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Contents

Alexander the Great

1.1

Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Lineage and childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Adolescence and education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Philip's heir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1

Regency and ascent of Macedon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2

Exile and return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

King of Macedon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.1

Accession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.2

Consolidation of power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.3

Balkan campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conquest of the Persian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.1

Asia Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.2

The Levant and Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.3

Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.4

Assyria and Babylonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.5

Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.6

Fall of the Empire and the East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.7

Problems and plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.8

Macedon in Alexander's absence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Indian campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.1

Invasion of the Indian subcontinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.2

Revolt of the army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.6

Last years in Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.7

Death and succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.7.1

After death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.7.2

Division of the empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.7.3

Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.8.1

Generalship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.8.2

Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.8.3

Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.8

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1.8.4

Personal relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.9.1

Hellenistic kingdoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.9.2

Founding of cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.9.3

Hellenization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.9.4

Inuence on Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.9.5

Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.9.6

In ancient and modern culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.10 Historiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.11 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.12 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.13 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.15 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.15.1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.15.2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.16 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.17 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

Abdalonymus

30

2.1

Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.9

Abisares

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3.1

Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

3.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.2.1

31

Other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Abistamenes

33

4.1

33

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aesopus (historian)

34

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Aeternae

35

6.1

35

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Afghan Campaign

36

7.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.2

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

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7.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.4

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Agalassoi

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8.1

38

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aggrammes

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9.1

39

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 Alexander I of Epirus

40

10.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11 Alexander IV of Macedon

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11.1 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.2 Regents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.3 Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.4 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12 Alexander the Great in legend

43

12.1 Ancient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.1.1 Prophesied conqueror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.1.2 Deied Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.2 Alexander Romance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.3 Greek Folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.4 Medieval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.4.1 Oriental tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.4.2 Western tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.5 Malay tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.6 Apocryphal letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.7 Women and Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13 Alexander the Great and the Kambojas

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13.1 Alexander crosses Hindu Kush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.2 Alexander's campaign against the Kambojas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.3 Battle against the Ashvayanas (Aspasioi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.4 Battle with Ashvakayanas (Assakenoi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.5 Battle of Ora and Bazira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.5.1 Battle of Aornos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.6 Tragedy of Afrikes and invasion of Dyrta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.7 Aftermath of the war campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

13.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14 Amastris

51

14.1 Marriages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15 Amyntas of Lyncestis

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15.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 Anabasis Alexandri

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54

16.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16.2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17 Ariarathes I of Cappadocia

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17.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18 Aristander

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18.1 Aristander in the sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.2 Aristander's writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19 Ariston of Pharsalus

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19.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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20 Aristonicus of Methymnae

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21 Arrian

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21.1 Arrian's life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.2 Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.2.1 The Anabasis of Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.2.2 Other works

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.3 Other surviving classical histories of Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

21.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22 Artabazos II of Phrygia

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22.1 Revolt by Ariobarzan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.2 Rebellion against the Persian King . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.3 Return to Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.4 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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22.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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23 Autophradates

67

23.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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23.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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24 Balacrus

68

24.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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24.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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25 Barsine

69

25.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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25.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26 Batis (commander)

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26.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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27 Bas of Bithynia

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27.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28 Alexandria Bucephalous

71
72

28.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

28.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

29 Bucephalus
29.1 The taming of Bucephalus

74
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

29.2 Alexander and Bucephalus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

29.3 In art and literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

29.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

29.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

30 Bucephalus (brand)
30.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77
77

vi

CONTENTS

31 Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia

78

31.1 Expedition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

31.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

31.3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

31.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

32 Cleitarchus

79

32.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

32.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

33 Cleomenes of Naucratis

80

33.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

33.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

34 Cleopatra of Macedon

81

34.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

34.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

35 Cleophis

83

35.1 Alexander's war with Ashvakas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

35.2 On Cleophis's alleged intrigue with Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

35.2.1 Diodorus's evidence on Cleophis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

35.2.2 Plutarch's evidence on Cleophis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

35.2.3 Arrian's evidence on Cleophis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.2.4 Curtius's evidence on Cleophis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.2.5 Justin's evidence on Cleophis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.2.6 Prof Edward A. Freeman on Justin and Curtius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.3 Conicting views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.4 Cleophis over 50 at the time of Invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

35.5 Unproven and false allegation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

35.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

35.7 On the trustworthiness of classical accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

35.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

35.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

35.10Books and Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

35.11Wiki Classical Dictionary Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

36 Cophen Campaign

91

36.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

36.2 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

36.3 First PhaseAspasians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

36.4 Second PhaseGuraeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

36.5 Combat at Arigaeum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

CONTENTS

vii

36.6 Third PhaseAssacenians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

36.7 Siege of Massaga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

36.8 Events Proceeding Aornus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

36.9 Siege of Aornus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

36.10Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

36.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

37 Cynane

100

37.1 Cynane as ctional character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


37.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
37.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
38 Darius III

101

38.1 Early reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


38.2 Conict with Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
38.3 Flight, imprisonment and death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
38.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
38.5 Bibliography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

38.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104


39 Death of Alexander the Great

105

39.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


39.1.1 Prophecy of Calanus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
39.2 Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
39.3 Body preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
39.4 Resting place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
39.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
40 Decree of Philippi

109

40.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109


40.2 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

41 Demetrius (son of Althaemenes)

110

41.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


42 Diadochi

111

42.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


42.1.1 Modern concept
42.1.2 Ancient role
42.2 The successors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

42.2.1 The Diadochi category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


42.2.2 The Epigoni category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
42.3 Diadochi period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
42.3.1 Struggle for unity (323319 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

viii

CONTENTS
42.3.2 Wars of the Diadochi (319275 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
42.4 Epigoni period

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

42.4.1 Kingdoms of the Diadochi (27530 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


42.4.2 Decline and fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
42.5 Historical uses as a title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
42.5.1 Aulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
42.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
42.7 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

42.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


43 Drypetis

117

43.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


43.2 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
43.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
44 Erigyius

118

44.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


44.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
44.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
45 Gorgias of Macedon

119

45.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


46 Habreas

120

46.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120


47 Hegesias of Magnesia

121

47.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121


47.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
47.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
48 Heliopolis (ancient)

122

48.1 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


48.2 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
48.3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
48.4 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
48.4.1 Egyptian Heliopolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
48.4.2 Greco-Roman Heliopolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
48.4.3 Greek era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
48.4.4 Roman era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
48.4.5 Biblical Heliopolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
48.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
48.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

48.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

CONTENTS

ix

49 Hellenistic armies

126

49.1 Numerical strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


49.1.1 Manpower and the State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
49.2 Typical units and formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
49.2.1 Hellenistic infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
49.2.2 Hellenistic cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
49.2.3 Special units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
49.3 Battle arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
49.4 Siege warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
49.5 Major wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
49.6 Major battles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
49.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
49.8 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

49.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


49.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
50 Heracles of Macedon

136

50.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136


50.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
51 Heraclides (son of Antiochus)

137

51.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


52 Heracon

138

52.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138


53 Historiography of Alexander the Great

139

53.1 Contemporary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


53.2 The ve main sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
53.2.1 Arrian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
53.2.2 Plutarch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
53.2.3 Diodorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
53.2.4 Curtius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.2.5 Justin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.3 Lost works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.4 Greek epigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.5 Oriental tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.5.1 Babylonian Chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.5.2 Zoroastrian texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
53.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
54 I am the Great Horse

142

54.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

CONTENTS

55 Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius

143

56 Lord of Asia

144

56.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144


56.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
57 Lanike

145

57.1 Lanike in ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


57.2 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

57.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


58 List of ancient Macedonians

146

58.1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


58.2 Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
58.2.1 Argead Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
58.2.2 Antipatrid Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
58.2.3 Antigonid Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
58.2.4 Non-Dynastic Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.2.5 Antipatrid Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.2.6 Antigonid Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.2.7 Non-Dynastic Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.2.8 Antigonid Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.3 Military personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.3.1 High generals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.3.2 Cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
58.3.3 Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
58.3.4 Navy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
58.3.5 Various . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
58.4 Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
58.4.1 Athletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
58.4.2 Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
58.4.3 Scientists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
58.4.4 Artists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
58.4.5 Priests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
58.4.6 Theorodokoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
58.4.7 Naopoioi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
58.4.8 Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
58.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
58.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
59 Malayaketu

152

59.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152


59.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

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xi

60 Mallus

153

60.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


60.2 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
60.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
60.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
60.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
60.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
61 Mazaeus

155

62 Meleager (general)

156

62.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156


62.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
63 Memnon of Rhodes

157

63.1 In Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157


63.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
64 Menedemus (general)

158

64.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


64.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
64.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
65 Metz Epitome
65.1 References

159
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

66 Mithridates (Persian general)

160

66.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160


66.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
67 Mithrobuzanes

161

67.1 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

68 Molossians

162

68.1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162


68.2 Ancient sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
68.3 Molossian royalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
68.4 War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
68.5 List of Molossians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
68.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
68.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
68.8 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
69 Musicanus

165

69.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

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70 The Nature of Alexander

166

70.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


70.2 Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
70.2.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
71 Nicanor (son of Parmenion)

167

71.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


71.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
72 Nicocreon

168

72.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


72.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
73 Nine Worthies

169

73.1 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169


73.2 Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
73.3 Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
73.3.1 Pagans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
73.3.2 Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
73.3.3 Christians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
73.4 Cultural references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
73.4.1 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
73.4.2 Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
73.5 Nine Worthy Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
73.6 Nine Worthies of London . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
73.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
73.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
74 Olympias

173

74.1 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


74.2 Marriage to Philip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
74.3 Alexander's reign and the wars of succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
74.4 Medals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
74.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
74.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
74.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
74.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
74.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
75 Orontobates

177

75.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


76 Parysatis II

178

76.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

CONTENTS

xiii

76.2 Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178


76.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
76.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
77 Pausanias of Orestis

179

77.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179


77.2 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
77.2.1 Ancient sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
77.2.2 Modern commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
78 Peritas

181

78.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181


78.1.1 The Eponymous City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
78.1.2 Breed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
78.1.3 Tales of Peritas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
78.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
79 Peroidas
79.1 References

183
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

80 Persian Gates

184

80.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184


80.2 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
80.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
81 Personal relationships of Alexander the Great

185

81.1 Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185


81.1.1 Hephaestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
81.1.2 Campaspe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
81.1.3 Barsine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
81.1.4 Roxana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
81.1.5 Bagoas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
81.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
81.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
81.4 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

82 Pharnabazus III

189

82.1 Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189


82.2 War against Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
82.3 Later life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
82.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
83 Philip II of Macedon

191

83.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

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CONTENTS
83.2 Assassination (336 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
83.3 Marriages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
83.4 Archaeological ndings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
83.5 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.5.1 Cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.5.2 Fictional portrayals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.5.3 Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.5.4 Dedications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
83.7 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
83.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

84 Philippeioi

197

84.1 Inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


84.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
84.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
85 Philoxenus of Cythera

198

85.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198


86 Poseidonius (mechanician)

199

86.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199


86.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
87 Potamo of Mytilene

200

87.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200


88 Priene Inscription

201

88.1 Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201


88.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
88.3 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
88.4 Translation of the Inscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
88.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
88.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
89 Rhoesaces

202

90 Roxana

203

90.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203


90.2 Historical novels and lm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
90.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
90.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
90.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

CONTENTS

xv

91 Sabaces

205

91.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


91.2 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

92 Satibarzanes

206

92.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206


92.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
92.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
93 Side

207

93.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207


93.1.1 Alexander the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
93.1.2 Romans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
93.1.3 Decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
93.1.4 Ecclesiastical history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
93.2 Ruins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
93.3 Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
93.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
93.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
93.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
94 Sisygambis

211

94.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211


94.2 Alexander's invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
94.3 Under Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
94.4 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
94.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
95 Sittacene

213

95.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213


95.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
95.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
96 Socrates of Macedon

214

96.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214


97 Sopolis of Macedon

215

97.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215


98 Spitamenes

216

98.1 In ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216


98.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
99 Spithridates

217

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99.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
99.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

100Stateira I

218

100.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
100.2External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
101Stateira II

219

101.1Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
101.2Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
101.3Marriage to Alexander the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
101.4Depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
101.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
101.6Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
101.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
102Susa weddings

221

102.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221


102.2References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

103Thessalonike of Macedon

222

103.1Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
103.2The legend of Thessalonike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
103.3Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
103.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
103.5External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
104Timoclea

224

104.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
105Timotheus (aulist)

225

105.1Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
105.2In literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
105.2.1 Ancient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
105.2.2 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
105.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
106Tomb of Alexander the Great

227

106.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
106.2Historical attestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
106.3Present location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
106.4Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
106.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
106.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

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xvii

107Wars of Alexander the Great

230

107.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
107.2Balkan campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
107.3Asia Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
107.3.1 Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
107.3.2 Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
107.3.3 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
107.3.4 End of the Achaemenid Persian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
107.4Siege of the Sogdian Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
107.5Invasion of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
107.6Return from India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
107.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
107.8Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
107.9Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
107.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
108Youtab

241

108.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
108.2Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
108.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
109Aornos

242

109.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
109.2Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
110Alexander's Balkan campaign

243

110.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
110.2Thrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
110.3Illyria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
110.4Thebes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
110.5Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
110.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
110.7Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
111Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)

245

111.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
111.2Prelude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
111.3Opposing forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
111.4Strategic and tactical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
111.5Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
111.6Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
111.7Thematic appraisal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
111.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

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111.8.1 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
111.8.2 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

111.9External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251


112Siege of Cyropolis
112.1References

252
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

113Battle of Gaugamela

253

113.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
113.1.1 Negotiations between Darius and Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
113.2Prelude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
113.2.1 Alexander's march through Mesopotamia

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

113.2.2 Strategic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254


113.3Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
113.4Size of Persian army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
113.4.1 Modern estimates
113.4.2 Ancient sources

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

113.5Size of Macedonian army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255


113.5.1 Modern estimates

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

113.6The battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255


113.6.1 Initial dispositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
113.6.2 Beginning of the battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
113.6.3 The cavalry battle in the Hellenic right wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
113.6.4 Attack of the Persian scythed chariots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
113.6.5 Alexander's decisive attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
113.6.6 The left ank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
113.7Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
113.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
113.9Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
113.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
114Siege of Gaza
114.1Siege

260

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

114.2Consequences of the siege

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

114.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
115Battle of the Granicus

262

115.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
115.2Deployment of Persian Troops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
115.3The Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
115.4Revisionist view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
115.5Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
115.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

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115.7Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
115.8Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
116Battle of the Hydaspes

265

116.1Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
116.2Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
116.3Motives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
116.4Pre-battle maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
116.5Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
116.6Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
116.7Thematic Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
116.8Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
116.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
116.9.1 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
116.9.2 Ancient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
116.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
117Indian campaign of Alexander the Great

269

117.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
117.2The Kambojas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
117.2.1 Siege of Aornos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
117.3Punjab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
117.3.1 Battle of the Hydaspes River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
117.4Revolt of the army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
117.5Campaign against the Malli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
117.6Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
117.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
117.8Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
118Battle of Issus

275

118.1Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
118.2Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
118.3Motives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
118.4Combatants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
118.4.1 Persian army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
118.4.2 Hellenic army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
118.5Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
118.6Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
118.7Depictions of the battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
118.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
118.9Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
118.9.1 Ancient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

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118.9.2 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
118.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

119Battle of Jaxartes

279

119.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
119.2Disposition of the armies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
119.3The battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
119.4Aftermath and consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
119.5Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
119.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
119.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
120Mallian Campaign

281

120.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
120.2Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
120.2.1 First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
120.2.2 Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
120.2.3 Final . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
120.3Siege of Multanese Citadel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
120.4Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
120.5Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
120.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
120.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
121Siege of Miletus

286

121.1External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286


122Siege of Pelium

287

122.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
122.2Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
122.3Battle and Siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
122.4Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
122.5Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
122.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
122.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
123Battle of the Persian Gate

290

123.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
123.2Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
123.3Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
123.4Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
123.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
123.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

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xxi

124Siege of Halicarnassus

293

124.1Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
125Sogdian Rock

294

125.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
125.2The siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
125.3Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
125.4Historiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
125.5Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
125.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
126Siege of Tyre (332 BC)

296

126.1Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
126.2Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
126.3The siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
126.4Conclusion of the siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
126.5Alternative conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
126.6See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
126.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
126.8Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
126.9External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
127Battle of the Uxian Dele

299

127.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
127.2Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
127.3Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
127.4References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

128Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great

301

128.1Ancient and Medieval Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301


128.1.1 In the Qur'an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
128.1.2 In the Shahnameh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
128.1.3 Other references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
128.2Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
128.3Alexander as City-Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
128.4Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
128.5Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
128.6Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
128.7Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
128.8Computer games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
128.9Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
128.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

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129Adrianus (poet)

306

129.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
130Alessandro (opera)

307

130.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
130.2Roles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

130.3Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
130.3.1 Act 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
130.3.2 Act 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
130.3.3 Act 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
130.4Musical features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
130.5Reception and performance history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
130.6Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
130.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
130.8External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
131Alexander (2004 lm)

312

131.1Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
131.2Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
131.3Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
131.3.1 Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
131.4Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
131.4.1 Box oce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
131.4.2 Controversies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
131.4.3 Criticism by historians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
131.4.4 Criticism by lm critics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
131.4.5 Nominations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
131.5Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
131.5.1 Theatrical cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
131.5.2 Director's cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
131.5.3 Alexander Revisited: The Final Unrated Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
131.5.4 Ultimate cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
131.6Soundtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
131.7See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
131.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
131.9External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
132Alexander the Great (1956 lm)

319

132.1Plot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319


132.2Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
132.3Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
132.4Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

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132.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320


132.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
132.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
133Amyntianus

321

133.1Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
134Child of a Dream

322

134.1Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
134.2Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
134.3Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
134.4Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
134.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
134.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
135The Ends of the Earth (Alexander Trilogy)

324

135.1Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
135.2Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
135.3Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
135.4See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
136Fire from Heaven

326

136.1Plot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326


136.2Literary signicance and criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
136.3Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
137Funeral Games (novel)

327

137.1Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
137.2Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
137.3Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
138King Alisaunder

330

138.1Composition and authorship

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

138.2Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
138.3Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
138.4Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
138.5References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

138.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331


139The Persian Boy

332

139.1Plot introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332


139.2Allusions/references to actual history, geography and current science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
139.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

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140Poro (opera)

334

140.1Performance history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334


140.2Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
140.3Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
140.3.1 Act 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
140.3.2 Act 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
140.3.3 Act 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
140.4Context and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
140.5Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
140.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
140.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
141Reign: The Conqueror

338

141.1Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
141.2Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
141.3External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
142The Sands of Ammon

340

142.1Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
142.2Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
142.3Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
142.4Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
142.5See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
142.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
143Sikandar (1941 lm)

342

143.1Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
143.2Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
143.3Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
143.4See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
143.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
143.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
144Thais of Athens

343

145Thriambus

344

145.1Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
145.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
145.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
146The Virtues of War

346

146.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
147Ai-Khanoum

347

CONTENTS

xxv

147.1Strategic location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347


147.2A Greek city in Bactria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
147.2.1 Architecture

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

147.2.2 Sculptural remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348


147.2.3 Epigraphic remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
147.2.4 Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
147.3Trade with the Mediterranean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
147.4Contacts with India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
147.5Numismatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
147.6Nomadic invasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
147.7Signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
147.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
147.9Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
147.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
147.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
148Alexandria

354

148.1Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
148.2History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
148.2.1 Ancient era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
148.2.2 During Muhammad's era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
148.2.3 Islamic era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
148.2.4 Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
148.3Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
148.3.1 Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
148.3.2 Layout of the ancient city . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
148.4Ancient remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
148.5Antiquities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
148.5.1 The Temple Of Taposiris Magna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
148.6Modern city . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
148.6.1 Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
148.6.2 Neighborhoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
148.6.3 Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
148.6.4 Palaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
148.6.5 Citadels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
148.6.6 Recreational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
148.7Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
148.7.1 Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
148.7.2 Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
148.7.3 Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
148.8Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
148.8.1 Colleges and universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

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148.8.2 Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

148.9Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
148.9.1 Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
148.9.2 Highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
148.9.3 Rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
148.9.4 Tram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
148.9.5 Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
148.9.6 Taxis and minibuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
148.9.7 Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
148.10Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
148.10.1Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
148.10.2Theaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
148.10.3Museums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
148.10.4Related words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
148.10.5Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
148.10.6Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
148.10.7Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
148.10.8Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
148.11International relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
148.11.1Twin towns Sister cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
148.12See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
148.13Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
148.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
148.15External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
149Alexandria Arachosia

372

149.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372


149.2External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
150Alexandria Ariana
150.1References

374

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

151Alexandria Asiana

375

151.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
152Alexandria Bucephalous

376

152.1Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
152.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
153Alexandria Carmania

378

153.1Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
153.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
154Alexandria Eschate

380

CONTENTS

xxvii

154.1A Hellenistic outpost in Central Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380


154.2Archaeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
154.3Contacts with China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
154.4In ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
154.5Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
154.6References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
154.7External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
155Alexandria in Opiania

382

155.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
155.2Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.3Demography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.4Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.4.1 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.4.2 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.4.3 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
155.4.4 Notables from Ghazni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
155.5Points of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
155.6Twin towns Sister cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
155.7See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
155.8References and footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
155.9Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
155.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
156Alexandria in Orietai

387

156.1Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
156.2Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
156.3See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
156.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
157Alexandria on the Caucasus

389

157.1Alexander the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389


157.2Indo-Greek capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
157.3Archaeology

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

157.4Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
157.5References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

157.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390


158Alexandria on the Indus

391

158.1References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

159Charax Spasinu

392

159.1Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

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159.2Location of Charax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392


159.3History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
159.4Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
159.5Notable persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
159.6Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
159.7References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
160skenderun

395

160.1Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.2Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.2.1 Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.2.2 Cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.3History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.3.1 Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
160.3.2 Ecclesiastical history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
160.3.3 Ottoman era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
160.3.4 Republic of Hatay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
160.4Main sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.5Sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.6Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.7Notable natives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.8See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.9References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
160.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
161Merv

399

161.1History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
161.1.1 Arab occupation and inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
161.1.2 Turks in Merv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
161.1.3 Mongols in Merv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
161.1.4 Uzbeks in Merv and its Final Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
161.1.5 Nineteenth century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
161.2Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
161.2.1 Organization of remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
161.3Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
161.4Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
161.5Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
161.6Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
161.7Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
161.8International relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
161.8.1 Twin towns Sister cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
161.9See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

CONTENTS

xxix

161.10References and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405


161.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
162Nicaea, Punjab

407

162.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
163Abulites

408

163.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
164Alexander of Lyncestis

409

164.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
164.2External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
165Amyntas IV of Macedon

410

165.1Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
165.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
166Arrhabaeus

411

166.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
167Bessus

412

167.1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
167.2Capture and execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
167.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
167.4External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
168Cleitus the Black

414

168.1Battle of the Granicus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414


168.2The death of Cleitus

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

168.3In culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415


168.4In popular media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
168.5References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

168.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415


169Callisthenes

416

169.1Asiatic expedition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416


169.1.1 Fate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
169.1.2 Writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
169.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
169.2.1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
169.2.2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
169.3External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
170Caranus (son of Philip II)

418

170.1See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

xxx

CONTENTS
170.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

171Cleander of Macedon

419

171.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
172Demetrius (somatophylax)

420

172.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
173Hermolaus of Macedon

421

173.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
174Heromenes

422

174.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
175Parmenion

423

175.1General of Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423


175.2Fall of Parmenion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
175.3Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
175.4Quotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
175.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
175.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
176Philotas

425

176.1Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
176.2In literature and lm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
176.2.1 Philotas by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
176.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
176.4External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
177Philotas (son of Carsis)

427

177.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
178Sitalces II

428

178.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
179Sostratus of Macedon

429

179.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
179.2Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
179.2.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
179.2.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
179.2.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

Chapter 1

Alexander the Great


This article is about the ancient king of Macedon. For Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diusion his
other uses, see Alexander the Great (disambiguation).
conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He
founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most
notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander's settlement of
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 10/11 June
323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture
in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, as(Greek: , Alxandros ho Mgas* iii[] from the Greek: alexoto defend, help pects of which were still evident in the traditions of the
Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century and the presand aner man), was a King (Basileus) of the
Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon* [1]* [2]* [3] and a ence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia
until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classimember of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC,
Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne cal hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features promiat the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years nently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek
on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and cultures. He became the measure against which military
academies
northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created leaders compared themselves, and military
*
*
throughout
the
world
still
teach
his
tactics.
[6]
ii[]
one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India.* [4] He is often ranked among the world's most inuHe was undefeated in battle and is considered one of his- ential people of all time, along with his teacher
tory's most successful military commanders.* [5]
Aristotle.* [7]* [8]
During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. When he succeeded
his father to the throne in 336 BC, after Philip was assassinated, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an
experienced army. He had been awarded the generalship
of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's
military expansion plans. In 334 BC, he invaded the
Achaemenid Empire, ruled Asia Minor, and began a
series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander
broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles,
most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire.* i[] At
that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to
the Indus River.

1.1 Early life


1.1.1 Lineage and childhood

Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek


month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to
20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is not known,* [9]
in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.* [10]
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and
his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus
I, king of Epirus.* [11]* [12]* [13] Although Philip had
seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife
for some time, likely a result of giving birth to AlexanSeeking to reach the ends of the world and the Great der.* [14]
Outer Sea, he invaded India in 326 BC, but was even- Several legends surround Alexander's birth and childtually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops. hood.* [15] According to the ancient Greek biographer
Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city he planned Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation of
to establish as his capital, without executing a series of her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was struck
planned campaigns that would have begun with an inva- by a thunder bolt, causing a ame that spread far and
sion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of widebefore dying away. Some time after the wedcivil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several states ding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream,
ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a
heirs.
lion's image.* [16] Plutarch oered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant be1

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT


or that Alexander's father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias
promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage,
variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that
she dismissed the suggestion as impious.* [16]
On the day that Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of
Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that
his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian
and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the
Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the
Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders
of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia
to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away,
attending the birth of Alexander.* [12]* [17] Such legends
may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman
and destined for greatness from conception.* [15]

Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era,


British Museum

A statue showing Alexander taming Bucephalus in Edinburgh

In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse,


Lanike, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the
Black. Later in his childhood, Alexander was tutored
by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by
Philip's general Lysimachus.* [18] Alexander was raised
in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to
read, play the lyre, ride, ght, and hunt.* [19]
When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from
Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he oered to sell
for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted
and Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame
the horse, which he eventually managed.* [15] Plutarch
stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage
and ambition, kissed his son tearfully, declaring: My
boy, you must nd a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you, and bought
the horse for him.* [20] Alexander named it Bucephalas,
Aristotle tutoring Alexander, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
meaning ox-head. Bucephalas carried Alexander as
far as India. When the animal died (due to old age, according to Plutarch, at age thirty), Alexander named a
fore her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; city after him, Bucephala.* [13]* [21]* [22]

1.2. PHILIP'S HEIR

1.1.2

Adolescence and education

When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a


tutor, and considered such academics as Isocrates and
Speusippus, the latter oering to resign to take up the
post. In the end, Philip chose Aristotle and provided
the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. In
return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild
Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed,
and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens
who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.* [23]* [24]* [25]
Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and
the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy,
Hephaistion, and Cassander. Many of these students
would become his friends and future generals, and are often known as the 'Companions'. Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine, philosophy,
morals, religion, logic, and art. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of
Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him
an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his
campaigns.* [26]* [27]* [28]

1.2 Philip's heir


1.2.1

Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father.

