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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT
Name ASHAR FATMI
Class - XII - A
School BHATNAGAR
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY ASHAR
FATMI OF CLASS XII-A HAS
PERFORMED THIS PROJECT
FOAMING CAPACITY OF
SOAP UNDER MY
SUPERVISION.
___________________
SHUBHRA SHUKLA
CHEMISTRY TEACHER
BHATNAGAR INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my duty to record my sincere thanks
and deep since of gratitude to my
respected teacher and lab assistants. I
have benefited a lot from suggestions
given to me by school faculty. I am
indebted to my guide
Mr. Brijmohan and Mr. Sharma my lab
assistants for their constant support in the
implementation of the project

____________
ASHAR FATMI

CONTENTS
AIM
PREFACE
INTRODUCTON
THEORY
REQUIREMENTS
PROCEDURE
OBSERVATONS
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS
BIBLEOGRAPHY

AIM

TO STUDY THE CLEANING


ACTION OF THE SOAPS
AND TO ARRANGE THEM
IN DECREASING ORDER
OF CLEANING EFFECT

PREFACE
Soaps and detergents remove dirt and
grease from skin and clothes. But all soaps
are not equally effective in their cleaning
action. Soaps are the Na and K salts of
higher fatty acids such as Palmitic acid,
Stearic acid and Oleic acid. The cleansing
action of soaps depends on the solubility of
the long alkyl chain in grease and that of
the -COONa or the -COOK part in water.
Whenever soap is applied on a dirty wet
cloth, the non polar alkyl group dissolves
in grease while the polar -COONa part
dissolves in water. In this manner, an
emulsion is formed between grease and
water which appears as foam. The washing
ability of soap depends on foaming
capacity, as well as the water used in
cleaning. The salts of Ca and Mg disrupt
the formation of micelle formation. The
presence of such salts makes the water
hard and the water is called hard water.

These salts thus make the soap inefficient


in its cleaning action. Sodium Carbonate
when added to hard water reacts with Ca
and Mg and precipitates them out.
Therefore sodium carbonate is used in the
treatment of hard water. This project aims
at finding the foaming capacity of various
soaps and the action of Ca and Mg salts on
their foaming capacity.

INTRODUCTION
Introduction Soap is an anionic surfactant
used in conjunction with water for washing
and cleaning, which historically comes
either in solid bars or in the form of a
viscous liquid. Soap consists of sodium
or potassium salts of fatty acids and is
obtained by reacting common oils or fats
with a strong alkaline in a process known
as saponification. The fats are hydrolyzed
by the base, yielding alkali salts of fatty
acids (crude soap) and glycerol. The
general formula of soap is Fatty end water
soluble end CH3-(CH2) n
COONa Soaps are useful for cleaning
because soap molecules have both
a hydrophilic end, which dissolves in water,
as well as a hydrophobic end, which is able
to dissolve non polar grease molecules.
Applied to a soiled surface, soapy water
effectively holds particles in colloidal
suspension so it can be rinsed off with

clean water. The hydrophobic portion


(made up of a long hydrocarbon chain)
dissolves dirt and oils, while the ionic end
dissolves in water. The resultant forms a
round structure called micelle. Therefore, it
allows water to remove normally-insoluble
matter by emulsification. Commercial
production of soap The most popular soap
making process today is the cold process
method, where fats such as olive oil react
with strong alkaline solution, while
some soapers use the historical hot
process. Handmade soap differs from
industrial soap in that, usually, an excess
of fat is sometimes used to consume the
alkali (super fatting), and in that
the glycerin is not removed, leaving a
naturally moisturizing soap and not pure
detergent. Often, emollients such as jojoba
oil or Shea butter are added at trace (the
point at which the saponification process is
sufficiently advanced that the soap has
begun to thicken), after most of the oils

have saponified, so that they remain


unreacted in the finished soap. Fat in soap
Soap is derived from either vegetable or
animal fats. Sodium Tallowate, a common
ingredient in much soap, is derived
from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be
made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil,
and the product is typically softer. An array
of saponifiable oils and fats are used in the
process such as olive, coconut, palm,
cocoa butter to provide different qualities.
For example, olive oil provides mildness in
soap; coconut oil provides lots of lather;
while coconut and palm oils provide
hardness. Sometimes castor oil can also be
used as an ebullient. Smaller amounts
of unsaponifable oils and fats that do not
yield soap are sometimes added for further
benefits. Preparation of soap In coldprocess and hot-process soap making,
heat may be required for saponification.
Cold-process soap making takes place at a
sufficient temperature to ensure

the liquification of the fat being used.


