation on A × A. Then R is said to be • symmetric if (∀(x. −4. −1.1 Partitions and Equivalence Relations 153 Definition Let S = ∅ be a set. . 156 Example Observe R = (Q) ∪ (R \ Q). 4. −3. . . 157 Definition Let A. Then (3Z) ∪ (3Z + 1) ∪ (3Z + 2) = Z. 155 Example Let (2Z) ∪ (2Z + 1) = Z. 0.} = 2 be integers leaving remainder 2 upon division by 3. .} = 1 be the set of odd integers. .} = 0 3Z + 1 = {. 2. −3. 1. −6. 4. −1. . • reflexive if (∀x ∈ A). (3Z + 1) ∩ (3Z + 2) = ∅.  Notice that 0 and 1 do not mean the same in examples 154 and 155.} = 1 be the integers leaving remainder 1 upon division by 3. (2Z) ∩ (2Z + 1) = ∅. −7. . 3. (3Z) ∩ (3Z + 2) = ∅. 3Z + 2} is a partition of Z. −4. . . 6. Then and so {2Z. A partition of S is a collection of non-empty. . 154 Example Let be the set of even integers and let 2Z + 1 = {. 3Z + 1. . . . . . pairwise disjoint subsets of S whose union is S . . 7. 5. We write the fact that (x. ∅ = (Q) ∩ (R \ Q).} = 0 Relations and Functions 4. A relation R is a subset of the Cartesian product A × B. − 9. y) ∈ R as x ∼ y. 3. B be sets. 6. 5. . . which means that the real numbers can be partitioned into the rational and irrational numbers. and so {3Z. . be the integral multiples of 3. x ∼ x. 1. . Whenever we make use of this notation. −2. . x ∼ y =⇒ y ∼ x. . . . 0.

so ∼ is symmetric. y. This means that y ∈ [a]. Then ∼ is a partial order on X. Then a ∼ a since any human a has the same mother as himself. c b c and so a ∼ c. a a b = · = mn ∈ Z. (x ∼ y) and (y ∼ z) =⇒ (x ∼ z). But 0 ≁ 1 since 02 + 12 ≯ 2. since = a + 1 ∈ Z. the relation is not symmetric. Then clearly if a 2 +5 other hand. On the 165 Definition Let ∼ be an equivalence relation on a set S . It is not transitive either. b) ∈ (Q∗ )2 define the relation ∼ as follows: a ∼ b ⇔ a ∈ Z. but is neither symmetric nor transitive. Again by transitivity. u 39 . z) ∈ A3 ). This establishes the result. In a similar fashion. Determine whether this relation is reflexive. y) ∈ A2 ). and/or transitive. is not an equivalence relation. whether ∼ is reflexive. Now x ∈ [a] =⇒ x ∼ a =⇒ a ∼ x. 162 Example For (a. b and/or transitive. symmetric and transitive is called an equivalence relation on A. Similarly. and so the relation is reflexive. symmetric. we may prove that [a] ⊆ [b]. Also 0 ∼ 3 since 02 + 32 > 2 and 3 ∼ 1 since 32 + 12 > 2. (x ∼ y) and (y ∼ x) =⇒ x = y. b) ∈ R2 define Determine. • transitive if (∀(x. and [a] ∩ [b] = ∅ then [a] = [b]. b) ∈ S 2 . We have shewn that y ∈ [b] =⇒ y ∈ [a] and so [b] ⊆ [a]. if y ∈ [b] then b ∼ y. 39 A relation R which is reflexive. a ∼ y. The relation is not symmetric. by symmetry. Is ∼ an equivalence relation? Solution: Since 02 + 02 ≯ 2. The relation. and define ∼ on S as a ∼ b if and only if a and b have the same mother. relation on L. since 5 ∼ 2 as 5 2 = 15 ∈ Z but 2 ∼ 52 +5 32 +3 52 +5 3 ∈ Z =⇒ 5 ∼ 3 and 12 ∈ Z =⇒ 3 ∼ 12 but 12 ∈ Z and so 5 ≁ 12.Partitions and Equivalence Relations • anti-symmetric if (∀(x. Now. a ∼ b =⇒ b ∼ a and (a ∼ b) and (b ∼ c) =⇒ (a ∼ c). we have 0 ≁ 0 and so ∼ is not reflexive. By transitivity (a ∼ x) and (x ∼ b) =⇒ a ∼ b. x ∈ [b] =⇒ x ∼ b. anti-symmetric and transitive is called a partial order on A. symmetric. as 2 +2 5 2 a2 +a a = 6 5 ∈ Z. A relation R which is reflexive. For 2 ∼ 1 since 1 ∈ Z but 1 ≁ 2 since a a The relation is transitive. n) ∈ Z2 such that b = m. 163 Example For (a. Proof: We prove that if (a. a∼b ⇔ ⇔ ⇔ a2 + b2 b2 + a2 b ∼ a. Then two equivalence classes are either identical or disjoint. 2 Solution: a ∼ a since a = 1 ∈ Z. Then there exist (m. a2 +a b ∈ Z. Then the equivalence class of a is defined and denoted by [a] = {x ∈ S : x ∼ a}. therefore. This gives c 1 2 ∈ Z. 159 Example Let S ={All Human Beings}. b = n. Write A ∼ B if A ⊆ B. Similarly. Thus the relation is not transitive. For assume a ∼ b and b ∼ c. Therefore ∼ is an equivalence relation. Then ∼ is an equivalence 161 Example Let X be a collection of sets. 160 Example Let L be the set of all lines on the plane and write l1 ∼ l2 if l1 ||l2 (the line l1 is parallel to the line l2 ). Now. 166 Lemma Let ∼ be an equivalence relation on a set S . a ∼ b ⇔ a2 + b2 > 2. Suppose that x ∈ [a] ∩ [b]. with proof. Solution: Here is one possible example: put a ∼ b ⇔ ∈ Z∗ we have a ∼ a since 5. 164 Example Give an example of a relation on Z∗ which is reflexive.

The domain of f is denoted by Dom ( f ).40 Chapter 4 As a way of motivating the following result. and bricks with numbers in {3. 7} belong to the “white” class.1: The main ingredients of a function. u 4. 2. Suppose that instead of grouping the bricks by colour we decided to group the bricks by the remainder given by the number of the brick upon division by 4. Since the Sα are mutually disjoint. 167 Theorem Let S = ∅ be a set. 9. let S = α Sα . rule image target set domain Figure 4. 4. This assignment rule for f is usually denoted by x → f (x). which come in 3 different colours and are numbered 1 through 10. In this case bricks with numbers in {4. be a partition of S . Notice on the same set we constructed two different partitions.2 Functions 168 Definition By a function f : Dom ( f ) → Target ( f ) we mean the collection of the following ingredients: – a name for the function. let us consider the following example. Suppose we induce the relation a ∼ b whenever brick number a has the same colour as brick number b. Clearly ≈ is also an equivalence relation. and that classes need not have the same number of elements. also called independent variable or dummy variable. The target set of f is denoted by Target ( f ). ™ a set of possible outputs of the function. Any equivalence relation on S induces a partition of S . Conversely. if ∼ is an equivalence relation on S then S = [a]. we have [a] = Sα . Bricks 1 through 3 are red. bricks with numbers in {2. it is clear that ≈ is an equivalence relation on S and that for a ∈ Sα . 6. š an assignment rule or formula. 3} belong to the “red” class. Usually we use the letter f . assigning to every input a unique output. 7} belong to the “3” class. Suppose that a child is playing with 10 bricks. This proves the first half of the theorem. a∈S and [a] ∩ [b] = ∅ if a ≁ b. 10} belong to the “blue” class. 40 . 5. — a set of inputs called the domain of the function. In this partition we have 3 classes (colours): bricks with numbers in {1. 9} belong to the “1” class. ˜ an input parameter . The ∼ is clearly an equivalence relation and the bricks are partitioned according to colour. We usually denote a typical input by the letter x. non-empty subsets. 10} belong to the “2” class. Conversely. 5. thus a ≈ b if a and b leave the same remainder upon division by 4. bricks with numbers in {1. called the target set of the function. 8} belong to the “0” class. bricks 4 through 7 are white and bricks 8 through 10 are blue. and is denoted by f (x). and bricks with numbers in {8. bricks with numbers in {4. we can define an equivalence relation on S whose equivalence classes are precisely these subsets. Proof: By Lemma 166. The output of x under f is also referred to as the image of x under f . We define the relation ≈ on S by letting a ≈ b if and only if they belong to the same Sα . Sα ∩ Sβ = ∅ if α = β . given a partition of S into disjoint.

Im ( f ) = { f (a) : a ∈ Dom ( f )}.3: Not a function. In other words.4: Example 170. The element 3 in the domain is not assigned to any element of the target set. It must be emphasised that the uniqueness of the image of an element of the domain is crucial. b} and target set {c. Figures 4. Also important in the definition of a function is the fact that all the elements of the domain must be operated on. 169 Definition The image Im ( f ) of a function f is its set of actual outputs. For example. For example. whereas the arrow → (read “maps to”) is used to denote that an input becomes a certain output. 170 Example Consider the sets A = {1.3 does not represent a function.1.2 does not represent a function. 4. The element 1 in the domain is assigned to more than one element of the target set.5: Example 170.2: Not a function. Observe that we always have Im ( f ) ⊆ Target ( f ). 1 Notice 41 . 9} f: x → x2 f: 1 2 1 4 3 9 1 2 3 1 4 9 Figure 4. – f1 given by f1 (a) = f1 (b) = c. d}. the diagram in figure 4. Solution: There are 22 = 4 such functions. and the rule f given by f (x) = x2 . 4. Figure 4. Observe that Im ( f3 ) = {c.Functions The notation1 f: Dom ( f ) x → → Target ( f ) f (x) 41 read “the function f . See figure 4. 3}. B = {1. {1. namely: — f2 given by f2 (a) = f2 (b) = d.4 through 4. f3 (b) = d. 3} → {1. ˜ f3 given by f3 (a) = c. 2. 9}.6: Example 170. Observe that Im ( f2 ) = {d}.5 give three ways of representing the function f : A → B. and assignment rule f mapping x to f (x)” conveys all the above ingredients. Observe that Im ( f1 ) = {c}. d}. Figure 4. The straight arrow −→ is used to mean that a certain set is associated with another set. target set Target ( f ). the difference in the arrows. the diagram in 4. 171 Example Find all functions with domain {a. 2. 2 1 3 4 2 8 16 0 1 3 4 8 Figure 4. which means that f takes an input and squares it. Figure 4. with domain Dom ( f ).

and ßÞ thus mn functions.42 ™ f4 given by f4 (a) = d. Proof: Put n = card (A). f (x2 ). then card (A) = card (B). Observe that Im ( f4 ) = {c. If f were injective then f (x1 ). • if n ≤ m. . and let A and B be finite.9 is surjective. Figure 4. Hence n ≤ m. a a a b a c c f4 : a b b b c . If f is bijective.7 is an injective function.If a function from A to B is injective then we must have n ≤ m in view of Theorem 174. since β (3) = β (1) = 4. x2 . u 175 Definition A permutation is a function from a finite set to itself which reorders the elements of the set. B = {y1 . ym }.8: Not an injection Figure 4. f4 (b) = c. A = {x1 . c}: f3 : a a b b c c f2 : a b b c c . . d}. . xn } and m = card (B). b. there is an xi with f (xi ) = yk . . and so n ≥ m. . A function is bijective if it is both injective and surjective. Then • the number of functions from A to B is mn . however is not injective. Chapter 4 172 Definition A function is injective or one-to-one whenever two different values of its domain generate two different values in its image. If to different inputs n factors 42 .  By necessity then. the number of injective functions from A to B is m(m − 1)(m − 2) · · · (m − n + 1). Proof: Each of the n elements of A must be assigned an element of B. 176 Example The following are permutations of {a. If n > m there are no injective functions from A to B. f (xn ) are all distinct. c}: f1 : The following are not permutations of {a. and for each. a 177 Theorem Let A. 1 2 3 α 2 8 4 1 2 3 β 4 2 1 2 3 γ 4 2 1 2 δ 4 2 8 Figure 4. that is. . . The function represented by the diagram 4. . permutations are bijective. If f is surjective then card (B) ≤ card (A). If f were surjective then each yk is hit.10: Not a surjection 173 Example The function α in the diagram 4. .7: An injection. y2 . A function is surjective or onto if every element of its target set is hit. 174 Theorem Let f : A → B be a function.8. The function δ represented by diagram 4. then card (A) ≤ card (B). b. The function γ represented by diagram 4. . If f is injective. but 3 = 1.9: A surjection Figure 4.10 is not surjective since 8 is part of the target set but not of the image of the function. and among the yk . . and hence there are m · m · · · m = mn possibilities. Thus there are at least m different images. B be finite sets with card (A) = n and card (B) = m. . the target set is the same as the image of the function.

b. to the third any of the m − 2 remaining ones. 1 2 3 m−1 43 . 2. 4}. By 0 Inclusion-Exclusion there are 81 − 48 + 3 = 36 surjective functions from A to B. Then according to Theorem 177. which complements Theorem 177 by finding the number of surjections from one set to another set. etc. and none are injective. There are 3 04 = 4 functions from A to B that miss three elements from B. 179 Example Find the number of surjections from A = {a. c} and B = {1. there are 43 = 64 functions from A to B and of these. and so we have m(m − 1) · · · (m − n + 1) injective functions. 3. ¡  ¡ there are 34 = 81 functions from A to B. In analogy to example 179. If n < m then there are no surjections from A to B. Solution: The trick here is that we know how to count the number of functions from one finite set to the other (Theorem 177). 4 · 3 · 2 = 24 are injective. 2. c. There are 3 14 = 3 1 2  ¡ functions from A to B that miss two elements from B. What we do is over count the number of functions. there are 34 = 81 functions from B to A. u 43 178 Example Let A = {a. If n ≥ m then the number of surjective functions from A to B is mn − m m m m (m − 1)n + (m − 2)n − (m − 3)n + · · · + (−1)m−1 (1)n . By Theorem 177. d} to B = {1. Similarly. There are 3 24 = 48 functions from A to B that miss one element from B. to the second any of the m − 1 remaining ones.. 3}.Functions we must assign different outputs then to the first element of A we may assign any of the m elements of B. 180 Theorem Let A and B be two finite sets with card (A) = n and card (B) = m. and then sieve out those which are not surjective by means of Inclusion-Exclusion. b. we may prove the following theorem.

™ If c divides a and b then c divides any linear combination of a and b. ˜ If a|b and b|c then a|c. v with au = b. Also −4|20 since 20 = (−4)(−5). b. c|b. m. Hence auu′ = bu′ = a. 44 . then c|(am + nb). 182 Example Since 20 = 4 · 5 we have 4|20. ™ There are integers s. u′ with au = b and bu′ = a. We write this as a|b. then u = ±1. — If a|b and b|a. Since u. neither a = 0 nor b = 0 if a|b and b|a. called the well-ordering principle: any non-empty set of non-negative integers has a smallest element. giving c|(am + bn). c. u 184 Theorem (Division Algorithm) Let n > 0 be an integer. › Since b = 0 there exists an integer u = 0 with au = b. If a does not divide b we write a |b. we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. ˜ There are integers u. and so a|b =⇒ ka|kb.tc = b. then a = ±b. Proof: We prove the assertions in the given order. Then (ak)u = kb. Proof: In the proof of this theorem. Hence auv = c. proving the converse. n are integers with c|a. |a| ≥ 1 trivially. bv = c. › If a|b and b = 0 then 1 ≤ |a| ≤ |b|. There exist integers u. if a. we use the following property of the integers. a|b ⇐⇒ ka|kb. Then for any integer a there exist unique integers q (called the quotient) and r (called the remainder) such that a = qn + r and 0 ≤ r < q. b are integers. So |u| ≥ 1 and thus |a| · 1 ≤ |a| · |u| = |au| = |b|. š There exist an integer u with au = b. Then a(uk) = bk and so a|bk. Hence a = ±b. c be integers. u′ are integers.t with sc = a.1 Division Algorithm 181 Definition If a = 0. That is. 183 Theorem Let a. and so uu′ = 1. – There is u ∈ Z such that au = b. and so a|c. b. Since k = 0 we may cancel out the k’s and hence (ak)u = kb =⇒ au = b =⇒ a|b. u′ = ∓1. Thus — Observe that by definition. am + nb = c(sm + tn). š For any k ∈ Z \ {0}.Chapter 5 Number Theory 5. – If a|b then a|kb for any k ∈ Z.