Regency and ascent of Macedon

Main articles: Philip II of Macedon and Rise of Macedon


At age 16, Alexander's education under Aristotle ended.
Philip waged war against Byzantion, leaving Alexander in
charge as regent and heir apparent.* [15] During Philip's
absence, the Thracian Maedi revolted against Macedonia. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from
their territory. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded
a city named Alexandropolis.* [29]* [30]* [31]

against Macedonia. Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes' favor, but Athens won the contest.* [33]* [34]* [35] Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic League),
capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes
and accepting the city's surrender. Philip then returned
to Elatea, sending a nal oer of peace to Athens and
Thebes, who both rejected it.* [36]* [37]* [38]

Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a


small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander
is reported to have saved his father's life. Meanwhile, the
city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to
Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek aairs. Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army
for a campaign in Greece. Concerned that other Greek
states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though
he was preparing to attack Illyria instead. During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only to be repelled
by Alexander.* [32]

As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked him


near Chaeronea, Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle
of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and
Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's
trusted generals. According to the ancient sources, the
two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the
untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their
line. Alexander was the rst to break the Theban lines,
followed by Philip's generals. Having damaged the enemy's cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them. With the Athenians lost,
the Thebans were surrounded. Left to ght alone, they
were defeated.* [39]

Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and
they marched south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. They
went on to occupy the city of Elatea, only a few days'
march from both Athens and Thebes. The Athenians,
led by Demosthenes, voted to seek alliance with Thebes

After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander


marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by
all cities; however, when they reached Sparta, they were
refused, but did not resort to war.* [40] At Corinth, Philip
established a Hellenic Alliance(modeled on the old
anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT


the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated
Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at
his head, You villain,said he, what,
am I then a bastard?" Then Philip, taking
Attalus's part, rose up and would have run his
son through; but by good fortune for them
both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine
he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he
fell down on the oor. At which Alexander
reproachfully insulted over him: See there,
said he, the man who makes preparations
to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in
passing from one seat to another.
Plutarch, describing the feud at Philip's
wedding.* [45]

Alexander ed Macedon with his mother, dropping her


o with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in
Dodona, capital of the Molossians.* [46] He continued
to Illyria,* [46] where he sought refuge with the Illyrian
King and was treated as a guest, despite having defeated
them in battle a few years before. However, it appears
Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son.* [46] Accordingly, Alexander returned
to Macedon after six months due to the eorts of a family
friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two parties.* [47]* [48]

Statue of Alexander in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Philip


was then named Hegemon (often translated asSupreme
Commander) of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth), and announced his plans
to attack the Persian Empire.* [41]* [42]

1.2.2

Exile and return

In the following year, the Persian satrap (governor) of


Caria, Pixodarus, oered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.* [46] Olympias and
several of Alexander's friends suggested this showed
Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir.* [46]
Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of
Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not oer his
daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to
Alexander. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the
negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry
the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a
better bride for him.* [46] Philip exiled four of Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius,
and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in
chains.* [44]* [49]* [50]

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and


married Cleopatra Eurydice, the niece of his general
Attalus.* [43] The marriage made Alexander's position 1.3 King of Macedon
as heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexan- 1.3.1 Accession
der was only half-Macedonian.* [44] During the wedding
banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the gods In 336 BC, while at Aegae attending the wedding of
that the union would produce a legitimate heir.* [43]
his daughter Cleopatra to Olympias's brother, Alexander
I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the captain
At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip
of his bodyguards, Pausanias.* vi[] As Pausanias tried
fell in love with and married, she being much
to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by
too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his
his pursuers, including two of Alexander's compandrink desired the Macedonians would implore
ions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander was proclaimed king by the nobles and army at the age of
the gods to give them a lawful successor to

1.4. CONQUEST OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE

O
PR

TIS

N
PO

A
E
G
E
A
N
S
E
A
D
O

ES
LAD
CYC

EC

AN

ES
E

between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred


during Alexander's stay in Corinth. When Alexander
asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher
disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side,
as he was blocking the sunlight.* [61] This reply apparently delighted Alexander, who is reported to have said
But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like to be
Diogenes.* [62] At Corinth, Alexander took the title
of Hegemon (leader) and, like Philip, was appointed
commander for the coming war against Persia. He also
received news of a Thracian uprising.* [58]* [63]

1.3.3 Balkan campaign


The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC.

20.* [51]* [52]* [53]

1.3.2

Consolidation of power

Main article: Alexander's Balkan campaign


Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard
his northern borders. In the spring of 335 BC, he
advanced to suppress several revolts. Starting from
Amphipolis, he traveled east into the country of theIndependent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces
manning the heights.* [64] The Macedonians marched
into the country of the Triballi, and defeated their army
near the Lyginus river* [65] (a tributary of the Danube).
Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their
army to retreat after the rst cavalry skirmish.* [66]* [67]

Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals


to the throne. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas
IV, executed.* [54] He also had two Macedonian princes
from the region of Lyncestis killed, but spared a third,
Alexander Lyncestes. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice
and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive. When
Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander
also ordered the murder of Attalus,* [54] who was in comNews then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Ilmand of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and
lyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulanti were in open
Cleopatra's uncle.* [55]
revolt against his authority. Marching west into Illyria,
Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demos- Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers
thenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. to ee with their troops. With these victories, he secured
Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and fol- his northern frontier.* [68]* [69]
lowing Cleopatra's murder, Alexander may have conWhile Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and
sidered him too dangerous to leave alive.* [55] AlexanAthenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately
der spared Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts menheaded south.* [70] While the other cities again hesitated,
tally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by
Thebes decided to ght. The Theban resistance was inOlympias.* [51]* [53]* [56]
eective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its
News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, in- territory between the other Boeotian cities. The end of
cluding Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily
north of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached at peace.* [70] Alexander then set out on his Asian camAlexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use paign, leaving Antipater as regent.* [71]
diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. He found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus
1.4 Conquest of the Persian Emand Mount Ossa, and ordered his men to ride over Mount
pire
Ossa. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they
found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered,
adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. He then contin- Main articles: Wars of Alexander the Great and
ued south towards the Peloponnese.* [57]* [58]* [59]* [60] Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great
Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was rec- into Asia
ognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Athens sued for peace and
Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter
Youths of the Pellaians and of the Mace-

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT


donians and of the Greek Amphictiony and of
the Lakedaimonians and of the Corinthians
and of all the Greek peoples, join your
fellow-soldiers and entrust yourselves to me,
so that we can move against the barbarians and
liberate ourselves from the Persian bondage,
for as Greeks we should not be slaves to
barbarians.
Alexander the Great, Pseudo-Kallisthenes,
Historia Alexandri Magni* [72]

rectly inuence the culture of the Persians they did not


feel the need to begin a rebellion as their men and rulers
were treated with proper respect.* [74] At Halicarnassus,
in Caria, Alexander successfully waged the rst of many
sieges, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary
captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of
Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea.* [75] Alexander left the government of Caria to Ada, who adopted
Alexander.* [76]

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control
over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.
From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports
1.4.1 Asia Minor
and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander
*
Further information: Battle of the Granicus, Siege of humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city. [77] At the
ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexanderundid
Halicarnassus and Siege of Miletus
Knot, a feat said to await
Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with the hitherto unsolvable Gordian
the future king of Asia".* [78] According to the story,
Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot
was undone and hacked it apart with his sword.* [79]

1.4.2 The Levant and Syria


Further information: Battle of Issus and Siege of Tyre
(332 BC)
Alexander journeyed south but was met by Darius' sigMap of Alexander's empire and his route.

approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a eet


of 120 ships with crews numbering 38,000,* [70] drawn
from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and
Illyria.* [73] (However, Arrian, who used Ptolemy as a
source, said that Alexander crossed with more than 5,000
horse and 30,000 foot; Diodorus quoted the same totals,
but listed 5,100 horse and 32,000 foot. Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which
Polyaenus, in his Stratagems of War (5.44.4), said numbered 10,000 men.) He showed his intent to conquer the
entirety of the Persian Empire by throwing a spear into
Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a gift from
the gods.* [70] This also showed Alexander's eagerness
to ght, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.* [70]
After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle
of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of
the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he
then proceeded along the Ionian coast. Though Alexander believed in his divine right to expend the lives of
men in battle, he did experience sorrow, as those who
died were rewarded generously: To the relatives of his
fallen, Alexander granted immunity from taxation and
public service. Whether it was his own warriors or the
Persian forces opposing him, Alexander chose to respect
those who died. He even went so far to set up statues to
honor and respect these people. Though this did not di-

Detail of Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the


House of the Faun, Pompeii.

nicantly larger army which he easily defeated, causing Darius to panic. Although he was chased by some
troops, Alexander treated them (his family) with the
respect out of consideration, which demonstrated his
continued generosity and kindness towards those he conquered.* [80] Darius ed the battle, causing his army to
collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his
mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous treasure.* [81] He offered a peace treaty that included the lands he had already lost, and a ransom of 10,000 talents for his family.
Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it
was he alone who decided territorial divisions.
Alexander the Great, although a generous man in victory,
eventually recognized the power that he was capable of
when he would defeat an enemy in war. Following the
siege of Tyre in 332, the enemy he defeated, Darius, at-

1.4. CONQUEST OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE


tempted to present terms of unconditional surrender but
Alexander became ruthless. He realized that he had control and could receive much more. Darius was thus forced
to come back.This time the oer was impressive. Darius oered all territory as a far the Euphratesa colossal
ransom of 30,000 talents for his familyinvited to marry
his eldest daughter. This new change in diplomatic relations induced panic among the leaders of the surrounding
nations, as they feared a similar defeat. This led some
barbarian cultures simply choosing to abdicate power to
Alexander in order to avoid certain death.* [82]

7
Egypt.* [88]

Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where


he was regarded as a liberator.* [89] He was pronounced
the new master of the Universeand son of the deity of Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan
desert.* [90] Henceforth, Alexander often referred to
Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and subsequent currency depicted him adorned with rams horn as a symbol of his divinity.* [91] During his stay in Egypt, he
founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the
prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his
Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and death.* [92]
most of the coast of the Levant.* [76] In the following
year, 332 BC, he was forced to attack Tyre, which he captured after a long and dicult siege.* [83]* [84] Alexander 1.4.4 Assyria and Babylonia
massacred the men of military age and sold the women
Further information: Battle of Gaugamela
and children into slavery.* [85]
Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander marched eastward
into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and again defeated
Darius, at the Battle of Gaugamela.* [93] Darius once
Further information: Siege of Gaza
more ed the eld, and Alexander chased him as far as
When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on Arbela. Gaugamela would be the nal and decisive encounter between the two. Darius ed over the mountains
to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), while Alexander captured Babylon.* [94]

1.4.3

Egypt

1.4.5 Persia
Further information: Battle of the Persian Gate
From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the

Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written


from right to left), c. 330 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.

the route to Egypt quickly capitulated, with the exception


of Gaza. The stronghold at Gaza was heavily fortied and
built on a hill, requiring a siege. Alexander came upon
the city only to be met with a surprising resistance and
fortication. Whenhis engineers pointed out to him that
because of the height of the mound it would be impossible
this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the
attempt. The divine right that Alexander believed he had
gave him condence of a miracle occurring.* [86] After
three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not
before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound.
As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and
the women and children were sold into slavery.* [87]

Site of the Persian Gate; the road was built in the 1990s.

Achaemenid capitals, and captured its legendary treasury.* [94] He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian
ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Royal Road.
Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct
route to the city. He had to storm the pass of the Persian
Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been
blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then
hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the
treasury.* [95]

Jerusalem opened its gates in surrender, and according to Josephus, Alexander was shown the Book of
Daniel's prophecy, presumably chapter 8, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire. He spared Jerusalem and pushed south into On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

loot the city for several days.* [96] Alexander stayed in 1.4.7
Persepolis for ve months.* [97] During his stay a re
broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to
the rest of the city. Possible causes include a drunken
accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the
Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War.* [98]

1.4.6

Problems and plots

Fall of the Empire and the East

Silver coin of Alexander wearing the lion scalp of Herakles,


British Museum.

Alexander then chased Darius, rst into Media, and


then Parthia.* [99] The Persian king no longer controlled
his own destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his
Bactrian satrap and kinsman.* [100] As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King
and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a
guerrilla campaign against Alexander.* [101] Alexander
buried Darius' remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral.* [102] He claimed that, while
dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the
Achaemenid throne.* [103] The Achaemenid Empire is
normally considered to have fallen with Darius.* [104]
Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned
into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded
a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including
modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate (The Furthest) in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West
Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central
Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan),
and Scythia.* [105]

The killing of Cleitus, Andr Castaigne 18981899

During this time, Alexander took the Persian titleKing


of Kings(Shahanshah) and adopted some elements of
Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom
of proskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or
prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their
social superiors.* [108] The Greeks regarded the gesture
as the province of deities and believed that Alexander
meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him the
sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually
abandoned it.* [109]
A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his ocers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. The death of the son necessitated the death of the
father, and thus Parmenion, who had been charged with
guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated at
Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.
Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man
who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black, during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda (modern
day Samarkand in Uzbekistan), in which Cleitus accused
Alexander of several judgemental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in
favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.* [110]

Spitamenes, who held an undened position in the satrapy


of Sogdiana, in 329 BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy,
one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was
executed.* [106] However, when, at some point later,
Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion
by a horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in
revolt. Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the
Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign
against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai.
After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot
against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his
who then sued for peace.* [107]

1.5. INDIAN CAMPAIGN

own royal pages. His ocial historian, Callisthenes of


Olynthus, was implicated in the plot; however, historians
have yet to reach a consensus regarding this involvement.
Callisthenes had fallen out of favor by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.* [111]

1.4.8

Macedon in Alexander's absence

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general


Antipater, an experienced military and political leader
and part of Philip II'sOld Guard, in charge of Macedon.* [71] Alexander's sacking of Thebes ensured that
Greece remained quiet during his absence.* [71] The one
exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III
in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in battle at Megalopolis the following year.* [71] Antipater referred the Spartans' punishment to the League of Corinth,
which then deferred to Alexander, who chose to pardon
them.* [112] There was also considerable friction between
Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander about the other.* [113]
In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia.* [114] Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire.* [115] However, Alexander's constant demands for The phalanx attacking the centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes
troops and the migration of Macedonians throughout his by Andr Castaigne (18981899)
empire depleted Macedon's manpower, greatly weakening it in the years after Alexander, and ultimately led to
its subjugation by Rome.* [19]
1000 talents in gold. Alexander was emboldened to
divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and
Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it
1.5 Indian campaign
bends at Hund (Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole
army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstraMain article: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great
tion of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

1.5.1

Invasion of the Indian subcontinent

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement relations with his
new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy
of Gandhara, in the north of what is now Pakistan, to
come to him and submit to his authority. Omphis(Indian
name Ambhi Kumar), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes (Jhelum),
complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas
(known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit.* [116] Ambhi hastened to
relieve Alexander of his apprehension and met him with
valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his
disposal. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and
the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of
Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5000 men and took
part in the battle of the Hydaspes River. After that victory
he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he
was charged to oer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the
personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the eet on
the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. A considerable accession of power was granted him
after the death of Philip, son of Machatas; and he was
allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander
himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition
of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC.
In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led
a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar
valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.* [117] A erce

10

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander


was wounded in the shoulder by a dart, but eventually the Aspasioi lost. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora
and Aornos.* [116]

Gangaridai Empire (of modern day Bangladesh). Fearing


the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted
by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at
the Hyphasis River (Beas), refusing to march farther east.
This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexan*
The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of der's conquests. [123]
bloody ghting, in which Alexander was wounded seriAs for the Macedonians, however, their
ously in the ankle. According to Curtius, Not only did
struggle
with Porus blunted their courage and
Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but
stayed
their
further advance into India. For
*
also did he reduce its buildings to rubble. [118] A simihaving
had
all
they could do to repulse an enlar slaughter followed at Ora. In the aftermath of Massaga
emy
who
mustered
only twenty thousand inand Ora, numerous Assakenians ed to the fortress of
fantry
and
two
thousand
horse, they violently
Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured
opposed
Alexander
when
he insisted on cross*
the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days. [116]
ing the river Ganges also, the width of which,
After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought
as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its
and won an epic battle against King Porus, who ruled a
depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on
region in the Punjab, in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326
the further side were covered with multitudes
BC.* [119] Alexander was impressed by Porus's bravery,
of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.
and made him an ally. He appointed Porus as satrap, and
For they were told that the kings of the Ganadded to Porus' territory land that he did not previously
derites and Praesii were awaiting them with
own. Choosing a local helped him control these lands
eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thouso distant from Greece.* [120] Alexander founded two
sand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six
cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river, naming one
thousand war elephants.* [124]
Bucephala, in honor of his horse, who died around this
time.* [121] The other was Nicaea (Victory), thought to Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther,
be located at the site of modern day Mong, Punjab.* [122] but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his

1.5.2

Revolt of the army

opinion and return; the men, he said,longed to again see


their parents, their wives and children, their homeland.
Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching
along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the
Malhi (in modern day Multan) and other Indian tribes and
sustained an injury during the siege.* [125]
Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern
southern Iran) with general Craterus, and commissioned
a eet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral
Nearchus, while he led the rest back to Persia through the
more dicult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert
and Makran.* [126] Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC,
but not before losing many men to the harsh desert.* [127]

1.6 Last years in Persia

Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to
Susa.* [128]* [129] As a gesture of thanks, he paid o the
debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send
over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon, led by
Craterus. His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away
and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress
and the introduction of Persian ocers and soldiers into
Macedonian units.* [130]

East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, were After three days, unable to persuade his men to back
the Nanda Empire of Magadha and further east the down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the

1.7. DEATH AND SUCCESSION

Alexander, left, and Hephaestion, right

11

A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323322 BC) recording the


death of Alexander (British Museum, London)

army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness,
which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for
several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.* [131] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, Alexander
held a mass marriage of his senior ocers to Persian and
other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those marriages
seem to have lasted much beyond a year.* [129] Mean- 19th century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession based
while, upon his return, Alexander learned that guards of on the description of Diodorus
the tomb of Cyrus the Great had desecrated it, and swiftly
executed them.* [132]
of Heracles, followed by 11 days of weakness; he did not
After Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the develop a fever and died after some agony.* [139] Arrian
bulk of the Persian treasure, his closest friend and also mentioned this as an alternative, but Plutarch specifpossible lover, Hephaestion, died of illness or poison- ically denied this claim.* [137]
ing.* [133]* [134] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an expensive Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to
*
funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for public assassination, [140] foul play featured in multiple acmourning.* [133] Back in Babylon, Alexander planned a counts of his death. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and
series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poiArabia, but he would not have a chance to realize them, soned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of
a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabas he died shortly thereafter.* [135]
rication,* [141] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted
that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.* [139]* [142] The accounts were nevertheless fairly
consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed as
1.7 Death and succession
Macedonian viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the
head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking his summons to
Main article: Death of Alexander the Great
*
and having seen the
On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in Babylon as a death sentence, [143]
*
fate
of
Parmenion
and
Philotas,
[144]
Antipater purportthe palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age
edly
arranged
for
Alexander
to
be
poisoned
by his son
*
32. [136] There are two dierent versions of Alexan*
*
[142]
[144]
Iollas,
who
was
Alexander's
wine-pourer.
der's death and details of the death dier slightly in
There
was
even
a
suggestion
that
Aristotle
may
have
pareach. Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before
*
[142]
ticipated.
his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus, and
spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of
Larissa.* [137] He developed a fever, which worsened until he was unable to speak. The common soldiers, anxious
about his health, were granted the right to le past him as
he silently waved at them.* [138] In the second account,
Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain
after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour

It is claimed that the strongest argument against the


poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such longacting poisons were probably not available.* [145] However, in 2003 Dr Leo Schep From The New Zealand
National Poisons Centre proposed in a BBC documentary investigating his death that the plant white helle-

12

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

bore (Veratrum album) may have been used to poison


Alexander.* [146]* [147]* [148] In 2014 Dr Leo Schep
published this theory in the peer-reviewed medical journal Clinical Toxicology; in this journal article it was
suggested Alexander's wine was spiked with Veratrum
album, a plant known to the Ancient Greeks, which
produces poisoning symptoms that match the course of
events as described in the Alexander Romance.* [149] Veratrum album poisoning can have a prolonged course and
it was suggested that if Alexander was poisoned, Veratrum album oers the most plausible cause.* [149]* [150]
Another poisoning explanation was put forward in 2010,
it was proposed that the circumstances of his death were
compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx
(Mavroneri) that contained calicheamicin, a dangerous
compound produced by bacteria.* [151]
Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A 1998 article in the
New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death
to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and
ascending paralysis.* [152] Another recent analysis suggested pyogenic spondylitis or meningitis.* [153] Other
illnesses t the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis
and West Nile virus.* [154]* [155] Natural-cause theories
also tend to emphasise that Alexander's health may have
been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and
severe wounds. The anguish that Alexander felt after
Hephaestion's death may also have contributed to his declining health.* [152]

1.7.1

After death

See also: Tomb of Alexander the Great


Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid

While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to


Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily
to Memphis.* [156]* [158] His successor, Ptolemy II
Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria,
where it remained until at least late Antiquity. Ptolemy
IX Lathyros, one of Ptolemy's nal successors, replaced
Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.* [160] The recent discovery
of an enormous tomb in northern Greece, at Amphipolis,
dating to the time of Alexander the Great * [161] has given
rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the
burial place of Alexander. This would t with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege.
Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb
in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally
knocked the nose o. Caligula was said to have taken
Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use.
Around AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed
Alexander's tomb to the public. His son and successor,
Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his
own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are
hazy.* [160]
The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus", discovered near
Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is
so named not because it was thought to have contained
Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict
Alexander and his companions ghting the Persians and
hunting. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of
Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the
battle of Issus in 331.* [162]* [163] However, more recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier
than Abdalonymus' death.