Unlike cold-processed soap, hot-processed
soap can be used right away because the
alkali and fat saponify more quickly at the
higher temperatures used in hot-process
soap making. Hot-process soap making
was used when the purity of alkali was
unreliable. Cold-process soap making
requires exact measurements of alkali and
fat amounts and computing their ratio,
using saponification charts to ensure that
the finished product is mild and skinfriendly. Hot process In the hot-process
method, alkali and fat are boiled together
at 80100 C until saponification occurs,
which the soap maker can determine by
taste or by eye. After saponification has
occurred, the soap is
sometimes precipitated from the solution
by adding salt, and the excess liquid
drained off. The hot, soft soap is then
spooned into a mold. Cold process A coldprocess soap maker first looks up the

saponification value of the fats being used


on a saponification chart, which is then
used to calculate the appropriate amount
of alkali. Excess unreacted alkali in the
soap will result in a very high pH and can
burn or irritate skin. Not enough alkali and
the soap are greasy. The alkali is dissolved
in water. Then oils are heated, or melted if
they are solid at room temperature. Once
both substances have cooled to
approximately 100-110F (37-43C), and
are no more than 10F (~5.5C) apart,
they may be combined. This alkali-fat
mixture is stirred until trace. There are
varying levels of trace. After much stirring,
the mixture turns to the consistency of a
thin pudding. Trace corresponds roughly
to viscosity. Essential and fragrance oils
are added at light trace. Introduction to
the experiment Soap samples of various
brands are taken and their foaming
capacity is noticed. Various soap samples
are taken separately and their foaming

capacity is observed. The soap with the


maximum foaming capacity is thus, said to
be having the best cleaning capacity. The
test requires to be done with distilled
water as well as with tap water. The test of
soap on distilled water gives the actual
strength of the soaps cleaning capacity.
The second test with tap water tests the
effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts on their
foaming capacities.

THEORY
The foaming capacity of soap depends
upon the nature of the soap and its
concentration. This may be compared by
shaking equal volumes of solutions of
different samples having the same
concentration with same force for the
same amount of time. The solutions are
then allowed to stand when the foam
produced during shaking disappears
gradually. The time taken for the foam to
disappear in each sample is determined.
The longer the time taken for the
disappearance of the foam for the given
sample of soap, greater is its foaming
capacity or cleansing action.

REQUIREMENTS
Five 100ml conical flasks,
five test tubes, 100ml
measuring cylinder, test
tube stand, weighing
machine, stop watch.
Chemical Requirements:Five different soap
samples, distilled water,
tap water.

PROCEDURE
Take five 100ml conical flasks and
number them 1, 2,3,4,5 . Put 16ml
of water in each flask and add 8 Gms
of soap.
Warm the contents to get a solution.
Take five test tubes; add 1ml of soap
solution to 3ml of water. Repeat the
process for each soap solution in
different test tubes.
Close the mouth of the test tube and
shake vigorously for a minute. Do the
same for all test tubes and with equal
force.
Start the timer immediately and notice
the rate of disappearance of 2mm of
froth.

OBSERVATIONS
Test Tube
no

Vol. of soap
solution

Vol. of
water
added

Time taken for


disappearance
of 2mm

1.

Dove

8 ml

16 ml

1142

2.

Lux

8 ml

16 ml

328

3.

Detol

8 ml

16 ml

510

8 ml

16 ml

1532

8 ml

16 ml

940

4.

Santoor

5. Cinthol

RESULT
The cleansing capacity of the soaps taken is
in the order: Santoor > Dove > Cinthol >
Detol > Lux
From this experiment, we can infer that
Santoor has the highest foaming capacity, in
other words, highest cleaning capacity. Lux,
on the other hand is found to have taken the
least amount of time for the disappearance of
foam produced and thus is said to be having
the least foaming capacity and cleansing
capacity. Test for hardness in water Test for
Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts in the water supplied
Test for Ca2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl +
NH4OH + (NH4)2CO3 No precipitate Test for
Mg2+ in water H2O +NH4Cl + NH4OH +
(NH4)3PO4 No precipitate The tests show
negative results for the presence of the salts
causing hardness in water. The water used
does not contain salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+.
The tap water provided is soft and thus, the
experimental results and values hold good for
distilled water and tap water.

PRECAUTIONS

RECORD THE TIME CAREFULLY


MEASURE THE AMOUNT OF
SOLUTION CAREFULLY
ALWAYS TAKE LOWER
MINISCUS IN CONSIDERATION

BIBLEOGRAPHY

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