Subtracting we get 1253 = d(q3 − q1 ). Solution: If p = 3. −7 −2 3 8 . .Division Algorithm Consider the set S = {a − bn : b ∈ Z and a ≥ bn}. 2. 188 Example Prove that if p is a prime. . −8 −3 2 7 . −2. 189 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the common remainder when 1059.} = 0. q2 . From this it also follows that q1 = q2 . 12. −6 −1 4 9 . Now. r ≥ 0. 17. For assume that r ≥ n. −11. say r. . ±1. . . . . and Z5 = {0. 6. we deduce that r = 164. −15. Since 1059 = 179q1 + r. −1. 18. . which is divisible by 6 and hence not prime. −9 −4 1 6 . since r − n ≥ 0. 190 Example Shew that if 3n + 1 is a square. . 11. . u 185 Example If n = 5 the Division Algorithm says that we can arrange all the integers in five columns as follows: 45 . we see that 179 is the common divisor greater than 1 of all three quantities. . . To prove that r and q are unique. −10. . and so d = 179. −6. Then r > r − n = a − qn − n = a − (q + 1)n ≥ 0. . 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. . Let us prove that r < n. 8p − 1 = 24k − 15 is not a prime. then one of 8p − 1 and 8p + 1 is a prime and the other is composite. . . −3. . . . then p is of one of the forms 6k ± 1. . 895. By construction. Now. −8. If p = 3k + 2.} = 2. m = 0. . . whence r2 = r1 . q3 with 1059 = dq1 + r. 14. . 7. d − r = 15. . ±3. 0 ≤ r1 < n. 1417 = dq2 + r and 2312 = dq3 + r. . By the Well-Ordering Principle. ±2. . Find d − r. 895 = d(q3 − q2 ) and 358 = d(q2 − q1 ). . produce infinitely many values such that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24. . etc. . −5. . The arrangement above shews that any integer comes in one of 5 flavours: those leaving remainder 0 upon division by 5. Thus we must have 0 ≤ r < n. . . 5Z + 2 = {. there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a − qn since r ∈ S. −4. Solution: By the division algorithm there are integers q1 . . . We let 5Z = {. As 1253 = 7 · 179. This completes the proof. −9. 5.} = 3. . −13. proving the assertion. 8. . 5Z + 4 = {. . 15. But then a − (q + 1)n ∈ S and a − (q + 1)n < r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S. 4}. Then r2 − r1 = n(q1 − q2 ).} = 1. those leaving remainder 1 upon division by 5. −12. then n + 1 is the sum of three squares. 45 . 3. . . and 358 = 2 · 179. 4. then either p = 3k + 1 or p = 3k + 2. 3. . But |r2 − r1 | < n. 16. 9. 895 = 5 · 179. that is. If p > 3. 187 Example Shew that the square of any prime greater than 3 leaves remainder 1 upon division by 12. Solution: If p > 3 is prime. If p = 3k + 1. . and 358. . −10 −5 0 5 . 19. . 186 Example Shew that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24 for infinitely many values of n. Finally. 2. −14. 8p − 1 = 23 and 8p + 1 = 25. 5Z + 3 = {. Notice that d is a common divisor of 1253. .} = 4. . then the assertion is true for p = 3. 5Z + 1 = {. 8p − 1 = 24k − 7 and 8p + 1 = 24k − 6. Solution: Observe that n2 + 23 = n2 − 1 + 24 = (n − 1)(n + 1) + 24. 10. . 1. . 13. S has a least element. . . . assume that q1 n + r1 = a = q2 n + r2 . . and 1059 = 5 · 179 + 164. n divides (r2 − r1 ). Therefore the families of integers n = 24m ± 1. . . . . Then S is a collection of nonnegative integers and S = ∅ as ±a − 0 · n ∈ S and this is non-negative for one choice of sign. 0. . 0 ≤ r2 < n. 1. −7. (6k ± 1)2 = 12(3k2 ± k) + 1. .

. .1) The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a rn+1 which will be zero. b). r|r2 . 193 Theorem If rn is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm. . and so 3n + 1 = (3k ± 1)2 .1 and working up. a contradiction. b. is a monotonically decreasing sequence of integers. as both a. rn |b. r2 ) = gcd(r2 . After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly. rn |rn−2 . namely d. (3k ± 1)2 − 1 + 1 = 3k2 ± 2k + 1 = k2 + k2 + (k ± 1)2 . 3 Chapter 5 5. . . that gcd(a. . y0 such that d = ax0 + by0 . rn−1 qn−1 + rn rn qn . then rn = gcd(a. = = bq1 + r2 . r3 . A has a smallest element. The theorem is thus proved. b) is the largest positive integer that divides both a and b. Thus r = 0.. . r2 q2 + r3 r3 q3 + r4 . But starting at the last equation 5. . there are x0 . denoted by d = gcd(a. then t must also divide then d. b be positive integers. From the first equation. b are not zero. u Let a. we can find integers q. .46 Solution: Clearly 3n + 1 is not a multiple of 3. b). Therefore n+1 = as we wanted to shew. . that is. b be integers with one of them different from 0. Clearly one of ±a. Then r = a − dq = a(1 − qx0 ) − by0 . . The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact. Then a = tm. x. i. b) = ax + by. If r > 0. b can be written as a linear combination of a and b. rn |a. 0 < r3 < r2 . 0 ≤ r < d such that a = dq + r. = a − bq1 b − r2 q2 r2 − r3 q3 . 46 . . The greatest common divisor d of a. r. Hence d = ax0 + bx0 = t(mx0 + ny0 ). n. Therefore. we see that rn |rn−1 . rn ) = rn . ±b is in A. t divides d. b). since b. This entails dq = a. we find the sequence of equalities a b r2 . . and cannot contain more than b positive terms. By the Division Algorithm. rn−2 rn−1 = = = . y ∈ Z}. d divides a.2 Greatest Common Divisor 191 Definition Let a. Proof: From equations 5. then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A. rn |r2 . Assume that t divides a and b.e. we see that r|rn .1 r2 r3 r4 . r3 ) = · · · = gcd(rn−1 . We can similarly prove that d divides b. to be proved below. b = tn for integers m. To do this we prove that d divides a and b and that if t divides a and b. We first prove that d divides a. 0 < r2 < b. . . This gives the desired result. . Proof: Let A = {ax + by|ax + by > 0. there are integers x. (5. Thus rn is a common divisor of a and b and so rn | gcd(a. rn−2 − rn−1 qn−1 Let r = gcd(a. y with gcd(a. . i. u 194 Example Write pseudocode describing the Euclidean Algorithm. 0 < r4 < r3 . say d. b) = gcd(b. . We prove that d = gcd(a. rn = = = . By the Well Ordering Principle. b). 0 < rn < rn−1 . Upon iterating the process. r|r3 . . From the second equation.e. 192 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a. . . r2 .

47  Algorithm 5. y) if x < 0 then x ← −x if y < 0 then y ← −y while y > 0 ´ r ← x mod y do x ← y y←r .Greatest Common Divisor Solution: Here is one iterative way of doing this.2.1: E UCLIDEANA LGORITHM(x.

Solution: We have 29 = 1 · 23 + 6. 6 = 29 · 1 − 23. y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation 23x + 29y = 1. 6 = 1 · 5 + 1.  195 Example Find gcd(23. 197 Example Find integer solutions to 23x + 29y = 7. 198 Example Find infinitely many integer solutions to 23x + 29y = 1. 5 = 23 − 3 · 6. 23(−5) + 29(4) = 1. Hence. Solution: From the preceding example. 23(−35) + 29(28) = 7. which solves the problem. we see that the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c has a solution in integers if and only if gcd(a. with x = −5. The last non-zero remainder is 1. An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. This solves the equation. thus gcd(23. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem 192. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7. 23 = 3 · 6 + 5. 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm. 1 = = = = = 6−1·5 6 − 1 · (23 − 3 · 6) 4 · 6 − 1 · 23 4(29 · 1 − 23) − 1 · 23 4 · 29 − 5 · 23. 29) = 1. y = 4. starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem: 1 = 6 − 1 · 5. 196 Example Find integers x. 5 = 5 · 1. Solution: We work upwards. 47 . b)|c. The Euclidean Algorithm is an efficient means to find a solution to this equation.

Doing successive divisions. the pair x0 = −5. 201 Example Write 5627 in base-five. ak = 0. rk ≤ n < rk+1 . We can find a family of solutions by letting x = −5 + 29t. we can. . then n has the base-r representation n = a0 + a1 r + a2 r2 + · · · + ak rk . 16 13 a1 a2 a3 a4 = + 2 + 3 + 4 +··· 16 6 6 6 6 Multiplying by 6. . Solution: Observe that 5213 < 75 . (3456. Reading from the last remainder up. 199 Example Can you find integers x. Solution: 5627 = 5 · 72 + 6 · 7 + 2 = in decimal scale. Dividing by 74 . 5 5 5 5 Thus 5627 = 289 = 21245 .3 Non-decimal Scales The fact that most people have ten fingers has fixed our scale of notation to the decimal. Thus 5213 = 2 · 74 + a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 or 411 = 5213 = a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 .48 Solution: By example 196. . y such that 3456x + 246y = 73? Chapter 5 Solution: No. This means that a4 = 2. so a1 = 4. however. t ∈ Z. If n is a positive integer. . y0 = 4 is a solution. and to a base-r number by using the subindex r. a4 = 0 such that 5213 = a4 74 + a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 . so the problem reduces to convert 289 to base-five. 246) = 2 and 2 |73. We thus want to find 0 ≤ a0 . 0 ≤ at ≤ r − 1. The method of successive divisions used in the preceding problem can be conveniently displayed as 7 7 7 7 7 5212 744 106 15 2 5 2 1 1 2 The central column contains the successive quotients and the rightmost column contains the corresponding remainders. and r > 1 is an integer. we obtain 4+ proper fraction = a1 + proper fraction. Dividing by 73 this last equality we obtain 1+ proper fraction = a3 + proper fraction. y = 4 − 23t. we recover 5213 = 211257 . a4 ≤ 6. Hence 13 4 7 a2 a3 a4 − = = 2 + 3 + 4 +··· 16 6 48 6 6 6 Solution: Write 48 . 202 Example Express the fraction 289 57 11 2 4 2 1 2 13 in base-six. 200 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 211257 . 5. we obtain 2+ proper fraction = a4 + proper fraction. express any number x in base r. Given any positive integer r > 1. and so a3 = 1. We use the convention that we shall refer to a decimal number without referring to its base.

. and so all the numbers in this sequence are congruent to a modulo n. . Solution: 4. of course. 1113 .41r = 4 + 4 4 1 + = 2+ r r2 r 2 204 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence 1. 4.45136 . Then a ≡ b mod n ⇐⇒ n|(a − b). Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-three. By letting q vary over the integers we obtain the arithmetic progression . We say that “a is congruent to b modulo n” written a ≡ b mod n if a and b leave the same remainder upon division by n. r. By the Euclidean Algorithm there are integers q1 = q2 such that a = q1 n + r and b = q2 n + r. consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums of distinct powers or 3. Each term of the second column from 13 7 the second on is the fractional part of the product obtained in the preceding row. they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit 2. 113 . 12. r − 3n. Thus the terms of the sequence in ascending order are 13 . 5. −8 ≡ 13 mod 7.. otherwise the result is clear. Find the hundredth term of the sequence. 103 . 3. 10. 3. as a and b leave the same remainder when divided by n. . . . Thus a − b = q1 n − q2 n = (q1 − q2 )n. . r + 2n. 1003 . Therefore to obtain the 100th term of the sequence we write 100 in binary and then translate this into ternary: 100 = 11001002 and 11001003 = 36 + 35 + 32 = 981.4 Congruences 205 Definition Let n > 0 be an integer. etc. In the binary scale these numbers are. Continuing in this fashion 13 4 5 1 3 = + + + = 0.. . r + 3n. By the division algorithm any integer a can be written as a = qn + r with 0 ≤ r < n. 9. . .Congruences Multiply by 62 we obtain 5+ proper fraction = a2 + proper fraction. r − n. 1013 . Thus 6 · 16 − 4 = 7 . 49 . and so a2 = 5. . . 207 Theorem Let n > 0 be an integer. 16 6 62 63 64 We may simplify this procedure of successive multiplications by recurring to the following display: 6 6 6 6 13 16 7 8 1 4 1 2 49 4 5 1 3 The third column contains the integral part of the products of the first column and the second column. the ascending natural numbers 1. 206 Example −8 ≡ 6 mod 7. . 1103 . . r + n. 13. 6 · 8 − 5 = 1 . . Proof: Assume a = b.41r is a perfect square in any scale of notation. . 4. 8 4 203 Example Prove that 4. r − 2n. . . This implies that n|(a − b). 2.

ac ≡ bd mod m 5. mod 7. k2 ∈ Z with a = b + k1 m and c = d + k2 m. (2) and (3). Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7. b. Assume that a = m1 n + r1 and b = m2 n + r2 with 0 ≤ r1 . Hence 32n+1 + 2n+2 ≡ 7 · 2n ≡ 0 for all natural numbers n. a + c ≡ b + d mod m 2. 77 ≡ 74t+3 ≡ (74 )t · 73 ≡ 1t · 3 ≡ 3 Thus the last digit is 3. 7 Solution: We must find 77 mod 10. 7 7 mod 10. Then nt = a − b = (m1 − m2 )n + r1 − r2 =⇒ n(t − m1 + m2 ) = r1 − r2 =⇒ n|(r1 − r2 ). 50 . 209 Example Find the remainder when 61987 is divided by 37. Now 22225555 + 55552222 ≡ 35555 + 42222 ≡ (35 )1111 + (42 )1111 ≡ 51111 − 51111 ≡ 0 mod 7. including any leap year. ak ≡ bk mod m 3. which means that there is an integer t such that 77 = 3 + 4t. Solution: 62 ≡ −1 mod 37. 211 Example Prove that 7|(22225555 + 55552222 ). These equalities give (1). 212 Example Find the units digit of 77 . 210 Example Prove that 7 divides 32n+1 + 2n+2 for all natural numbers n. 213 Example Prove that every year. Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. u We now provesome simple properties of congruences. and (5) follows from (4). Upon assembling all this. has at least one Friday 13th. For if this were true then (8 + 7 + 5 + 9 + 6 + 1)(2 + 7 + 5 + 3) ≡ 2 + 4 + 1 + 0 + 5 + 2 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 3 mod 9. 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 35 ≡ 5 mod 7. m ∈ Z. a − c ≡ b − d mod m 4. Now. But this says that 0 · 8 ≡ 8 mod 9. and so 73 ≡ 72 · 7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 74 ≡ (72 )2 ≡ 1 mod 10. Since |r1 − r2 | < n we must have r1 − r2 = 0 and so a and b leave the same remainder upon division by n. 72 ≡ 1 mod 4 and so 77 ≡ (72 )3 · 7 ≡ 3 mod 4. Thus 61987 ≡ 6 · 61986 ≡ 6(62 )993 ≡ 6(−1)993 ≡ −6 ≡ 31 mod 37. Then 1. Property (4) follows by successive application of (3). If f is a polynomial with integral coefficients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m. c. we can find k1 . r2 < n. which is patently false. 208 Theorem Let a. Solution: Observe that 32n+1 ≡ 3 · 9n ≡ 3 · 2n mod 7 and 2n+2 ≡ 4 · 2n mod 7. Thus a ± c = b ± d + m(k1 ± k2 ) and ac = bd + m(k2 b + k1 d). d. u Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. For example 875961 · 2753 = 2410520633. k ∈ with a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. Also. 72 ≡ −1 mod 10.50 Chapter 5 Conversely if n|(a − b) then there is an integer t such that nt = a − b.

Divisibility Criteria

51

Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. Now, the first day of a month in each year falls in one of the following days: Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Day of the year 1 32 60 or 61 91 or 92 121 or122 152 or 153 182 or183 213 or 214 244 or 245 274 or 275 305 or 306 335 or 336 1 4 4 or 5 0 or 1 2 or 3 5 or 6 0 or 1 3 or 4 6 or 0 1 or 2 4 or 5 6 or 0 mod 7

(The above table means that, depending on whether the year is a leap year or not, that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the year, etc.) Now, each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column, thus each year, whether leap or not, has at least one Sunday the 1st.
214 Example Find infinitely many integers n such that 2n + 27 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2, 22 ≡ 4, 23 ≡ 1, 24 ≡ 2, 25 ≡ 4, 26 ≡ 1 mod 7 and so 23k ≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k. Hence 23k + 27 ≡ 1 + 27 ≡ 0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. This produces the infinitely many values sought.
215 Example Prove that 2k − 5, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7.

Solution: 21 ≡ 2, 22 ≡ 4, 23 ≡ 1 mod 7, and this cycle of three repeats. Thus 2k − 5 can leave only remainders 3, 4, or 6 upon division by 7.

5.5 Divisibility Criteria
216 Theorem An integer n is divisible by 5 if and only if its last digit is a 0 or a 5.

Proof: We derive the result for n > 0, for if n < 0 we simply apply the result to −n > 0. Since 10k ≡ 0 mod 5 for integral k ≥ 1, we have n = as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ≡ a0 mod 5, Thus divisibility of n by 5 depends on whether a0 is divisible by 5, which happens only when a0 = 0 or a0 = 5. u
217 Theorem Let k be a positive integer. An integer n is divisible by 2k if and only if the number formed by the last k digits of n is divisible

by 2k . Proof: If n = 0 there is nothing to prove. If we prove the result for n > 0 then we can deduce the result for n < 0 by applying it to −n = (−1)n > 0. So assume that n ∈ Z, n > 0 and let its decimal expansion be n = as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ,

51

52
where 0 ≤ ai ≤ 9, as = 0. Now, each of 10t = 2t 5t ≡ 0 mod 2t for t ≥ k. Hence n = ≡ as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ak−1 10k−1 + ak−2 10k−2 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 mod 2k ,

Chapter 5

so n is divisible by 2k if and only if the number formed by the last k digits of n is divisible by 2k . u
218 Example The number 987654888 is divisible by 23 = 8 because the number formed by its last three digits, 888 is divisible by 8. 219 Example The number 191919191919193216 is divisible by 24 = 16 because the number formed by its last four digits, 3216 is divisible

by 16.
220 Example By what digits may one replace A so that the integer 231A2 be divisible by 4?

Solution: The number 231A2 is divisible by 4 if and only if A2 is divisible by 4. This happens when A = 1 (A2 = 12), A = 3 (A2 = 32), A = 5 (A2 = 52), A = 7 (A2 = 72), and A = 9 (A2 = 92). Thus the five numbers 23112, 23132, 2315223172, 23192, are all divisible by 4.
221 Example Determine digits a, b so that 235ab be divisible by 40.

Solution: 235ab will be divisible by 40 if and only if it is divisible by 8 and by 5. If 235ab is divisible by 8 then, a fortiori, it is even and since we also require it to be divisible by 5 we must have b = 0. Thus we need a digit a so that 5a0 be divisible by 8. Since 0 ≤ a ≤ 9, a quick trial an error gives that the desired integers are 23500, 23520, 23540, 23560, 23580.