1.7.2 Division of the empire


Main article: Diadochi
Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of

Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus.

sarcophagus that was lled with honey, which was in


turn placed in a gold casket.* [156]* [157] According to
Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land
where Alexander was laid to rest would be happy and
unvanquishable forever.* [158] Perhaps more likely, the
successors may have seen possession of the body as a
symbol of legitimacy, since burying the prior king was
a royal prerogative.* [159]

Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 281 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom


(dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon
(orange), and Macedonia (green). Also shown are the Roman
Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and
the Kingdom of Epirus (red).

his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed.* [71] Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir,
his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexan-

1.8. CHARACTER
der's death.* [164] According to Diodorus, Alexander's
companions asked him on his deathbed to whom he
bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was ti
kratisti"to the strongest.* [139]
Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal
story.* [165] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin oered the
more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet
ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating
him.* [139]* [164]

13
Circumnavigation of Africa* [71]
Development of cities and thetransplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the
largest continent to common unity and to friendship
by means of intermarriage and family ties.* [169]

1.8 Character

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggest- 1.8.1


ing that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.
However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager,
rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded
from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two
sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he
and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name
only.* [166]

Generalship

Dissension and rivalry soon aicted the Macedonians,


however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the
Partition of Babylon became power bases each general
used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years
of war between The Successors(Diadochi) ensued
before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power
blocks: Ptolemaic Egypt, Selucid Mesopotamia and Cen- The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
tral Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. In
the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.* [167]

1.7.3

Testament

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed


written instructions to Craterus some time before his
death.* [168] Craterus started to carry out Alexander's
commands, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and
extravagant.* [168] Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexander's will to his troops.* [71]
The testament called for military expansion into the
southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
populations. It included:
Alexander earned the epithet the Greatdue to his
Construction of a monumental tomb for his father unparalleled success as a military commander.* [70] He
Philip, to match the greatest of the pyramids of never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumEgypt"* [71]
bered.* [70] This was due to use of terrain, phalanx and
cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and the erce loyalty of
Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona,
his troops.* [170]* [171] The Macedonian phalanx, armed
Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple to
with the sarissa, a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long, had been
Athena at Troy* [71]
developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous
Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean training,* [171] and Alexander used its speed and maneuBasin* [71]
verability to great eect against larger but more disparate

14

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Persian forces.* [171] Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army, which employed various languages and weapons. He overcame this
by being personally involved in battle,* [97] in the manner
of a Macedonian king.* [170]* [171]
In his rst battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used
only a small part of his forces, perhaps 13,000 infantry
with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of
40,000. Alexander placed the phalanx at the center and
cavalry and archers on the wings, so that his line matched
the length of the Persian cavalry line, about 3 km (1.86
mi). By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. This ensured that Alexander would not
be outanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes,
had a considerable advantage over the Persian's scimitars
and javelins. Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians.* [172]
At Issus in 333 BC, his rst confrontation with Darius,
he used the same deployment, and again the central phalanx pushed through.* [172] Alexander personally led the
charge in the center, routing the opposing army.* [170] At
the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to
break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes.
Roman copy of a herma by Lysippos, Louvre Museum. Plutarch
Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center reports that sculptures by Lysippos were the most faithful.
advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore
down and then reforming. The advance was successful
and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to ee once
did not reproduce his complexion, but made it
again.* [172]
too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair
colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into
When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar ghting
ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his
techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexanface. 4 Moreover, that a very pleasant odour
der adapted his forces to his opponents' style. Thus, in
exhaled from his skin and that there was a fraBactria and Sogdiana, Alexander successfully used his
grance about his mouth and all his esh, so that
javelin throwers and archers to prevent outanking movehis garments were lled with it, this we have
*
ments, while massing his cavalry at the center. [170] In
read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus.* [173]
India, confronted by Porus' elephant corps, the Macedonians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and
used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the ele- Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus
'Xenophon' c. 86160) described Alexander as:
phants' handlers.* [131]

1.8.2

Physical appearance

Greek biographer Plutarch (c. 45120 AD) describes


Alexander's appearance as:
The outward appearance of Alexander is
best represented by the statues of him which
Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone
that Alexander himself thought it t that he
should be modelled. For those peculiarities
which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of
the neck, which was bent slightly to the left,
and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist
has accurately observed. Apelles, however,
in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt,

[T]he strong, handsome commander with


one eye dark as the night and one blue as the
sky.* [174]* [175]
The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests
that Alexander suered from heterochromia iridum: that
one eye was dark and the other light.* [176]
British historian Peter Green provided a description of
Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues
and some ancient documents:
Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was
very short, though stocky and tough. His beard
was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute
Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His

1.8. CHARACTER

15

neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His
eyes (one blue, one brown) revealed a dewy,
feminine quality. He had a high complexion
and a harsh voice.* [177]

was no doubt in part due to Aristotle's tutelage; Alexander


was intelligent and quick to learn.* [177] His intelligent
and rational side was amply demonstrated by his ability
and success as a general.* [184] He had great self-restraint
in pleasures of the body,in contrast with his lack of
self control with alcohol.* [187]

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased


with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he
forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.* [178]
Lysippos had often used the Contrapposto sculptural
scheme to portray Alexander and other characters such as
Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros.* [179] Lysippos' sculpture, famous for its naturalism, as opposed to a stier,
more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful depiction.* [180]

Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.* [182]* [186] However, he had little interest in
sports or the Olympic games (unlike his father), seeking only the Homeric ideals of honor (tim) and glory
(kudos).* [54]* [181] He had great charisma and force
of personality, characteristics which made him a great
leader.* [164]* [184] His unique abilities were further
demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to
unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death
only Alexander had the ability to do so.* [164]

1.8.3

During his nal years, and especially after the death


of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of
megalomania and paranoia.* [143] His extraordinary
achievements, coupled with his own ineable sense of
destiny and the attery of his companions, may have
combined to produce this eect.* [188] His delusions of
grandeur are readily visible in his testament and in his
desire to conquer the world.* [143]

Personality

Alexander (left) ghting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus


(detail). 3rd century BC mosaic, Pella Museum.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed


in response to his parents.* [177] His mother had huge
ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.* [177] Olympias' inuence instilled a sense of destiny in him,* [181] and
Plutarch tells us that his ambition kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years.* [182] However,
his father Philip was Alexander's most immediate and
inuential role model, as the young Alexander watched
him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds.* [54] Alexander's relationship with his father forged the competitive
side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his father, illustrated by his reckless behavior in battle.* [177]
While Alexander worried that his father would leave him
no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the
world,* [183] he also downplayed his father's achievements to his companions.* [177]

He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least


sought to deify himself.* [143] Olympias always insisted
to him that he was the son of Zeus,* [189] a theory apparently conrmed to him by the oracle of Amun at
Siwa.* [190] He began to identify himself as the son
of Zeus-Ammon.* [190] Alexander adopted elements of
Persian dress and customs at court, notably proskynesis,
a practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were
loath to perform.* [108] This behavior cost him the
sympathies of many of his countrymen.* [191] However, Alexander also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the diculties of ruling culturally disparate peoples, many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king
was divine.* [109]* [192] Thus, rather than megalomania, his behavior may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire
together.* [97]* [192]

1.8.4 Personal relationships


Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander the
Great
Alexander married twice: Roxana, daughter of the
Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes, out of love;* [193] and
Stateira II, a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III
of Persia, for political reasons.* [194] He apparently had
two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon of Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine.
He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.* [195]* [196]

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a


violent temper and rash, impulsive nature,* [184] which
undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.* [177]
Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond
well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned
debate.* [185] He had a calmer sideperceptive, logical,
and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend,
love for philosophy, and was an avid reader.* [186] This general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Mace-

16

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT


der formed quite strong friendships with women, including Ada of Caria, who adopted him, and even Darius's
mother Sisygambis, who supposedly died from grief upon
hearing of Alexander's death.* [177]

1.9 Legacy

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as
Ares and Aphrodite.

donian noble.* [133]* [177]* [197] Hephaestion's death


devastated Alexander.* [133]* [198] This event may have
contributed to Alexander's failing health and detached
mental state during his nal months.* [143]* [152]
Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy.* [199] No ancient sources stated
that Alexander had homosexual relationships, or that
Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion was sexual.
Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy
where Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and
Hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter riddling that he
was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.* [200] Noting that the word
eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning, Alexander may have been bisexual, which in his time was not controversial.* [201]
Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient
sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in
women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of
his life.* [177] However, he was relatively young when he
died, and Ogden suggests that Alexander's matrimonial
record is more impressive than his father's at the same
age.* [202] Apart from wives, Alexander had many more
female companions. Alexander accumulated a harem in
the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly;* [203] showing great self-control in pleasures
of the body.* [187] Nevertheless, Plutarch described
how Alexander was infatuated by Roxana while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her.* [204] Green
suggested that, in the context of the period, Alexan-

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map


of Eratosthenes (276194 BC), incorporating information from
the campaigns of Alexander and his successors.* [205]

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and
trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east
were signicantly exposed to Greek civilization and inuence.* [19] Some of the cities he founded became major
cultural centers, many surviving into the 21st century. His
chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas
through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves
got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.* [19]

1.9.1 Hellenistic kingdoms


Main article: Hellenistic period
Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction
of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. At
the time of his death, Alexander's empire covered some
5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi),* [206] and was the
largest state of its time. Many of these areas remained in
Macedonian hands or under Greek inuence for the next
200300 years. The successor states that emerged were,
at least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are
often referred to as the Hellenistic period.* [207]
The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.* [164] However, the power
vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful
Indian dynasties in history. Taking advantage of this,
Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in Greek sources as
Sandrokottos), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded to
conquer the Nanda Empire.* [208]

1.9. LEGACY

17

N
NW

NE

SW

SE

I.
Pharos

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

1.9.2

Founding of cities

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded


some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them east
of the Tigris.* [109]* [209] The rst, and greatest, was
Alexandria in Egypt, which would become one of the
leading Mediterranean cities.* [109] The cities' locations
reected trade routes as well as defensive positions. At
rst, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more
than defensive garrisons.* [109] Following Alexander's
death, many Greeks who had settled there tried to return
to Greece.* [109]* [209] However, a century or so after
Alexander's death, many of the Alexandrias were thriving, with elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local peoples.* [109]

1.9.3

Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad).* [211] Alexander


sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and
attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture. This
culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a
distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the Successor
states.* [210]* [212]
The core of Hellenistic culture was essentially
Athenian.* [210]* [213] The close association of men
from across Greece in Alexander's army directly led
to the emergence of the largely Attic-based "koine",
or commonGreek dialect.* [214] Koine spread
throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua
franca of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor
of modern Greek.* [214] Furthermore, town planning,
education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals,
evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as
Hellenistic.* [210] Aspects of Hellenistic culture were
still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in
the mid-15th century.* [215]* [216]

Hellenization

Main article: Hellenistic civilization


Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann

Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.

Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language,


culture, and population into the former Persian empire The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st2nd century AD,
after Alexander's conquest.* [207] That this export took Gandhara, ancient India. Tokyo National Museum.
place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria, Antioch* [210] and Some of the most unusual eects of Hellenization can

18

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

be seen in Afghanistan and India, in the region of the


relatively late-arising Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 BC125 BC) in modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan
and the Greco-Indian Kingdom (180 BC - 10 CE) in
modern Afghanistan and India.* [217] There on the newly
formed Silk Road Greek culture apparently hybridized
with Indian, and especially Buddhist culture. The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily inuenced the development of Buddhism and created a culture
of Greco-Buddhist art. These Greco-Buddhist kingdoms
sent some of the rst Buddhist missionaries to China, Sri
Lanka, and the Mediterranean (Greco-Buddhist monasticism). The rst gural portrayals of the Buddha, previously avoided by Buddhists, appeared at this time; they
were modeled on Greek statues of Apollo.* [217] Several Buddhist traditions may have been inuenced by
the ancient Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas
is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes,* [218] and some
Mahayana ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts
of owers, and food placed on altars) are similar to This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstratthose practiced by the ancient Greeks. One Greek king, ing the inuence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum,
Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and was immor- Baltimore.
talized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'.* [217] The process of Hellenization extended to the sciences, where
ideas from Greek astronomy ltered eastward and had
profoundly inuenced Indian astronomy by the early centuries AD.* [219] For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in
the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modernday Afghanistan* [220] while the Greek concept of a
spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets was
adopted in India and eventually supplanted the longstanding Indian cosmological belief of a at and circular earth.* [219]* [221] The Yavanajataka and Paulisa Siddhanta texts in particular show Greek inuence.

1.9.4

Inuence on Rome

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate
themselves with his achievements.* [222] Polybius began his Histories by reminding Romans of Alexander's
achievements, and thereafter Roman leaders saw him
as a role model. Pompey the Great adopted the epithetMagnusand even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for
Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore
as a sign of greatness.* [222] Julius Caesar dedicated a
Lysippean equestrian bronze statue but replaced Alexander's head with his own, while Octavian visited Alexander's tomb in Alexandria and temporarily changed his
seal from a sphinx to Alexander's prole.* [222] The emperor Trajan also admired Alexander, as did Nero and
Caracalla.* [222] The Macriani, a Roman family that in
the person of Macrinus briey ascended to the imperial
throne, kept images of Alexander on their persons, either
on jewelry, or embroidered into their clothes.* [223]

The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. 200180 BC),


wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexander's legacy in the
east by again invading India, and establishing the Indo-Greek
kingdom (180 BC10 AD).

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly


Republican gures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale
of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by
republican values.* [224] Alexander was used by these
writers as an example of ruler values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency), but also
iracundia (anger) and cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for
glory).* [224]

1.9. LEGACY

1.9.5

Legend

Main article: Alexander the Great in legend


Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the
Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably
encouraged by Alexander himself.* [225] His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis. Writing shortly after
Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen
of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus read this
passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King
Lysimachus reportedly quipped, I wonder where I was
at the time.* [226]

19
Megalexandros) is a household name, and he is the
only ancient hero to appear in the Karagiozis shadow
play.* [229] One well-known fable among Greek seamen
involves a solitary mermaid who would grasp a ship's
prow during a storm and ask the captainIs King Alexander alive?". The correct answer is He is alive and well
and rules the world!", causing the mermaid to vanish and
the sea to calm. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the
ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.* [229]

In the rst centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance, later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent
numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages,* [227] containing many dubious stories,* [225] and was translated into numerous languages.* [228]

1.9.6

In ancient and modern culture

Post-Islamic Persian miniature depicting Khidr and Alexander


watching the Water of Life revive a salted sh

Main articles: Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great


St. Augustine, in his book City of God, restated Cicero's
and Alexander the Great in the Quran
Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have parable showing that Alexander the Great was little more
than a leader of a robber band:

Alexander the Great depicted in a 14th-century Byzantine


manuscript

been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has gured in


both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to
the present day. The Alexander Romance, in particular,
has had a signicant impact on portrayals of Alexander
in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to
modern Greek.* [228]

And so if justice is left out, what are kingdoms except great robber bands? For what are
robber bands except little kingdoms? The band
also is a group of men governed by the orders of a leader, bound by a social compact,
and its booty is divided according to a law
agreed upon. If by repeatedly adding desperate men this plague grows to the point where
it holds territory and establishes a xed seat,
seizes cities and subdues people, then it more
conspicuously assumes the name of kingdom,
and this name is now openly granted to it, not
for any subtraction of cupidity, but by addition
of impunity. For it was an elegant and true reply that was made to Alexander the Great by
a certain pirate whom he had captured. When
the king asked him what he was thinking of,
that he should molest the sea, he said with deant independence: 'The same as you when you
molest the world! Since I do this with a little
ship I am called a pirate. You do it with a great
eet and are called emperor'.* [230]

Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient gure.* [229] The In pre-Islamic Middle Persian (Zoroastrian) literature,
colloquial form of his name in modern Greek (O Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak, mean-

20
ing accursed, and is accused of destroying temples
and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.* [231] In
Islamic Iran, under the inuence of the Alexander Romance (in Persian: Iskandarnamah), a more
positive portrayal of Alexander emerges.* [232] Firdausi's
Shahnameh (The Book of Kings) includes Alexander in a line of legitimate Iranian shahs, a mythical gure
who explored the far reaches of the world in search of the
Fountain of Youth.* [233] Later Persian writers associate
him with philosophy, portraying him at a symposium with
gures such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in search of
immortality.* [232]
The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays
him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed
to the one true God.* [232] In Egypt, Alexander was
portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II, the last pharaoh
before the Persian conquest.* [234] His defeat of Darius
was depicted as Egypt's salvation, provingEgypt was
still ruled by an Egyptian.* [234]
The gure of Dhul-Qarnayn (literally the Two-Horned
One) mentioned in the Quran is believed by some
scholars to represent Alexander, due to parallels with
the Alexander Romance.* [232] In this tradition, he was a
heroic gure who built a wall to defend against the nations
of Gog and Magog.* [234] He then traveled the known
world in search for the Water of Life and Immortality,
eventually becoming a prophet.* [234]
In Hindi and Urdu, the nameSikandar, derived from
Persian, denotes a rising young talent.* [235] In medieval
Europe he was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a
group of heroes who encapsulated all the ideal qualities
of chivalry.

1.10 Historiography
Main article: Alexander the Great in historiography
Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.* [19] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and
Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior ocer on the campaigns;
and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. Their
works are lost, but later works based on these original
sources have survived. The earliest of these is Diodorus
Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius
Rufus (mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian (1st to 2nd
century AD), the biographer Plutarch (1st to 2nd century
AD), and nally Justin, whose work dated as late as the
4th century.* [19] Of these, Arrian is generally considered
the most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy and Aristobulus as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus.* [19]

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

1.11 Ancestry
1.12 See also
Alexander the Great in the Qur'an
Bucephalus
Chronology of European exploration of Asia
Diogenes and Alexander
List of people known as The Great

1.13 Notes
^ i: By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire
Achaemenid Persian Empire, adding it to Macedon's
European territories; according to some modern writers,
this was most of the world then known to the ancient
Greeks (the 'Ecumene').* [236]* [237] An approximate
view of the world known to Alexander can be seen in
Hecataeus of Miletus's map; see Hecataeus world map.
^ ii: For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general;* [238] Julius Caesar wept
on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved
so little by the same age;* [239] Pompey consciously
posed as the 'new Alexander';* [240] the young Napoleon
Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.* [241]
^ iii: The name derives from the Greek
verb "" (alex), to ward o, to avert, to defend
*
[242]* [243] and the noun "" (andros), genitive
of "" (anr), man* [244]* [243] and means
protector of men.* [245]
^ iv: In the early 5th century the royal house of
Macedon, the Temenidae, was recognised as Greek by
the Presidents of the Olympic Games. Their verdict was
and is decisive. It is certain that the Kings considered
themselves to be of Greek descent from Heracles son of
Zeus.* [246]
^ v: AEACIDS Descendants of Aeacus, son of Zeus
and the nymph Aegina, eponymous (see the term) to
the island of that name. His son was Peleus, father of
Achilles, whose descendants (real or supposed) called
themselves Aeacids: thus Pyrrhus and Alexander the
Great.* [247]
^ vi: There have been, since the time, many suspicions
that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip.
Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias and
even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius III.
All three of these people had motive to have Philip
murdered.* [248]

1.14. REFERENCES

1.14 References
[1] Alexander the Great: Youths of the Pellaians and of
the Macedonians and of the Hellenic Amphictiony and of
the Lakedaimonians and of the Corinthiansand of all
the Hellenic peoples, join your fellow-soldiers and entrust
yourselves to me, so that we can move against the barbarians and liberate ourselves from the Persian bondage, for
as Greeks we should not be slaves to barbarians.PseudoKallisthenes, Historia Alexandri Magni, 1.15.1-4
Alexander the Great: Now you fear punishment and
beg for your lives, so I will let you free, if not for any other
reason so that you can see the dierence between a Greek
king and a barbarian tyrant, so do not expect to suer any
harm from me. A king does not kill messengers. Historia Alexandri Magni of Pseudo-Kallisthenes, 1.37.9-13
Alexander the Great addressing his troops prior to the
Battle of Issus: There are Greek troops, to be sure, in
Persian service but how dierent is their cause from
ours! They will be ghting for pay and not much of at
that; we, on the contrary, shall ght for Greece, and our
hearts will be in it. Anabasis Alexandri by Roman historian Arrian, Book II, 7
Alexander's letter to Persian king Darius in response to
a truce plea: Your ancestors came to Macedonia and
the rest of Hellas (Greece) and did us great harm, though
we had done them no prior injury. I have been appointed
leader of the Greeks, and wanting to punish the Persians
I have come to Asia, which I took from you. Anabasis
Alexandri by Arrian; translated as Anabasis of Alexander
by P. A. Brunt, for the Loeb EditionBook II 14, 4
Alexander the Great: If it were not my purpose to
combine barbarian things with things Hellenic (Greek), to
traverse and civilize every continent, to search out the uttermost parts of land and sea, to push the bounds of Macedonia to the farthest Ocean, and to disseminate and shower
the blessings of the Hellenic justice and peace over every
nation, I should not be content to sit quietly in the luxury of
idle power, but I should emulate the frugality of Diogenes.
But as things are, forgive me Diogenes, that I imitate Herakles, and emulate Perseus, and follow in the footsteps of
Dionysos, the divine author and progenitor of my family,
and desire that victorious Hellenes should dance again in
India and revive the memory of the Bacchic revels among
the savage mountain tribes beyond the Kaukasos.On the
Fortune of Alexander by Plutarch, 332 a-b
Alexander addressing the dead Hellenes (the Athenian
and Thebean Greeks) of the Battle of Chaeronea: Holy
shadows of the dead, I'm not to blame for your cruel and
bitter fate, but the accursed rivalry which brought sister
nations and brother people, to ght one another. I do not
feel happy for this victory of mine. On the contrary, I
would be glad, brothers, if I had all of you standing here
next to me, since we are united by the same language, the
same blood and the same visions. Historiae Alexandri
Magni by Quintus Curtius Rufus
Alexander I of Macedon, ancestor of Alexander the
Great, member of the Argead dynasty: Tell your king
(Xerxes), who sent you, how his Greek viceroy of Macedonia has received you hospitably.Herodotus, Histories,
5.20.4, Loeb
Alexander I of Macedon, ancestor of Alexander the
Great, member of the Argead dynasty, when he was ad-

21

mitted to the Olympic games:Men of Athens... In truth


I would not tell it to you if I did not care so much for
all Hellas; I myself am by ancient descent a Greek, and
I would not willingly see Hellas change her freedom for
slavery. I tell you, then, that Mardonius and his army cannot get omens to his liking from the sacrices. Otherwise
you would have fought long before this. Now, however, it
is his purpose to pay no heed to the sacrices, and to attack
at the rst glimmer of dawn, for he fears, as I surmise, that
your numbers will become still greater. Therefore, I urge
you to prepare, and if (as may be) Mardonius should delay and not attack, wait patiently where you are; for he has
but a few days' provisions left. If, however, this war ends
as you wish, then must you take thought how to save me
too from slavery, who have done so desperate a deed as
this for the sake of Hellas in my desire to declare to you
Mardonius' intent so that the barbarians may not attack
you suddenly before you yet expect them. I who speak am
Alexander the Macedonian. Herodotus, Histories, 9.45
(ed. A. D. Godley)
Ian Worthington, English historian and archaeologist:
Not much need to be said about the Greekness of ancient
Macedonia: it is undeniable. Ian Worthington, Philip II
of Macedonia, Yale University Press, 2008
Ulrich Wilcken: When we take into account the political conditions, religion and morals of the Macedonians,
our conviction is strengthened that they were a Greek
race and akin to the Dorians. Having stayed behind in
the extreme north, they were unable to participate in the
progressive civilization of the tribes which went further
south. Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great, p. 22)
Strabo: And Macedonia, of course, is a part of
Greece. Strabo. VII, Frg. 9 (Loeb, H.L. Jones)
Herodotus: Now that these descendants of Perdiccas
(Perdiccas I of Macedon, King of Macedonia from about
700 BCE to about 678 BCE) are Greeks, as they themselves say, I myself chance to know and will prove it in
the later part of my history. Herodotus, Book 5, Ch.
22, 1 (Loeb)
Josephus: And when the book of Daniel was showed
to Alexander the Great, where Daniel declared that one of
the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he
supposed that himself was the person intended; and as he
was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present.
Josephus 11.8.5
Arrian: There a man appeared to them wearing a
Greek cloak and dressed otherwise in the Greek fashion,
and speaking Greek also. Those Macedonians who rst
sighted him said that they burst into teers, so strange did
it seem after all these miseries to see a Greek, and to hear
Greek spoken. Arrian: Anabasis Alexandri: Book VIII
(Indica)
Titus Livius: The Aitolians, the Akarnanians, the
Macedonians, men of the same speech, are united or disunited by trivial causes that arise from time to time; with
aliens, with barbarians, all Greeks wage and will wage
eternal war; for they are enemies by the will of nature,
which is eternal, and not from reasons that change from
day to day. Titus Livius, Liber XXXI, 29, 15
David H. Levinson: It should be noted that there is
no connection between the Macedonians of the time of
Alexander the Great who were related to other Hellenic
tribes and the Macedonians of today, who are of Slavic

22

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Origin and related to the Bulgarians. Encyclopedia of


World Cultures (1991), by David H. Levinson, page 239.
Nicholas Hammond: Philip was born a Greek of the
most aristocratic, indeed of divine, descent... Philip was
both a Greek and a Macedonian, even as Demosthenes
was a Greek and an Athenian... The Macedonians over
whom Philip was to rule were an outlying family member of the Greek-speaking peoples.Nicholas Hummond,
Philip of Macedon, Duckworth Publishing, 1998
Nicholas Hammond: All in all, the language of the
Macedones was a distinct and particular form of Greek,
resistant to outside inunces and conservative in pronunciation. It remained so until the fourth century when it was
almost totally submerged by the ood tide of standardized
Greek. Nicholas Hummond, A History of Macedonia
Vol ii, 550-336 BC
Nicholas Hammond: As members of the Greek race
and speakers of the Greek language, the Macedonians
shared in the ability to initiate ideas and create political
forms.Nicholas Hummond, The Miracle that was Macedonia, 1992, p. 206
M. Opperman, The Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed.
(1996) - Macedonia, Cults, page 905:Nowadays historians generally agree that the Macedonian ethnos form part
of the Greek ethnos; hence they also shared in the common religious and cultural features of the Hellenic world
Robin Lane Fox: 1) Alexander was still the Greek
avenger of Persian sacrilege who told his troops, it was
said 'that Persepolis was the most hateful city in the world'.
On the road there, he met with the families of Greeks
who had deported to Persia by previous kings, and true to
his slogan, he honoured them conspicuously, giving them
money, ve changes of clothing, farm animals, corn, a free
passage home, and exemption from taxes and bureaucratic
harassments.p. 256,
2) To his ancestors (to a Persian's ancestors) Macedonians were only known as 'yona takabara', the 'Greeks who
wear shields on their heads', an allusion to their broadbrimmed hats.p. 104,
3) Alexander was not the rst Greek to be honoured as
a god for political favour.p. 131,
4) In spirit, Alexander made a gesture to the Lydians'
sensitivities, though his Greek crusade owed them nothing as they were not Greeks.p. 128. Robin Lane Fox,
Alexander the Great, Penguin Books, UK, 1997
Katheryn A. Bard: The Macedonians were originally
one of several Greek tribes living on the northern frontier
of the Hellenic world. Katheryn A. Bard, Encyclopaedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Taylor & Francis,
1999, p. 460.
Benjamin Ide Wheeler: That the Macedonians were
Greek by race there can be no longer any doubt. They
were the northernmost fragments of the race left stranded
behind the barriers. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Alexander
the Great: The Merging of East and West in Universal History, Elibron Classics, 2011
[2] Zacharia 2008, Simon Hornblower,Greek Identity in the
Archaic and Classical Periods, pp. 5558; Joint Association of Classical Teachers 1984, pp. 5051; Errington
1990; Fine 1983, pp. 607608; Hall 2000, p. 64;
Hammond 2001, p. 11; Jones 2001, p. 21; Osborne 2004,
p. 127; Hammond 1989, pp. 1213; Hammond 1993,
p. 97; Starr 1991, pp. 260, 367; Toynbee 1981, p. 67;

Worthington 2008, pp. 8, 219; Chamoux 2002, p. 8;


Cawkwell 1978, p. 22; Perlman 1973, p. 78; Hamilton
1974, Chapter 2: The Macedonian Homeland, p. 23;
Bryant 1996, p. 306; O'Brien 1994, p. 25.
[3] Simon Hornblower, Greek Identity in the Archaic and
Classical Periodsin Katerina Zacharia, Hellenisms, Ashgate Publishing, 2008, pp. 5558.
[4] Alexander the Great (356323 BC)". UK: BBC.
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Alexander born in Pella. The exact date is not known, but
probably either 20 or 26 July.
[11] McCarty 2004, p. 10
[12] Renault 2001, p. 28
[13] Durant 1966, p. 538
[14] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 171.
[15] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 188
[16] Plutarch 1919, III, 2
[17] Bose 2003, p. 21
[18] Renault 2001, pp. 3334
[19] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 186
[20] Plutarch 1919, VI, 5
[21] Fox 1980, p. 64
[22] Renault 2001, p. 39.
[23] Fox 1980, p. 65
[24] Renault 2001, p. 44
[25] McCarty 2004, p. 15
[26] Fox 1980, pp. 6566
[27] Renault 2001, pp. 4547
[28] McCarty 2004, p. 16
[29] Fox 1980, p. 68
[30] Renault 2001, p. 47.
[31] Bose 2003, p. 43.

1.14. REFERENCES

23

[32] Renault 2001, pp. 4749

[68] Arrian 1976, I, 56

[33] Renault 2001, pp. 5051

[69] Renault 2001, p. 77

[34] Bose 2003, pp. 4445.

[70] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 192

[35] McCarty 2004, p. 23.

[71] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 199

[36] Renault 2001, p. 51

[72] Pseudo-Kallisthenes, Historia Alexandri Magni, 1.15.1-4

[37] Bose 2003, p. 47.

[73] Arrian 1976, I, 11

[38] McCarty 2004, p. 24.

[74] Arrian 1976, I, 1319

[39] Diodorus Siculus 1989, XVI, 86

[75] Arrian 1976, I, 2023

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[42] McCarty 2004, p. 26.
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[44] McCarty 2004, p. 27
[45] Plutarch 1919, IX, 1
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[47] Bose 2003, p. 75
[48] Renault 2001, p. 56
[49] Renault 2001, p. 59
[50] Fox 1980, p. 71
[51] McCarty 2004, pp. 3031
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[77] Arrian 1976, I, 2728


[78] Arrian 1976, I, 3
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[59] Fox 1980, p. 104


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[100] Arrian 1976, III, 21.


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[102] Arrian 1976, III, 22.
[103] Gergel 2004, p. 81
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24

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

[105] Arrian 1976, III, 2325, 2730; IV, 17.

[141] Plutarch 1919, LXXVII, 1

[106] Arrian 1976, III, 30.

[142] Arrian 1976, VII, 27

[107] Arrian 1976, IV, 56, 1617.

[143] Green 2007, pp. 2324

[108] Arrian 1976, VII, 11

[144] Diodorus Siculus 1989, XVII, 118

[109] Morkot 1996, p. 111

[145] Fox 2006, chapter 32.

[110] Gergel 2004, p. 99


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[124] Plutarch 1919, LXII, 1
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[126] Tripathi 1999, p. 141
[127] Morkot 1996, p. 9
[128] Arrian 1976, VI, 27
[129] Arrian 1976, VII, 4
[130] Worthington 2003, pp. 307308
[131] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 194
[132] Arrian 1976, II, 29
[133] Arrian 1976, VII, 14
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[162] Studniczka 1894, pp. 226

[197] Diodorus Siculus 1989, XVII, 114

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[200] Aelian, 7, Varia Historia XII.

[165] Green 2007, p. 20

[201] Sacks 1995, p. 16.

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[202] Ogden 2009, p. 208: "...three attested pregnancies in


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[182] Plutarch 1919, IV, 4

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[183] Plutarch 1919, V, 2

[214] Harrison 1971, p. 51

[184] Arrian 1976, VII, 29

[215] Gabriel 2002, p. 277

[185] Plutarch 1919, VII, 1

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[186] Plutarch 1919, VIII, 1

[217] Keay 2001, pp. 1019

[187] Arrian 1976, VII, 28

[218] Luniya 1978, p. 312

[188] Green 2007, pp. 2021

[219] Pingree 1978, pp. 533, 554f

[189] Plutarch 1919, IX, IV

[220] Cambon & Jarrige 2006, p. 269

[190] Plutarch 1919, XXVII, 1

[221] Glick, Livesey & Wallis 2005, p. 463

[191] Plutarch 1919, LXV, 1

[222] Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 6, p. 114

[192] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 195

[223] Holt 2003, p. 3

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CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

[227] Stoneman 1996, passim


[228] Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 6, 117
[229] Fermor 2006, p. 215
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[231] Curtis, Tallis & Andre-Salvini 2005, p. 154
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[233] Fischer 2004, p. 66
[234] Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 6, 122
[235] Connerney 2009, p. 68
[236] Danforth 1997, pp. 38, 49, 167
[237] Stoneman 2004, p. 2
[238] Goldsworthy 2003, pp. 32728.
[239] Plutarch 1919, XI, 2
[240] Holland 2003, pp. 17683.
[241] Barnett 1997, p. 45.
[242] Plutarch 1919, IV, 57: .
[243] Liddell & Scott 1940.
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[245] Alexander. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved
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[246] Hammond 1986, p. 516
[247] Chamoux & Roussel 2003, p. 396
[248] Fox 1980, pp. 7273

1.15 Sources
1.15.1

Primary sources

Arrian (1976). de Slincourt, Aubrey, ed. Anabasis


Alexandri (The Campaigns of Alexander). Penguin
Books. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Siculus, Diodorus (1989). Library of History
. CH Oldfather, translator. Perseus Project. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
Plutarch (1919). Perrin, Bernadotte, ed. Plutarch,
Alexander. Perseus Project. Retrieved 6 December
2011.
Plutarch (1936). Babbitt, Frank Cole, ed. On the
Fortune of Alexander IV. Loeb Classical Library.
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Trogus, Pompeius (1853). Justin, ed. Epitome of
the Philippic History. Rev. John Selby Watson,
translator. Forum romanum. Retrieved 14 November 2009..

1.15.2 Secondary sources


Barnett, C (1997). Bonaparte. Wordsworth. ISBN
1-85326-678-7.
Baynes, Norman G (2007). Byzantine art.
Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization. Baynes. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-4067-5659-3.
Berkley, Grant (2006). Moses in the Hieroglyphs.
Traord. ISBN 1-4120-5600-4. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
Cambon, Pierre; Jarrige, Jean-Franois (2006).
Afghanistan, les trsors retrouvs: Collections du
Muse national de Kaboul [Afghanistan, the treasures found: collections of the Kabul national museum] (in French). Runion des muses nationaux.
p. 297. ISBN 978-2-7118-5218-5.
Bose, Partha (2003). Alexander the Great's Art of
Strategy. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN
1-74114-113-3.
Bosworth, AB (1988). Conquest and Empire: The
Reign of Alexander the Great. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Alexander the Great.
Haus. ISBN 1-904341-56-X.
Chamoux, Franois; Roussel, Michel (2003). Hellenistic Civilization. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-222421.
Connerney, RD (2009). The upside-down tree: India's changing culture. Algora. p. 214. ISBN 087586-649-2.
Curtis, J; Tallis, N; Andre-Salvini, B (2005).
Forgotten empire: the world of ancient Persia. University of California Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-52024731-0.
Dahmen, Karsten (2007). The Legend of Alexander the Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 0-415-39451-1.
Danforth, Loring M (1997). The Macedonian Conict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04356-6.
Dillon, John M (2004). Morality and custom in ancient Greece. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780-253-34526-4.
Durant, Will (1966). The Story of Civilization: The
Life of Greece. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-67141800-9.
Fermor, Patrick Leigh (2006). Mani: Travels in
the Southern Peloponnese. New York Book Review. p. 358. ISBN 1-59017-188-8.

1.15. SOURCES

27

Fischer, MMJ (2004). Mute dreams, blind owls, and


dispersed knowledges: Persian poesis in the transnational circuitry. Duke University Press. p. 474.
ISBN 0-8223-3298-1.
Foreman, Laura (2004). Alexander the conqueror:
the epic story of the warrior king. Da Capo Press. p.
217. ISBN 978-0-306-81293-4.
Fox, Robin Lane (1980). The Search for Alexander.
Boston: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 0-316-29108-0.
(2006). Alexander the Great.
ASIN B002RI9DYW.

ePenguin.

Gabriel, Richard A (2002). The army of Byzantium. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood.
p. 277. ISBN 0-275-97809-5.
Gergel, Tania, ed. (2004). The Brief Life and
Towering Exploits of History's Greatest Conqueror as
Told By His Original Biographers. Penguin. ISBN
0-14-200140-6.
Glick, Thomas F; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis,
Faith, eds. (2005). Medieval Science, Technology,
and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96930-1.
Goldsworthy, A (2003). The Fall of Carthage. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.
Grafton, Anthony (2010). Most, Glenn W; Settis,
Salvatore, eds. The Classical Tradition. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.
Green, Peter (2007). Alexander the Great and the
Hellenistic Age. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-07538-2413-9.
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt
(reprint ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-17472-1.
Gunther, John (2007). Alexander the Great. Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-4519-2.
Hammond, NGL (1983). Sources for Alexander the
Great. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521-71471-6.
(1986). A History of Greece to 323 BC. Cambridge University.
Harrison, EF (1971). The language of the New Testament. Wm B Eerdmans. p. 508. ISBN 0-80284786-2.

Keay, John (2001). India: A History. Grove Press.


ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). Jones,
Sir Henry Stuart; McKenzie, Roderick, eds. A
Greek-English Lexicon on Perseus Digital Library.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram (1978). Life and
Culture in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times
to 1000 AD. Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. LCCN
78907043.
McCarty, Nick (2004). Alexander the Great. Camberwell, Victoria: Penguin. ISBN 0-670-04268-4.
McCrindle, JW (1997).Curtius. In Singh, Fauja;
Joshi, LM. History of Punjab I. Patiala: Punjabi
University.
McKechnie, Paul (1989). Outsiders in the Greek
cities in the fourth century BC. Taylor & Francis. p.
54. ISBN 0-415-00340-7. Retrieved 28 December
2010.
Morkot, Robert (1996). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. Penguin.
Narain, AK (1965). Alexander the Great: Greece
and Rome12.
Ogden, Daniel (2009). Alexander's Sex Life. In
Heckel, Alice; Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence
A. Alexander the Great: A New History. WileyBlackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3082-2.
Pingree, D (1978). History of Mathematical Astronomy in India. Dictionary of Scientic Biography 15. pp. 533633.
Pratt, James Bissett (1996). The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage. Laurier Books.
ISBN 81-206-1196-9.
Renault, Mary (2001). The Nature of Alexander the
Great. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-139076-X.
Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M; Berney, KA;
Schellinger, Paul E, eds. (1994). International dictionary of historic places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 19941996. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 1-4051-7936-8.

Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: Triumph and


Tragedy in the Roman Republic. Abacus. ISBN 9780-349-11563-4.

Sabin, P; van Wees, H; Whitby, M (2007). The


Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare:
Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78273-2.

Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander the Great and


The Mystery of the Elephant Medallions. University
of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23881-8.

Sacks, David (1995). Encyclopedia of the Ancient


Greek World. Constable & Co. ISBN 0-09-4752702.

28

CHAPTER 1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Stoneman, Richard (2004). Alexander the Great.


Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31932-3.

Fuller, JFC (1958). The Generalship of Alexander


the Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.

Stoneman, Richard (1996). The Metamorphoses


of Alexander Romance. In Schmeling, Gareth L.
The Novel in the Ancient World. Brill. pp. 60112.
ISBN 90-04-09630-2.

Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon: 356


323 BC. A Historical Biography. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.

Studniczka, Franz (1894). Achologische Jahrbook


9.
Tripathi, Rama Shankar (1999). History of Ancient
India. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2.
Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A, eds.
(2009). Alexander the Great: A New History. WileyBlackwell. pp. 4748. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0.
Wood, Michael (2001). In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia.
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-52023192-4.

Greene, Robert (2000). The 48 Laws of Power.


Penguin. p. 351. ISBN 0-14-028019-7.
Hammond, NGL (1989). The Macedonian State:
Origins, Institutions, and History. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-814883-6.
Hammond, NGL (1994). Alexander the Great:
King, Commander, and Statesman (3 ed.). London:
Bristol Classical Press.
Hammond, NGL (1997). The Genius of Alexander
the Great. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press.

Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander the Great: A


Reader. Routledge. p. 332. ISBN 0-415-29187-9.

Mercer, Charles (1962). The Way of Alexander the


Great (1 ed.). Boston: American Heritage Inc.

Yenne, Bill (2010). Alexander the Great: Lessons


From History's Undefeated General. Palmgrave
McMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61915-9.

McCrindle, JW (1893). The Invasion of India by


Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Justin. Westminster:
Archibald Constable & Co.

1.16 Further reading


Badian, Ernst (1958). Alexander the Great and
the Unity of Mankind. Historia 7: 425444.
Beazley, JD; Ashmole, B (1932). Greek Sculpture
and Painting. Cambridge University Press.
Bowra, Maurice (1994). The Greek Experience.
Phoenix. ISBN 1-85799-122-2.
Burn, AR (1951). Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire (2 ed.). London: English Universities
Press.
Curtius. Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the
Great(in Latin). U Chicago. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
Cartledge, Paul (2004). Alexander the Great.
Overlook.
Doherty, Paul (2004). The Death of Alexander
the Great. Carroll & Graf.
Engels, Donald W (1978). Alexander the Great and
the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Fawcett, Bill, ed. (2006). How To Lose A Battle:
Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders. Harper.
ISBN 0-06-076024-9.

Murphy, James Jerome; Katula, Richard A; Hill,


Forbes I; Ochs, Donovan J (2003). A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 17. ISBN 1-880393-35-2.
Nandan, Y; Bhavan, BV (2003). British Death
March Under Asiatic Impulse: Epic of Anglo-Indian
Tragedy in Afghanistan. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya
Bhavan. ISBN 81-7276-301-8.
O'Brien, John Maxwell (1992). Alexander the
Great: The Invisible Enemy. London: Routledge.
Pomeroy, S; Burstein, S; Dolan, W; Roberts, J
(1998). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19509742-4.
Prevas, John (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander
the Great's Ill-Fated Journey Across Asia (3 ed.). Da
Capo.
Roisman, Joseph, ed. (1995). Alexander the Great
Ancient and Modern Perspectives. Problems in European Civilization. Lexington, MA: DC Heath.
Savill, Agnes (1959). Alexander the Great and His
Time (3 ed.). London: Barrie & Rockli.
Singh, Kirpal (2005). Kambojas Through the Ages.
p. 134.

1.17. EXTERNAL LINKS


Stewart, Andrew (1993). Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic Politics. Hellenistic Culture and Society 11. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stoneman, Richard (2008). Alexander the Great: A
Life in Legend. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300-11203-0.
Tarn, WW (1948). Alexander the Great. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wheeler, Benjamin Ide (1900). Alexander the
Great; the merging of East and West in universal history. New York: GP Putnam's sons.
Wilcken, Ulrich (1997) [1932]. Alexander the
Great. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN 0393-00381-7.
Worthington, Ian (2004). Alexander the Great: Man
And God. Pearson. ISBN 978-1-4058-0162-1.

1.17 External links


Delamarche, Flix (1833), The Empire and Expeditions of Alexander the Great.
Romm, James; Cartledge, Paul,Two Great Historians On Alexander the Great, Forbes (conversations) |chapter= ignored (help); Part 2, Part 3, Part
4, Part 5, Part 6.
Alexander the Great at DMOZ
Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary
sources, Livius.
The Elusive Tomb of Alexander the Great, Archology.
Alexander the Great and Sherlock Holmes, Sherlockian Sherlock.
Google Map of the Wars of Alexander the Great

29

Chapter 2

Abdalonymus
Abdalonymus or, variously, Abdolonymus, Abdolonimus, and Abdalonimus (Greek: ) was a gardener, but of royal descent, who was
made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great in 332
BC.* [1]* [2]* [3]* [4]

2.2 Notes
While Quintus Curtius conrms this story, as does
Justin, Diodorus calls this person Ballonimus, and
says he was made king of Tyre, not Sidon.* [5]
Plutarch removes the scene to Paphos, and names
him Alonymus. Curtius likely adorned the story
with ctitious circumstances.

2.3 References
2.1 Life

[1] Curt. iv. 1; Just, xi. 10.


[2] Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

After Alexander the Great had subdued Sidon, he gave


permission to Hephaestion to bestow its crown on whom
he pleased. Hephaestion oered it to two brothers with
whom he lodged, but they declined it, alleging that according to their laws it could only be worn by one of royal
blood. Being desired to point out such a person, they
named Abdalonymus, who, notwithstanding his birth,
had fallen into such poverty, that he supported himself
by the cultivation of a kitchen garden.
Hephaestion directed the brothers to carry the royal
crown and robes to Abdalonymus. They obeyed, and
found him weeding in his garden. After causing him to
wash, they invested him with the ensigns of royalty, and
conducted him to Alexander. This prince, who discerned
in him an aspect not unworthy of his origin, turning to
those around him, said I wish to know how he bore his
poverty."Would to heaven,replied Abdalonymus,I
may as well bear my prosperity! these hands have ministered to all my necessities; and as I possessed nothing,
I wanted nothing.Alexander was so well pleased with
this reply, that he conrmed the nomination of Hephaestion, and gave the new king the palace and private estate
of Strato his predecessor, and even augmented his dominions from the neighboring country.

[3] Fox, Robin Lane, Alexander the Great, London (Allen


Lane) 1973, ISBN 0-86007-707-1
[4] Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), Abdolonimus, in Smith,
William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1, p. 2
[5] xvii. 46.

2.4 See also


List of Kings of Tyre

2.5 External links

The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus,discovered near


Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, is
now generally thought to be that of Abdalonymus, though
some scholars now believe the sarcophagus was that of
Mazaeus, a Persian noble and governor of Babylon.
30

Livius.org: Abdalonymus
This article incorporates content from John Aikin's
General Biography, a publication in the public domain.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Chapter 3

Abisares
Abisares (or Abhisara;* [1] in Greek ),
called Embisarus (Eo) by Diodorus,* [2] was a
Kashmiri king of abhira * [3] descent beyond the river
Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander the Great both before and after the
conquest of Porus in 326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. * [4] Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and
on his death in 325 BC appointed his son as his successor.* [5] * [6] * [7] .* [8]

[4] Flavius Arrianus Hist., Phil., Alexandri anabasis Book 5,


chapter 20, section 5, line 4 ,

.
[5] Waldemar Heckel: Whos who in the age of Alexander the
Great. Prosopography of Alexanders empire. Blackwell,
Oxford 2006, ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9 (excerpt online).
[6] Strabo Geogr., Geographica Book 15, chapter 1, section
28, line 11
[7] . , 87
[8] Curt, VIII, 43, 13. XLVII, 1. IX, 1, 7, X, 3, 20

3.1 Kingdom

[9] Encyclopaedia of ancient Indian geography By Subodh


Kapoor-page-3

Hazara (country), the Abisares of the Greeks;it forms


the north-western district of the Peshawar division.
It was conquered by Arjuna (Mahabharata,SabhaParva,Ch.27;JASD.(1852)p. 234). But Dr. Stein identies the kingdom of Abhisara with the tract of the
lower and middle hills between the Vitasta (Jhelum)
and Chadrabhaga (Chenab) including the state of Rajapuri (Rajauri) in Kasmira.* [9]* [10]* [11] The kingdom
of Abhisara nds reference in ancient Indian texts also.
In epic times and Buddhist times, it had formed integral part of Ancient Kamboja Mahajanapada. Old kingdom of Abhisara was basically situated in the Poonch,
Rajauri and Nowshera districts of Jammu and Kashmir.* [12]* [13]* [14]

[10] http://books.google.co.in/books?id=43Fzt-G_
-XYC&pg=PA3&dq=great+abhiras&hl=en&ei=
3ymQTeabHImmcKyBvY0K&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#
[11] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, v. 8, 20, 29; Curtius Rufus,
Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12-14, ix. 1, x. 1
[12] Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of
Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, 1953, p
248, Hemchandra Raychaudhuri, University of Calcutta
[13] The Mahbhrata, Its Genesis and Growth: A Statistical
Study, 1986, p 115, M. R. Yardi, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Mahbhrata; Military History of India,
1980, p 38, Hemendra Chandra Kar - History
[14] Journal of Indian History, 1969, p 123, University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Allahabad Dept. of
Modern Indian History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala - India.

3.2 References
[1] Chisholm, Hugh (1910). Alexander III (Alexander the
Great)". Encyclopdia Britannica Eleventh Edition 1.
[2] Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 90

3.2.1 Other sources


Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Abisares,
Boston, (1867)

[3] http://books.google.com/books?id=FoT6gPrbTp8C&
pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=Abisares++abhira+
or+ahir+king&source=bl&ots=d_8Stz5xqE&
sig=su7906CaYlblt0hJ5Yo0jJTrzvo&hl=en&ei=
xQUGTZTWKcSAlAeTvrD-Bw&sa=X&oi=book_
result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#
v=onepage&q=Abisares%20%20abhira%20or%
20ahir%20king&f=false

Waldemar Heckel: Whos who in the age of Alexander the Great. Prosopography of Alexander
s empire.
Blackwell, Oxford 2006, ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9
(excerpt online)
31

32
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

CHAPTER 3. ABISARES

Chapter 4

Abistamenes
Abistamenes (. 4th century BC) was a governor, or
satrap, of Cappadocia,* [1]* [2] or at least of its southern portions, with Ariarathes I of Cappadocia possibly governing the north. He is called Sabictas by
Arrian,* [3] and was almost certainly a native Cappadocian.* [4] Gronovius conjectures that instead of Abistamene Cappadociae praeposito we ought to read Abicta
magnae Cappadociae, &c.
Abistamenes was the successor to Mithrobuzanes, the last
Achaemenid satrap of Cappadocia. Mithrobouzanes was
killed at the Battle of the Granicus (334 BC), and Abistamenes was thereafter appointed satrap by Alexander the
Great, although his hold over Cappadocia appears to have
been weak, as Cappadocian soldiers were found ghting for King Darius III of Persia during the Battle of
Gaugamela (331 BC). Abistamenes may no longer even
have been in power at that point, however, as he seems to
disappear in the wake of the Battle of Issus (233 BC).
The rule of Abistamenes was certainly long done by the
time of Alexander's death in 323 BC, when the entirety of
Cappadocia was given by Alexander's heirs to Eumenes
to govern.

4.1 References
[1] Smith, William (1867). Abistamenes. In Smith,
William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1. p. 3.
[2] Curt. iii. 4
[3] Anab. ii. 4.
[4] Bosworth, Albert Brian (1993). Conquest and Empire:
The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University
Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-521-40679-X.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

33

Chapter 5

Aesopus (historian)
ref. Letronne. Journal des Savans. (Paris: Imprimerie Royale): 617. January 1818.

For other uses of this name, see Aesop (disambiguation).


Aesopus (Gr. ) was a Greek historian who
wrote a life of Alexander the Great. The original is
lost, but there is a Latin translation of it by Julius
Valerius, of which Franciscus Juretus had, he says, a
manuscript.* [1] It was rst published, however, by A.
Mai from a manuscript in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in
Milan in 1817. The title is Itinerarium ad Constantinum
Atigustum, etc. : accedunt Julii Valerii Res gestae Alexandri Macedonis, etc. The time when Aesopus lived is
uncertain, and even his existence has been doubted.* [2]
Mai, in the preface to his edition, contended that the
work was written before 389 AD, because the temple of
Serapis at Alexandria, which was destroyed by order of
Theodosius I, is spoken of in the translation as still standing.* [3] But serious objections to this inference have been
raised by Letronne,* [4] who refers it to the 7th or 8th century, which the weight of internal evidence would rather
point to. The book contains many factual errors, and is
discredited by many historians.* [5]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

5.1 References
[1] Franciscus Juretus, ad Symmach. Ep. x. 54
[2] Barth, Adversar. ii. 10
[3] Julius Valerius, i. 31
[4] Journ. des Savans, 1818, p. 617
[5] Allen, Alexander (1867). Aesopus (2)". In Smith,
William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1. p. 48.; Note: The 1853 text has the error
Letronno instead of the name of the famous French archaeologist and scholar Letronne.

5.2 External links


Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
(1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.).
University Press.

"Aesopus".
Cambridge

34

Chapter 6

Aeternae
The Aeternae were a race of legendary creatures described in the travels of Alexander the Great.* [1] As
Alexander's army passed northern Indian plains, they supposedly encountered the Aeternae, who killed some of
Alexander's men.* [2] The Aeternae were described as
killing and wounding enemies with bony, saw-toothed
protuberances sprouting from their heads.* [2]

6.1 References
[1] Giants, Monsters, and Dragons: An Encyclopedia of
Folklore, Legend, and Myth by Carol Rose page 4
[2] Matthews, John and Caitlin (2005). The Element Encyclopedia of Magical Creatuers. HarperElement. p. 8. ISBN
978-1-4351-1086-1.

35

Chapter 7

The Afghan Campaign


The Afghan Campaign is a historical novel by the American writer Steven Presseld. It was rst published in 2006
by the Broadway division of Random House.* [1] It is the
story of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Afghan
kingdoms (the Afghanistan of today) in 330 BC through
the eyes of Matthias ( in Greek), a young soldier from Macedonia, who narrates the adventures of the
Macedonian army against the Eastern warriors. Matthias
ghts for Alexander the Great's infantry confronting ferocious people who, determined to defend their homeland,
follow tough war methods.

Nanguali is the barbarian warriors code; its three elements are: honour, revenge and hospitality. Their
womens honour, if blackened, could be redeemed (turn
back into white) only by death. Matthias stands up to Baz,
Shinars brother, but fails to reach a compromise and is
deceived by Baz, who in the end kills his sister and her
baby.

At the end of the story, Matthias is left with nothing he


has lost his family, friends, health and hope. Instead of
returning home (his wife and son having been killed) as
initially planned and having nothing to lose, he decides to
Many pages of the book are dedicated to Alexander's follow the Greek army in its way to India. The absurdity
army's ght against the Persian Spitamenes ( of the war is revealed in all its grandeur.
in Greek), the Wolf of the Desert, whose army follows
the barbarian war method contrary to their rivals who
make war in array. Presseld presents the brutalities 7.2 Reception
and ferocities of both parties while he does not omit to
refer to the vanity and voraciousness of Alexander the
The novel was well received by critics who found it a
Great who in the last pages of the novel gets married to
vivid, compelling tale about the challenges of the war
the Bactrian Roxanne ( in Greek), daughter of *
, [3] and that through the characters we learn something
Oxyartes. Having thus safeguarded his rights in the kingabout human nature.* [4]
doms of Orient, he sets o to conquer India crossing the
mountains of Indian Caucasus. He leaves behind him
many thousands of footmen and horsemen (one fth of
his army) to deter the indigenous people from possible 7.3 References
insurrections and outbreaks within the conquered land.
[1] Amazon.com: The Afghan Campaign: A novel
(9780385516419): Steven Presseld: Books. www.
amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-09-01.

7.1 Plot
Young Matthias from Macedonia follows his two older
brothersexample and enrolls in Alexanders cavalry
together with his close friend Lygaios/Lucas (
in Greek).* [2] This special convoy departs from Tripoli,
Lebanon and after 125 days of marching meets the rear of
Alexander's army. The hero takes part into his rst battle
and gets shocked by the atrocities of his adversaries and
his own people as well. Noteworthy is the fact that the
enemy, apart from its guerilla methods, recruits women
and children to ght for their freedom.

[2] The Afghan Campaign by Steven Presseld - Hardcover


- Random House, www.randomhouse.com, accessed 1
September 2009
[3] The Claremont Institute - Alexander in Afghanistan.
www.claremont.org. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[4] Review of The Afghan Campaign, by Chet Richards.
www.d-n-i.net. Retrieved 2009-09-01.

7.4 Further reading

While marching, Matthias meets Shinar, an Afghan


woman who, having abandoned her own people, oers
her services as carrier of the Greek armys supplies.
36

Lubin, Andrew (September 9, 2010). Book Review: The Afghan Campaign"". Regarding War
Blog. PBS. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

7.5. EXTERNAL LINKS


Dietrich, William (August 11, 2006). ""The Afghan
Campaign": Greek war story echoes today's battles
. The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

7.5 External links


Steven Presseld's ocial website

37

Chapter 8

Agalassoi
The Agalassoi were a tribe that lived in modern Pakistan
in the lower Indus Valley at the time of Alexander the
Great. During Agalassoi were defeated in battle by the
forces of Alexander.