222 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) An integer n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9.

Proof: If n = 0 there is nothing to prove. If we prove the result for n > 0 then we can deduce the result for n < 0 by applying it to −n = (−1)n > 0. So assume that n ∈ Z, n > 0 and let its decimal expansion be n = as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 , where 0 ≤ ai ≤ 9, as = 0. Observe that 10 ≡ 1 mod 9 and so 10t ≡ 1t ≡ 1 mod 9. Now n = ≡ from where the result follows. u as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 as + · · · + a1 + a0 mod 9, 

Since 10 ≡ 1 mod 3 we can also deduce that integer n is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 3.
223 Example What values should the digit d take so that the number 32d5 be divisible by 9?

Solution: The number 32d5 is divisible by 9 if and only 3 + 2 + d + 5 = d + 10 is divisible by 9. Now, 0 ≤ d ≤ 9 =⇒ 10 ≤ d + 10 ≤ 19. The only number in the range 10 to 19 divisible by 9 is 18, thus d = 8. One can easily verify that 3285 is divisible by 9.
224 Example Is there a digit d so that 125d be divisible by 45?

52

Homework

53

Solution: If 125d were divisible by 45, it must be divisible by 9 and by 5. If it were divisible by 5, then d = 0 or d = 5. If d = 0, the digital sum is 1 + 2 + 5 + 0 = 8, which is not divisible by 9. Similarly, if d = 5, the digital sum is 1 + 2 + 5 + 5 = 13, which is neither divisible by 9. So 125d is never divisible by 45.
225 Definition If the positive integer n has decimal expansion

n = as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 , the alternating digital sum of n is as − as−1 + as−2 − as−3 + · · · + (−1)s−1 a0
226 Example The alternating digital sum of 135456 is

1 − 3 + 5 − 4 + 5 − 6 = −2.
227 Theorem An integer n is divisible by 11 if and only if its alternating digital sum is divisible by 11.

Proof: We may assume that n > 0. Let n = as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 , where 0 ≤ ai ≤ 9, as = 0. Observe that 10 ≡ −1 mod 11and so 10t ≡ (−1) mod 11. Hence n = ≡ as 10s + as−1 10s−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 as (−1)s + as−1 (−1)s−1 + as−2 (−1)s−2 + · · · + −a1 + a0 mod 11

and the result follows from this. u
228 Example 912282219 has alternating digital sum 9 − 1 + 2 − 2 + 8 − 2 + 2 − 1 + 9 = 24 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11, whereas 8924310064539 has alternating digital sum 8 − 9 + 2 − 4 + 3 − 1 + 0 − 0 + 6 − 4 + 4 − 3 + 9 = 11, and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11.

Homework
229 Problem Prove that there are infinitely many integers n such that 4n2 + 1 is simultaneously divisible by 13 and 5. 230 Problem Find the least positive integer solution of the equation 436x − 393y = 5. 231 Problem Two rods of equal length are divided into 250 and 243 equal parts, respectively. If their ends be coincident, find the divisions

which are the nearest together.
232 Problem Prove that any integer n > 11 is the sum of two positive composite numbers. 233 Problem Let n > 1 be an integer.

1. Prove, using induction or otherwise, that if a = 1 then 1 + a + a2 + · · · an−1 = 2. By making the substitution a =
x y

1 − an . 1−a

prove that xn − yn = (x − y)(xn−1 + xn−2 y + · · · + xyn−2 + yn−1 ).

3. Deduce that if x = y are integers then (x − y)|xn − yn . 4. Shew that 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n.

53

233 1. Assume that at least one of a or b is different from 0. that is. 236 Problem Let A be a positive integer. b) = ax + by. At the end of the day he sold $63. 231 Observe that gcd(243. 230 Using the Euclidean Algorithm.58 worth of milk. Hence n = (n − 6) + 6 is the sum of two even composite numbers. 232 If n > 11 is even then n − 6 is even and at least 12 − 4 = 8 and thus it is composite. Prove that if 2n − 1 is prime. find the last two digits of 3100 . we seek solutions of 243x − 250y = ±1. Put S = 1 + a + a2 + · · · + an−1 . How many 1 gallon and half gallon containers did he sell? 238 Problem Using congruences. 54 . y to the equation gcd(a. Answers 229 We have 4n2 + 1 = 4n2 − 64 + 65 = 4(n − 4)(n + 4) + 65 so it is enough to take n = 65k ± 4. 7. Deduce that if x = y are integers. then n must be prime. and from (1 − a)S = S − aS = 1 − an we obtain the result. Chapter 5 6. 234 Problem Use the preceding problem to find the prime factor p > 250000 of the integer 1002004008016032. and so the divisions will be nearest together when they differ by the least amount. = = = 1 · 393 + 43 9 · 43 + 6 7·6+1 and so 5 = 320 · 436 − 355 · 393. 237 Problem A grocer sells a 1-gallon container of milk for 79 cents (comment: those were the days!) and a half gallon container of milk for 41 cents. An infinite set of solutions can be achieved by putting x = 320 + 393t. Then aS = a + a2 + · · · + an−1 + an . y = 355 + 436t. Thus S − aS = (1 + a + a2 + · · · + an−1 ) − (a + a2 + · · · + an−1 + an ) = 1 − an . 436 393 43 Hence 1 = = = = = 43 − 7 · 6 43 − 7 · (393 − 9 · 43) −7 · 393 + 64 · 43 −7 · 393 + 64 · (436 − 393) −71 · 393 + 64 · 436. If n > 11 is odd then n − 9 is even at least 13 − 9 = 4. then n = 2k for some integer k. then (x + y)|xn + yn . Prove that if 2n + 1 is prime. 235 Problem Write an algorithm that finds integer solutions x. and A′ be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some other order. By using the Euclidean Algorithm we find 243 · 107 − 250 · 104 = 1 and also 243 · (250 − 107) − 250 · (243 − 104) = −1 and so the values of x are 107 and 143 and those of y are 104 and 139. and hence composite. Hint: 340 ≡ 1 mod 100. Prove that if A + A′ = 1010 . then A is divisible by 10. and n is odd. Therefore n = (n − 9) + 9 of an even and an odd composite number. 250) = 1.54 5.

Since a > 1. k k k k 234 If a = 103 . Also. 2903n − 464n is divisible by 2903 − 464 = 9 · 271 and 261n − 803n is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. (a + b)(a2 + ab + b2 )(a2 − ab + b2 ) 1002 · 1002004 · 998004 4 · 4 · 1002 · 250501 · k. Thus the expression is also divisible by 271. By the preceding part. 7. we have produced two factors each greater than 1 for the prime 2n + 1. that is x + y divides xn − (−y)n . Thus n must be a prime. Thus the expression 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 7. which gives the result. 55 . which is nonsense. 22 + 1 > 1. and multiplying by yn both sides gives the result. This is immediate from the above result. 4. If n is odd then −(−y)n = yn . We have 2n + 1 = 22 Clearly. a−b 235 Here a possible approach. 6. 5. Primes of this form are called Fermat primes. and 261n −464n is divisible by 261−464 = −203 = 7 · (−29). I have put semicolons instead of writing the algorithm strictly vertically in order to save space. 2a − 1 > 1. Also if m ≥ 3 (22 )m−1 − (22 )m−2 + · · · − (22 )1 + 1 ≥ (22 )2 − (22 )1 + 1 > 1. For every n we have that x − y divides xn − yn . Since b > 1. 3.Answers 2. we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 · 271 = 1897. and so. 2903n −803n is divisible by 2903−803 = 2100 = 7·300 =. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common. We have 2n − 1 = 2ab − 1 = (2a − 1)((2a )b−1 + (2a )b−2 + · · · + (2a )1 + 1). b = 2 then 1002004008016032 = a5 + a4 b + a3 b2 + a2 b3 + ab4 + b5 = This last expression factorises as a6 − b6 a−b = = = where k < 250000. k k k k k k k m + 1 = (22 + 1)((22 )m−1 − (22 )m−2 + · · · − (22 )1 + 1). (2a )b−1 + (2a )b−2 + · · · (2a )1 + 1) ≥ 2a + 1 > 1. We have decomposed a prime number (the left hand side) into the product of two factors. Primes of this form are called Mersenne primes. each greater than 1. Therefore p = 250501. From x 1+ + y we obtain 1− x y x 1+ + y x y 2 55 x y 2 +···+ x y n−1 = 1− x y x 1− y n +··· + x y n−1 = 1− x y n . By changing y into −y we deduce that x − (−y) divides xn − (−y)n . a contradiction. a6 − b6 .

r ← r − p.56  Algorithm 5. p ← 1.1: L INEAR D IOPHANTINE(a. b) m ← a. x ← r. q ← q − s. Chapter 5 . s ← 1. while ¬((m = 0) ∨ (n = 0)) if m ≥ n then else if m = 0 then else k ← n. s ← s − q. y ← s. n ← n − m. r ← 0. y ← q. n ← b. p ← p − r. q ← 0. m ← m − n. k ← m. x ← p.5.

1 ≤ l ≤ j. we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a1 + a2 + · · · + a10 ). . A + A′ = 1010 if 10 9 1 and only if there is a j. 320 ≡ 316 34 ≡ (21)(81) ≡ 1 mod 100.58. we only need to concern ourselves with the last quantity. This s implies that j must be odd. as 20 = 16 + 4.  236 Clearly A and A′ must have ten digits. and j = 9 implies that there are no sums of the 10 form al + a′ . Hence 1 = = = = = = = 3−2 3 − (38 − 3 · 12) −38 + 3 · 13 −38 + (41 − 38) · 13 38 · (−14) + 41 · 13 (79 − 41)(−14) + 41 · 13 79(−14) + 41(27) a1 + a′ + a2 + a′ + · · · + a10 + a′ = 10 + 9(9 − j).58 =⇒ 79x + 41y = 6358. . 1 237 We want non-negative integer solutions to the equation . Thus 79(−89012) + 41(171666) = 6358 and the parametrisation 79(−89012 + 41t) + 41(171666 − 79t) = 1 provides infinitely many solutions. a′ . Using the Euclidean Algorithm we find. 238 Since 3100 ≡ (340 )2 320 ≡ 320 mod 100. We need non-negative solutions so we need. 27). But this implies that a1 + a′ = 0. 1 2 10 A solution to 79x + 41y = 1 is thus (x. Now (all congruences mod 100) 34 ≡ 81 =⇒ 38 ≡ 812 ≡ 61 =⇒ 316 ≡ 612 ≡ 21. Thus taking t = 2172 we obtain x = −89012 + 41(2172) = 40 and y = 171666 − 79(2172) = 78. Let A = a10 a9 . 38 = 3 · 12 + 2. 41 = 1 · 38 + 3. we gather l Since the a′ are a permutation of the as . which gives the result. . . Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a j+k + a′j+k . and indeed . k ≥ 2. We deduce. Now. simultaneously −89012 + 41t ≥ 0 =⇒ t ≥ 2172 ∧ 171666 − 79t ≥ 0 =⇒ t ≤ 2172. y) = (−14. a1 be the consecutive digits of A and A′ = a′ a′ . On adding all these sums. a j+1 + a′j+1 = 10.41(78) = 63. 0 ≤ j ≤ 9 for which a1 + a′ = a2 + a′ = · · · = a j + a′j = 0.79(40) + . 3 = 1 · 2 + 1. 56 .41y = 63. that and the last two digits are 01.79x + . successively 79 = 1 · 41 + 38. a j+2 + a′j+2 = a j+3 + a′j+3 = · · · = 1 2 a10 + a′ = 9.

Then E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 = = = = = {(−1. . E2 . (−2. (1.Chapter 6 Enumeration 6. (−4. . (4. Ek . (1. (1. (−1. . −3). 57 . Then card (E1 ∪ E2 ∪ · · · ∪ Ek ) = card (E1 ) + card (E2 ) + · · · + card (Ek ) . be pairwise finite disjoint sets. (1. 1)} {(−4. 240 Rule (Sum Rule: Disjunctive Form) Let E1 . . 239 Definition (Cardinality of a Set) If S is a set. How many of the divisors of 400 are perfect squares? Solution: Since 400 = 24 · 52 . 4). . 400. Then the desired number is card (E1 ) + card (E2 ) + · · · + card (E5 ) . (5. (3. (1. . (1. −2). 1). . −3). We denote the cardinality of S by card (S). −1). 241 Rule (Product Rule) Let E1 . 1). . (1. (−1. . Thus there are 5 choices for a and 3 choices for b for a total of 5 · 3 = 15 positive divisors. 2). −5). 2.1 The Multiplication and Sum Rules We begin our study of combinatorial methods with the following two fundamental principles. 1)} {(−5. −5). (1. (1. How many integers are there in this sequence. 1). −1). (2. −1). (−1. −2). 2). . . . (−1. (2. −4). (−1. (−5. y) are there such that 0 < |xy| ≤ 5? Solution: Put Ek = {(x. (−1. 2). 1)} {(−3. (3. 2). . (−2. 1)} {(−2. 200. −1). (1. 5). y) ∈ Z2 : |xy| = k} for k = 1. any positive divisor of 400 has the form 2a 5b where 0 ≤ a ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ b ≤ 2. −1). Ek . 1). −1). −1). 4). (−1. (−2. E2 . . then its cardinality is the number of elements it has. 3). 5. (2. 4. Then card (E1 × E2 × · · · × Ek ) = card (E1 ) · card (E2 ) · · · card (Ek ) . 1)} The desired number is therefore 4 + 8 + 8 + 12 + 8 = 40. 5). −2). −1). 243 Example The positive divisors of 400 are written in increasing order 1. −4). −1). 242 Example How many ordered pairs of integers (x. be finite sets. 3). . (−3. (4. (−1. (2. −2). −1). . 5. (5. 1). 8. (−1.

we have a total of 64 + 64 − 1 = 127 paths. Since every required path must use the bottom right T .2. 4} and β ∈ {0. Solution: Split the diagram. (499. 3 × 1000 = 3000 digits are used. we have 26 = 64 paths. 999). By arguing as in example 243. Since there are six more rows that we can travel to. Find the sum of all the digits. 996). Figure 6. and since at each stage we can go either up or left. Thus there are 3 · 2 = 6 divisors of 400 which are also perfect squares. Each pair has sum of digits 27 and there are 500 such pairs. Therefore. . 500). 58 . Aliter: Pair up the integers from 0 to 999 as (0.1 spell CONT EST ? C C C C C C C O O N O N T O N T E O N T E S O N T E S T C O C N T E S O N T T C O N E C O C N O C C C O C O N C O N T C O N T E C O N T E S C O N T E S T Figure 6. Solution: When writing the integers from 000 to 999 (with three digits). . The other half of the figure will provide 64 more paths. a positive divisor of 400 must be of the form 2α 5β with α ∈ {0. Each of the 10 digits is used an equal number of times. 246 Example The integers from 1 to 1000 are written in succession. each segment connecting a pair of adjacent letters in figure 6. If d(n) denotes the number of positive divisors of n.2: Problem 245.58 Chapter 6 To be a perfect square. 998). . the required total is 27 · 500 + 1 = 13501. The the sum of the digits in the interval 000 to 999 is thus (0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9)(300) = 13500. we count paths starting from this T and reaching up to a C. as in figure 6. so each digit is used 300 times. (2. 2}. Since the middle column is shared by both halves. 997). (1.1: Problem 245. then d(n) = (a1 + 1)(a2 + 1) · · · (ak + 1). Adding 1 for the sum of digits of 1000. 245 Example (AHSME 1977) How many paths consisting of a sequence of horizontal and/or vertical line segments. 1 2 k where the pi are different primes. (3. . and the ai are integers ≥ 1. 2. 244 Theorem Let the positive integer n have the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · pak . the sum of the digits when writing the integers from 1 to 1000 is 13500 + 1 = 13501. we obtain the following theorem.

7. We explain such categories by means of an example. The order of listing the letters is important. 3. . and 111 = 4 · 27 + 3. 18. Which digit occupies the 3000-th position? Solution: Upon using 9·1 = 9 90 · 2 = 180 900 · 3 = 2700 1-digit integers. In this case there are 4 · 4 = 16 possible selections: aa ba ca da ab bb cb db ac bc cc dc ad bd cd dd — Permutations without repetitions. 13. 11. 9.Combinatorial Methods 247 Example The strictly positive integers are written in succession 59 1. so the 3000-th digit must belong to a 4-digit integer. There remains to use 3000 − 2889 = 111 digits. 16. 4. Depending on our interpretation. The order of listing the letters is not important. 6. 248 Example Consider the set {a. 3-digit integers.2 Combinatorial Methods Most counting problems we will be dealing with can be classified into one of four categories. a total of 9 + 180 + 2700 = 2889 digits have been used. 19. so the 3000-th digit is the third digit of the 28-th 4-digit integer. d}. 20. namely 2. and repetition is not allowed. 14. 17. 5. Suppose we “select” two letters from these four. 8. 10. – Permutations with repetitions. 6. c. b. 2. The order of listing the letters is important. 12. In this case there are 4·3 + 4 = 10 possible selections: 2 aa ab bb ac bc cc ad bd cd dd 59 . . the third digit of 4027. 2-digit integers. 15. In this case there are 4 · 3 = 12 possible selections: ab ba ca da cb db dc ac bc ad bd cd ˜ Combinations with repetitions. and repetition is allowed. . and repetition is allowed. we may obtain the following answers. that is.

as follows: 0! = 1. 1 · 2 · 3 = 6. 1 · 2 = 2.60 Chapter 6 ™ Combinations without repetitions. n! = 1 · 2 · 3 · · · n. n! is read n factorial. Solution: The following is an iterative way of solving this problem.1 Permutations without Repetitions 249 Definition We define the symbol ! (factorial). and for integer n ≥ 1. 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 = 120.2.2. 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 = 24. The order of listing the letters is not important. and repetition is not allowed.1: FACTORIAL(n) comment: returns n! m←1 while n > 1 m ← n∗m n ← n−1 . 250 Example We have 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! = = = = = 1. 6.  Algorithm 6. 251 Example Write a code fragment to compute n!. In this case there 4·3 are = 6 possible selections: 2 ab ac bc ad bd cd We will now consider some examples of each situation.

 return (m) 252 Definition Let x1 . . xn be n distinct objects. 60 . x2 . . A permutation of these objects is simply a rearrangement of them. . .