8.1 Sources
Battacharya, Sachchidananda. A Dictionary of Indian History (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1977) p.
10.

38

Chapter 9

Aggrammes
Xandramesredirects here. For the geometer
moth genus, see Xandrames (moth).
Aggrammes, or Xandrames (Gr. ) according to Diodorus Siculus, was the ruler of the Gangaridai
and Prasii in what is now the Bengal region of the Indian
subcontinent.* [1] He was said to be the son of a barber,
whom the queen had married. Alexander the Great was
preparing to march against him when he was compelled
by his soldiers, who had become tired of the war, to give
up further conquests in India.* [2]* [3]* [4]* [5]

9.1 References
[1] Smith, William (1867), Aggrammes, in Smith,
William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, p. 71
[2] Curt. v. 2
[3] Diodorus Siculus, xvii. 93, 94
[4] Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander v. 25, &c.
[5] Plutarch, Life of Alexander 60

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

39

Chapter 10

Alexander I of Epirus
Alexander I of Epirus (Ancient Greek: '
, 370 BC 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus ( ), was a king
of Epirus (350331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty.* [1]

10.2 References
[1] Mason, Charles Peter (1867). Alexander. In William
Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p.
116.

10.1 Biography

[2] Marcus Junianus Justinus (Justin): Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus Book VIII, Chapter
6. Online translation http://www.forumromanum.org/
literature/justin/english/trans8.html

As the son of Neoptolemus I and brother of Olympias,


Alexander I was an uncle of Alexander the Great. He was
also an uncle of Pyrrhus of Epirus. He was brought at an
early age to the court of Philip II of Macedon, and after
the Grecian fashion became the object of his attachment.
At the age of about 20, Philip made him king of Epirus,
after dethroning his uncle Arymbas.* [2]

[3] Justin. Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, viii.6, ix.6, xii.2


[4] Livy. Ab urbe condita, viii.3, 17, 24
[5] Aulus Gellius. Noctes Atticae, xvii.21
[6] Livy 9.19, Alternative history: Alexander the Great vs.
Rome

When Olympias was repudiated by her husband, 337 BC,


she went to her brother, and endeavoured to induce him
to make war on Philip.
Alexander, however, declined the contest, and formed a
second alliance with Philip by taking to wife the daughter
of Philip (Alexander I's niece) Cleopatra in marriage (336
BC). At the wedding Philip was assassinated by Pausanias
of Orestis.

10.3 External links

In 334 BC, Alexander I, at the request of the Greek


colony of Taras (in Magna Graecia), crossed over into
Italy, to aid them in battle against several Italic tribes, the
Lucanians and Bruttii. After a victory over the Samnites
and Lucanians near Paestum, 332 BC, he made a treaty
with the Romans. Success still followed his arms. He
took Heraclea from the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontum from the Bruttii. Through the treachery of some
Lucanian exiles, he was compelled to engage under unfavourable circumstances in the battle of Pandosia and
was killed by a Lucanian. He left a son, Neoptolemus,
and a daughter, Cadmea.* [3]* [4]* [5]
In a famous passage* [6] that is often considered the rst
specimen of alternative history, Livy speculates on what
would have been the outcome of a military showdown
between Alexander the Great and the Roman Republic.
He reports there that as Alexander of Epirus lay mortally
wounded on the battleeld at Pandosia he compared his
fortunes to those of his famous nephew and said that the
latter waged war against women.
40

Lendering, Jona.
Livius.org, 2004.

Alexander of Molossis.

Chapter 11

Alexander IV of Macedon
Alexander IV (Greek: ; 323311 BC), 11.3 Civil War
erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus,* [1]
was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Cassander allied himself with Ptolemy Soter, Antigonus
Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
and Eurydice, the ambitious wife of king Philip Arrhidaeus, and declared war upon the Regency. Polyperchon
was allied with Eumenes and Olympias.

11.1 Birth
Alexander IV was Alexander the Great's son and Philip
II of Macedon's grandson. Because Roxana was pregnant when her husband died and the sex of the baby was
unknown, there was dissension in the Macedonian army
regarding the order of succession. While the infantry supported the baby's uncle, Philip III (who was both feebleminded and illegitimate), the chiliarch Perdiccas, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, persuaded them
to wait in the hope that Roxana's unborn child would be
male. The factions compromised, deciding that Perdiccas would rule the Empire as regent while Philip would
reign, but only as a gurehead with no real power. If the
child was male, then he would be king. Alexander IV was
born in August, 323 BC.

11.2 Regents
After a severe regency, military failure in Egypt, and
mutiny in the army, Perdiccas was assassinated by his senior ocers in May or June 321 or 320 BC (problems
with Diodorus's chronology have made the year uncertain* [2]), after which Antipater was named as the new
regent at the Partition of Triparadisus. He brought with
him Roxana and the two kings to Macedon and gave up
the pretence of ruling Alexander's Empire, leaving former provinces in Egypt and Asia in control of the satraps
(see diadochi). When Antipater died in 319 BC he left
Polyperchon, a Macedonian general who had served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, as his successor,
passing over his own son, Cassander.

Although Polyperchon was successful at rst, taking


control of the Greek cities, his eet was destroyed by
Antigonus in 318 BC. When, after the battle, Cassander assumed full control of Macedon, Polyperchon
was forced to ee to Epirus, followed by Roxana and
the young Alexander. A few months later, Olympias was
able to persuade her relative Aeacides of Epirus to invade Macedon with Polyperchon. When Olympias took
the eld, Eurydice's army refused to ght against the
mother of Alexander and defected to Olympias, after
which Polyperchon and Aeacides retook Macedon. Philip
and Eurydice were captured and executed on December
25, 317 BC, leaving Alexander IV king, and Olympias in
eective control, as she was his regent.
Cassander returned in the following year (316 BC), conquering Macedon once again. Olympias was immediately
executed, while the king and his mother were taken prisoner and held in the citadel of Amphipolis under the supervision of Glaucias. When the general peace between
Cassander, Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus put an
end to the Third Diadoch War in 311 BC, the peace treaty
recognized Alexander IV's rights and explicitly stated that
when he came of age he would succeed Cassander as
ruler.

11.4 Death
Following the treaty, defenders of the Argead dynasty
began to declare that Alexander IV should now exercise full power and that a regent was no longer needed.
Cassander's response was denitive: to secure his rule, in
311 BC he commanded Glaucias to secretly assassinate
the 12-year old Alexander IV and his mother. The orders
were carried out, and they were both poisoned.
One of the royal tombs discovered by the archaeologist
Manolis Andronikos in the so-called Great Tumulus"

41

42

Tomb III in Vergina, probably belonged to Alexander IV

in Vergina in 1977/8 is believed to belong to Alexander IV.* [3] A newly discovered tomb in Amphipolis may
prove to challenge this theory.* [4]

11.5 In popular culture


The tragic young monarch appears as a character in
Funeral Games, an historical novel by Mary Renault.

11.6 References
[1] The error was caused by a modern misreading,
for , of the text of Ptolemy's Canon of Kings.
See e.g. s.v. Alexander the Great. Encyclopaedia
Britannica 1. 1911. p. 549. Chugg, Andrew Michael
(2007). The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great.
Lulu. p. 42. At Google Books.
[2] Anson, Edward M (Summer 1986). Diodorus and the
Date of Triparadeisus. The American Journal of Philogy
(The Johns Hopkins University Press) 107 (2): 208217.
doi:10.2307/294603. JSTOR 294603.
[3] Royal Tombs: Vergina. Macedonian Heritage. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
[4] Mosaics Revealed at Alexander the Great-Era Tomb.
Discovery News. Retrieved 6 September 2014.

11.7 Further reading


Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Alexander IV
, Boston, (1867).

11.8 External links


Livius.org: Alexander IV
Wiki Classical Dictionary: Alexander IV

CHAPTER 11. ALEXANDER IV OF MACEDON

Chapter 12

Alexander the Great in legend


There are many legendary accounts surrounding the life
of Alexander the Great, with a relatively large number
deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by
Alexander himself.

12.1 Ancient
12.1.1

Prophesied conqueror

April, he met envoys from Greece who reported that the


Erythraean Sibyl had conrmed that Alexander was the
son of Zeus.* [3]
By 330, Alexander had started to adopt elements of Persian royal dress.* [3] In 327 he introduced proskynesis
a ritualized honor accorded by Persians to their rulers.
This Greek soldiers resisted, as such prostrations were reserved for honoring the gods. They considered this blasphemy on Alexander's part and sure to bring condemnation from the gods.* [4]

King Philip had a dream in which he took a wax seal and


sealed up the womb of his wife. The seal bore the image
of a lion. The seer Aristander interpreted this to mean
that Olympias was pregnant, since men do not seal up
what is empty, and that she would bring forth a son who
would be bold and lion-like.* [1] (Ephorus FGrH 70 217)
After Philip took Potidaea in 356 BC, he received word
that his horse had just won at the Olympic games, and that
Parmenion had defeated the Illyrians. Then he got word
of the birth of Alexander. The seers told him that a son
whose birth coincided with three victories would always
be victorious.* [2] When the young Alexander tamed the
steed Bucephalus, his father noted that Macedonia would
not be large enough for him.* [2]

12.1.2

Deied Alexander

In 336, Philip sent Parmenion with an army of 10,000


men, as vanguard of a force to free the Greeks living on
the western coast of Anatolia from Persian rule. The people of Eresus on the island Lesbos erected an altar to Zeus
Philippios. Alexander himself was the model for the image of Apollo on coins issued by his father.* [3]
When Alexander went to Egypt, he was given the title
pharaoh, which included the epithet Son of Ra
, declaring him to be the son of the sun. A story told
that one night King Philip had found a huge snake in
the bed next to his sleeping wife. Olympias was from
Epirus and may have practiced a mystery cult that involved snake-handling.* [2] The snake was said to be Zeus
Ammon in disguise. After his visit to the Siwa Oasis in
February 331, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon
as his true father. Upon his returned to Memphis in
43

When the Pythia refused to answer Alexander, he


began to drag her to the temple. Whereupon Pythia
exclaimed, You are invincible o young! (aniketos ei
o pai!) (Plutarch Al. 14. 6-7)
The one who could manage to untie the Gordian
knot would become the king of Asia. (Arrian 2.3)
Although Daniel does not refer to him by name,
Alexander is the he-goat and King of Javan (Greece),
coming from the west and crossing the earth without touching the ground. He charges the ram in great
rage. He shatters the horns of Media and Persia and
knocks the ram to the ground and tramples it.(Daniel
8:3-8).* [5]
Alexander was born on the same day the Temple
of Artemis at Ephesus was burnt down. Plutarch
remarked that Artemis was too preoccupied with
Alexander's delivery to save her burning temple.
Alexander later oered to pay for the temple's rebuilding, but the Ephesians refused on the ground
that it was inappropriate for a god to dedicate oerings to other gods. (Strabo 14.1.22)
Apelles painted Alexander holding a thunderbolt of
Zeus.
Decree of the Ionian League (uncertain date):
so that we should [pass the day on which King
Antiochus] was born in reverence [ To each
person participating in the festival] shall be given [a
sum] equivalent to that given for [the sacrice and
procession for Alexander]* [6]

44

CHAPTER 12. ALEXANDER THE GREAT IN LEGEND

12.2 Alexander Romance


Main article: Alexander Romance
In the rst centuries after Alexander's death, probably
in Alexandria, a quantity of the more legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance, later falsely ascribed to the historian Callisthenes
and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout
Antiquity and the Middle Ages, exhibiting a plasticity unseen inhigherliterary forms. Latin and Syriac translations were made in Late Antiquity. From these, versions
were developed in all the major languages of Europe and
the Middle East, including Armenian, Georgian, Persian,
Arabic, Turkish, Hebrew, Serbian, Slavonic, Romanian,
Hungarian, German, English, Italian, and French. The
Romanceis regarded by many Western scholars as the
source of the account of Alexander given in the Qur'an
(Sura The Cave). It is the source of many incidents in
Ferdowsi's "Shahnama". A Mongolian version is also extant.

12.3 Greek Folklore


Eskandar ghting the enemy, 15th century Persian miniature,

Alexander is also a character of Greek folklore (and other Czartoryski Museum


regions), as the protagonist of 'apocryphal' tales of bravery. A maritime legend says that his sister is a mermaid
and asks the sailors if her brother is still alive. The un The Gates of Alexander (Caspian Gates) were a legsuspecting sailor who answers truthfully arouses the merendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander in the
maid's wrath and his boat perishes in the waves; a sailor
Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the
mindful of the circumstances will answer "He lives and
north (typically associated with Gog and Magog)
reigns, and conquers the world", and the sea about his boat
from invading the land to the south.
will immediately calm. Alexander is also a character of
The early Muslim scholars generally identied the
a standard play in the Karagiozis repertory, Alexander
Dhul-Qarnayn of the Qur'an with Alexander the
the Great and the Accursed Serpent. The ancient Greek
Great. The Alexander legend is also believed to expoet Adrianus composed an epic poem on the history of
tend to Alexander the Great in the Qur'an, where
Alexander the Great, called the Alexandriad, which was
he appears as a prophet called Dhul-Qarnayn. In
probably still extant in the 10th century, but which is now
the centuries that followed, Alexander the Great was
lost to us.
often thought of by Muslims as a Prophet of Islam.
Early Islamic civilization would produce its own legendary traditions about Alexander the Great, partic12.4 Medieval
ularly in Persia. With the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Alexander Romance found its way in Persian
12.4.1 Oriental tradition
literaturean ironic outcome considering Zoroastric Persia's hostility to the national enemy who n In Shahnameh, the Persian epic, Kai Bahman's elished the Achaemenid Empire, but was also directly
der son Dara(b) is killed in battle with Alexander
responsible for centuries of Persian domination by
Hellenisticforeign rulers.* [9] Islamic Persian acthe Great, that is, Dara/Darab is identied as Darius
III and which then makes Bahman a gure of the
counts of the Alexander legend, known as the Iskan4th century BC. In another tradition, Alexander is
darnamah, combined the Pseudo-Callisthenes mathe son of Dara/Darab and his wife Nahid, who is
terial about Alexander, some of which is found in the
described to be the daughter of Filfus of Rm"
Qur'an, with Sasanid Persian ideas about Alexander
i.e. Philip the Greek(cf. Philip II of Macethe Great. Persian sources on the Alexander legdon)* [7]* [8]
end devised a mythical genealogy for him whereby

12.8. REFERENCES
his mother was a concubine of Darius II, making
him the half-brother of the last Achaemenid shah,
Darius. By the 12th century such important writers
as Nezami Ganjavi were making him the subject of
their epic poems. The Muslim traditions also elaborated the legend that Alexander the Great had been
the companion of Aristotle and the direct student of
Plato.

12.4.2

Western tradition

Epic poems based on Alexander romance


Alexandreis Latin
Alexanderlied German
Li romans d'Alixandre French
Libro de Alexandre Spanish
Alexanders saga Old Norse-Icelandic
The Buik of Alexander Scottish
Aethicus Ister (Latin) has numerous passages which
deal directly with the legends of Alexander
Azo a legendary ruler of Georgians, who had been
installed by Alexander.

12.5 Malay tradition


Epics and genealogies based on Alexander the Great
(known to Malays as Iskander Zulkarnain)
Hikayat Iskandar Zulkarnain

12.6 Apocryphal letters


Leon of Pella wrote the book On the Gods in Egypt,
based on an apocryphal letter of Alexander to his
mother Olympias.
Epistola Alexandri ad Aristotelem concerning the
marvels of India.

12.7 Women and Alexander


According to Greek Alexander Romance, Queen
Thalestris of the Amazons brought 300 women to
Alexander the Great, hoping to breed a race of children as strong and intelligent as he.
According to Greek Alexander Romance, Alexander encountered the Nubian Queen Candace of
Mero

45
A popular Greek legend* [10]* [11] talks about a
mermaid who lived in the Aegean for hundreds
of years who was thought to be Alexander's sister
Thessalonike. The legend states that Alexander, in
his quest for the Fountain of Immortality, retrieved
with great exertion a ask of immortal water with
which he bathed his sister's hair. When Alexander
died his grief-stricken sister attempted to end her
life by jumping into the sea. Instead of drowning,
however, she became a mermaid passing judgment
on mariners throughout the centuries and across the
seven seas. To the sailors who encountered her she
would always pose the same question: Is Alexander the king alive?" (Greek: Zei o vasilias Alexandros?), to which the correct answer would be He
lives, still rules, and conquers the World (Greek:
Zei kai vasilevei kai ton kosmon kyrievei!). Given
this answer she would allow the ship and her crew
to sail safely away in calm seas. Any other answer
would transform her into the raging Gorgon, bent
on sending the ship and every sailor on board to the
bottom.

12.8 References
[1] Plutarch Al. 2.23
[2] Worthington, Ian. Alexander the Great: Man and God,
Routledge, 2004
[3] Lendering, Jona. Alexander the God, Livius.org
[4] Hamblin, William and Peterson, Daniel. Alexander the
Great wasn't content to be merely human, Deseret News,
August 23, 2014
[5] Willmington's Guide to the Bible By H. L. Willmington
Page 821 ISBN 978-0-8254-1874-7
[6] The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest By M. M. Austin Page 242 ISBN 0-521-29666-8
[7] Encyclopdia Iranica - Page 12 ISBN 978-0-7100-91093
[8] Alexander the Great was calledthe Rumanin Zoroastrian tradition because he came from Greek provinces
which later were a part of the eastern Roman empire The archeology of world religions By Jack Finegan Page
80 ISBN 0-415-22155-2
[9] E.g. the Greek scholar G. G. Aperghis goes so far as to
state: Rather than considering the arrival of the Greeks
as bringing something entirely new to the management of
an empire, one should probably see them as apt pupils of
excellent [Achaemenian] teachers. (link)"
[10] Mermaids and Ikons: A Greek Summer (1978) page 73
by Gwendolyn MacEwen ISBN 978-0-88784-062-3
[11] Folktales from Greece Page 96 ISBN 1-56308-908-4

46

12.9 See also


Mythography
Historical Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in the Qur'an
Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great

CHAPTER 12. ALEXANDER THE GREAT IN LEGEND

Chapter 13

Alexander the Great and the Kambojas


The Kambojas were famous for their excellent horse
breeding as well as their riding skills, hence they were
also commonly known as Ashvakas.* [1]* [2]* [3]* [4]* [5]
The Ashvayana and Ashvakayana clans fought the
Macedonians ercely with even the Ashvakayana Kamboj
women taking up arms and ghting alongside their husbands, preferring a glorious death to a life of dishonor
.* [6]

(Gandhara was the rst kingdom of ancient India and is in


the north of modern day Pakistan). Ambhi (Greek: Omphis), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from
the Indus to the Jhelum (Greek:Hydaspes) complied, as
well as some others, Sangaeus (Sanjaya) of Peucalaotis
(Pushkalavati), Cophaeus of the Kabul region and Assagetes (Ashvajit), chief of a part of west Gandhara, and
Sicicottos (Shashigupta) * [7]* [8] from a hill state, south of
the Hindu Kush.* [9] However most of the highland chieftains refused to submit - including the Astekenoi, Aspasioi
and Assakenoi, known in Indian texts as Hastinayanas,
Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas.

13.2 Alexander's campaign against


the Kambojas
At Nikaia, near modern Jalalabad, Alexander divided
his army into two parts, one under Hephaistion and
Perdiccas was ordered to proceed through Kabul to
Gandhara. Alexander personally took command of the
second part, which included a select force of shieldbearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians
and mounted javelin-men, marching against the Kamboja
clans the Aspasioi of the Kunar/Alishang valleys, the
Guraeans * [10] of the Guraeus (Panjkora) valley and the
Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys. These highlanders, designated as parvatiya Ayudhajivinah in
Pini's Astadhyayi,* [11] were rebellious, ercely independent clans who resisted subjugation by anyone.* [12]
It was indeed a hard work for Alexander to take their
strongholds, of which Massaga and Aornus need special
mention.* [13] And it is also a tribute to the vision and
sagacity of Alexander that he realised that without reducing these highlanders, his march into India would neither
be secure nor eective.* [14]

Bust of Alexander in the British Museum.

13.1 Alexander
Kush

crosses

Hindu

13.3 Battle against the Ashvayanas


(Aspasioi)

In the spring of 327 BCE Alexander set out on the road


to the Indus. He invited the chieftains of the former
Achaemenian Satrap of Gandhara to submit and join him.
47

Ascending the Kunar valley, Alexander came into


conict with the Ashvayanas or Aspasioi. The mod-

48

CHAPTER 13. ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE KAMBOJAS

ern remnants of these clans are the Pachai, the Asip


modern Arbutt, on the left bank of the river Lanor Isap or the Yusufzai in the Kabul valley between
dei near Naoshehra, reaching the city of Embolima
the rivers Kabul and Indus.* [15] They oered stubwhich adjoined Aornos. Having made Embolima
born resistance to the invading army. Alexander was
his base, Alexander advanced towards the most
seriously wounded in the right shoulder by an arformidable and highly strategic rocky fortress of
row and his ocers Ptolemy and Leonatos were also
Aornos which even Dionysos, an earlier Greek coninjured. Next morning however, Alexander sucqueror (as per Greek traditions) could not defeat.
ceeded in breaching one of the walls of the citadel.
Alexander was determined to surpass this predecesThe Ashvayanas then ed from the gates and made
sor in his military achievements.
for the hills, leaving the Macedonians to raze the city
to the ground and move on to confront another clan Writing on Alexander's campaign against the Assakenoi,
of the Ashvayanas located in city of Andaka.
Victor Hanson comments: After promising the surrounded Assacenis (Ashvakayanas) their lives upon capitulation, he executed all their soldiers who had surrendered.
13.4 Battle with Ashvakayanas Their strongholds at Ora and Aornus were also similarly
stormed. (The) Garrisons were probably all slaughtered
(Assakenoi)
.* [24]
After defeating the Ashvayanas, Alexander engaged
the Ashvakayanas, the Assakenoi of classical writings. The Assakenoi inhabited the Swat valley
and had strongholds in Massaga, Ora, Bazira, and
Aornos. Their modern remnants are the Aspins of
Chitral and the Yashkuns of Gilgit.* [16] According
to Arrian, they mustered an army of 30,000 cavalry,
30,000 infantry and 30 elephants.* [17] Seven thousand soldiers joined from Abhisara as reinforcements.* [18] The Ashvakayanas resisted stubbornly
in their strongholds and the fort of Massaga was only
gained after several days of bloody ghting during
which Alexander was seriously injured in the ankle
by an arrow.
Diering accounts of these events were given by the ancient writers Arrian* [19] Quintus Curtius Rufus,* [20]
Diodorus Siculus* [21] and Plutarch.* [22]

13.5 Battle of Ora and Bazira


After Massaga, Alexander dispatched Koinos to
Bazira and Attlos, Alketas and Demetrios to Ora.
The Ashvakayanas of Ora came out to ght Alketas
but were beaten back behind the walls. The King of
Abhisara * [23] sent a military contingent to relieve
the Ashvakayanas at Ora. Hearing this, Alexander
rushed to Ora and also recalled Koinos from Bazira
to join him. Their joint assault overran the citadel.

13.5.1

Battle of Aornos

After the fall of Ora and Bazira, many Assakenians ed to a high fortress called Aornos, which is
Pini's Varana. It has been identied with modern
Una (Pushtu Urna). But before attacking Aornos,
Alexander strengthened his defences of Massaga,
Ora and Bazira and fortied the city of Orbatis,

13.6 Tragedy of Afrikes and invasion of Dyrta


Alexander got the news that one of the three sons of
Cleophis (and the brother of the deceased war leader,
Assaeknos of Massaga), was hovering in the mountains
with an army of 20,000 and a eet of 15 war elephants waiting for the right opportunity for a showdown
with the Macedonians. Didorus calls this Ashvakayana
chieftain as Afrikes * [25] while Curtius refers to him as
Erix.* [26] Scholars state that the name Afrikes seems to
contain reference to Aprita or Afridi, thereby, linking
the Afridis with the Ashvakayanas.* [27] Alexander proceeded against Afrikes. However, at the critical juncture, a dispute arose among Afrikes' followers and some
deserters assassinated him and presented his head to
Alexander and joined his ranks.* [28] After this tragic
event, Alexander proceeded against the Ashvakayanas of
Dyrta (Sanskrit Darteya or Dharteya), north of Mahaban,
near the point of issue of the Indus from the mountains.
This section of the Ashvakayanas is known as Dharteyas
to Pini * [29] and like other Ashvakayanas, have been
styled as Ayudhajivin Samgha (Warlike republics) in the
Ganapatha of Pini.* [30]

13.7 Aftermath of the war campaign


Arrian reports that Sicicottos, who had helped Alexander in this campaign against the Ashvaka Kshatriyas was
made the governor of Aornos. Alexander's victory at
Aornos was eeting, with the Ashvakas defeated but not
crushed. Only a few months later the Ashvakayanas revolted against their rulers - assassinating Nicanor, the
Greek governor of Massaga. Sicicottos sent word to
Alexander who was still in north Punjab (at Glansai), ask-

13.8. REFERENCES
ing for immediate assistance. Alexander sent Phillipos
and Tyriaspes to quell the Ashvakayana rebellion - how
far they succeeded is not known, but Tyriaspes was soon
replaced by Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes, which
may indicate that things had not gone well.* [31]

13.8 References
[1] Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p. 110, E. Lammotte.

49

is also found among the modern Kamboj people of Punjab


and it is stated that the Punjab Kamboj Gaure/Gore came
from the Kunar valley to Punjab at some point in time in
the past
[11] Ashtadhyayi 4.3.91; India as Known to Pini, 1953, pp.
424, 43639, 455457, V. S. Aggarwala.
[12] See: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p. 225, Buddha
Prakash; Raja Poros, 1990, p. 9, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala.

[2] The Pakistan review, 1962, p. 15, Published by Ferozsons, History.

[13] Worthington, p. 162, from an extract of A. K. Narain,


'Alexander the Great', Greece and Rome 12 1965, pp.
155165.

[3] East and West, 1950, pp. 28, 15758, Istituto italiano per
il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Editor, Giuseppe Tucci, Coeditors Mario Bussagli, Lionello Lanciotti.

[14] Op cit, 1997, p. 225, Buddha Prakash

[4] Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in Hindu


Times, 1978, p. 140, K. P. Jayswal.
[5] G. Tucci associates them with the cemeteries at the
necropolises of Butkara II, Katelai I, Loebaur etc., in
the Swat valley (See: The Tombs of the 'AshvakayanAssakenoi', East and West, Vol XIV, 1963, Nos 1-2, pp.
2728).
[6] Diodorus in McCrindle, p. 270; History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p. 76, Ahmad Hasan Dani,
Vadim Mikhalovich Masson, Jnos Harmatta, Boris
Abramovich Litvinovski, Cliord Edmund Bosworth,
Unesco - Asia, Central Political History of Ancient India,
1996, pp. 25051, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee;
cf: Ancient India, 2003, p. 261, V. D. Mahajan.
[7] Buddha Prakash, however, thinks that Sangaeus (Sanjaya)
represented perhaps the Shinwari tribe called Sangu, now
living to the west of Khaiber Pass (See: History of Punjab,
Vol I, 1997, p. 233).

[15] The Invasion Of India By Alexander the Great (as described by Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch And
Justin), J. W. McCrindle; Op cit., p. 225, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, Patiala, (Editors) L. M. Joshi,
Fauja Singh; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient
Punjab, 1971, p. 72, Buddha Prakash.
[16] The Invasion Of India By Alexander the Great (as described by Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch And
Justin), J. W. McCrindle; Op cit., p. 225, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, Patiala, (Editors) L. M. Joshi,
Fauja Singh; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient
Punjab, 1971, p. 72, Buddha Prakash.
[17] Evolution of Heroic Tradition in ancient Punjab, 1971, p.
77, Buddha Prakash; History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p.
227, (Editors) L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh.
[18] Abhisara was an o-shoot of Kamboja See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp. 133, 219/220, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; A History of India, pp. 269
71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha; Journal of Indian History,
1921, p. 304, University of Allahabad, Department of
Modern Indian History, University of Kerala.

[8] Some scholars think that Sicikottos belonged to the Ashvaka clans. See: Invasion of Alexander, 2nd Ed, p. 112,
J. W. McCrindle; Was Chandragupta Maurya a Punjabi? [19] The Invasion of Alexander the Great, pp. 6869, J. W.
Article in Punjab History Conference, Second Session,
McCrindle.
October 2830, 1966, Punjabi University Patiala, pp. 32
33, H. R. Gupta; They taught lessons to kings, Gur Rattan [20] Curtius in McCrindle, Op cit, p. 192, J. W. McCrindle;
Pal Singh; Article in Sunday Tribune, January 10, 1999;
History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p. 229, Punajbi University,
Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p. 149, Kirpal Singh;
Patiala, (Editors): Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi
(Cf S. C. Seth's views in Sasigupta and Chandragupta
, Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p. 361; cf: Annals of [21] Diodorus in McCrindle, op cit., p. 269, J. W. McCrindle;
Op cit., p. 228, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University,
the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1936,
Patiala, Editor L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh.
p. 163, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; cf: The
Indian Review, 1936, p. 814, edited by G.A. Natesan).
[22] Plutarch in McCrindle, Invasion of India by Alexander the
[9] Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p. 250, H. C.
Great, p. 306.
Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee.
[23] Abhisara was an o-shoot of Kamboja (See: Political His[10] The Ashvayanas living on river Guraeus, which is Gauri
tory of Ancient India, 1996, pp. 133, 219/220, H. C. Rayof Mahabharata, modern river Panjkora, were also known
chaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; A History of India, pp. 269
as Gorys or Guraios, modern Ghori or Gori, a widespread
71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha; Journal of Indian History,
tribe, branches of which are still to be found on Panjkora
1921, p. 304, University of Allahabad. Department of
and on both sides of the Kabul at the point of its conuence
Modern Indian History, University of Kerala.
with Landai (See: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p. 227,
Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, Patiala (Editors) [24] Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to
Western Power, 2002, p. 86, Victor Hanson.
L. M. joshi, Fauja Singh). The clan name Gore or Gaure

50

CHAPTER 13. ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE KAMBOJAS

[25] Diodorus in McCrindle, op cit., p. 232; History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p. 252, L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh; Political
History of Ancient India, 1996, p. 217, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee.

History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of


Imperial Unity, R. C. Majumdar, A. D. Pusalkar

[26] Curtius in McCrindle, op cit., p. 200; History of Punjab,


Vol I, 1997, p. 252, L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh.; Op cit., p.
217, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee.

Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna

[27] Op cit., 1997, p. 232, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala, (Editors) L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh; Raja
Poros, 1990, p. 38, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala.
[28] Op cit, p. 232, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University
Patiala, L. M. Joshi, Fauja Singh.
[29] India as Known to Pini, 1951, p. 452, V. S. Aggarwala:
It is Darteyas of the Vedic Index, I. p. 353.
[30] India as Known to Pini, 1951, pp. 44952, p. 424, V.
S. Aggarwala.
[31] History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p. 234, Editors Fauja
Singh, L. M. Joshi.

Ancient India, 2003, V. D. Mahajan

The Pathan, 1967, Olaf Caroe


Historical Essays, Second Series, 3rd edition, Edward A. Freeman, London Macmillan and Co. And
New York,1892
Alexander the Great, 2003, W. W. Tarn
Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Buddha
Parkash
Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, J.
L. Kamboj
Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in
Hindu Times, 1978, pp. 140, 121, K. P. Jayswal
History of Poros, Buddha Prakash
Glimpses of Ancient Punjab, 1965, Buddha Prakash

13.9 Further reading


History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, Editors Fauja Singh,
L. M. Joshi
Historie du bouddhisme Indien, E. Lammotte
Alexander the Great, 2003 - Cambridge University
Press, W. W. Tarn
Political History of Ancient India, 1996, H. C. Raychaudhury
The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch
And Justin, J. W. McCrindle
Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-fated
Journey Across Asia, John Prevas
Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise
to Western Power, Victor Hanson
Alexander: A History of the Origin and Growth of
the Art of War from the Earliest Times to the Battle of
Ipsus, 301 Bc, With a Detailed Account of the Campaigns, 1996- Da Capo Press, Theodore Ayrault
Dodge
Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction, 2002 - Oxford University Press, USA, A. B. Bosworth and E.
J. Baynham
The Wars of Alexander the Great, 2002- Osprey
Publishing, Waldemar Heckel
Classical Accounts of India, J. W. McCrindle

Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab,


1964, Buddha Prakash
Alexander the Great, London 1968, p. 235, R. D.
Milns time 3:00

Chapter 14

Amastris
14.2 Life
After the death of Dionysius, in 306 BC, she became
guardian of their children. Several others joined in this
administration.* [6] After her marriage to Lysimachus
ended, Amastris retired to Heraclea, which she governed
in her own right. She also founded shortly after 300 BC a
city called after her own name Amastris, on the sea-coast
of Paphlagonia, by the fusion (synoecism) of the four
smaller towns of Sesamus, Cromna, Cytorus and Tium.
One of these towns, Tium, later regained its autonomy,
but the other three remained part of the city of Amastris'
territory. She was drowned by her two sons about 284
BC.* [7]

14.3 Notes
[1] Waldemar Heckel, John Yardley, Alexander the Great:
historical texts in translation, Wiley-Blackwell, 2004,
p.p.183

Didrachm of Amastris. Amastris was the rst woman to issue


coins in her own name. British Museum.

[2] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, vii. 4

Amastris (Greek: ; killed c. 284 BC) also


called Amastrine, was a Persian Princess. She was the
daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Persian King
Darius III.* [1]

[3] Chris Bennett, Three Notes on Arsinoe; in: A Delta Man


in Yebu, edited by A. K. Eyma
[4] Ptolemaic Genealogy: Ptolemy Ceraunus
[5] Ptolemaic Genealogy: Unknown wife of Ptolemy Ceraunus

14.1 Marriages

[6] James Ussher, The Annals of the World, New Leaf Publishing Group, 2007, p 338

Amastris was given by Alexander the Great in marriage


to Craterus,* [2] however Craterus later decided to marry
Phila, one of the daughters of Antipater. She later married Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea Pontica, in Bithynia, in
322 BC. She bore him two sons named: Clearchus II and
Oxyathres.* [3]

[7] Memnon, History of Heracleia, 4, 5; Diodorus Siculus,


Bibliotheca, xx. 109

14.4 References

Amastris married Lysimachus in 302 BC. However, he


abandoned her shortly afterwards and married Arsinoe II,
one of the daughters of Ptolemy I Soter, the rst Pharaoh
of Ptolemaic Egypt. During the brief marriage of Lysimachus and Amastris, she may have borne him a child,
perhaps a daughter who may have been the rst wife of
Ptolemy Keraunos.* [4]* [5]
51

Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Amastris (3)", Boston,
(1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

52
Cohen, Getzel M.; The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, Asia Minor, Amastris, (1996)
Ptolemaic Genealogy: Ptolemy Ceraunus
Ptolemaic Genealogy: Unknown wife of Ptolemy
Ceraunus

CHAPTER 14. AMASTRIS

Chapter 15

Amyntas of Lyncestis
For other persons with the same name, see Amyntas
Amyntas of Lyncestis or Amyntas Lyncestes was a
taxiarch of Alexander the Great. He nished sixth in the
competition in Sittacene and was appointed chiliarch or
pentacosiarch of the hypaspists.

15.1 References
Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great
(Amyntas [7]) ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

53

Chapter 16

Anabasis Alexandri
Anabasis Alexandri (Greek:
Alexndrou anbasis), the Campaigns of Alexander by
Arrian, is the most important source on Alexander the
Great.

16.3 External links

The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from


a coastline into the interior of a country. The term
katabasis referred to a trip from the interior to the coast.
So a more literal translation would be The Expedition of
Alexander.
This work on Alexander is one of the few surviving complete accounts of the Macedonian conqueror's expedition. Arrian was able to use sources which are now
lost, such as the contemporary works by Callisthenes
(the nephew of Alexander's tutor Aristotle), Onesicritus,
Nearchus, and Aristobulus, and the slightly later work of
Cleitarchus. Most important of all, Arrian had the biography of Alexander by Ptolemy, one of Alexander's leading
generals and possibly his half-brother.
It is primarily a military history; it has little to say about
Alexander's personal life, his role in Greek politics or the
reasons why the campaign against Persia was launched in
the rst place.

16.1 See also


Codex Parisinus Graecus 456

16.2 Further reading


Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by
Aubrey de Slincourt, Penguin Classics, 1958 and
numerous subsequent editions.
Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by
P.A. Brunt, with Greek and English text, edited
by Jerey Henderson, The Loeb Classical Library,
Harvard University Press. Books I-IV: ISBN 0674-99260-1 Books V-VII and Indica: ISBN 0-67499297-0
54

Greek Wikisource has original text related to this


article:
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E.J. Chinnock (1893)
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 1.13-16) (pp.
18-19), Battle of the Granicus, from the Loeb edition.
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 4.18.4-19.6),
Sogdian Rock, translated by Aubrey de Slincourt

Chapter 17

Ariarathes I of Cappadocia
Ariarathes I (Ancient Greek: Ariarths;
died 322 BC) was the satrap of the Satrapy of Cappadocia under the Achaemenid Empire from 350 BC to
331 BC, and the King of Cappadocia from 331 BC until his death in 322 BC. He was the son of the Cappadocian satrap Ariamnes I. Ariarathes was distinguished
(, Phildelphos) for his love of his brother
Holophernes, whom he sent to assist his overlord king
Artaxerxes III in the recovery of Egypt, in 350 BC. Then
he devotedly supported Darius III. Alexander the Great
conquered Cappadocia during his route and installed a
governor there (though two dierent names of this governor are given). Nevertheless, by the time of Alexander's
death Ariarathes somehow assumed power as the rst
king of Cappadocians and even expanded the kingdom
by subduing Cataonia. After the death of Alexander, 323
BC, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes,
Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated,
taken prisoner, and crucied, together with many of his
relations, 322 BC. Eumenes then obtained possession of
Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time
of his death: he had adopted as his son Ariarathes II, the
eldest son of his brother Holophernes.* [1]

17.1 Notes
[1] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xviii. 16, xxxi. 3; Photius,
Bibliotheca, cod. 92; Appian, The Mithridatic Wars
, 8; Lucian, Macrobioi, 13; Plutarch, Parallel Lives,
Eumenes, 3;Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, xiii.
6

17.2 References
Hazel, John; Who's Who in the Greek World, Ariarathes II, (1999)
Head, Barclay; Historia Numorum,Cappadocia,
(1911)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.
55

(1870). "Ariarathes I.". Dictionary of Greek and


Roman Biography and Mythology.

Chapter 18

Aristander
Aristander of Telmessos (Greek: ; born ca. 380 BCE, . 2nd half of 4th century
BCE), a Greek from Caria, was Alexander the Great's favorite seer. Aristander was already in Philip's entourage
in 357/6, when he correctly interpreted a dream as revealing Olympias' pregnancy. The ancient sources place
him interpreting omens from the conqueror's birth to his
death. Although details are variously given, and some incidents are ctitious, Aristander was clearly an inuential
presence during Alexander's campaigns, and played an
important role in uplifting the morale of the Macedonian
army. There are indications he wrote divinatory works,
either before, during or after the expedition, although it is
also possible these works were spuriously attributed.* [1]

18.1 Aristander in the sources


(A represents Arrian, P Plutarch, C Curtius, D Diodorus,
J Justin, S Strabo, Iter. the Itinerarium Alexandri. Passages in which Aristander is mentioned by name are
marked with an asterisk.)
1. Philip dreams he sealed up the womb of his wife
Olympias, and that the seal bore a lion device. Aristander interprets the dream optimistically - that the
child Olympias bore (Alexander) would be lion-like
and brave. (*P 2.23; Ephorus FGrH 70 217)

Aristander forecasts that Tyre will be taken (because the bread is bloody on the inside). (*C 4.2.14;
17.41.7)
6. Alexander dreams that Heracles invited him into
Tyre. Aristander interprets this to mean that the
city will be captured, but with Herculean eort. (*A
2.18.1, C 4.2.17)
7. Alexander, besieging Tyre, dreams about a mocking
satyr. In Artemidorus Aristander and in P seers
play with words (sa tyros="tyre is thine) to
decide that Alexander will take the city. In PsCalisthenes the Satyr also gives him a cheese (tyros) to trample. (Artemidorus, Interpretation of
Dreams 4.2324; P 24.35; Ps-Calisthenes 1.35;
Artemidorus incident unnoticed by Jacoby)
8. Aristander, examining entrails, declares that Tyre
will be taken that month, even though it is the last
day. Alexander decrees a two day change in the calendar, but then takes the city the same day. (*P
25.12)
9. During the siege of Gaza, a bird drops something on
Alexander and is caught. Aristander predicts personal danger for Alexander that day, and is proven
right. (*A 2.26.427.2; *C 4.6.1013; *P 25.34;
Iter. 467)

2. Statue of Orpheus in Pieria sweats. Aristander interprets optimistically that it means Alexander will
cause poets and musicians much sweat in reciting
and celebrating his deeds. (*A 1.11.12; *P 14.5;
Iter. 17; Ps-Calisthenes 1.42)

10. Foundation of Alexandria. Alexander outlines city


with barley meal. In P, S, Itiner. and Frag. Sab.
birds descend upon it. Aristander projects a prosperous future. (*A 3.1.53.2.2; C 4.8.6; P 26.56;
S 17.1.6; Itiner. 49; FGrH 151=Frag. Sab. 11; others)

3. Army comes across a fallen statue of Ariobarzanes,


former satrap of Phrygia. The seer Alexander[Aristander?] interprets predicts the victory
at Granicus. (D 17.17.67)

11. Eclipse occurs 12 days before Gaugamela. Aristander (in A) or Egyptian soothsayers(in C) interpret the omen favorably. (*A 3.7.6; C 4.10.27;
see P 31.4)

4. An insistent swallow bothers the drowsing Alexander at Halicarnassus. Aristander interprets the event
to mean that a plot will be revealed to Alexander.
(*A 1.25.68)

12. Alexander conducts sacrices with Aristander the


night before Gaugamela. (*C 4.13.1416; *P 31.4;
FGrH 148=Pap. Oxyrch. 1798)

5. Macedonian soldiers engaged in the siege of Tyre


discover that some of the ration bread is bloody.
56

13. Aristander seen among Alexanders soldiers at


Gaugamela. Points out an eagle directly above
Alexanders head. (*C 4.15.2627; *P 33.12)

18.4. SOURCES
14. Aristander sacrices before crossing the Tanais. He
reports the omens are unfavorable. He is subsequently asked to sacrice again and (in A) proclaims
another unfavorable omen or (in C) changes his
mind. C relates at length how Alexander rebukes
Aristander for failing to report the rst forecast directly to the king. (*A 4.4.3; 4.4.9, *C 7.7.89;
7.72229, Itiner. 85)
15. Cleitus interrupts a sacrice to sample some fruit,
but the sheep follow him. Alexander orders Aristander and Cleomantis the Spartanto interpret
the event. Both interpret the event pessimistically.
(*P 50.24)
16. Alexander, having killed Cleitus, is consoled by Aristander, whoremindshim of his prophecy (number 14). Alexander is cheered. (*P 52.1; see A
4.9.5)
17. Petroleum is discovered. Aristander predicts that
the oil portends success after toil. (*A 4.15.78, C
7.10.4; P 57.3; S 9.7.3; Athen. 42 f; Itiner. 97)

57

entourage in 357/6, when he correctly interpreted a dream


revealing Olympias' pregnancy. During Alexander's campaigns he interpreted various omens for the King: the
sweating of the statue of Orpheus; the toppling of the
statue of Ariobarzanes; the actions of birds of Halicarnassus (A 1.25.6-8 relating to the plot of Alexander the
Lyncestian) and at Gaza and at the founding of Alexandria in Egypt; bleeding bread or dreams about Heracles at
Tyre; and oil at the Oxus. Aristander's services were also
sought before and at Gaugamela, the Persian Gates, at the
Iaxartes. It is also said that Aristander and Cleomenes
were instructed by Alexander to sacrice on behalf of
Cleitus' safety. Two other references to Aristander are
almost certainly unhistorical: thirty days after Alexander's death Aristander was supposed to have predicted that
the land that became home to his body would enjoy great
prosperity, thus causing Ptolemy to bring it to Egypt; Aristander was also supposed to have predicted Lysimachus'
kingship. Frnkel and Robinson 1929 believed that Aristander was a feature of Callisthenes' history and they
attribute his disappearance after 328/7 to the historian's
demise. It is more likely, however, that Aristander simply
died of illness or old age during the campaign.

18. Lysimachus blunders into the back of Alexander


18.4 Sources
s spear. Alexander staunches the wound with his
diadem. The bloody diadem impels Aristander to
Berve, Helmut. Das Alexanderreich auf prosopredict a troubled reign for Lysimachus. J has
pographischer Grundlage, no. 117.
event take place in India. (*Appian, Syriaca 64; J
15.3.1114)
F.L. Gattinoni,Lindovino Aristandro e leredit
dei Telmessii, in M. Sordi (ed.), La profezia nel
19. Aristander scolds Macedonians for not dealing with
mondo antico (Milan 1993), 123-38. ISBN 88-343Alexanders body, and predicts a bright future for
0355-5.
the city that holds it. (*Aelian Varia Historia 12.64)

18.2 Aristander's writings


Writings by Aristander are attested by: Pliny the Elder (Natural History 17); Artemidorus (Interpretation of
Dreams 1.31, 4.23-24); Origen (Contra Celsum 6.8.10);
see Lucian (citation missing). It is possible that Aristander's writings were, instead, a product of an Aristandrian school.Aristander's home town, Telmessus in
Caria (modern Fethiye), was a proverbial font of seers.
There may be some connection between the two items
ofSuccessor Propaganda(1819, favoring Lysimachus
and Ptolemy) and the rule of Ptolemy I Epigone as dynast
in Telmessos. Ptolemy as the son of Lysimachus inherited his father's claims, but eventually made peace with
Ptolemy III Euergetes and the Ptolemaic dynasty.

18.3 References
[1] Heckel, pp. 45-46. Aristander (Aristandros). Greek
from Telmessus (Telmissus), Aristander accompanied
Alexander as a seer of great renown. Born perhaps ca.
380 (thus Berve ii.62), Aristander was already in Philip's

Grunewalt, William Steven. A Macedonian Mantis, AncW 5 (1982).


Heckel, Waldemar. Who's Who in the Age of
Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's
Empire. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-40511210-7
King, Carole J. Alexander and Divination: Dreams,
Omens, and Aristander of Telmessus in the Alexander Historians. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Brown
University, 2004.
Nice, Alex. The reputation of the mantis Aristander, Acta Classica 48 (2005) (in honorem Prof.
J.E.A. Atkinson).
Plezia, M.De Aristandri vaticinio, Eos 59 (1971)
227-30.
Robinson, C. A. The Seer Aristander, AJP 50
(1929).
Spalding, Tim. Aristander the Prophet and the
Alexander Historians(Presentation at the 1997
meeting of the Classical Association of the Middle
West and South).

58

18.5 External links


Wiki Classical Dictionary: Aristander of Telmessus
Pothos.org: Aristander biography by Marcus Pailing

CHAPTER 18. ARISTANDER

Chapter 19

Ariston of Pharsalus
For other persons with the same name, see Ariston.
Ariston of Pharsalus was a Thessalian hetairos of
Alexander the Great and a friend of Medius of Larissa,
whose dinner party he attended on 16 Daisios May 323.

19.1 References
Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander's empire ISBN 978-1-40511210-9

59

Chapter 20

Aristonicus of Methymnae
Aristonicus (Ancient Greek: , Aristonikos)
was a tyrant of Methymnae in Lesbos in the 4th century BCE. In 332 BCE, when the navarchs of Alexander
the Great had already taken possession of the harbour of
Chios, Aristonicus arrived during the night with some privateer ships, and entered it under the belief that it was still
in the hands of the Persians. He was taken prisoner and
delivered up to the Methymnians, who put him to death
in a cruel manner.
(Arrian, Anabasis 3.2; Curtius 4.4.)
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

60

Chapter 21

Arrian
For others with this name, see Arrianus (disambiguation).
Arrian of Nicomedia (/rin/; Latin: Lucius Flavius
Arrianus Xenophon; Greek: c. AD c.
86 c. 160) was a Greek* [3] historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the 2ndcentury Roman period. As with other authors of the
Second Sophistic, Arrian wrote primarily in Attic (Indica
is in Herodotus' Ionic dialect, his philosophical works in
Koine Greek).

Arrian later wrote a military treatise called Ektaxis kata


Alann, which detailed the battle against the Alans, and
the Ars Tactica ( Techn Taktik) in which
he described how he would organise the legions and auxiliary troops at his disposal, among which legions XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris. He deployed the legionaries in depth supported by javelin throwers, archers, and
horse archers in the rear ranks to defeat the assault of the
Alan cavalry using these combined arms tactics. However, Arrian's work may have been entirely hypothetical,
because there is no historical record of a battle between
Romans and Alans that year. During this period Arrian
wrote several works on military tactics, including Ektaxis
kata Alann. He also wrote a short account of a tour of inspection of the Black Sea coast in the traditional 'periplus'
form (in Greek) addressed to the Emperor Hadrian, the
Periplus Ponti Euxini orCircumnavigation of the Black
Sea.

The Anabasis of Alexander is perhaps his best-known


work, and is generally considered one of the best sources
on the campaigns of Alexander the Great. (It is not to
be confused with Anabasis, the best-known work of the
Athenian military leader and author Xenophon from the
5th-4th century BC.) Arrian is also considered as one of
the founders of a primarily military-based focus on history. His other works include Discourses of Epictetus and Arrian left Cappadocia shortly before the death of his patron Hadrian, in 138, and there is no evidence for any furIndica.
ther public appointments until 145/6 when he was elected
Archon at Athens, once the city's leading political post
but by this time an honorary one. It was here that he de21.1 Arrian's life
voted himself to history, writing his most important work,
the Anabasis Alexandri or The Campaigns of AlexanArrian was born of Greek ethnicity* [4]* [5]* [6] in the der. He also wrote the Indica, an account of the voyage
coastal town of Nicomedia (present-day Izmit), the cap- by Alexander's eet from India to the Persian Gulf under
ital of the Roman province of Bithynia,* [7] in what is Nearchus. He also wrote a political history of the Greek
now north-western Turkey, about 70 km from Byzantium world after Alexander, most of which is lost. It is not
(later Constantinople, now Istanbul). He studied philos- known when Arrian died.
ophy in Nicopolis in Epirus, under the Stoic philosopher
Epictetus, and wrote two books about the philosopher's
teachings. At the same time he entered the Imperial ser21.2 Works
vice, and served as a junior adviser on the consilium of
Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Achaea and a close
friend of the future Emperor Hadrian, around 111-114. 21.2.1 The Anabasis of Alexander
Very little is known about his subsequent career - though
it is probable that he served in Gaul and on the Danube Main article: Anabasis Alexandri
frontier, and possible that he was in Baetica and Parthia
- until he held the oce of consul in 129 or 130. In 131 Arrian is an important historian because his work on
he was appointed governor of the Black Sea province of Alexander is the widest read, and arguably the most comCappadocia and commander of the Roman legions on the plete, account of the Macedonian conqueror. Arrian was
frontier with Armenia. It was unusual at this time for a able to use sources which are now mostly lost, such as
Greek to hold such high military command.
the contemporary works by Callisthenes (the nephew of
In 135, Cappadocia was threatened by an Alan invasion. Alexander's tutor Aristotle), Onesicritus, Nearchus and
61

62

CHAPTER 21. ARRIAN

Aristobulus. Most important of all, Arrian had the biog- Language and style
raphy of Alexander by Ptolemy, one of Alexander's leading generals and friend from childhood until Alexander's At the time of Arrian's daily life, the koine, orcommon
death.
Greekof the Hellenistic and Roman periods was in universal spoken use. As a writer, Arrian was obliged by
the prevailing literary mores of his time to compose his
Criticism
works in "good Greek,which meant imitating as closely
as possible the grammar and literary style of the Athenian
Arrian says that Alexander's greatness is worthy of praise writers of the 5th century BC. In Arrian's case this meant
and glory, and should be known by future generations. It following the Attic style of Xenophon and Thucydides.
seems that he wanted to make Alexander's life a legend His account of India, the Indica, was written in an equally
which it is todaythrough his book. Not all histori- wooden imitation of the language of Herodotus.
ans agree with this goal. A. B. Bosworth, an expert on The result is a work which was inevitably stilted and artiGreek history,* [8]* [9] criticized what he viewed as Ar- cial, although Arrian handled the strain of writing 500rian's hagiography in 'Errors in Arrian' (1976)* [10]
year-old Greek better than some of his contemporaries.
Bosworth, in line with the epigraphic tradition of modern classical studies, points out that Arrian is a secondary
source of Alexander's biographical data:Arrian is prone
to misread and misinterpret his primary sources, and
the smooth ow of his narrative can obscure treacherous quicksands of error. One of his principal sources,
Ptolemy, was an interested party. Bosworth writes that
not only has it been virtually disproved that Ptolemy constructed his history from archival material, but it appears
that he inserted his own propaganda to exaggerate his
personal achievements under Alexander and to discredit
those of his rivals. Bosworth alleges that Arrian was
prone to the errors of misunderstanding and faulty source
conation that one would expect in a secondary historian
of antiquity.
Bosworth further points out that Arrian makes it quite
plain that his work is designed as a literary showpiece.
Alexander's achievements, he says, have never been adequately commemorated in prose or verse. The eld
is therefore open for him to do for the Macedonian
king what Pindar had done for the Deinomenid tyrants
and Xenophon for the march of the Ten Thousand.
Bosworth states that Arrian has in mind Thucydides'
famous strictures of histories of the pentekontaetia,* [11]
on which the passage is patently modelled. The charge
is that Arrian has written a panegyric rather than a work
of serious history.