. . . u 255 Example Write a code fragment that prints all n! of the set {1. . . X[n]) . . . Solution: The following programme prints them in lexicographical order.. . the third in n − 2. n}. x2 . the second object in n − 1 ways. . namely 61 MAT H AMT H TAMH HAT M MAHT AMHT TAHM HAMT MTAH AT MH T MAH HTAM MT HA AT HM T MHA HT MA MHTA AHT M T HMA HMTA MHAT AHMT T HAM HMAT 254 Theorem Let x1 . Proof: The first position can be chosen in n ways. .  Algorithm 6. X[t]) comment: now X[k + 1] > . > X[t] > X[k] > X[t + 1] > . > X[n] ReverseArray(X[k + 1]. .Combinatorial Methods 253 Example There are 24 permutations of the letters in MAT H.2. We use examples 13 and 23. . . xn be n distinct objects. > X[n] Swap(X[k]. . etc. . 2. Then there are n! permutations of them. This gives n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · 2 · 1 = n!. .2: P ERMUTATIONS(n) k ← n−1 while X[k] > X[k − 1] k ← k−1 t ← k+1 while ((t < n) and (X[t + 1] > X[k])) t ← t +1 comment: now X[k + 1] > . .

 256 Example A bookshelf contains 5 German books. – How many different arrangements can be done of these books? — How many different arrangements can be done of these books if books of each language must be next to each other? Solution: ˜ How many different arrangements can be done of these books if all the French books must be next to each other? ™ How many different arrangements can be done of these books if no two French books must be next to each other? 61 . Each book is different from one another. 7 Spanish books and 8 French books.

Thus the number of arrangements sought is 20! = 2432902008176640000. To obtain this sum. Hence the required sum is 81(1 + 2 + · + 9)100 + 81(1 + 2 + · + 9)10 + 81(1 + 2 + · + 9)1 = 404595. observe that there are 900 terms.2. Thus the total number of permutations is (13)8!12! = 251073478656000. The first French book can be put into any of 13 spaces.62 – We are permuting 5 + 7 + 8 = 20 objects. We permute the German books in 5! ways. The sum of all the three digit integers is 100 + 101 + · · · + 998 + 999. 259 Example In how many ways may the letters of the word MASSACHUSET T S be permuted? Solution: We put subscripts on the repeats forming MA1 S1 S2 A2CHUS3 ET1 T2 S4 . and that you obtain the same sum adding backwards as forwards: S S 2S = = = = giving S = 100 999 1099 900(1099). Putting these 5 + 7 = 12 books creates 12 + 1 = 13 spaces (we count the space before the first book. To assure that no two French books are next to each other. — “Glue” the books by language. which is 24856274386944000. 62 . Chapter 6 ™ Align the German books and the Spanish books first. Thus the total number of permutations is (13)(12)(11)(10)(9)(8)(7)(6)12!. What is the sum of all these integers.2 Permutations with Repetitions We now consider permutations with repeated objects. Solution: Using example 257. Putting these 5 + 7 = 12 books creates 12 + 1 = 13 spaces (we count the space before the first book. the spaces between books and the space after the last book).. To assure that all the French books are next each other. 2 6. the second into any of 12. ˜ Align the German books and the Spanish books first. the Spanish books in 7! ways and the French books in 8! ways. the spaces between books and the space after the last book). then given for every fixed choice of a variable. we put them into these spaces. Solution: There are 9 · 9 · 9 = 729 3-digit integers not possessing a 0 in their decimal expansion. Now. Also. + + + 101 998 1099 + + + ··· ··· ··· + + + 999 100 1099 900(1099) = 494550. We permute the 3 languages in 3! ways. there are 9 · 9 = 81 choices of the other two variables. Hence the total number of ways is 3!5!7!8! = 146313216000. we “glue” them together and put them in one of these spaces. there are 900 − 729 = 171 such integers. the French books can be permuted in 8! ways and the non-French books can be permuted in 12! ways. If 100x + 10y + z is such an integer. the non-French books can be permuted in 12! ways. Now. 258 Example Determine how many 3-digit integers written in decimal notation possess at least one 0 in their decimal expansion. The required sum is 494550 − 404595 = 89955. the eighth French book can be put into any 6 spaces. find the sum of all these 3-digit numbers. 257 Example Determine how many 3-digit integers written in decimal notation do not have a 0 in their decimal expansion. etc. this will assure that books of the same language are together.

In A. 3. T. 263 Example In how many ways can the letters of the word MURMUR be arranged without letting two letters which are alike come Number of permutations 3! =3 2! 3! = 6 3! = 6 3! =3 2! 3! =3 2! 3! = 6 3! =1 3! together? Solution: If we started with. E.Combinatorial Methods 63 There are now 13 distinguishable objects. S1 S2 S3 S4 can be permuted in 4! ways. n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! 261 Example In how many ways may we permute the letters of the word MASSACHUSET T S in such a way that MASS is always together. C. 6) (1. R . 7) (1. Thus the over count 13! is corrected by the total actual count 13! = 64864800. T. b. 5) (2. S. 3. we may prove 260 Theorem Let there be k types of objects: n1 of type 1. H. 63 . 2!2! 262 Example In how many ways may we write the number 9 as the sum of three positive integer summands? Here order counts. H. E. etc. C. 4. U. U. 2. 1 ≤ a ≤ b ≤ c ≤ 7 and we find the permutations of each triplet. S. 2!4!2! A reasoning analogous to the one of example 259. say . 5) (1. 4) (3. MU then the R could be arranged as follows: M U R R . We have (a. c) (1. Then the number of ways in which these n1 + n2 + · · · + nk objects can be rearranged is (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )! . S. which can be permuted in 13! different ways by Theorem 254. 2. 3) Thus the number desired is 3 + 6 + 6 + 3 + 3 + 6 + 1 = 28. for example. 3. T. A1 A2 can be permuted in 2! ways. 1 + 7 + 1 is to be regarded different from 7 + 1 + 1. 1. T. For each of these 13! permutations. Solution: We first look for answers with a + b + c = 9. n2 of type 2. S there are four S’s and two T ’s and so the total number of permutations sought is 10! = 907200. M M U U R R R . in this order? Solution: The particle MASS can be considered as one block and the 9 letters A. and T1 T2 can be permuted in 2! ways. so. 4) (2.

Hence there are permutations of 4! AFFECTION where the vowels occur in their natural order. k k!(n − k)! 1· 2· 3··· k Observe that in the last fraction.64 Chapter 6 In the first case there are 2! = 2 of putting the remaining M and U. This can be interpreted as follows: if there are n different tickets in a hat. and in only one of these 2! 9! ways of permuting the letters of AFFECTION in which their vowels keep their will they be in their natural order. put the 7 letters of AFFECTION which are not the two F’s. 267 Example 11 11 = = 55. observe the boundary conditions n n n n = = 1.2. 264 Example In how many ways can the letters of the word AFFECTION be arranged. In conclusion. we can choose the first letter of the word in 3 ways. Thus there are 2!4! natural order. = = n. In the general case. Also. in the second there are 2! = 2 and in the third there is only 1!. and the second in 2 ways. 9 2 12 12 = = 792. the number of permutations sought is 9! 8 · 7! 8! − = 2!4! 4! 4! 9 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4! 7 −1 = · = 5880 2 4! 2 6. Thus starting the word with MU gives 2 + 2 + 1 = 5 possible arrangements. 5 7 64 .  11¡ 2  12¡ 7 12·11·10·9·8·7·6 1·2·3·4·5·6·7  110¡ 109 110. = 792. Thus the number of ways sought is 3 · 2 · 5 = 30. The 4 vowels can be permuted in 4! ways. This creates 8 spaces in between them where we put the two F’s. choosing k of them out of the hat is the same as choosing n − k of them to remain in the hat. = 55. This 8 · 7! means that there are 8 · 7! permutations of AFFECTION that keep the two F’s together. there are k factors in both the numerator and denominator. The symbol n (read “n choose k”) is defined and denoted by k n n! n · (n − 1) · (n − 2) · · · (n − k + 1) = = . k be non-negative integers with 0 ≤ k ≤ n. 1. the symmetry identity n n! n n! = = = k k!(n − k)! (n − k)!(n − (n − k))! n−k . Solution: There are Now.3 Combinations without Repetitions 265 Definition Let n. 0 n 1 n−1 266 Example We have   6¡ 3 = = = = = 6·5·4 1·2·3 11·10 1·2 = 20.  110¡ 0  Since n − (n − k) = k. 0 ≤ k ≤ n. we have for integer n. keeping the vowels in their natural order and not letting the two F’s come together? 9! ways of permuting the letters of AFFECTION. k.

2. Z. k 271 Theorem Let there be n distinguishable objects. This particular choice of k objects can be permuted in k! ways. since there are n ways of choosing the first.3: Example 274. XW.4: Example 275.W } are XY. 65 .W Z. (c) all three leave remainder 1 upon division by 3. .Combinatorial Methods 268 Definition Let there be n distinguishable objects. . n − 1 ways of choosing the second. Hence the number of ways is 6 6 + 3 1 7 1 7 7 7 + + = 384. . n . XZ. 1 3 3 B O B A A Figure 6. 20} there are 6 7 7 numbers leaving remainder 0 numbers leaving remainder 1 numbers leaving remainder 2 The sum of three numbers will be divisible by 3 when (a) the three numbers are divisible by 3.YW. Z.W } are XY Z. and let k. . They can be ordered in n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − k + 1).Y. Then the numbers of k-combinations of these n objects is Proof: Pick any of the k objects. Figure 6. 0 ≤ k ≤ n.YW Z. 4 273 Example Three different integers are drawn from the set {1. XYW. .Y Z. k! k u 272 Example From a group of 10 people. (0 ≤ k ≤ n) objects from the n made without 65 regards to order. (b) one of the numbers is divisible by 3. 269 Example The 2-combinations from the list {X. 270 Example The 3-combinations from the list {X. (d) all three leave remainder 2 upon division by 3. Hence the total number of k-combinations is n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − k + 1) n = . 20}. we may choose a committee of 4 in 10 = 210 ways. A k-combination is a selection of k. . . XZW. In how many ways may they be drawn so that their sum is divisible by 3? Solution: In {1. one leaves remainder 1 and the third leaves remainder 2 upon division by 3.Y. . 2. etc.

a > 0. To decompose n in r summands we only need to choose r − 1 pluses from the n − 1. Thus the desired number of paths is 3 3  5¡ 4¡ = (20)(4) = 80. 6 275 Example To count the number of shortest routes from A to B in figure 6. Then xr ≥ 1. The number of non-negative integer solutions to y1 + y2 + · · · + yr = n is n+r−1 . n = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 + 1. By Theorem 276 this is 9−1 8 = = 28. 1 + 7 + 1 is to be regarded different from 7 + 1 + 1. Thus there are 9 = 84 paths.4 that pass through¡  ¡   point O we count the number of paths from A to O (of which there are 5 = 20) and the number of paths from O to B (of which there are 4 = 4).2. We are seeking integral solutions to a + b + c = 9. n+r−1 r−1 solutions. has x1 + x2 + · · · + xr = n + r. r−1 Proof: Write n as where there are n 1s and n − 1 +s.66 Chapter 6 274 Example To count the number of shortest routes from A to B in figure 6. u 66 . u 277 Example In how many ways may we write the number 9 as the sum of three positive integer summands? Here order counts.4 Combinations with Repetitions 276 Theorem (De Moivre) Let n be a positive integer. Of these 9 moves once we choose the 6 horizontal ones the 3 vertical ones are   a determined. 3 3 6. which by Theorem 276 is 99 = 156849. 3−1 2 278 Example In how many ways can 100 be written as the sum of four positive integer summands? Solution: We want the number of positive integer solutions to a + b + c + d = 100. The number of positive integer solutions to x1 + x2 + · · · + xr = n is n−1 . b > 0.3 observe that any shortest path must consist of 6 horizontal moves and 3 vertical ones for ¡ total of 6 + 3 = 9 moves. 3 279 Corollary Let n be a positive integer. r−1 Proof: Put xr − 1 = yr . so. c > 0. which proves the theorem. for example. Solution: Notice that this is example 262. The equation x1 − 1 + x2 − 1 + · · · + xr − 1 = n is equivalent to which from Theorem 276.

e.Inclusion-Exclusion 280 Example Find the number of quadruples (a. a ≥ 30. that is. By Corollary 279 there are  10+3−1¡ 3−1 =  12¡ 2 a ≥ 0. 6. b′ + 20 = b. d ≥ 1. b. . we need integers solutions to a + b + c = 10.. 67 . Solution: Put a′ + 29 = a. e 283 Theorem (Two set Inclusion-Exclusion) card (A ∪ B) = card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∩ B) Proof: In the Venn diagram 6. How many among the 40 neither smoke nor chew? Solution: Let A denote the set of smokers and B the set of chewers. in B \ A). 282 Example Find the number of quadruples (a. We need a decomposition of the form 210 = 2a 2b 2c . u 284 Example Of 40 people. By Theorem 276 this number is 49 = 18424..5. Then card (A ∪ B) = card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∩ B) = 28 + 16 − 10 = 34. Solution: The number of non-negative solutions to a + b + c + d ≤ 2001 equals the number of solutions to a + b + c + d + f = 2001 where f is a non-negative integer. Then we want the number of positive integer solutions to a′ + 29 + b′ + 21 + c + d = 100. and by R3 the number of elements which are B but not in A (i. in A ∩ B). which proves the theorem. This number is the same as the number of positive integer solutions to which is easily seen to be  2005¡ 4 a1 − 1 + b1 − 1 + c1 − 1 + d1 − 1 + f1 − 1 = 2001. c.e. d) of non-negative integers which satisfy the inequality a + b + c + d ≤ 2001. by R2 the number of elements which are in A but not in B (i. b ≥ 0. 28 smoke and 16 chew tobacco.e. or a′ + b′ + c + d = 50. b > 21. we mark by R1 the number of elements which are simultaneously in both sets (i. In this section we will drop the disjointness requirement and obtain a formula for the cardinality of unions of general finite sets. b. = 66 such solutions. c.3 Inclusion-Exclusion The Sum Rule 240 gives us the cardinality for unions of finite sets that are mutually disjoint. d) of integers satisfying 67 a + b + c + d = 100. c ≥ 0. c ≥ 1. It is also known that 10 both smoke and chew.. We have R1 + R2 + R3 = card (A ∪ B). 3 281 Example In how many ways may 1024 be written as the product of three positive integers? Solution: Observe that 1024 = 210 . The Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion is attributed to both Sylvester and to Poincar´ . in A \ B).

Since |A ∩ B| = 8. 68 . 4 = 2(2). . 30. 90}. › We want card (A \ (A3 ∪ A5 )) = card (A) − card (A3 ∪ A5 ) = 57 − 30 = 27.5: Two-set Inclusion-Exclusion Figure 6. ˜ There are ⌊ 57 ⌋ = 11 integers in A divisible by 5. and observe that 15 by Theorem ?? we have card (A15 ) = card (A3 ∩ A5 ). 12. . Aliter: We fill up the Venn diagram in figure 6. . . Notice that 90 = 30(3). 110}. Therefore the number of people that neither smoke nor chew is 40 − 34 = 6. Solution: Let A3 ⊂ A be the set of those integers divisible by 3 and A5 ⊂ A be the set of those integers divisible by 5. 20. . 18. They are 3 {6. — There are ⌊ 57 ⌋ = 19 integers in A divisible by 3. They are 5 {10. Notice that 110 = 10(11).68 Chapter 6 meaning that there are 34 people that either smoke or chew (or possibly both). . The remaining 40 − 34 = 6 are outside the sets. 4. . . They are {30. 60. . 285 Example Consider the set – How many elements are there in A? — How many are divisible by 3? ˜ How many are divisible by 5? ™ How many are divisible by 15? š How many are divisible by either 3. 114}.6 as follows. Thus card (A) = 57. Notice that 114 = 6(19). Then we put a 28 − 10 = 18 in the part that A does not overlap B and a 16 − 10 = 6 in the part of B that does not overlap A. Thus card (A5 ) = 11 ™ There are ⌊ 57 ⌋ = 3 integers in A divisible by 15. . Thus card (A3 ) = 19. . . œ We want card ((A3 ∪ A5 ) \ (A3 ∩ A5 )) = = = card ((A3 ∪ A5 )) − card (A3 ∩ A5 ) 30 − 3 27. . – Notice that the elements are 2 = 2(1).6: Example 284. Thus card (A15 ) = 3. . . 114 = 2(57). We have accounted for 10 + 18 + 6 = 34 people that are in at least one of the set. š We want card (A3 ∪ A5 ) = 19 + 11 = 30. 6. we put an 10 in the intersection. 114}. 6 A R2 R1 R3 B A 18 8 6 B Figure 6. 5 or both? › How many are neither divisible by 3 nor 5? œ How many are divisible by exactly one of 3 or 5? A = {2. .

we see that card (A ∪ B ∪C) = = = = card (A ∪ (B ∪C)) card (A) + card (B ∪C) − card (A ∩ (B ∪C)) card (A) + card (B ∪C) − card ((A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩C)) card (A) + card (B) + card (C) − card (B ∩C) −card (A ∩ B) − card (A ∩C) +card ((A ∩ B) ∩ (A ∩C)) = card (A) + card (B) + card (C) − card (B ∩C) − (card (A ∩ B) + card (A ∩C) − card (A ∩ B ∩C)) = card (A) + card (B) + card (C) −card (A ∩ B) − card (B ∩C) − card (C ∩ A) +card (A ∩ B ∩C) . 1000] sharing at least a factor with 1000. This means that if A5 denotes the set of those integers divisible by 5 then card (A5 ) = ⌊ 5 10 there are card (A2 ∪ A5 ) = 500 + 200 − 100 = 600 integers in the interval [1. 69 . that is. Also card (A2 ∩ A5 ) = ⌊ ⌋ = 100. and thus from the 1000 integers we must weed out those that have a factor of 2 or of 5 in their prime 1000 factorisation. do not share a common factor with 1000. thus there are 1000 − 600 = 400 integers in [1. 1000] that do not share a factor prime factor with 1000. 2 1000 1000 ⌋ = 200. We now derive a three-set version of the Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion. Similarly. If A2 denotes the set of those integers divisible by 2 in the interval [1. 1000] then clearly card (A2 ) = ⌊ ⌋ = 500.7: Three-set Inclusion-Exclusion 287 Theorem (Three set Inclusion-Exclusion) card (A ∪ B ∪C) = card (A) + card (B) + card (C) −card (A ∩ B) − card (B ∩C) − card (C ∩ A) +card (A ∩ B ∩C) Proof: Using the associativity and distributivity of unions of sets. are relatively prime to 69 1000? Solution: Observe that 1000 = 23 53 . C R4 R6 A R2 R3 R5 R7 R1 B Figure 6.Inclusion-Exclusion 286 Example How many integers between 1 and 1000 inclusive.