Response
Alexander was a controversial gure in antiquity, as he is
today. A favorable biography of him was thus bound to
be controversial from the start. In response to criticism,
Arrian had this to say about his work:
No matter who I am that make this claim. I need not
declare my name- though it is by no mean unheard of
in the world; I need not specify my country and family,
or any ocial position I may have held. Rather let me
say this: that this book of mine is, and has been from
my youth, more precious than country and kin and public
advancement- indeed, for me it is these things.* [12]

Xenophon was a good model of clear and unpretentious


prose, which Arrian was wise to follow. He considered
his Cynegeticon, (On Hunting), as an addition to the
work of the same name by Xenophon. Modern historians
may regret that so many of the earlier works on Alexander
have been lost, but many of them are grateful to Arrian
for preserving so much.

Conclusion
The scholarly consensus is that Arrian's work is to a
considerable extent a reworking of Ptolemy; albeit with
material from other writers, particularly Aristobulus,
brought in where Arrian thought them useful. Ptolemy
was a general, and Arrian relied on him as a professional
of military science and hence for details of Alexander's
battles, on which Ptolemy was certainly well informed.
Details of geography and natural history were taken from
Aristobulus, although Arrian himself had a wide knowledge of Anatolia and other eastern regions.
Today more interest focuses on Alexander as a man and
as a political leader, and here Arrian's sources are less
clear and his reliability more questionable. Probably it
was not possible for Arrian to recover an accurate picture of Alexander's personality 400 years after his death,
when most of his sources were partisan in one way or
another. Aristobulus, for example, was known as kolax
(), the atterer, while other sources were hostile or
had political agendas.
Arrian was in any case primarily a military historian, and
here he followed his great model (from whom he earned
his nickname), the terse and narrowly-focused soldierhistorian Xenophon. He has little to say about Alexander's personal life, his role in Greek politics or the reasons
why the campaign against Persia was launched in the rst
place. More than 1800 years later, Mary Renault, an admirer of both Alexander and Arrian, wrote an acclaimed
biography of Alexander, The Nature of Alexander,
drawing heavily on Arrian's work, as well as the few other
sources which are still extant. Renault's work focuses on
Alexander's character, motivations, strengths and weak-

21.5. FURTHER READING


nesses. With its similar title and prominent mention of
Arrian in the preface, it may have been intended as a sequel to Arrian'sThe Campaigns of Alexander,or simply to ll in the gaps in his account.
Nevertheless, Arrian's work gives a reasonably full account of Alexander's life during the campaign, and in his
personal assessment of Alexander he steers a judicious
course between attery and condemnation. He concedes
Alexander's emotionality, vanity, and weakness for drink,
but acquits him of the grosser crimes some writers accused him of. But he does not discuss Alexander's wider
political views or other aspects of his life that the modern
reader would like to know more about.

21.2.2

Other works

Arrian's other works preserve the philosophy of Epictetus


in Discourses of Epictetus (c. 108 AD), and include the
Indica a description of Nearchus' voyage from India following Alexander's conquest, the Ars Tactica, and other
short works.

21.3 Other surviving classical histories of Alexander


The Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus wrote
Historiae Alexandri Magni. a biography of Alexander the Great in Latin in ten books of which the last
eight survive.
The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote Bibliotheca Historia in forty books; of which book seventeen covers the life and conquests of Alexander.

63

[3] Arrian. www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.


Arrian born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now zmit,
Tur.] died c. 160, Athens? [Greece] Greek historian and
philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
[4] Wolfgang Haase, Hildegard Temporini (1990). Aufstieg
und Niedergang der rmischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 2;Volume 34. Walter de Gruyter. p. 228. ISBN 3-11-0103761. Arrian was of Greek stock, from the provincial aristocracy of Bithynia. His full name, L. Flavius Arrianus,
demonstrates that he was a Roman citizen and suggests
that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the triumphal period. Arrians home city was the
Bithynian capital, Nicomedia, where he held the priesthood of Demeter and Kore, its patron deities.
[5] Arrian; Slincourt, Aubrey De (1971). The campaigns of
Alexander. Penguin Classics. p. 13. ISBN 0-14-0442537. Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, to give him his full name,
was a Greek, born at Nicomedia, the capital of the Roman
province of Bithynia, probably a few years before A.D. 90.
[6] Grant, Michael (1992). Readings in the classical historians. Scribner's. p. 544. ISBN 0-684-19245-4. ARRIAN: GREEK HISTORIAN Arrian was an approximate
contemporary of Appian, born about AD 95. Like him
a Greek, he came from Nicomedia ( Izmit ) in Bithynia
(north-western Asia-Minor) where his family was prominent.
[7] Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Bithynica.
It is a history of his own country, dedicated to it as a patriotic oering. For he tells us denitely in this work that
he was born in Nicomedia...
[8] Brian Bosworth is a retired Professor of Classics and Ancient History, at University of Western Australia

The Greek historian/biographer Plutarch of


Chaeronea wrote the On the Fortune or the Virtue [9] Alexander the Great and the mystery of the elephant medallions, pp 74, by Frank Lee Holt, Edition: illustrated, Pubof Alexander the Great and Life of Alexander
lished by University of California Press, 2003.
in his Parallel Livesseries, paired with Life
of Julius Caesar
The Roman historian Justin wrote an epitome of the
Historiae Philippicae written by Gnaeus Pompeius
Trogus, in 44 books. Of these books 12 and 13
cover Alexander.

[10] Errors in Arrian, Author(s): A. B. Bosworth, Source: The


Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 26, No. 1 (1976),
pp. 117-139, Published by: Cambridge University Press
on behalf of The Classical Association, Stable URL: http:
//www.jstor.org/stable/638409
[11] Thuc., 1. 97. 2

21.4 References
[1] Arrian. www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian born c. AD 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now zmit,
Tur.] died c. AD 160, Athens? [Greece].
[2] Wolfgang Haase, Hildegard Temporini (1990). Aufstieg
und Niedergang der rmischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 2;Volume 34. Walter de Gruyter. p. 228. ISBN 3-11-0103761. Arrian was of Greek stock, from the provincial aristocracy of Bithynia.

[12] Arrian (1976) [140s AD]. The Campaigns of Alexander.


trans. Aubrey de Slincourt. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14044253-7

21.5 Further reading


Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by
Aubrey de Slincourt, Penguin Classics, 1958 and
numerous subsequent editions.

64

CHAPTER 21. ARRIAN

Phillips, A.A., and M.M. Willcock, (eds.).


Xenophon & Arrian On Hunting with Hounds.
Cynegeticus. Oxford: Aris & Phillips, 1999. ISBN
0-85668-706-5.
P. A. Stadter, Arrian of Nicomedia, Chapel Hill,
1980.
R. Syme, 'The Career of Arrian', Harvard Studies in
Classical Philology vol.86 (1982), pp. 171211.
E. L. Wheeler, Flavius Arrianus: a political and military biography, Duke University, 1977.nn
Cartledge, Paul; Romm, James S.; Strassler, Robert
B.; Pamela Mensch (2010). The Landmark Arrian:
The Campaigns of Alexander. New York: Pantheon.
ISBN 0-375-42346-X.

21.6 External links


Livius, Arrian of Nicomedia by Jona Lendering
Arrian On Coursing:
Dansey 1831

the Cynegeticus William

Texts online
Collected works: Flavii Arriani Quae exstant omnia,
vol. 1 and vol. 2 edited A.G.Roos (1907)
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, Teubner monolingual
Greek edition, edited by A.G. Roos (1907)
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E.J. Chinnock (1893)
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 1.13-16) (pdf,
pp. 18-19), Battle of Granicus, from the Loeb Classical Library edition.
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 4.18.4-19.6),
Sogdian Rock, translated by Aubrey de Slincourt
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (Section 7.5.1-16) ,
translated by John Yardley
Arrian, Cynegeticus, translated and edited by
William Dansey (1831)
Arrian, Events after Alexander (from Photius' Bibliotheca) translated by John Rooke, edited by Tim
Spalding
Arrian, The Indica translated by E. Ili Robson.
Arrian, Array against the Alans (
) translated by Sander van Dorst, with the
Greek (transliterated) and copious notes.
Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Anabasis, translated by
J. S. Freese

Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Bithynica, translated by


J. S. Freese
Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Parthica, translated by
J. S. Freese
Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Events after Alexander,
translated by J. S. Freese

Chapter 22

Artabazos II of Phrygia
Artabazus (in Greek ) (. 389 BC 329 However, eventually, he had no choice but to ee with
BC) was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of Memnon and his family. They went into exile and took
the Persian satrap of Phrygia, Pharnabazus, and younger refuge with Philip II of Macedonia.
kinsman (brother or rather nephew) of Ariobarzanes of
Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 366
BC.
22.3 Return to Persia

22.1 Revolt by Ariobarzan


In 362 BC, Artabazus was sent by Artaxerxes II to capture Datames, the satrap of Cappadocia, who had joined
in the Satraps' revolt by Artabazus' brother, Ariobarzan.
However, Artabazus was defeated by the bravery and resolution of Datames.* [1]

During the absence of Artabazus, Mentor, his brotherin-law, was of great service to the king of Persia in his
war against Nectanebo II of Egypt. After the close of this
war, in 349 BC, Artaxerxes gave to Mentor the command
against the rebellious satraps of western Asia. Mentor
took advantage of this opportunity to ask the king to grant
a pardon to Artabazus and Memnon. The king agreed
and both men and their families were able to return to
Persia.* [2]

In the subsequent reign of Darius III Codomannus,


22.2 Rebellion against the Persian Artabazus distinguished himself by his loyalty and commitment to the new Persian king. He took part in the
King
Battle of Gaugamela, and afterwards accompanied Darius on his ight from Alexander's Macedonian armies.
Following the capture and death of his brother, Artabazus After the nal defeat and death of Darius III (330 BC),
was made satrap of Hellespont Phrygia, but in 356 BC Alexander recognised and rewarded Artabazus for his
he refused obedience to the Persian king, Artaxerxes III. loyalty to the Persian king by giving him the satrapy of
Artabazus then became involved in a revolt against the Bactria.
king and against other satraps who acknowledged the authority of Artaxerxes III.
However, Artabazus was at rst supported by Chares, the
Athenian, and his mercenaries, whom he rewarded very
generously. Afterwards Artabazus was also supported by
the Thebans, who sent him 5,000 men under Pammenes.
With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus
defeated his enemies in two great battles.

22.4 Family

Artabazus' daughter, Barsine, may have married Alexander and may have been the mother of Heracles. Another
daughter, Artacama, was given in marriage to Ptolemy;
and a third daughter, Artonis, was given in marriage to
resigned his satrapy,
However, Artaxerxes III was later able to deprive Eumenes. In 328 BC, Artabazus
*
which
was
given
to
Clitus.
[3]
Artabazus of his Athenian and Boeotian allies, whereupon Artabazus was defeated by the king's general, Artabazus had a son named Pharnabazus (. 370 BC Autophradates, and was taken prisoner. Mentor and 320 BC).
Memnon, two brothers-in-law of Artabazus, who had
supported him, still continued the revolt, as they were
aided by the Athenian Charidemus. Together they were 22.5 References
able to free Artabazus.
After this, Artabazus seems either to have continued his
rebellious operations, or at least started a fresh revolt.
65

Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and


Roman Biography and Mythology,Artabazus (4)",

66

CHAPTER 22. ARTABAZOS II OF PHRYGIA


Boston, (1867)

22.6 Notes
[1] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xv. 91
[2] Diodorus, xvi. 22, 34, 52; Demosthenes, Speeches,
Against Aristocrates, 154, 155, 157, 159, 163
[3] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iii. 23, 29, vii. 4; Curtius
Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, iii. 13, v. 9, 12, vi. 5,
vii. 3, 5, viii. 1

22.7 External links


Livius, Artabazus (2) by Jona Lendering
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Chapter 23

Autophradates
Autophradates (in Greek Ao; lived 4th
century BC) was a Persian who distinguished himself
as a general in the reign of Artaxerxes III and Darius
Codomannus. In the reign of the former he made
Artabazus, the revolted satrap of Lydia and Ionia, his
prisoner, but afterward set him free and joined the
Revolt of the Satraps.* [1] After the death of the Persian admiral, Memnon, in 333 BC, Autophradates and
Pharnabazus undertook the command of the eet, and
reduced Mytilene, the siege of which had been begun by
Memnon. Pharnabazus now sailed with his prisoners to
Lycia, and Autophradates attacked the other islands of
the Aegean sea, which espoused the cause of Alexander
the Great. But Pharnabazus soon after joined Autophradates again, and both sailed against Tenedos, which was
induced by fear to surrender to the Persians.* [2] During these expeditions Autophradates also laid siege to the
town of Atarneus in Mysia, but without success.* [3]

23.1 References
Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology,Autophradates, Boston,
(1867)

23.2 Notes
[1] Demosthenes, Speeches, Against Aristocrates
[2] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, ii. 1
[3] Aristotle, Politics, 1267a

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

67

Chapter 24

Balacrus
Balacrus (Greek: Bo), the son of Nicanor, one of
Alexander the Great's "Somatophylakes" (bodyguards),
was appointed satrap of Cilicia after the battle of Issus,
333 BC.* [1] He fell in battle against the Pisidians in the
lifetime of Alexander.* [2] It was probably this Balacrus
who married Phila, the daughter of Antipater, and subsequently the wife of Craterus.* [3]

24.1 References
Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Balacrus (1)", Boston,
(1867)

24.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, ii. 12
[2] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xviii. 22
[3] Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 166

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). Balacrus (1)". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography
and Mythology.

68

Chapter 25

Barsine
Barsine (Greek: ; c. 363309 BC) was daughter of Artabazus, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, and
wife of Mentor of Rhodes and after his death, Mentor's
brother, Memnon. In 334 BC, the year of Alexander's
invasion of Asia, she and her children were sent by Memnon to the king Darius III as hostages for his delity;
and in the ensuing year, when Damascus was betrayed
to the Macedonians, she fell into the hands of Alexander, by whom it is argued that she became the mother
of Heracles. On Alexander's death, 323 BC, a claim to
the throne on this boy's behalf was unsuccessfully urged
by Nearchus. From a comparison of the accounts of
Diodorus and Justin, it appears that he was brought up at
Pergamum under his mother's care, and that she shared
his fate when (309 BC) Polyperchon was induced by
Cassander to murder him.* [1]

25.1 Notes
[1] Plutarch, Parallel Lives,Alexander, 21,Eumenes, 1;
Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 23, xx. 20, 28; Curtius Rufus,
Historiae Alexandri Magni, iii. 13, x. 6; Justin, Epitome
of Pompeius Trogus, xi. 10, xiii. 2, xv. 2; Pausanias,
Description of Greece, ix. 7

25.2 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Barsine (1)",
Boston, (1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

69

Chapter 26

Batis (commander)
Batis was a commander of the city of Gaza in the
Achaemenid Empire during the 4th century BC and an
antagonist of Alexander the Great during his eastern campaigns. He was executed after a lengthened siege for refusing to submit to the Macedonians. Reportedly Batis
was dragged behind a chariot around his city walls in the
manner as Hector had been by Alexander's hero Achilles,
except that Hector had already been dead.

26.1 Notes
26.2 References

70

Chapter 27

Bas of Bithynia
Bas (Greek: B; lived c. 397 BC 326 BC, ruled 376
BC 326 BC), rst independent ruler of Bithynia, governed fty years, from 376 to 326 BC, and died at the age
of 71. He succeeded his father Boteiras, and was himself
succeeded by his own son Zipoetes I. He defeated Calas,
a general of Alexander the Great, and maintained the independence of Bithynia.* [1]

27.1 References
Notes
[1] Memnon, History of Heracleia, 12

Bibliography
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Bas, Boston,
(1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

71

Chapter 28

Alexandria Bucephalous
G.W.B. Huntingford identies this Alexandria with
a large mound west of Jhelum, a city 150 miles (242
km) south east of Peshawar, Pakistan.,* [2] while
Lendering cites Jhelum more generally.

Also see: Bucephala or Alexandria (disambiguation).

The Hungarian archaeologist and Silk Road expert Sir Marc Aurel Stein believed that instead of
the road from Taxila to Jhelum which dates from
medieval times, Alexander's army went south to
cross the river near modern Bhera. At this site the
battle would have happened near the modern town
of Mong. The topography, river orientation and
natural features including salt clis in this vicinity
match closely the description in ancient sources.
Further supporting this location is the claim by
the residents of Mong and nearby Phalia that
their towns are Nicaea and Bucephala.

Alexandria Bucephalous, or Bucephala (center right), was located on the Hydaspes river, north of nearby Nicaea across the
river.

Alexandria Bucephalous, or Alexandria Bucephalus


or Alexandria Bucephala or Bucephala or Bucephalia,
was a city founded by Alexander the Great in memory of
his beloved horse Bucephalus.* [1]* [2] Founded in May
326 BC, the town was located on the Hydaspes (Jhelum
River), east of the Indus River.* [2] Bucephalus had died
after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. The garrison was settled with Greek and Iranian veterans plus
natives.* [2] It had large dockyards, suggesting it was intended as a center of commerce.
Across the river, the nearby town of Alexandria Nicaea
was also founded on the battle site at that time.* [2]* [3]
The exact site of the city is still unknown but several locations have been proposed:
72

The historian and BBC presenter Michael Wood


supports Stein's claims for Nicaea at Mong, but proposes Garjak rather than Phalia for the location of
Bucephala. Phalia is signicantly distant at 17km
and located east of the River when ancient sources
agree it was on the west bank opposite Nicaea. Furthermore, archaeological nds at Garjak include
Greek coins and ruins of an ancient Hindu temple
with a burial stone in the shape of a horse. There
is also a legend associated with Garjak regarding a
magical horse.
Another less likely proposed site is near modern
Jalalpur south of these sites where there are extensive but still un-excavated ruins. Tarn prots this
site, which is not to be confused with the Jalalpur
nearby on the Chenab river, which was a city of
Alexander's contemporary Chandragupta Maurya.
Eggermont disagrees with the Jalalpur identication
arguing that the Jhelum river owed far from this
site in ancient times.
Local historian Mansoor Behzad Butt of Gujrat
District supports the idea Bucephalus was
buried in Jalalpur Sharif.

28.2. REFERENCES

73

P. M. Fraser, a supporter of a Jhelum site concludes


that only archeological excavation will settle the century old debate.

Pseudo-Callisthenes, Ernest Alfred Wallis, The History of Alexander the Great, 1889, page 161, Google
Books link: books-google-18.

Irrespective of its location, Alexandria Bucephalous remained a signicant centre for some time as it is mentioned in the Metz Epitome, and is shown on the late
Roman Peutinger Table map. The 1st-century Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea reads:

Michael Wood,In the Footsteps of Alexander The


Great A Journey from Greece to Asia, 1997,University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-231924 Google Books link:

The country inland of Barigaza is inhabited by numerous tribes, such as the Arattii,
the Arachosii, the Gandaraei and the people of
Poclais, in which is Bucephalus Alexandria
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 47* [4]

Several cities were named with the pre-name


"Alexandria" during the period. Alexander the Great
founded nearly 20 towns,* [2] but also renamed others
for a total of about 70 towns reportedly (Pliny) named
by him.* [2]

28.1 Notes
[1]The History of Alexander the Great, PseudoCallisthenes, Ernest Alfred Wallis, 1889, p.161 (see below: References).
[2]Alexander the Great: his towns, Jona Lendering,
Livius.org, 2007 (see below: References): statesNicaea
and Bucephala: twin foundation of permanent garrisons
on opposite banksof Hydaspes (Jhelum river),founded
in May 326 on the battle eld"; plus Settled with Greek
& Iranian veterans & nativesand might be modern
Jhelumin Pakistan; towns had large dockyardssuggesting they were centers of commerce.
[3] Alexander the Great: a reader Author Ian Worthington
Editor Ian Worthington Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Routledge, 2003ISBN 0415291860, ISBN 978-0415-29186-6 Length 332 pages p. 175
[4] Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Fordham.edu, webpage:
Fordham-edu-periplus

28.2 References
Eggermont P.H.L., Alexander's campaign in Southern Punjab (1993).
Fraser P M Cities of Alexander the Great (1996)
Jona Lendering, Alexander the Great: his towns
, Livius.org, 2007, webpage: Livius-alex-z2.

Coordinates: 325552N 734351E / 32.93111N


73.73083E

Chapter 29

Bucephalus
For other uses, see Bucephalus (disambiguation).
Bucephalus or Bucephalas (/bjusfls/; Ancient

Seleucus I coin depicting Bucephalos.

Greek: or , from bous,


"ox" and kephal, headmeaning ox-head
) (c. 355 BC June 326 BC) was the horse of Alexander Alexander taming Bucephalus
the Great, and one of the most famous actual horses of
antiquity.* [1] Ancient accounts* [2] state that Bucephalus
died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, in what
is now modern Pakistan, and is buried in Jalalpur Sharif
outside of Jhelum, Pakistan. Another account states
that Bucephalus is buried in Phalia, a town in Pakistan's
Mandi Bahauddin District, which is named after him.

29.1 The taming of Bucephalus


A massive creature with a massive head, Bucephalus is
described as having a black coat with a large white star
on his brow. He is also supposed to have had a wall A statue by John Steell showing Alexander taming Bucephalus
, or blue eye, and his breeding was that of the best
Thessalian strain.Plutarch tells the story of how, in 344
BC, a thirteen-year-old* [3] Alexander won the horse.* [4] Bucephalus to King Philip II for the sum of 13 talents,
A horse dealer named Philonicus the Thessalian oered but because no one could tame the animal, Philip was
74

29.3. IN ART AND LITERATURE

75

not interested. However, Philip's son Alexander was. He which Alexander's army defeated King Porus. Alexanpromised to pay for the horse himself should he fail to der promptly founded a city, Bucephala, in honour of
tame it.
his horse. It lay on the west bank of the Hydaspes river
*
Alexander was given a chance and surprised all by sub- (modern-day Jhelum in Pakistan). [7] The modern-day
Jhelum, is said to be
duing it. He spoke soothingly to the horse and turned town of Jalalpur Sharif, outside
*
where
Bucephalus
is
buried.
[8]
it towards the sun so that it could no longer see its own
The legend of Bucephalus grew in association with that
of Alexander, beginning with the ction that they were
born simultaneously: some of the later versions of the
Alexander Romance also synchronized the hour of their
death.* [9] The pair forged a sort of cult in that, after
them, it was all but expected of a conqueror that he have
a favourite horse. Julius Caesar had one; so too did the
eccentric Roman Emperor Caligula, who made a great
fuss of his horse Incitatus, holding birthday parties for
him, riding him while adorned with Alexander's breastThe Alexander Romance presents a mythic variant of Bu- plate and planning to make him a consul.
cephalus's origin. In this tale, the colt, whose heroic attributes surpassed even those of Pegasus, is bred and presented to Philip on his own estates. The mythic attributes 29.3 In art and literature
of the animal are further reinforced in the romance by the
Delphic Oracle who tells Philip that the destined king of
the world will be the one who rides Bucephalus, a horse
with the mark of the ox's head on his haunch.
shadow, which had been the cause of its distress. Dropping his uttering cloak as well, Alexander successfully
tamed the horse. Plutarch says that the incident so impressed Philip that he told the boy, O my son, look
thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for
Macedonia is too little for thee.* [4] Philip's speech
strikes the only false note in the anecdote, according to
AR Anderson,* [5] who noted his words as the embryo of
the legend fully developed in the History of Alexander the
Great I.15, 17.

29.2 Alexander and Bucephalus

Alexander and Bucephalus in combat at the battle of Issus portrayed in the Alexander Mosaic

As one of his chargers, Bucephalus served Alexander in


numerous battles.
The value which Alexander placed on Bucephalus emulated his hero and supposed ancestor Achilles, who He ran toward the horse and seized the bridle
claimed that his horses were known to excel all othersfor they are immortal. Poseidon gave them to my Bucephalus is referenced in art and literature. The horse
father Peleus, who in his turn gave them to myself.* [6] himself and Alexander is interpreted by some to be the
Arrian states, with Onesicritus as his source, that Bu- subject of the ancient statue group The Horse Tamers in
cephalus died at the age of thirty, an old age for a horse the Piazza del Quirinale in Rome.
even in modern times. Other sources, however, give as The horse was referenced in the movie The Black Stallion
the cause of death not old age or weariness, but fatal in- in which the main character is named Alec, and he tames
juries at the Battle of the Hydaspes (June 326 BC), in and rides a wild black Arabian horse.

76
Paintings of Charles Le Brun's Alexandrine subjects, including Bucephalus, survive today in the Louvre. One
in particular, The Passage of the Granicus, depicts the
warhorse battling the diculties of the steep muddy river
banks, biting and kicking his foes.
Bucephalus was the name of the horse of Baron Munchausen in several of his tall tales.
The French cellist and composer Paul Tortelier based his
Sonata Breve Bucphale on the story of Bucephalus.
In Franz Kafka's story The New Lawyer(1916), Bucephalus is a bar-approved lawyer who immerses himself
in law books ... far from the tumult of Alexander's battles.
In the 2004 lm Alexander, Bucephalus is portrayed by
a Friesian, though unlikely to have been precisely of that
type, as the northern European light draught breed did not
develop until the 13th century AD.
In the 2006 novel by Katharine Roberts I am the Great
Horse, the life of Alexander and his horse are told from
the viewpoint of Bucephalus.