It is known that 5 speak English and Spanish. 120. and 7 English and French. 12 speak Spanish and 10 speak French. 5 Spanish and French. nor 5. u Chapter 6 Observe that in the Venn diagram in figure 6. How many do not speak any of these languages? Solution: Let A be the set of all English speakers. How many do not have a 9 in their decimal representation? 3. 600] divisible by at least one of 3. How many have exactly two 9’s? 6. 8 speak English. Then card (A3 ) card (A5 ) card (A7 ) card (A15 ) card (A21 ) card (A35 ) card (A105 ) = = = = = = = ⌊ 600 ⌋ 3 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 5 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 7 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 15 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 21 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 35 ⌊ 600 ⌋ 105 = = = = = = = 200. C 1 2 3 A 1 2 without a 7 without a 9 9550 4 3 B 14266 14406 9550 14266 14266 9550 without an 8 Figure 6. 40 28 17 5 By Inclusion-Exclusion there are 200 + 120 + 85 − 40 − 28 − 17 + 5 = 325 integers in [1. we put 7 − 3 = 4. We fill-up the Venn diagram in figure 6. How many have exactly one 9? 5. 7. 85. nor 7? Solution: Let Ak denote the numbers in [1.8: Example 289. Figure 6. In the intersection of all three we put 8. See also figure 6. 289 Example In a group of 30 people. 290 Example Consider the set of 5-digit positive integers written in decimal notation. Those outside these three sets are then 30 − 16 = 14. In the region common to A and B which is not filled up we put 5 − 2 = 3. In the remaining part of A we put 8 − 2 − 3 − 2 = 1. How many are there? 2. and in the remaining part of C we put 10 − 2 − 3 − 4 = 1.9: Example 290. or 7.7. 288 Example How many integers between 1 and 600 inclusive are not divisible by neither 3. The number of people speaking all three languages is 3. In the region common to B and C which is not already filled up. 5. Those not divisible by these numbers are a total of 600 − 325 = 275. B the set of Spanish speakers and C the set of French speakers in our group. In the region common to A and C which is not already filled up we put 5 − 3 = 2. 600] which are divisible by k = 3. 5. in the remaining part of B we put 12 − 4 − 3 − 2 = 3. Each of the mutually disjoint regions comprise a total of 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 = 16 persons.7 there are 8 disjoint regions (the 7 that form A ∪ B ∪C and the outside region.8 successively. How many have at least one 9 in their decimal representation? 4. How many have exactly three 9’s? 70 .70 This gives the Inclusion-Exclusion Formula for three sets. devoid of any element belonging to A ∪ B ∪C). 1.

b ≥ 0. There is obviously only 1 such positive integer. If the first digit is a 9 then two of the remaining four must be 9’s. We have 7 choices for the first digit and 8 choices for the remaining 4 digits. c ≥ 2. 3 3 3 a + b + c + d = 100 The total number of solutions to 71 .  69¡  59¡ . the numbers inside the circles add up to 85854. d ≥ 20  70¡ 3 a ≥ 1. and we have 92 ways of filling the two remaining spots. are there given the following constraints: 1 ≤ a ≤ 10. There are  80¡ 3 = 82160 integral solutions to a + b + c + d = 100. and we have 9 ways of filling the remaining spot. then there are 8 choices for this first digit. 2. an 8. Also. b ≥ 0. giving 6 · 92 = 486 such numbers. Again we condition on the first digit. thus filling all the spots. giving 4 · 9 = 36 such numbers. How many have exactly five 9’s? 9. We condition on the first digit. Altogether there are 2916 + 3888 = 6804 five-digit positive integers with exactly two 9’s in their decimal representation. If the first digit is not a¡ then there 9. How many have either a 7. nor a 9 in their decimal representation? 11. giving 6 · 74 = 14406 such integers. we have 4 = 6 ways of choosing 2 where the two 9’s will be. and we have 93 ways of filling the 3 remaining spots. Thus the desired number is 90000 − 85854 = 4146. Thus in this case there are 8 · 6 · 92 = 3888 such numbers. There are 9 possible choices for the first digit and 10 possible choices for the remaining digits. 6. 4. The other remaining digit must be different from 9. card (A ∩ B) = 3 and so card (A ∪ B) = 70 69 59 + − = 74625. and the choice of place can  ¡ be accomplished in 4 = 4 ways. There are 8 possible choices for the first digit and 9 possible choices for the remaining digits. 10. We have 6 choices for the first digit and 7 choices for the remaining 4 digits. 20 ≤ d ≤ 30? Solution: We use Inclusion-Exclusion. If the first digit is a 9 then one of the remaining four must be a 9. Let A be the set of solutions with and B be the set of solutions with Then card (A) = a ≥ 11. 3. b ≥ 0. then there are 8 choices for this first digit. We use inclusion-exclusion. Also. If the first digit is a 9 then three of the remaining four must be  ¡ 9’s. giving 94 = 6561 such numbers. c ≥ 2. d ≥ 20. 9. are 8 choices for this first digit. Also. and the choice of place can be accomplished in 4 = 4 3 ways. Thus in this case there are 8 · 1 = 8 such numbers. 7. Observe that 37512 = 29889 + 6804 + 774 + 44 + 1. If the first digit is not a 9. we have  4¡ 4 = 4 ways of choosing where the four 9’s will be.   ¡ there are 8 then choices for this first digit. The other three remaining 1 digits must be different from 9. How many have neither an 8 nor a 9 in their decimal representation? Solution: 1. How many integral solutions to the equation a + b + c + d = 100. The number of choices is thus 8 · 94 = 52488. we have 4 = 4 ways of 3 choosing where the three 9’s will be. 8. b ≥ 0. The difference 90000 − 52488 = 37512. If the first digit is a 9 then the other four remaining digits must be different from 9. From figure 6. or a 9 in their decimal representation?  ¡ place can be accomplished in 4 = 6 ways. a ≥ 1. In total there are 6561 + 23328 = 29889 five-digit positive integers with exactly one 9 in their decimal representation. and the choice of 291 Example 71 10. nor an 8. 5. If the first digit is not a   ¡ 9. Also.9. How many have neither a 7. The other two 2 remaining digits must be different from 9. c ≥ 2. We condition on the first digit. How many have exactly four 9’s? 8.Inclusion-Exclusion 7. Thus in this case there are 8 · 4 · 9 = 288 such numbers. Altogether there are 486 + 288 = 774 five-digit positive integers with exactly three 9’s in their decimal representation. d ≥ 31. card (B) = 3 . c ≥ 2. Thus in this case there are 8 · 4 · 93 = 23328 such numbers. giving 7 · 84 = 28672 such integers. we have 4 = 4 ways 1 of choosing where the 9 will be. giving 4 · 93 = 2916 such numbers. 11. Altogether there are 36 + 8 = 44 five-digit positive integers with exactly three 9’s in their decimal representation. The number of choices is thus 9 · 104 = 90000. If the first digit is not a 9.

How many positive integer divisors of n2 are less than n but do not divide n? 295 Problem In how many ways can one decompose the set {1. 72 . 1. 3. . 8}. 300 Problem (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n. and 1 + 1 + 1. Find the number of such 7-digit natural numbers. . 301 Problem In each of the 6-digit numbers 333333. . ˜ You may repeat the digits. 293 Problem The number 3 can be expressed as a sum of one or more positive integers in four ways. and the only digits available are {0. 22. . 5550000. Find the 1984-th positive palindrome. 9. 3838383.C satisfying A ∪ B ∪C = {1. . 2. 5. each digit in the number appears at least thrice. 8. 6. 4. — You may not repeat any of the digits. 2. . 7. 1 or 5. then p(n) is equal to that digit. 2. 3. 3. ™ You may repeat the digits. 118818. Find the number of such 6-digit natural numbers. Find the number of telephone numbers possible that meet the following criteria: – You may repeat all digits. 707099. 33. Shew that any positive integer n can be so expressed in 2n−1 ways. 302 Problem In each of the 7-digit numbers 1001011. 100} into subsets A. each digit in the number appears at least twice. c ≥ 2. 4. let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. . No telephone number may begin in 0. 3. starting with 1 is written in ascending order 1. š You may not repeat the digits and the phone numbers must be odd. 100} and A ∩ B ∩C = ∅? 296 Problem How many two or three letter initials for people are available if at least one of the letters must be a D and one allows repetitions? 297 Problem How many strictly positive integers have all their digits distinct? 298 Problem To write a book 1890 digits were utilised. but the phone number must be odd. 7777777. but the phone number must be even. 2 + 1. . 7. How many pages does the book have? 299 Problem The sequence of palindromes. 11. namely. (If n has only one digit. 225522. b ≥ 0. B. 1 + 2. 20 ≤ d ≤ 30 is thus 80 70 69 59 − − + = 7535. 3 3 3 3 Chapter 6 Homework 292 Problem Telephone numbers in Land of the Flying Camels have 7 digits. 5. 2.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(999). . . as 3. .72 with 1 ≤ a ≤ 10. Find S. 294 Problem Let n = 231 319 .

816 like candy. and • married or single. 463 like both candy and cake. while 310 like all three? State your reasons! 304 Problem A survey shews that 90% of high-schoolers in Philadelphia like at least one of the following activities: going to the movies. a contradiction. Thus the total number of phone numbers is 7200 + 5760 = 12960. and 7000 are married. and 15% only reading. and at least 85% a leg. It is also known that seven like Mathematics and theology. then b < n. Also. 3010 married males. with a > n. and so we would have 5 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 2 = 7200 phone numbers. and 35% like reading. 470 both ice cream and cake. Also. If A. and 1400 young married persons.C. or reading. it is known that 12% like both the movies and reading. 2 2 73 . at least 75% an ear. 20% like only the movies. playing sports. then what is the minimum possible value of card (A ∩ B ∩C)? 308 Problem (Lewis Carroll in A Tangled Tale. and eleven like alchemy. What percent of high-schoolers like all three activities? 305 Problem An auto insurance company has 10. at least 70% of the combatants lost an eye. there is exactly one decomposition n2 = n · n. fourteen like Mathematics. Thus the desired number is d(n2 ) (63)(39) + 1 − d(n) = + 1 − (32)(20) = 589. 000 policyholders. ˜ This is 5 · 85 · 4 = 655360. ™ This is 5 · 85 · 4 = 655360. Each policy holder is classified as • young or old. If the last digit were either 3 or 7.) In a very hotly fought battle. let n(S) denote the number of subsets of S. 4600 are male. What can be said about the percentage who lost all four members? Answers 292 We have – This is 5 · 86 = 1310720. nor theology. because otherwise n2 = ab > n · n = n2 . are sets for which n(A) + n(B) + n(C) = n(A ∪ B ∪C) and card (A) = card (B) = 100. 723 like ice cream. How many students like neither Mathematics. All three subjects are favoured by four students.Answers 73 303 Problem Would you believe a market investigator that reports that of 1000 people. The policyholders can also be classified as 1320 young males. and single? 306 Problem In Medieval High there are forty students. 3000 are young. How many of the company’s policyholders are young. 645 cake. š We condition on the last digit. B. One either erases or keeps a plus sign. while 562 like both candy and ice cream. sixteen like theology. eight like theology and alchemy and five like Mathematics and alchemy. For if n2 = ab. then we would have 4 choices for the last digit and so we would have 4 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 2 = 5760 phone numbers. 48% like sports. 293 n = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1. 600 of the policyholders are young married males. The easiest way to see this is to observe that there is a bijection between the divisors of n2 which are > n and those < n. If the last digit were 1 or 5 then we would have 5 choices for the first digit. at least 80% an arm. female. — This is 5 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 = 25200. Finally. Of these policyholders. Amongst them. nor alchemy? 307 Problem (AHSME 1991) For a set S. ßÞ n−1 +′ s 294 There are 589 such values. It is known that 45% like the movies. • male or female.

b.7 and R3 will be empty. 999999. 90 with 3-digits. Hence. which in turn = = = = Hence S = = = = p(001) + p(002) + · · · + p(999) 97336 − p(000) 97336 − m(0)m(0)m(0) 97335. then clearly p(100a + 10b + c) = m(a)m(b)m(c). otherwise put m(x) = x. until we find the 1984th palindrome to be 985589. (IV) there are exactly three different digits used. the 1995th palindrome is 996699. two of one kind. the 1994th is 995599. 1 · 9 + 2 · 90 = 189 301 The numbers belong to the following categories: (I) all six digits are identical. 299 It is easy to see that there are 9 palindromes of 1-digit. four of the other. etc. We have of 1890 − 189 = 1701 digits at our disposition which is enough for 1701/3 = 567 extra pages (starting from page 100). 900 with 5-digits and 900 with 6-digits. c are digits.. 90 with 4-digits. the 1997th palindrome is 998899. inclusive. (m(0) + m(1) + · · · + m(9))3 (1 + 1 + 2 + · · · + 9)3 463 97336. Thus p(000) + · · · + p(999) = m(0)m(0)m(0) + · · · + m(9)m(9)m(9). 9 palindromes with 2-digits. We are thus left with 6 regions to distribute 100 numbers. put m(x) = 1. If 0 is not used. The number of sets thus required is 6100 .74 Chapter 6 295 The conditions of the problem stipulate that both the region outside the circles in diagram 6. (II) there are exactly two different digits used. To each of the 100 numbers we may thus assign one of 6 labels. We use three digits to label all the integers. the 1996th palindrome is 997799. constitutes the 9 + 9 + 90 + 90 + 900 + 900 = 1998th palindrome. 296 (262 − 252 ) + (263 − 253 ) = 2002 297 9+9·9 +9 · 9 · 8 + 9 · 9 · 8 · 7 +9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 + 9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 +9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 + 9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 +9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 +9 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 = 8877690 298 A total of digits are used to write pages 1 to 99. then there are 9 · = 720 integers in category (II). two of each kind. To count the numbers in the remaining categories. The last palindrome with 6 digits. we must consider the cases when   ¡ 6!   ¡  ¡ 6! the digit 0 is used or not. There are clearly 9 numbers belonging to category (I). (III) there are exactly two different digits used. from 000 to 999 If a. The book has 99 + 567 = 666 pages. three of the other. 9 8 · = 1080 integers in category 2 1 1 3!3! 2!4! 74 . three of one kind. 300 If x = 0.

u = 22. There are clearly 9 numbers belonging to category (I). 302 The numbers belong to the following categories: (I) all seven digits are identical. respectively. card (C ∩ K) = 463. and let Ma stand for married. I the set of people who like ice cream. four of the other. 1 · ( 1!4! 3!2! 1!2!2! (III). we must consider the cases when   ¡  ¡ 7! the digit 0 is used or not. card (I) = 723. three of one kind. There are 9 · = 90 in 1 2!2!2! 2!3!  9¡ 5!  9¡ 5! 5! + ) = 135 in category (III) . We are given that card (C) = 816. (II) there are exactly two different digits used. and 2 · 2 · = 3240 in category (IV). and 3 75  9 ¡ · 9 + 720 + 1080 + 7560 + 90 + 135 + 3240 = 12834 such integers. male. y = 7. 75 . From it we gather the following system of equations x x x x x + + + y y y + z + t + u + 15 + 20 + y + + z z + + t t + u + 15 + 20 = = = = = 45 48 35 12 90 The solution of this system is seen to be x = 5. M stand for young. card (I ∩ K) = 470. If 0 is used. then the integers may not 1 1 3!4!  9¡ 6!  9¡ 6! + 1 · = 315 in category (II). or probably did not report one person who may not have liked any of the three things. and K denote the set of people who like cake. If 0 is not used. S. Thus there are altogether 2520 + 315 + 9 = 2844 such integers. start with 0. then there are 9 8 · = 2520 integers in category (II). z = 13. card (C ∩ I) = 562. Thus there are altogether category (II) . Thus the percent wanted is 5%.Answers   ¡ 5! 6! = 7560 integers in category (IV). There are 1 · 2!4! 3!3! 303 Let C denote the set of people who like candy. and card (C ∩ I ∩ K) = 310.10. single. female. card (K) = 645. To count the numbers in the remaining category (II). If 0 is used. 305 Let Y. By Inclusion-Exclusion we have card (C ∪ I ∪ K) = card (C) + card (I) + card (K) −card (C ∩ I) − card (C ∩ K) − card (I ∩C) +card (C ∩ I ∩ K) = = 816 + 723 + 645 − 562 − 463 − 470 + 310 999. t = 8. The investigator miscounted. We have card (Y ∩ F ∩ S) = = card (Y ∩ F) − card (Y ∩ F ∩ Ma) card (Y ) − card (Y ∩ M) −(card (Y ∩ Ma) − card (Y ∩ Ma ∩ M)) = = 3000 − 1320 − (1400 − 600) 880. F. 304 We make the Venn diagram in as in figure 6. then the integers may not start with 0.

2. card (C ∪ D) card (C) + card (D) − card (C ∩ D) . The example and A = {1. 4. By the Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion. C denote those who lost an arm and D denote those losing a leg. 3. card (A ∪ B) card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∩ B) . B the set of students liking theology. . Hence card (A ∪ B ∪C) = 102. 100}) = 97 is attainable. as 1 + 2card(C)−101 is larger than 1 and a power of 2. 307 A set with k elements has 2k different subsets. . and card (A ∩ B ∩C) = 4. card (A ∩ B) ≥ . since card (A) + card (B) + card (C) − card (A ∪ B ∪C) = 199. . Suppose there are n combatants.85n − card (C ∩ D) . 308 Let A denote the set of those who lost an eye.   ¡ card ∁A ∩ ∁B ∩ ∁C = 40 − card (A) − card (B) − card (C) + card (A ∩ B) + card (A ∩C) + card (B ∩C) − card (A ∩ B ∩C) Substituting the numerical values of these cardinalities 40 − 14 − 16 − 11 + 7 + 5 + 8 − 4 = 15.7n + . . . 101. B ∪C ⊆ A ∪ B ∪C.65n. 100}. 6. This means that 76 . .76 Chapter 6 306 Let A be the set of students liking Mathematics. card (B ∩C) = 8.75n − card (A ∩ B) .65n − card (A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D) . We are given 2100 + 2100 + 2card(C) = 2card(A∪B∪C) . . We are given that card (A) = 14. . 5. and C be the set of students liking alchemy. the cardinalities of all these sets are ≤ 102. C = {1.8n + . . 5. card (A ∩C) = 5. . B = {3. B denote those who lost an ear. Using the Principle Inclusion-Exclusion. This forces card (C) = 101. . Thus card (A ∩ B ∩C) = 403 − card (A ∪ B) − card (A ∪C) − card (B ∪C) ≥ 403 − 3 · 102 = 97. As A ∪ B.45n + . . n ≥ = ≥ card ((A ∩ B) ∪ (C ∩ D)) card (A ∩ B) + card (C ∩ D) − card (A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D) .45n. card (A ∩ B) = 7. 2. Then n ≥ = = n ≥ = = This gives card (C ∩ D) ≥ . A ∪C. 4. card (B) = 16. 102}. 6. . . card (A ∩ B ∩C) = = card (A ∩ B) + card (A ∩C) + card (B ∩C) − 199 (card (A) + card (B) − card (A ∪ B)) + (card (A) + card (C) − card (A ∪C)) +(card (B) + card (C) − card (B ∪C)) − 199 = 403 − card (A ∪ B) − card (A ∪C) − card (B ∪C) . . 102} shews that card (A ∩ B ∩C) = card ({4. card (C) = 11. .

77 .Answers whence card (A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D) ≥ .1n.65n − n = .45 + .10: Problem 304. 77 Sports u z x Movies 20 y 15 Reading t Figure 6. This means that at least 10% of the combatants lost all four members.

1) Applying Gauss’s trick to the general arithmetic sum (a) + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + · · · + (a + (n − 1)d) we obtain (a) + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + · · · + (a + (n − 1)d) = n(2a + (n − 1)d) 2 (7.1 Famous Sums To obtain a closed form for we utilise Gauss’ trick: If An = 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n then An = n + (n − 1) + · · · + 1. 29. 2 78 . 11.2) 309 Example Each element of the set {10. This gives An = 1 n (n + 1) n(n + 1). that is. . 2 1+2+··· +n = n(n + 1) . . 12. 19. 2 (7.Chapter 7 1+2+··· +n = n(n + 1) 2 Sums and Recursions 7. . 30}. + + + 2 (n − 1) (n + 1) + + + ··· ··· ··· + + + n 1 (n + 1) n(n + 1) . 23. An An 2An = = = = since there are n summands. what is the resulting sum? Solution: This is asking for the product (10 + 11 + · · · + 20)(21 + 22 + · · · + 30) after all the terms are multiplied. . . 20} is multiplied by each element of the set {21. 22. . (20 + 10)(11) = 165 2 (30 + 21)(10) = 255. . If all these products are added. . But 10 + 11 + · · · + 20 = and 21 + 22 + · · · + 30 = The required total is (165)(255) = 42075. Adding these two quantities.

ar2 . . . 1. ar3 . . 79 Solution: We want the sum of the integers of the form 6r + 2. . . Solution: Let Then Hence S = 1 + 2 + 4 + · · · + 1024. For |r| < 1. . r = 0. if r = 1 then S = na. arn−1 . Hence From this we deduce that S − rS = a + ar + ar2 + · · · + arn−1 − ar − ar2 − · · · − arn = a − arn . 312 Example Find the geometric sum x= Solution: We have Then 2 3x 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 99 . . 16. . . . − 2 2 · 399 Plainly. . We have S = a + ar + ar2 + · · · + arn−1 . 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 x = 2 + 3 + · · · + 99 + 100 .3) a + ar + · · · + arn−1 = (7. so we may assume that r = 1. ar. 1−r a − arn 1−r a 1−r (7. rS = ar + ar2 + · · · + arn .4) 79 . 2S = 2 + 4 + 8 + · · · + 1024 + 2048. If |r| < 1 then rn → 0 as n → ∞. S = 2S − S = (2 + 4 + 8 · · · + 2048) − (1 + 2 + 4 + · · · + 1024) = 2048 − 1 = 2047. we obtain the sum of the infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + · · · = a − arn . 2 A geometric progression is one of the form a. 3 3 3 3 3 = = x− 1x 3 1 1 1 ( 3 + 32 + 33 + · · · + 31 ) 99 1 1 1 −( 32 + 33 + · · · + 31 + 3100 ) 99 = From which we gather 1 3 1 − 3100 .Famous Sums 310 Example Find the sum of all integers between 1 and 100 that leave remainder 2 upon division by 6. S= that is. But this is 16 16 16 (6r + 2) = 6 r=0 r=0 r+ r=0 2=6 16(17) + 2(17) = 850. x= Let us sum now the geometric series 1 1 . 311 Example Find the following geometric sum: 1 + 2 + 4 + · · · + 1024. .

. 5 1 1 1 4 = . .80 Chapter 7 313 Example A fly starts at the origin and goes 1 unit up. 2 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 . From the preceding example 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n = ·n2 /2 + n/2 = n(n+1) 2 so 3 · n(n + 1) + n. Solution: Observe that k2 − (k − 1)2 = 2k − 1. . . etc. Solution: Observe that k3 − (k − 1)3 = 3k2 − 3k + 1. Solving for the sum. 1/2 unit right. 5 ). From this 12 − 02 22 − 12 . n2 − (n − 1)2 Adding both columns. . In what coordinates does it end up? Solution: Its x coordinate is Its y coordinate is 1 1 1 1 2 2 − + −··· = = . ad infinitum. 2 n3 − 03 = 3(12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 ) − 80 . = 3 · 12 − 3 · 1 + 1 3 · 22 − 3 · 2 + 1 . 1/8 unit left. 1/16 unit up. . 2 8 32 5 1 − −1 4 1− 4 Therefore. . the fly ends up in ( 2 . . 2·n−1 n2 − 02 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n) − n. + −··· = −1 4 16 5 1− 4 We now sum again of the first n positive integers. . .. 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n = n2 /2 + n/2 = 315 Example Find the sum n(n + 1) . 33 − 23 = = = . = 2·1−1 2·2−1 2·3−1 . 3 · 32 − 3 · 3 + 1 n3 − (n − 1)3 Adding both columns. . 314 Example Find a closed formula for An = 1 + 2 + · · · + n. . 3 · n2 − 3 · n + 1 n3 − 03 = 3(12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 ) − 3(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n) + n. which we have already computed using Gauss’ trick. 1/4 unit down. 32 − 22 = = = . Hence 13 − 03 23 − 13 .

. . . 1 99 1 − 100 Adding both columns. = 1 1 1 2 1 3 −1 2 −1 3 −1 4 . . 1 1 1 1 1 99 + + +··· + = 1− = . . 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 = After simplifying we obtain 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 = 316 Example Add the series 81 n3 1 n + · n(n + 1) − . . (3n + 1) · (3n + 4) 3 3n + 1 3 3n + 4 1 1·4 1 4·7 1 7·10 1 10·13 Thus = = = = . . . 3 2 3 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 (7. 1 99·100 .5) 1 1 1 1 + + +···+ . 1 102 1 − 111 Summing both columns. . 1 34·37 .Famous Sums Solving for the sum. 1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100 Solution: Observe that 1 1 1 = − . = 1 3 1 − 12 1 − 21 1 − 30 1 − 39 1 12 1 21 1 30 . 1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100 100 100 317 Example Add 1 1 1 1 + + +··· + . . 1 · 4 4 · 7 7 · 10 31 · 34 3 111 37 318 Example Sum 1 1 1 1 + + +···+ . 1 · 4 · 7 4 · 7 · 10 7 · 10 · 13 25 · 28 · 31 Solution: Observe that 1 1 1 1 1 = · − · . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 + + +··· + = − = . 1 · 4 4 · 7 7 · 10 31 · 34 Solution: Observe that 1 1 1 1 1 = · − · . k(k + 1) k k+1 1 1·2 1 2·3 1 3·4 Thus = = = . . (3n + 1) · (3n + 4) · (3n + 7) 6 (3n + 1)(3n + 4) 6 (3n + 4)(3n + 7) 81 .

· 99 · 100 · 101 − 1 · 98 · 99 · 100 3 1 1 · 99 · 100 · 101 − · 0 · 1 · 2 = 333300. . Solution: Observe that Therefore 1·2 2·3 3·4 . For example un+2 − un+1 = 2 is a linear recurrence and x2 + nxn−1 = 1 and xn + 2xn−1 = 3 n are not linear recurrences. 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 + + +···+ = − = .82 Therefore 1 1·4·7 1 4·7·10 1 7·10·13 Chapter 7 = = = . . 1 25·28·31 . . . . = = = . 1 · 4 · 7 4 · 7 · 10 7 · 10 · 13 25 · 28 · 31 6 · 1 · 4 6 · 28 · 31 217 319 Example Find the sum 1 · 2 + 2 · 3 + 3 · 4 + · · · + 99 · 100. 1 3 99 · 100 Adding each column. 1 6·25·28 1 − 6·28·31 Adding each column. A recurrence is linear if the subscripted letters appear only to the first power. 3 3 1 · 2 + 2 · 3 + 3 · 4 + · · · + 99 · 100 = 7. The equation xm+3 + 8xm+2 − 9xm = m2 − 3 82 . . 3 3 ·1·2·3− 1 ·0·1·2 3 ·2·3·4− 1 ·1·2·3 3 ·3·4·5− 1 ·2·3·4 3 .2 First Order Recursions The order of the recurrence is the difference between the highest and the lowest subscripts. . Thus xm+3 + 8xm+2 − 9xm = 0 is homogeneous. For example un+2 − un+1 = 2 is of the first order. . and un+4 + 9u2 = n5 n is of the fourth order. . A recursion is homogeneous if all its terms contain the subscripted variable to the same power. . = 1 6·1·4 1 6·4·7 1 − 6·4·7 1 − 6·7·10 1 − 6·10·13 1 6·7·10 . . = 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 k(k + 1) = (k)(k + 1)(k + 2) − (k − 1)(k)(k + 1). .

7 = x0 = A20 + B = A + B. B = −1. we find A = 8. 2A + B = 15. . 2. We outline a method for solving first order linear recurrence relations of the form xn = axn−1 + f (n). Find a closed form for xn .First Order Recursions is not homogeneous. 83 A closed form of a recurrence is a formula that permits us to find the n-th term of the recurrence without having to know a priori the terms preceding it. Cancelling. The solution is thus xn = 7(2)n . x0 x1 · · · xn = 7 · 2n x0 x1 x2 · · · xn−1 . 320 Example Let x0 = 7 and xn = 2xn−1 . were A is a constant. The general solution will have the form xn = A2n + B. . Solving the simultaneous equations A + B = 7. Aliter: We have x0 x1 x2 x3 . n ≥ 1. Now f (n) = 1 is a polynomial of degree 0 (a constant) and so we test a particular constant solution C. 2xn−2 + 1 2xn−1 + 1 83 . = = 7 2x0 + 1 2x1 + 1 2x2 + 1 . Cancelling this gives x = a. . where f is a polynomial. Solution: Raising subscripts we have the characteristic equation xn = 2xn−1 . . 2xn−1 Solution: By raising the subscripts in the homogeneous equation we obtain xn = 2xn−1 or x = 2. where A is a constant to be determined. a = 1. Find a closed form for xn . Test a solution of the form xn = Aan + g(n). This we call the characteristic equation. . But 7 = x0 = A20 and so A = 7. 321 Example Let x0 = 7 and xn = 2xn−1 + 1. xn = 7 · 2n . Also. where g is a polynomial of the same degree as f . 1. n ≥ 1. Now. x = 2. A solution to the homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(2)n . xn−1 xn = = = = . . x1 = 2x0 + 7 = 15 and so 15 = x1 = 2A + B. xn Multiplying both columns. . Aliter: We have: x0 x1 x2 x3 . The solution to the homogeneous equation xn = axn−1 will be of the form xn = Aan . Thus we try a solution of the form xn = A2n . Cancelling the common factors on both sides of the equality. So the solution is xn = 8(2n ) − 1 = 2n+3 − 1. = = = = . . . First solve the homogeneous recurrence xn = axn−1 by “raising the subscripts” in the form xn = axn−1 . = 7 2x0 2x1 2x2 . . . .

x1 = 2(2) + 30 = 5. x0 = 2. We solve the recursion un = 2un−1 as we did on our first example: un = 2n u0 = 2n (x0 + 1) = 2n · 8 = 2n+3 . Then x0 = 2. 36 = 27A + 9B + 3C + D. We solve the system 2 = A + B. . and adding the geometric sum. 176 = 81A + 2B +C. 22 xn−2 2xn−1 xn Adding both columns. Now f (n) = −2n2 + 6n − 3 is a polynomial of degree 2 and so we test a particular solution of the form Bn2 +Cn + D. Now f (n) = −56n + 63 is a polynomial of degree 1 and so we test a particular solution of the form Bn +C. Chapter 7 = = = = . 25 = 9A + B +C. xn = 9xn−1 − 56n + 63. xn = 7 · 2n + (1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 2n−1 ) = 7 · 2n + 2n − 1 = 2n+3 − 1. x2 = 9(25) − 56(2) + 63 = 176. x3 = 3(13) − 2(3)2 + 6(3) − 3 = 36. x2 = 3(4) − 2(2)2 + 6(2) − 3 = 13. . B = 1. Now x0 = 1. 84 . 13 = 9A + 4B + 2C + D. The general solution is xn = 2(9n ) + 7n. B = 7. We find A = B = 1. 4 = 3A + B +C + D. . . 322 Example Let x0 = 2. xn = 3xn−1 − 2n2 + 6n − 3. The general solution will have the form xn = A9n + Bn +C. 23 xn−3 + 22 22 xn−2 + 2 2xn−1 + 1 Solution: By raising the subscripts in the homogeneous equation we obtain the characteristic equation xn = 9xn−1 or x = 9. 7 = 2A + 3B. The general solution is xn = 3n + n2 . Finally. Solution: By raising the subscripts in the homogeneous equation we obtain the characteristic equation xn = 3xn−1 or x = 9.C = 0. We find A = 2. We obtain 2n x0 2n−1 x1 2n−2 x2 2n−3 x3 . Find a closed form for this recursion. Solution: We test a solution of the form xn = A2n + B3n . we simply consider a polynomial g of degree 1 higher than the degree of f . 323 Example Let x0 = 1. . x1 = 3(1) − 2 + 6 − 3 = 4. = = = 2n · 7 2n x0 + 2n−1 2n−1 x1 + 2n−2 2n−2 x2 + 2n−3 . Now x0 = 2. We find A = 1. .84 Multiply the kth row by 2n−k . A solution to the homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(3)n . We thus solve the system 2 = A +C. Find a closed form for this recursion. In this case. A solution to the homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(9)n . We thus solve the system 1 = A + D. Aliter: Let un = xn + 1 = 2xn−1 + 2 = 2(xn−1 + 1) = 2un−1 . 324 Example Find a closed form for xn = 2xn−1 + 3n−1 . We now tackle the case when a = 1.C = D = 0. The general solution will have the form xn = A3n + Bn2 +Cn + D. The general solution is xn = 2n + 3n . x1 = 9(2) − 56 + 63 = 25. xn = un − 1 = 2n+3 − 1. cancelling.

We now outline a method for solving second order homogeneous linear recurrence relations of the form xn = axn−1 + bxn−2 .Second Order Recursions 325 Example Let x0 = 7 and xn = xn−1 + n. 85 Solution: By raising the subscripts in the homogeneous equation we obtain the characteristic equation xn = xn−1 or x = 1. A solution to the homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(1)n = A. . 2 2 2 Aliter: We have x0 x1 x2 x3 . Find a closed formula for xn . Thus m m n d an (n) = ( 2n + 1)2 − 1 → ed − 1 as n → ∞. Evaluate 327 Example (Putnam 1985) Let d be a real number. j = 0. The general solution will have the form xn = A + Bn2 +Cn + D. and ln v j+1 = 2 ln v j . that is. For each integer m ≥ 0.3 Second Order Recursions All the recursions that we have so far examined are first order recursions. n n n 7. we find the next term of the sequence given the preceding one. Put v j = am ( j) + 1. As vn = vn−1 /2. E = 7. a constant. we have vn = v0 /2n . n ≥ 1. Let us now briefly examine how to solve some second order recursions. 1. Then v j+1 = v2 . Then y j+1 = 2y j . So we solve the system 7 = E. j ≥ 0. · · · by am (0) = 2d . 85 . u2 = un . Therefore. The general solution is xn = + + 7. 2 = = = = . j Put y j = ln v j . = 7 x0 + 1 x1 + 2 x2 + 3 . and m n→∞ lim an (n). xn−1 + n xn = 7 + n(n + 1) . define a sequence am ( j). Then vn = log un = log un−1 = 2 log un−1 = n . 2. 2 Some non-linear first order recursions maybe reduced to a linear first order recursion by a suitable transformation. x0 + x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = 7 + x0 + x2 + · · · + xn−1 + (1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n). x1 = 7 + 1 = 8. . we may combine them to obtain xn = Bn2 +Cn + E. log un = (log u0 )/2 n 1/2 vn−1 2 . xn Adding both columns. am ( j + 1) = (am ( j + 1))2 + 2am ( j). that is. x2 = 8 + 2 = 10. 1 n2 n We find B = C = . one more degree than that of f . 8 = B +C + E. Now f (n) = n is a polynomial of degree 1 and so we test a particular solution of the form Bn2 +Cn + D. Now. Find a closed form for this recursion. . . u = 31/2n . and hence 2n y0 = yn or 2n ln v0 = ln vn or vn = (v0 )2 = (1 + 2d )2 or am (n) + 1 = (1 + 2d )2 . . 326 Example A recursion satisfies u0 = 3. Solution: Observe that am ( j + 1) + 1 = (am ( j))2 + 2am ( j) + 1 = (am ( j) + 1)2 . n ≥ 1. n+1 1 Solution: Let vn = log un . Cancelling and using the fact that 1 + 2 + · · · + n = n(n + 1) . 10 = 4B + 2C + E. . Since A and D are constants. x0 = 7.

x1 = 4. Solution: The characteristic equation is f 2 − f − 1 = 0. n ≥ 3.86 Chapter 7 1. Solution: Let this number be an . xn+2 + 5xn+1 + 6xn = 0. B = 1. The initial conditions give 1 = A. 329 Example Find a closed form for the Fibonacci recursion f 0 = 0. Solution: It is quite easy to see that a1 = 2. and the number of sequences sought is an−2 . If the roots are identical. The solution is thus xn = 2n + n2n . the solution will be of the form xn = A(r1 )n + Bn(r1 )n . This equation has two roots r1 and r2 . a2 = 3. Thus we test a solution of the form xn = A(−2)n + B(−3)n . a2 = 3. the penultimate digit must be 0. 7. the nth oval is divided into 2(n − 1) arcs. If an oval intersects each of the other ovals at exactly two points and no three ovals intersect at the same point. we quickly find A = 2. If the roots are different. xn = 4xn−1 − 4xn−2 = 0. 332 Example Let there be drawn n ovals on the plane. Thus an = an−1 + 2(n − 1). the number of sequences sought is an−1 . 2. B are constants. B = − √ . 3. We thus have the Cauchy-Binet Formula: 5 5 √ n 1 1+ 5 1 −√ fn = √ 2 5 5 √ 1− 5 2 n (7. find a recurrence relation for the number of regions into which the plane is divided. Find the characteristic equation by “raising the subscripts” in the form xn = axn−1 + bxn−2 . If it is 0. This solves to A = 1. we condition on the last digit. Thus an = an−1 + an−2 . a1 = 2. x1 = −1. where A. Cancelling this gives x2 − ax − b = 0. Solution: The characteristic equation is x2 − 4x + 4 = (x − 2)2 = 0. f 1 = 1.6) 330 Example Solve the recursion x0 = 1. Since 1 = x0 = A + B. Thus the solution is xn = 2(−2)n − (−3)n . √ √ 1 5 5 = (A + B) + (A − B) = (A − B) 2 2 2 1=A +B 1 1 This gives A = √ . After the n − 1th stage. a1 = 2. 328 Example Let x0 = 1. B = −1. −1 = −2A − 3B. Solution: The characteristic equation is x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 3)(x + 2) = 0. 86 . Plainly a1 = 2. the solution will be of the form xn = A(r1 )n + B(r2 )n . the nth oval intersects the previous ovals at 2(n − 1) points. f n = f n−1 + f n−2 . This adds 2(n − 1) regions to the an−1 previously existing. whence a solution will have the form √ n √ n 1+ 5 1− 5 fn = A +B . There is a multiple root and so we must test a solution of the form xn = A2n + Bn2n . 4 = 2A + 2B. If it is 1.4 Applications of Recursions 331 Example Find the recurrence relation for the number of n digit binary sequences with no pair of consecutive 1’s. i.e. 2 2 The initial conditions give 1+ 5 2 √ 1− 5 2 √ 0 = A + B. To form an .

y1 = y1 + 1 x6 = 2 8 1 x8 = x7 + 9 y7 = 5 . y0 = 0 x1 = x0 − 1 x0 = 1 . Clearly a1 = 2. 2 and that at each even stage we have (if Homework 336 Problem Find the sum of all the integers from 1 to 1000 inclusive. 1. As r can be chosen in n − 1 ways. y1 = y1 + 1 x4 = 2 6 1 x6 = x5 + 7 y5 = 4 . denote the fraction of water in urns I and II respectively at stage n. 1/4 of the contains of urn I is passed into urn II. n − 1). 2. y1 = y1 + 1 x2 = 2 4 1 x4 = x3 + 5 y3 = 3 . · · · . What fraction of water remains in urn I after the 1978th stage? Solution: Let xn . Either n and r(1 ≤ r ≤ n − 1) trade places or they do not. 3. On the first stage. Since n is not going to the r-th position. The nth line is cut by he previous n − 1 lines at n − 1 points. n − 1) in the slots (1. Two events might happen. y2 = y1 − 1 y1 = 3 3 1 x3 = x2 − 4 x2 = 1 . let us say that letter r. · · · . Our task is just to misplace the other n − 2 letters. · · · .) 338 Problem Use the identity n5 − (n − 1)5 = 5n4 − 10n3 + 10n2 − 5n + 1. n = 0. Observe that xn + yn = 1 and that x0 = 1. which are not multiples of 3 or 5. (There is more than one solution. . but no three lines intersect. half of the contains of urn I is passed into urn II. n. (1. y2k = 2k+1 . We condition on the last envelope. r + 1. 87 . You must find them all. 335 Example There are two urns. we may relabel n as r. 2. Solution: Number the envelopes 1. 2. In the second case. r − 1. the total number of ways for the second case is (n − 1)Dn−1 . 337 Problem The sum of a certain number of consecutive positive integers is 1000. y1 = y1 − 1 y5 = 7 7 1 x7 = x6 − 8 x6 = 1 . Since r can be chosen in n − 1 ways. and this can be done in Dn−1 ways. a1 = 2. On stage four 1/5 of the contains of urn II is passed into urn I. · · · . (1 ≤ r ≤ n − 1) moves to the n-th position but n moves not to the r-th position. Since r has been misplaced. Solution: Let an be this number. In the first case. and so on. Hence an = an−1 + n. r + 1. . 334 Example (Derangements) An absent-minded secretary is filling n envelopes with n letters. the two letters r and n are misplaced. yn .Homework 87 333 Example Find a recurrence relation for the number of regions into which the plane is divided by n straight lines if every pair of lines intersect. r − 1. 2. the first case can happen in (n − 1)Dn−2 ways. · · · . Find these integers. On stage three. adding n new regions to the previously existing an−1 . Find a recursion for the number Dn of ways in which she never stuffs the right letter into the right envelope. y1 = y1 − 1 y7 = 9 9 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 5 1 2 3 7 1 2 4 9 1 2 A pattern emerges (which may be proved by induction) that at each odd stage n we have xn = yn = k+1 k 990 n = 2k) x2k = 2k+1 . y1 = y1 + 1 x0 = 2 2 2 1 x2 = x1 + 3 y1 = 2 . we can just ignore it. We now have n − 1 numbers to misplace. This can be done in Dn−2 ways. . one is full of water and the other is empty. y1 = y1 − 1 y3 = 5 5 1 x5 = x4 − 6 x4 = 1 . On the second stage 1/3 of the contains of urn II is passed into urn I. Thus Dn = (n − 1)Dn−2 + (n − 1)Dn−1 . Since 1978 = 989 we have x1978 = 1979 .

n5 n + 2s3 − 2s2 + s1 − 5 5 n5 n2 (n + 1)2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n(n + 1) n + − + − 5 2 3 2 5 5 4 3 n n n n + + − . Using Gauss’ trick we obtain S = 2 √ 2 + 2ln + n > n2 . C = 5 + 10 + 15 + · · · + 1000 = 5A200 . Moreover. The desired sum is D = 15 + 30 + 45 + · · · + 990 = 15A66 . 25. l = 999. 1·3·5 3·5·7 997 · 999 · 1001 Answers 336 We compute the sum of all integers from 1 to 1000 and weed out the sum of the multiples of 3 and the sum of the multiples of 5. which we have counted twice. 2 s1 = 1 + 2 + · · · + n = s4 = 14 + 24 + · · · + n4 . the odd factors of 2000 are 1. l = 54. n = 16. n and 2l + n + 1 are divisors of 2000 and are of 2000 = n(2l + n + 1). As S = 1000. but put back the multiples of 15. n(2l + n + 1) . n = 25. and 125. 4 · 1 · 3 4 · 999 · 1001 999999 whence the desired sum is 88 . l = 197. 5. whence n ≤ ⌊ 2000⌋ = 44. 1·3·5 3·5·7 997 · 999 · 1001 1 · 3 999 · 1001 1 1 83333 − = . l = 27. 337 Let the the sum of integers be S = (l + 1) + (l + 2) + (l + n). 6 n(n + 1) 2 s3 = 13 + 23 + · · · + n3 = . A1000 − B −C + D = = = A1000 − 3A333 − 5A200 + 15A66 500500 − 3 · 55611 − 5 · 20100 + 15 · 2211 266332. 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) s2 = 12 + 22 + · · · + n2 = . in order to find 339 Problem Find the exact value of 1 1 1 + +···+ . 5 2 3 30 1 1 4 − = . 338 Using the identity for n = 1 to n: whence s4 = = = 339 Observe that n5 = 5s4 − 10s3 + 10s2 − 5s1 + n.88 and the sums Chapter 7 n(n + 1) . B = 3 + 6 + 9 + · · · + 999 = 3A333 . n = 5. Now 2000 = n opposite parity. Put An = 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n. Since 2000 = 24 53 . (2n − 1)(2n + 1) (2n + 1)(2n + 3) (2n − 1)(2n + 1)(2n + 3) Letting n = 1 to n = 499 we deduce that 4 4 4 1 1 + +··· + = − . We then see that the problem has the following solutions: n = 1.

5 shews K4 . and figure 8.2: A graph with card (V ) = 2 and card (E) = 1.4: A graph with card (V ) = 3 and card (E) = 5. A graph with loops is a pseudograph. Thus Kn has n edges.4 for some examples of graphs. we say that v is adjacent to v′ and that v and v′ are neighbours. 343 Definition The complete graph with n vertices Kn is the graph where any two vertices are adjacent. If this were allowed we would obtain a multigraph.6 shews K5 . E) consists of a non-empty set V (called the vertex (node) set) and a set E (possibly empty) of unordered pairs of elements (called the edges or arcs) of V .1 Simple Graphs 340 Definition A simple graph (network) G = (V.3 shews K3 .1: A graph with card (V ) = 1 and card (E) = 0. In these notes we will only consider finite graphs. which are edges incident to only one vertex. figure 8. 341 Definition If v and v′ are vertices of a graph G which are joined by an edge e. the graph is finite or infinite. v3 v2 v1 v1 v2 v1 v2 v1 v3 v4 Figure 8. Depending on whether card (V ) is finite or not.Chapter 8 Graph Theory 8. We say that vertex v is incident with an edge e if v is an endpoint of e.3: A graph with card (V ) = 3 and card (E) = 3. Figure 8. 2  ¡ Figure 8. and the edges by means of lines connecting these dots. figure 8. Figure 8.1 shews K1 . Neither does it allow loops . and we write e = vv′ . Our definition of a graph does not allow that two vertices be joined by more than one edge. See figures 8.2 shews K2 . 89 . Vertices are usually represented by means of dots on the plane.1 through 8. Figure 8. 342 Definition The degree of a vertex is the number of edges incident to it. figure 8. In this case we also say that e is incident with v.

5: K4 . n − 1. and v1 is adjacent to vn .3 . B C A 01 11 010 011 001 111 101 110 B E F 100 Figure 8. say. . 352 Example If the points of the plane are coloured with three different colours. Observe that Qn has n2n−1 edges. 1. with n vertices. . red. and blue. It is a simple graph with 2n vertices. where vi is adjacent to vi+1 for n = 1. X and Y are called the parts of the bipartition. 350 Definition Qn denotes the n-dimensional cube.90 Chapter 8 bipartite graph with bipartition X. 348 Definition Pn denotes a path of length n.3 . We will now give a few examples of problems whose solutions become simpler when using a graph-theoretic model. and figure 8.9 shews C5 . E1 ) of a graph G = (V. .11 shews Q3 . . Figure 8.Y is a graph such that V = X ∪Y . is connected to every other vertex of the other part.n denotes the complete bipartite graph with m + n vertices. 349 Definition Cn denotes a cycle of length n. and n vertices v1 · · · vn . 351 Definition A subgraph G1 = (V1 . 344 Definition Let G = (V. shew that there will always exist two points of the same colour which are 1 unit apart.7 shews K3. E D Figure 8. It is a graph with n edges. 000 Figure 8. One part. with m vertices. while a u − v path is a walk that which does not repeat any vertex. figure 8. Vertices of Qn are connected by an edge if and only if they differ by exactly one coordinate. figure 8. 90 . v2 v1 C B A B C v2 v1 A D v3 v4 Figure 8. Figure 8. 00 10 Figure 8. and n + 1 vertices v0 v1 · · · vn . A D G C D E Figure 8.8: P3 . .11: Q3 . . figure 8.10 shews Q2 .6: K5 . v in S (S may be empty). A 345 Definition Km. 347 Definition A u − v trail in a graph G = (V. E) is a u − v walk that does not repeat an edge. E) be a graph.12: Example 352. and X and Y are independent sets. E F v3 v4 Figure 8. A subset S ⊆ V is an independent set of vertices if uv ∈ E for all u.8 shews P3 .7: K3. 346 Definition A u − v walk in a graph G = (V. which we label with n-tuples of 0’s and 1’s. . white. X ∩Y = ∅.9: C5 .10: Q2 . n − 1. It is a graph with n edges. where vi is adjacent to vi+1 for n = 0. . E) is an alternating sequence of vertices and edges in G with starting vertex u and ending vertex v such that every edge joins the vertices immediately preceding it and immediately following it. E) is a graph with V1 ⊆ V and E1 ⊆ E.

0) means that the three items are on one bank of the river. we also conclude that G is red. or 1. Since E and C must not be red. (iii) no one shook hands more than once with the same person. 1. . But then F and G are at distance 1 apart and both coloured red which contradicts our assumption that the property did not hold. How many hands did Mrs. This means that the ferryman (i) takes the goat across. 1).13. ¨ ¨ 354 Example (Eotvos Mathematical Competition. the edges of the triangle have all the same colour). 0. If two of these three people know one another. For example. The only permissible sequence is thus 0.Simple Graphs Solution: In figure 8. say (W. but his boat is too small to accommodate more than one of them. . 0) means that the wolf is on one bank of the river while the goat and the cabbage are on the other bank. The ferryman wants to take them across. . Landau shake? Solution: The given numbers can either be 0. 2. If no two of these three people know one another. as the alternative is argued similarly. we need to shew that every colouring of the edges of K6 into two different colours. the sequence 1. contains a monochromatic triangle (that is. G. 355 Example Mr. . (iii) takes the lettuce over. 0. 8. three of them do not know Peter. either three of them know Peter or else. 2. 1. There are five other people. 2. . Let us assume three do know Peter. then we have three mutual strangers. . Consider an arbitrary person of this group (call him Peter). 1947) Prove that amongst six people in a room there are at least three who know one another. say red and blue. traversing Q3 while avoiding certain edges. (iv) returns and takes the goat over. (1.C). then we have a triangle (Peter and these two. D coloured blue. 0. 1. .14. The position of the three items can now be given as an ordered triplet. 9 must be ruled out.15). Some people shook hands with some others. and of these. . that is.cut-the-knot. B is coloured white. 0) to (1.shtml for a pictorial representation. Solution: In graph-theoretic terms. Each of the nine people asked gives a different number. he can neither leave the wolf and the goat. Landau asks the nine people how many hands they shook. and a cabbage are on one bank of a river. 91 353 Example A wolf. 011 000 010 110 001 101 100 111 Figure 8. This means that the ferryman (i) takes the goat across. 91 . Then F must both be coloured red. or the cabbage and the goat behind. . Another one is 000 → 010 → 110 → 100 → 101 → 111. and the following rules were noted: (i) a person did not shake hands with himself. 9. or at least three who do not know one another. The graph depicting both answers can be seen in figure 8. One answer is 000 → 010 → 011 → 001 → 101 → 111. Mr. Landau invite four other married couples for dinner. . After the introductions. and Mrs. since if a person shook hands nine times. 8. 2. Assume the property does not hold and that A is coloured red. You may want to visit http://www. . (ii) no one shook hands with his spouse.12 all the edges have length 1. (iv) returns and takes the goat over. (iii) takes the wolf over. (0. giving another triangle (see figure 8. see figure 8. a goat. The object of the puzzle is now seen to be to move from (0. Evidently. . (ii) returns and that the wolf over bringing back the goat. which is not allowed. then he must have shaken hands with his spouse.org/ctk/GoatCabbageWolf.13: Example 353. Can the ferryman still get all of them across the river? Solution: Represent the position of a single item by 0 for one bank of the river and 1 for the other bank. . . . where the acquaintances are marked by solid lines). . Now. (ii) returns and that the lettuce over bringing back the goat.

3.18. c2 . the sequence 0. n. 2.19: Theorem 358. 2 is graphic.17. we see the following pairs (8. . (7.14: Example 354. 5. ßÞ since Kn+1 has this degree sequence. c1 . 357 Example The sequence 1.2 Graphic Sequences 356 Definition A sequence of non-negative integers is graphic if there exists a graph whose degree sequence is precisely that sequence. 92 . 6. or with the person that shook 0 hands. Landau shook hands four times. Figure 8. as in figure 8. 3). Figure 8. . his spouse. A Bi Dj A Cj Bi A Bi D Cj A Bi D Cj Figure 8. Consider the person who shook hands 8 times. 2. b1 − 1. meaning that this person’s partner did not give a number. Discounting himself and his spouse. since Pn+1 has this sequence. 4. . 9 is not.16. . 8. 3. . 7. . The degree sequence 1.21: Theorem 358. ba − 1. (6. he must have shaken hands with everybody else. The degree sequence ßÞ n twos n+1 n′ s 2. 2. He didn’t shake hands with himself. Figure 8. 4. Figure 8. From example 355. . as in figure 8. But the person that shook hands only once did so with the person shaking 8 hands. · · · . 8 is graphic. 1). · · · .16: Example 355. whereas the sequence ßÞ n twos 1. 6. (5. so is the sequence n. b2 − 1. This leaves the person that shook hands 4 times without a partner. cn . Figure 8. 2). since K3 is a graph with this degree sequence. Landau! Conclusion: Mrs. 1. Landau 0 4 3 5 6 7 8 Mr. 8. .22: Theorem 358. n. A graph of the situation appears in figure 8. Thus the person that shook hand 7 times is married to the person that shook hands once. 358 Theorem (Havel-Hakimi) The two degree sequences I: II : a ≥ b1 ≥ b2 ≥ · · · ≥ ba ≥ c1 ≥ c2 ≥ · · · ≥ cn .20: Theorem 358.15: Example 354. and in general. Continuing this argument. 1 is graphic. 2. Landau 0 2 1 2 1 Figure 8. Figure 8. 2.92 Chapter 8 Peter Peter Figure 8. 6 5 4 3 2 7 8 Mr. . 1. . .18: Example 355. Landau 0 1 4 3 5 6 7 8 Mr. hence this person must be Mrs. 2. 1 is graphic.17: Example 355. . since Cn has this sequence. 5. 0). 7. This means that he is married to the person who shook 0 hands! We now consider the person that shook 7 hands.

4. one cannot have an odd number of odd degree vertices. 0.3 Connectivity 360 Definition A graph G = (V. 363 Theorem (Handshake Lemma) Let G = (V. If it happens that bi = c j . 1. 2. as sum traverses through the vertices. If A were adjacent to all the Bi . Let A. There is a graph G′ with degree sequence equal to sequence II. 2 is graphic. 8. E) be a graph. 1. This finishes the proof. 3. Assume now that sequence I is graphic. 0 → 0. 1. So assume that there is Bi to which A is not adjacent. we then simply exchange Bi and D j (see figures 8. 2 → 4. 2. If the edge is a loop. and so II =⇒ I.4 Traversability We start with the following. we must have bi ≥ c j . then every vertex having a loop contributes 2 to the sum. · · · . deg Bi = bi . but also for multigraphs and pseudographs. 0. By the Havel-Hakimi Theorem. 1. Proof: Assume first that the sequence II is graphic. 2. 2. which is valid not only for simple graphs. 5. Proof: The sum of an odd number of odd numbers is odd. 1. each edge is counted twice.Connectivity are simultaneously graphic. 1. 2. 1. This gives the theorem. Then deg v = 2card (E) . This last sequence is graphic. 8. 0. E) is connected if for any two of its vertices there is a path connecting them. 1. ba − 1. 1. If bi > c j then Bi has at least one more neighbour than C j . Then G is a graph whose degree sequence is sequence I. 1. b2 − 1. 1 → 2. Bi . See figures 8. 1. A component of a graph is a maximal connected subgraph. Since the sum of the degrees of the vertices in a simple graph is always even. We construct the graph G from G′ by adding a vertex and connecting it to the vertices whose degrees are b1 − 1. our task is finished by simply removing A. In this case we remove the edges AC j and Bi D and add the edges ABi and DC j to obtain a new graph with the same degree sequence as II.20). and degCi = ci . 93 Solution: Using the Havel-Hakimi Theorem successively we have 6. u 359 Example Determine whether the degree sequence 6. 3. u 93 . 361 Definition A graph is connected if for any two vertices there is a path with these vertices at its ends. 1 → 2. 5. 2. 2.19 and 8. 3. 2. 2 → 4.22. 3. 1.21 and 8. 1. 0.Ci be vertices with deg A = a. 4. the original sequence is graphic. As the sequence is arranged in decreasing order. 0 → 1. This process is iterated until A is adjacent to all the Bi . A tree is a connected acyclic graph. 0. 1. Call this neighbour D. 362 Definition A forest is a graph with no cycles (acyclic). v∈V Proof: If the edge connects two distinct vertices. and a C j to which A is adjacent. 1. 2. u 364 Corollary Every graph has an even number of vertices of odd degree. respectively. A spanning tree of a graph of a connected graph G is a subgraph of G which is a tree and having exactly the same of vertices as G.

But then we can construct a longer walk: u. otherwise. In particular. E) be a graph with n = card (E) ≥ 3 edges whose every vertex has degree ≥ n . This accounts for an odd number of edges. A tour of G is a closed walk that traverses each edge of G at least once. . a closed Euler trail. uvi . .. since C begins and ends in u. Then G cannot be complete. Proof: Arguing by contradiction. d(v) is then even for all v = u. that is. u A B D C v1 v2 v2 vi vi+1 vn−1 vn Figure 8. 366 Theorem A nonempty connected graph is eulerian if and only if has no vertices of odd degree. A graph is eulerian if it contains an Euler tour. Then W must traverse every edge incident to vn .. there is no simple characterisation of all graphs with a Hamiltonian cycle. vn in G beginning at v1 = a and ending at vn = b. Also. v1 . v2 . and the borders of the town spreaded over to the banks of the river as well as a nearby promontory. Put S = {vi : avi+1 ∈ E} and {v j : v j b ∈ E}. . The townsfolk used to amuse themselves by crossing over the bridges and asked whether it was possible to find a trail starting and ending in the same location allowing one to traverse each of the bridges exactly once. and that G has more than 3 vertices. W could be extended into a longer walk. v0 v1 .23: Example 367. but the degree of vn is even by assumption. ¨ 367 Example (Konigsberg Bridge Problem) The town of K¨ nigsberg (now called Kaliningrad) was built on an island in the Pregel River.23 has a graph theoretic model of the town. with the seven edges of the graph representing the seven bridges. G + ab is Hamiltonian... so W must be an Euler tour. This contradicts the definition of W . W must also begin at vn .24: Theorem 369 The following problem is perhaps the originator of graph theory. Conversely. we could find an edge not in W but incident to some vertex in W since G is connected. Between these four land masses. 369 Theorem (Dirac’s Theorem... d(u) must also be even. Figure 8. G is Hamiltonian if it contains a Hamiltonian cycle. o The island sat near where two branches of the river join. Let a and b be two non-adjacent vertices of G. vn−1 vn . . and each of its Hamiltonian cycles must contain the edge ab.. that is. seven bridges had been erected.94 Chapter 8 365 Definition A trail is a walk where all the edges are distinct. vi . and let C be an Euler tour of C starting and ending at vertex u. vn . An Eulerian trail on a graph G is a trail that traverses every edge of G. Call this edge uvi . . however. Hence. v0 = vn . there is a Hamiltonian path v1 v2 . We have the following one way result. By definition of G. v1 v2 . Unlike Theorem 366. vn−1 .. suppose G is a maximal non-Hamiltonian with with n ≥ 3. Let W be the longest walk in G that traverses every edge at most once: W = v0 . By Theorem 366. v0 v1 . An Euler tour on G is a tour traversing each edge of G exactly once. vi−1 vi . Figure 8. 1952) Let G = (V.. this graph is not Eulerian so it is impossible to find a trail as the townsfolk asked. Proof: Assume first that G is eulerian. 368 Definition A Hamiltonian cycle in a graph is a cycle passing through every vertex. vi vi+1 . W traverses two of these edges each time it passes through vn and traverses vn−1 vn at the end of the walk. vn−1 vn . vn . Since C contains every edge of G. Hence. Then 2 G is Hamiltonian. 94 . assume that G is a connected noneulerian graph with at least one edge and no vertices of odd degree. If W were not an Euler tour. Each time a vertex v is encountered along C. two of the edges incident to v are accounted for. vi .

A 3 B 2 4 D C 1 Figure 8. Deleting uv merges the two faces on either side of the edge and leaves a graph G′ with only e edges. is called the outside face. establishing P(e + 1).25. 373 Example From figure 8. G′ is connected since there is a path between every pair of vertices within the spanning tree. K4 has 4 faces. Let P(e) be the proposition that v − e + f = 2 for every drawing of a graph G with e edges. then we must have v = 1 and hence f = 1. v vertices. Either – G has no cycles. But then d(a) + d(b) = card (S) + card (T ) = card (S ∪ T ) + card (S ∩ T ) < n.Planarity As vn ∈ S ∩ T we must have card (S ∪ T ) = n. but not in the tree. Since there are e + 1 edges and G is connected. establishing P(e + 1). establishing P(0). 374 Theorem (Euler’s Formula) For every drawing of a connected planar graph with v vertices. This gives (e + 2) − (e + 1) + 1 = 2 − 1 + 1 = 2. Moreover. u 95 . we have arrived at a contradiction. u 2 2 95 8. Proof: The proof is by induction on e. and f faces. S ∩ T = ∅. since if vi § ∩ T then G would have the Hamiltonian cycle v1 v2 · · · vi vn vn−1 · · · vi+1 v1 . This finishes the proof.25: Example 373. But then v − e + f = 2 =⇒ (v) − (e + 1) + ( f + 1) = 2 =⇒ v − e + f = 2. 371 Example K4 is planar. If e = 0 and it is connected. Face 1 which extends indefinitely. v − e + f = 1 − 0 + 1 = 2. So v − e + f = 2 by the induction assumption P(e). since there is only the outside face. Such an edge is guaranteed by the fact that a tree has no cycles.24. and consider a connected graph G with e + 1 edges. Assume now P(e) is true. as in figure 8. Then there is only the outside face. Consider a spanning tree of G and an edge uv in the cycle. and f faces the following formula holds: v − e + f = 2. and so f = 1. 372 Definition A face of a planar graph is a region bounded by the edges of the graph. But since we are assuming that d(a) ≥ n n and d(b) ≥ . as shewn in figure 8. — or G has at least one cycle.5 Planarity 370 Definition A graph is planar if it can be drawn in a plane with no intersecting edges. contrary to the assumption that G is non-Hamiltonian. we must have v = e + 2.25. e edges. Therefore.

Then each face has at least four edges on its boundary. Moreover. if either n or m were ≥ 6 then ≤ 1 1 1 1 1 + = < + . Since E1 + E2 + · · · + Ee = F1 + F2 · · · + F f .3 has 3 · 3 = 9 edges and 9 > 8 = 2(6) − 4. Every simple planar graph with v ≥ 3 vertices and which does not have a C3 has e ≤ 2v − 4 edges. we obtain a planar graph. Assume then that v ≥ 5 and that G has no cycle of length 3. we may add an edge to G. e ≤ 2v − 4. and n is the number of sides on each face.3 is not planar by Theorem 375 since K3. 380 Example (Platonic Solid Problem) How many Platonic solids are there? If m is the number of faces that meet at each corner of a polyhedron. both statements are plainly true so assume that G is a maximal planar graph with v ≥ 4. n 3 4 3 3 5 m 3 3 4 5 3 v 4 8 6 12 20 e 6 12 12 30 30 f 4 6 8 20 12 polyhedron tetrahedron cube octahedron icosahedron dodecahedron  ¡  ¡ 381 Example (Regions in a Circle) Prove that the chords determined by n points on a circle cut the interior into 1 + n + n regions 2 4 provided no three chords have a common intersection. then. in the corresponding planar graph. Also. u 376 Example K5 is not planar by Theorem 375 since K5 has 5 = 10 edges and 10 > 9 = 3(5) − 6. we have mv = 2e. we deduce that 2e ≥ 3 f . we also have n f = 2e. Since G is simple. We may also assume that G is connected. three-dimensional region bounded by a finite number of polygonal faces. and if each face is bounded by n edges. 2 377 Example K3. Proof: If v = 3.  ¡ 379 Definition A Platonic solid is a polyhedron having congruent regular polygon as faces and having the same number of edges meeting at each corner. every face has at least 3 edges in its boundary. This gives 2e ≥ 4 f and by Euler’s Formula. The second statement follows for v = 4 by inspecting all graphs G with v = 4. m ≤ 5. It follows from Euler’s Formula that 2e 2e 1 1 1 1 −e+ = 2 =⇒ + = + . If there are f faces. By puncturing a face of a polyhedron and spreading its surface into the plane. for 1 ≤ k ≤ f . every edge lies in the boundary of at most two faces. 378 Definition A polyhedron is a convex. As each edge is incident to two vertices. there are m edges incident to each of the v vertices. then 2e ≥ E1 + E2 + · · · + Ee . otherwise. By Euler’s Formula we then have e ≤ 3v − 6.96 Chapter 8 375 Theorem Every simple planar graph with v ≥ 3 vertices has at e ≤ 3v − 6 edges. m n m n e 2 We must have n ≥ 3 and m ≥ 3 for a nondegenerate polygon. 96 . The table below gives the existing polyhedra. 3 6 2 e 2 Thus we only need to check the finitely many cases with 3 ≤ n. We then have F1 + F2 · · · + F f ≥ 3 f . let Fk denote the number of edges on the k-th face. Hence if E j denotes the number of faces that the j-th edge has.

4. Otherwise. say Charlie. there must be three of the five remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds with each other on topic II. 6. these three people only correspond with one another on topic III. 1. . 5. . 6. 2. Is it possible that every student receives postcards from precisely the three to whom he sent postcards? Prove your answer! Answers 383 Using the Havel-Hakimi Theorem. 384 Problem (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. 2.Homework 97 Solution: By viewing the points on the circle and the intersection of two chords as vertices. 3. Prove that there at least three people who write to each other about the same topic. 3. and we are done. 2. Choose a particular person from this group of six. 383 Problem Determine whether the sequence 7. 0. 2. 384 Choose a particular person of the group. 2. every face must have exactly three edges. He corresponds with sixteen others. and hence our graph has v = n + n vertices. n. 3. 2. 3. the Handshake Lemma (Theorem 363) we have a total of e= edges. In their letters only three different topics are discussed. 1 → 5. 2. 5. Discounting the outside face. 3. 385 Problem If a given convex polyhedron has six vertices and twelve edges. Hence the original sequence is graphic. and we are done again. 4. 386 Problem Prove. Since each vertex inside the circle has degree 4 4 and each vertex on the circumference of the circle has degree n + 1. and we are done. 1. . 1 is always graphic. 0 → 1. we obtain a plane graph. 4. 2e 24 = = 3. 0 → This last sequence is graphic. Each intersection of the  ¡ chords is determined by four points on the circle. 4. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I. By the Pigeonhole Principle. . using induction. 2. 1 is graphic. n − 1. n − 1. 387 Problem Seven friends go on holidays. then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II. then Charlie and this pair do the trick. Since no face can have fewer f 8 97 . 5. we have 7. 4. our graph has f −1 = 1+e−v = 1+2 faces or regions. 3. 2. Hence x = than three edges. that the sequence n. say topic II. prove that every face is a triangle. 4. 0. say topic I. 1. 2. 1. Otherwise. Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic. 4. 385 Let x be the average number of edges per face. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. 3. They decide that each will send a postcard to three of the others. By the Pigeonhole Principle. 0 → 3. 4. these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics II or III. n n2 n + + − 4 2 2 n n n +n = 1+ + 4 2 4 1 n 4 + n(n + 1) 2 4 Homework 382 Problem Determine whether there is a simple graph with eight vertices having degree sequence 6. say Eric. Then we must have x f = 2e. 2.

4. Thus the given condition is not realisable. . 1. v. Finally. 3 is not graphic. 3. join u to v to obtain the sequence n. 3. . n − 1. and u so far is not joined to any vertex. 2. . n − 1. . etc. 4. 2. 3. 4. 1 is clearly graphic. 1. 2. . 1. . 98 . 3. . n − 2.98 386 The sequence 1.. 3. 3. as the number of vertices of odd degree is odd. 1 Chapter 8 is graphic and add two vertices. 2. Join v to one vertex of degree n − 1. . . Assume that the sequence n − 1.. n − 1. . 2. 0. 3. 387 The sequence 3. n − 1. n − 2. 3. 3. 4. 1. Since v is joined to n − 1 vertices. 3. 4. 2. n − 1. u. we have a sequence n. n − 1. 4. n. one vertex of degree 1. . one of degree of n − 2. . 3.