29.4 Notes
[1] Aside from mythic Pegasus and the wooden Trojan Horse,
or Incitatus, Caligula's favourite horse, proclaimed Roman
consul.
[2] The primary (actually secondary) accounts are two:
Plutarch's Life of Alexander, 6, and Arrian's Anabasis
Alexandri V.19.
[3] Other sources put him at twelve.
[4] Arthur Hugh Clough (editor), John Dryden (translator),
Plutarch's 'Lives', vol. II, Modern Library, 2001. ISBN
0-375-75677-9
[5] Anderson 1930:3 and 17.
[6] Homer, The Iliad, Book XXIII.
[7] Rolf Winkes,Boukephalas, Miscellanea Mediterranea
(Archaeologia Transatlantica XVIII) Providence 2000,
pp. 101107.
[8] Michael Wood,In the footsteps of Alexander the Great
.
[9] Andrew Runni Anderson,Bucephalas and His Legend
The American Journal of Philology 51.1 (1930:121).

29.5 External links

CHAPTER 29. BUCEPHALUS

Chapter 30

Bucephalus (brand)
Bucephalus (Gr "ox-headed, from , ox, and
,head) was a type of branding mark anciently
used on horses. It was one of the three most common, besides , San, and , Koppa. Those horses marked with
a San were called , Samphorai; those with a
Koppa, , Koppatiai; and those with an ox's
head, , Bucephali.
This mark was stamped on the horse's buttocks, and his
harnesses, as appears from the scholiast on Aristophanes's
The Clouds, Hesychius, etc.
Alexander's horse was named Bucephalus after this brand
on its haunch* [1]

30.1 References
[1] The Genius of Alexander the Great By N. G. L. Hammond
Page 1 ISBN 0-7156-2753-8 (1998)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728).
"* article name needed". Cyclopdia, or an Universal
Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (rst ed.). James and John
Knapton, et al.

77

Chapter 31

Chronology of the expedition of Alexander


the Great into Asia
Chronological summary of the expedition of Alexander
the Great into Asia against the Persian Empire of king
Darius III, with indication of the countries/places visited or simply crossed, including the most important battles/sieges and the cities founded (Alexandrias). The
events of the expedition are shown in chronological order. For each event is given, separated by : 1) Date
of event, 2) Places/cities crossed, indicated by Ancient
name (Present name, Country), 3) Regions, provinces or
Persian satrapies of the places/cities crossed, with indication of their capital cities (where appropriate).

31.1 Expedition
31.2 References
[1] Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian's History of the expedition of
Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. J. Davis,
1813. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
[2] Nigel Cawthorne; Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing,
2004, ISBN 1-904341-56-X. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
[3] Waldemar Heckel; The wars of Alexander the Great, 336323 B.C. Taylor & Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-96855-0.
Retrieved 2009-10-06.
[4] Arrian, James S. Romm, Pamela Mensch; Alexander the
Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and
Quintus Curtius. Hackett Publishing, 2005, ISBN 087220-727-7. Retrieved 2009-10-06.

31.3 Bibliography
Roger Caratini, Alessandro Magno, Storia e
leggenda del pi grande condottiero dellantichit,
Newton & Compton editori, 2005

31.4 External links


Alexander the Great: chronology www.livius.org
78

Chapter 32

Cleitarchus
For the Greek tyrant, see Cleitarchus of Eretria.
Clitarchusredirects here. For the stick insect genus,
see Clitarchus (genus).

32.2 External links

Cleitarchus or Clitarchus (Greek: ), one of


the historians of Alexander the Great, son of the historian
Dinon of Colophon, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at
least spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy
Lagus. He was active in the mid to late 3rd century BCE.
Quintilian (Instit. x. I. 74) credits him with more ability
than trustworthiness, and Cicero (Brutus, II) accuses him
of giving a ctitious account of the death of Themistocles.
But there is no doubt that his history was very popular,
and much used by Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius,
Justin and Plutarch, and the authors of the Alexander
romances. His unnatural and exaggerated style became
proverbial.
His work, completely lost, has survived only in some
thirty fragments preserved by ancient authors, especially
by Aelian and Strabo.
A recent papyrological nd from Oxyrhynchus (P.Oxy.
LXXI 4808) records that he was a tutor ()
of Ptolemy IV Philopator, r.221205 BCE, and suggests
that he wrote in the mid to late 3rd century, not, as was
hitherto thought, in the late 4th. Luisa Prandi (2012) has
recently restated the case for the 'high' dating.

32.1 References
This article incorporates text from a publication now
in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press.
Luisa Prandi, Fortuna e realt dell'opera di Clitarco
(Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1996) (Historia.
Einzelschriften, 104).
Luisa Prandi, New Evidence for the Dating of
Cleitarchus (POxy LXXI.4808)?, Histos 6 (2012),
15-26,
79

Livius, Cleitarchus by Jona Lendering


Histos, In Search of Cleitarchus by A.B. Bosworth
Pothos.org, Dating Kleitarchos by Karl Soundy

Chapter 33

Cleomenes of Naucratis
Cleomenes (Greek: Ko; died 322 BC), a Greek
of Naucratis in Egypt, was appointed by Alexander III of
Macedon as nomarch of the Arabian district (oo) of
Egypt and receiver of the tributes from all the districts
of Egypt and the neighbouring part of Africa (331 BC).
Some of the ancient writers say that Alexander made him
satrap of Egypt; but this is incorrect, for Arrian expressly
states that the other nomarchs were independent of him,
except that they had to pay to him the tributes of their
districts. It would, however, appear that he had no diculty in extending his depredations over all Egypt, and it
is possible that he would have taken the title of satrap. It
is told that his rapacity knew no bounds, that he exercised
his oce solely for his own advantage.

found it convenient to take no notice of them. But after


his return to Babylon in 323 BC, he wrote to Cleomenes,
commanding him to erect at Alexandria a splendid monument to Hephaestion, and promised that if this work was
zealously performed, he would overlook his misconduct.

When there was a scarcity of grain, which was less severe in Egypt than in the neighbouring countries, he at
rst forbade its export from Egypt. But when the nomarchs represented to him that this measure prevented
them from raising the proper amount of tribute, he permitted the export of grain, but placed a heavy export duty
on it. On another occasion, when the price of grain was
ten drachmas, Cleomenes bought it up and sold it at 32
drachmas; and in other ways he interfered with the markets for his own gain.* [1]

33.1 Notes

Alexander had entrusted him to build the new city of


Alexandria. Cleomenes informed the people of Canopus,
then the chief emporium of Egypt, that he must move
them to the new city. To avert such an evil they provided
him with a large sum of money. But, as the building of
Alexandria advanced, he again demanded that the people
of Canopus pay him a large sum of money, which they
could not pay. So this provided him with the excuse for
removing them.* [1]

In the distribution of Alexander's empire after his death


(323 BC), Cleomenes remained in Egypt as satrap under
Ptolemy, who put him to death on the suspicion of his
favouring Perdiccas. The eect, if not also a cause, of
this act was that Ptolemy was then able to take possession
of Cleomenes' accumulated wealth, which amounted to
8000 talents.* [2]

[1] Aristotle, Economics 1352 a-b


[2] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iii. 5, vii. 23; Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 82, cod. 92; Justin, Epitome of Pompeius
Trogus, xiii. 4; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni,
iv. 33; Pseudo-Aristotle, Oeconomica, ii. 1352, 1353;
Demosthenes, Against Dionysodorus, 7; Pausanias, Description of Greece, i. 6; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca,
xviii. 14

33.2 References

He also made money out of the superstitions of the people. After one of his boys had been killed by a crocodile,
he ordered the crocodiles be destroyed. But, in return
for all the money which the priests gathering to save their
sacred animals, he revoked his order. On another occasion he sent for the priests, and informed them that the
religious establishment was too expensive and must be
reduced. So the priests handed over to him the treasures
of their temples. So he then left them undisturbed.* [1]
Alexander was informed of Cleomenes' actions, but

80

Bevan, Edwyn R.; The House of Ptolemy, London,


(1927), ch. 1, ch. 2
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Cleomenes,
Boston, (1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Chapter 34

Cleopatra of Macedon
Not to be confused with Cleopatra Eurydice, the
Macedonian wife of Philip II.

Cleopatra ruled Eprius in the meantime. It was an Epirote


custom that the woman of a family became head of household when her husband died and their son(s) were too
Cleopatra of Macedon (Greek: ; c. 357 young, unlike the rest of Greece. It was only tting for
BC 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was an the powerful queen to assume control. When her husEpirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of band was killed, an embassy from Athens was dispatched
Epirus. The daughter of Philip II of Macedon and to deliver condolences.
Olympias of Epirus, she was the only full sibling of She was, more surprisingly, seemingly acting as the reliAlexander the Great. Her other siblings include half sis- gious head of state for the people of Molossia. Her name
ters Thessalonike and Cynane, and half brother Philip III appears on a list of Theorodokoi* [1] ("welcomers of saof Macedon.
cred ambassadors"), in the recently established Epirote
She grew up in the care of her mother in Pella, like a
normal princess. In 338 BC, Cleopatra stayed in Pella
with her father while her mother Olympias ed to exile in
Epirus with her Molossian brother Alexander I of Epirus
(Cleopatra's uncle), and Cleopatra's brother Alexander
ed to Illyria. Soon Philip felt he had to ally himself
to Alexander I by oering his daughter's hand in marriage. A large wedding between Cleopatra and her uncle
Alexander I of Epirus was held in 336 BC. It was at the
celebration of her nuptials, which took place on a magnicent scale at Aegae in Macedon, that Philip II was
murdered.
Immediately after her father's murder, the two newlyweds
went from Macedon back to Epirus. Not too soon after, the couple welcomed two children, Neoptolemus II
of Epirus and Cadmeia. Leaving Pella did not mean leaving her family behind, as it is believed that Alexander and
Cleopatra kept in close contact while he was on his conquest to the east. In 332 BC Alexander had sent booty
home for both his mother and sister, as well as his close
friends.
In 334 BC, Cleopatra's husband crossed the Adriatic Sea
to the Italian peninsula to campaign against several Italic
tribes, the Lucanians and Bruttii, on behalf of the Greek
colony Taras, leaving her as regent of Epirus. She was
involved as recipient and sender of ocial shipments of
grain during a widespread shortage around 334 BC. According to an inscription from Cyrene, Libya she was
the recipient of 50,000 'medimni' of grain, and shipped
the surplus to Corinth. Alexander I conquered Heraclea,
took Sipontum, and captured both Consentia and Terin,
but was eventually killed in battle in 331 BC, leaving the
young heir, Neoptolemus too young for the throne.

alliance. Cleopatra was signicantly the only female on


the list. Her position as ocial welcomer would have allowed her to keep a nger on whatever was happening
anywhere in Greece.
Around 324 BC, Cleopatra went back to Macedon, while
her mother, Olympias assumed control in Epirus, as
relations between the Macedonian mother-queen and
Antipater were quite strained. It was not long after that
Alexander the Great died in 323 BC.
After the death of her brother, she was sought in marriage by several of his generals, who thought to strengthen
their inuence with the Macedonians by a connection
with the sister of Alexander the Great. Leonnatus is rst
mentioned as putting forward a claim to her hand, and
he represented to Eumenes that he received a promise
of marriage from her. After Leonnatus' death in 322
BC, Perdiccas next attempted to gain her in marriage.
After his death, her hand was sought by Cassander,
Lysimachus, and Antigonus. She refused, however, all
these oers. She escaped to Sardis, where she was kept
for years in a sort of honourable captivity by Antigonus.
An interesting event took place in Sardis. A frustrated
Antipater publicly accused Cleopatra of being involved
with Perdiccas in her half sister Cynane's death. Cleopatra would not submit so easily, however, and fought back.
Eventually, Cleopatra acceded to a proposal from
Ptolemy, but before her design could be realized, she was
captured. After being brought back to Sardis, Cleopatra was assassinated in 308 BC, seemingly by order of
Antigonus, who afterwards gave a beautiful funeral in her
honour.

81

82

34.1 References
[1] Cleopatras by J. E. G. Whitehorne

34.2 External links


Cleopatra from Charles Smith, Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography and Mythology (1867)
Cleopatra of Macedonia from Livius on ancient history by Jona Lendering

CHAPTER 34. CLEOPATRA OF MACEDON

Chapter 35

Cleophis
Cleophis (Sanskrit: Kripa?)* [1] was the mother of
Assakenos or Assacanus, the war-leader of the Assakenoi
or Assacani people at the time of Alexander's invasion (Curtius). The Assakenoi (Sanskrit Ashvakas:
from Ashva = horse, known today as ethnic Afghans
or Pashtuns)* [2] were a free people (Republic)* [3]
who formed a sub-section of the Kambojas (q.v.) of
Paropamisade and lived in parts of Swat and Buner valleys during Alexander's invasion.* [4] The habitat of the
Assakenoi roughly corresponded to modern Karstan (Dr
R. K. Mukerjee). Since this region was comparatively
more Indo-Aryan than Iranian in language and culture,
hence the Assakenoi have been referred to as Indians by
Arrian.* [5] Their territory stretched as far as Indus on the
east with the capital at Massaga (Sanskrit Mashakavati)
which was a formidable fortress situated not far to the
north of the Malakand Pass. In modern times, it corresponds to Mashkine located between the rivers Panjkora
and Kunar about 24 miles from Bajour. The Assakenoi
were excellent breeders of horses as well as expert cavalrymen* [6] who also rented their cavalry services (as
mercenaries), hence they also earned the popular nickname as Ashvakas i.e. expert cavalrymen.* [7] They are
referred to as Ashvakayanas in Pini's Ashtadhyayi.* [8]
The coins known as Vatashvaka are attributed to these
peoples.* [9] There was also a western branch of the Ashvakas located in the region watered by the rivers Alishang and Kunar.* [10] They are the Aspasioi of the classical writings. They were Iranian branch of the Kambojas
since the classical writers address them as Aspasioi (from
Iranian Aspa = horse). They are known as Ashvayanas
in Pini's Ashtadhyayi.* [11] The dividing line between
Iran and India was approximately the Panjkora (or Guraeus) river.* [12] According to Paul Goukowsky, Iranian language was spoken on the north of Kunar whereas
Pracrit on its south.* [13]

20,000 cavalry, 38,000 infantry and 30 elephants (as


stated by Curtius). A contingent of 7,000 Kamboj soldiers were brought from Abhisara.* [14] The Ashvakas
had fought valiantly and oered a stubborn resistance to
the invader in many of their strongholds. Massaga was
the scene of the bloodiest ght. Alexander received a serious wound in the ghting at Massaga. The city could
not be stormed even after ve days (nine days according to Curius) of bloody ghting. On the fth day, Assakenos, the Chieftain of the Ashvakas fell a martyr in
the eld. Thereupon, the supreme command of the military operations was assumed by Cleophis.* [15] Like her
son, Cleophis stood determined to defend her motherland
to the last extremity. The example of Cleophis assuming
the command of the military operations also brought the
entire women of the locality into the ghting.* [16] See
also: .

35.1 Alexander's war with Ashvakas


Alexander personally led a campaign against the Aspasioi and later against the Assakenoi. The Assakenoi
(Ashvakas) had opposed the invader with an army of Bust of Alexander.
83

84
Referring to Massaga battle, Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon') asserts that only 25 soldiers of Alexander had died during the ve days of bloody
ghting at Massaga.* [17] He further asserts that after
the fall of their chieftain, the Ashvakas became dispirited and sent an embassy to Alexander for a ceasere.
An agreement was reached between Alexander and the
tribes-people, according to which the latter were to vacate the fort and the mercenaries were to join Alexander's
forces. After vacating the fort, tribes-people had gathered on a ridge when Alexander (according to Arrian) received intelligence through his spies that the mercenaries
did not want to ght against their own countrymen and
were planning to escape during the night. Alexander
surrounded the ridge and slaughtered all the tribes-men
gathered there.* [18] But the accounts of Curtius (Quintus Curtius Rufus) do not support any such train of events.
The earlier accounts of Diodorus (Diodorus Siculus) also
give a complete lie to the above accounts of Arrian.* [19]
Diodorus, nowhere refers to any agreement whereby the
tribes-men or mercenaries had agreed to join Alexander's
forces but later on backed out and planned to escape under the pall of darkness. Rather, he specically states that
the tribes-people had vacated the fort in accordance with
the agreement and had gone about 80 stadia when Alexander, who was 'actuated by an implacable enmity' and had
kept his troops under arms, ready for action, treacherously
fell upon the tribes-people and made a great slaughter of
their ranks.* [20]* [21]* [22]* [23] Diodorus gives a very
graphic and vivid account of the battle that had ensued
and also greatly applauds the courage and heroism shown
by the tribes-men and their women against Alexanderian
forces.* [24]* [25] Still another Greek chronicler Plutarch
(Mestrius Plutarchus) prior to Arrian, attests thatAlexander incurred serious losses and accordingly, concluded a
treaty of peace with Assaceni but, afterwards, as they were
going away, set upon them while they were on the road
and committed a complete carnage. Rightly therefore,
Plutarch swears at Alexander for his treacherous action
and calls ita foul blot on the his martial fame.* [26]In
view of these clear remarks, the account of Arrian seems to
be a tendentious eort to window-dress a despicable act of
abject treachery and perdy.* [27] Curtius attests: Not
only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble. The
above statement also clearly shows that Alexander must
have suered heavy losses at the hands of the Assakenian
Kambojas so that he consequently lost his mental poise
and attacked the buildings of Massaga, thus committing
arson and man-slaughter to give vent to his boiling wrath.

CHAPTER 35. CLEOPHIS


The war accounts of Diodorus who preceded Arrian by
about 200 years dier materially from the latter and gives
a lie to Arrian. Also the accounts of Plutarch indisputably
prove that the initiative for the peace treaty came not from
the Ashvakas but from Alexander himself which clearly
indicates that Alexander had suered severe losses in this
battle with the Assakenoi. Arrian indeed seems to be a
partial chronicler and a liar on top of it who has intentionally tried to misrepresent the historical facts.
Main article: Alexander's Conict with the Kambojas

35.2 On Cleophis's alleged intrigue


with Alexander
Based on the accounts of some later classical writers like
Curtius or Justin, some people tend to believe in the tale
of Cleophis's intrigue with Alexander. However, not only
are the statements of various classical writers inconsistent but they are often contradictory so that the Cleophis
story seems to be baseless and a mere romantic invention* [29]* [30]

35.2.1 Diodorus's evidence on Cleophis

Diodorus (93 c BCE 30 c BCE), the earliest historian on


the subject, does not refer to any matrimonial alliance or
intrigue of Cleophis with Alexander. Diodorus simply attests that after the nalisation of terms of treaty of friendship between Ashvakas and Alexander executed under
oaths, Cleophis sent precious gifts to Alexander with a message that she expressed her appreciation of Alexander's
greatness and assured him that she would comply with the
terms of the treaty.* [31] But since Alexander himself violated the treaty by treacherously attacking the Ashvakas
and the mercenaries from Abhisara as they were leaving
the city, the Ashvakas led by Cleophis gave a determined
ght-back to the unprincipled and treacherous invader,
thus shedding the last drop of their blood. Even Ashvakan
women took up arms emmasse and joined the battle ghting side by side with their husbands.* [32]* [33] Diodorus
attests that Ashvakas women fought side by side with their
menfolk thus 'preferring death to a life of dishonor' .* [34]
This scenario shows that Cleophis had engaged herself in
the ght, but it is too dicult to speculate as to what happened to her in the endwhether she fell a martyr in the
battle-eld or else fell into the enemy's hands is anybody's
guess.* [35] According to Curtius and Arrian, Cleophis
From the foregoing discussion, it becomes quite clear was captured along with her young grand daughter.* [36]
that not only did Arrian throw a veil over the treachery
of Alexander, but also did he downplay the bravery and
heroism of the Ashvakas when the latter faced with sudden 35.2.2 Plutarch's evidence on Cleophis
treacherous onslaught of Alexander. His claims that only
25 soldiers of Alexander had died in ve days of bloody Plutarch (46 c AD 127 c AD) too does not give any indighting for the control of Massaga fort, cast very serious cation or hint of Cleophis's intrigue with Alexander. He
doubts on his integrity as an impartial chronicler.* [28] simply reprimands Alexander for his unprincipled con-

35.3. CONFLICTING VIEWS

85

duct and violation of the treaty of peace and friendship that certain elements of this episode found their way in
with the Ashvakas; and calls it a blot on the fair name of the Candace story of the Alexander Romance.* [46]
a great soldier.* [37]

35.2.3

Arrian's evidence on Cleophis

Even Arrian (92 c AD175 c AD) makes no reference whatsoever, to a Cleophis-Alexander matrimonial
alliance or intrigue. He only says that Alexander captured
the mother and daughter of Assakenos (Chieftain of the
Ashavakas) who had been killed on the fth day of the
ghting at Massaga.* [38]

35.2.4

Curtius's evidence on Cleophis

Curtius, an Roman historian belonging to the later half of


the rst c AD, gives some dierent touches to AlexanderCleophis episode, here and there. He says that king Assacenus had died before the invasion of Alexander and
Cleophis was his mother, not wife. When the defense of
the citadel became impossible on account of the extreme
pressure of the enemy's assault, she sent down envoys
to the King to sue for pardon. The Queen herself,
Curtius goes on, " having placed her son; still a child, at
Alexander's knees, obtained not only pardon, but permission to retain her former dignity, for she was styled queen
and some believed that this indulgent treatment was
accorded rather to the charms of her person than to
pity for her misfortunes. At all events, afterwards she
gave birth to a son who received the name Alexander
whoever his father may have been* [39]
Dr Buddha Prakash comments on the above statements
of Curtius: It is clear from this statement that Curtius himself was not sure of the veracity of the oating
rumors about the marriage of Alexander with Cleophis.
He was aware of these reports and mentioned them in
passing without committing himself as to their correctness.* [40]* [41] Similar are the views of Dr William
Woodthorpe Tarn.* [42]

35.2.5

Justin's evidence on Cleophis

35.2.6 Prof Edward A. Freeman on Justin


and Curtius
On the trustworthiness of Justin and Curtius, Edward
Augustus Freeman, Regius Professor of Modern History
(Oxford), in his Historical Essays observes that Justin is
quite a weak and careless writer. And Curtius is not more
than a romantic story teller who can easily lose track and
stray from truth.* [47]

35.3 Conicting views


There is no unanimity among the classical writers on
the personal history of Cleophis. While some writers
say that Cleophis was the wife of Assakenos (the warleader of the Ashvakas), Curtius says that she was his
mother.* [48] Arrian also refers to her as his mother. According to Curtius, Assakenos had died before Alexander's invasion but according to Arrian, he was killed on
the fth day of the Massaga siege whereafter the supreme
command went to Cleophis. It is also pointed out that
Cleophis was captured along with her teen-aged granddaughter after the fall of Massaga. There are conicting
details on her own issues too. Her one son called Erix
by Curtius and Aphrikes by Diodorus had led the ying
defenders of the famous fortress of Aornos against the
Greeks. Her another son said to be Amminais had recruited 7000 Kamboja soldiery from Abhisara.* [49] According to Curtius, at the surrender of Massaga, Cleophis
placed her own little son on Alexander's lap.* [50] On the
other hand Metz Epitome points out that it was Cleophis's
grandson (not son) whom Cleophis had placed in Alexander' lap.* [51] Curtius concedes that Cleophis later bore
a son whom she named Alexander, but he does not commit himself as to the identity of the father.* [52] On the
other hand Justin* [53] who is less subtle, maintains that
Cleophis had born Alexander a son.* [54] But the Metz
Epitome makes no mention of any baby born by Cleophis
in the post-invasion period.* [55]

Justin, (Marcus Junianus Justinus) alone tersely mentions


this event as if he treats it as a proved fact. Justin asserts that Cleophis recovered her kingdom and position 35.4 Cleophis over 50 at the time of
by sleeping with Alexander and bore him a son called
Invasion
Alexander. Justin further remarks: Queen Cleophis, for
allowing her chastity to be violated, was thenceforth called
Cleophis was a widow mother of the proud and
by the Indians the 'royal harlot' (scortum regium).* [43]
freedom-loving war leaders Assakenos, Aphrikes and AmBut Justin is very late author and his statement can not be manais.* [56] Assakenos is stated to have been the father
accepted against the four historians who have better claims of a young daughter. This clearly proves that Cleophis
to be relied upon.* [44]
was grandmother to a teen-aged girl and therefore, must
According to another view, Curtius himself may have in- have been over fty at the time of invasion. It is highly
vented the lurid tale to excite his Roman readers about improbable that an Indian woman over fty years of
the decadence of the opulent Orient. Berve* [45] thinks age* [57] and with grand mother's status, a mother of three

86
war-leaders who fought the invader tooth and nail to preserve their self-respect and independence and who probably were of the same age as Alexender, a lady from the
most belligrant and warlike tribals of the hills, should get
into intrigue with 30 year old Alexander, sleep with him
and bear him an illegitimate son.

35.5 Unproven and false allegation


Most scholars therefore, reject Justin's version of the
Cleophis-Alexander intrigue as nothing more than a
rumor-based romantic myth. The classical notices on
Cleophis's matrimonial alliance with Alexander are believed to be similar to the baseless rumors about the barberancestry of the Nandas, the rulers of Magadha and rest
on false and futile slanders that become current among
the credulous and misinformed people regarding high personages. But it is quite unhistorical to repose any belief in
them.* [58]* [59]
The following is extract from The Greeks in India
by celebrated Dr W. W. Tarn, who is an unquestioned
authority on this subject:* [60] The story of Alexander's intrigue with Cleophis, 'queen' of the Assaceni of
Gandhara who ruled in Massaga, is worse than untrue, it
is silly; though, unlike the Amazon and ' Memnon's widow',
Cleophis really did exist. She was not, however, a queen,
for the Assaceni were part of the Asvaka,' one of the 'free
peoples' who had neither kings nor queens (if Indians ever
were ruled by queens); her son was not king, neither had
he died before Alexander came, as Curtius says; every detail in the story is wrong. Her son, actually, was ~yswv,
the people's war-leader, and she was merely his mother, a
woman with a grownup son (a war-leader would not to be
very young) and also a granddaughter; few 'romantic inventions' have miscarried worse. Even Curtius only gives
the story as what 'some' believed, leaving direct armation to Justin.* [61]

35.6 Conclusions
In nutshell, the story of Cleophis does not appear in
the works of earlier writers on Alexander i.e.Diodorus,
Plutarch or Arrian, but only nds mention in the accounts
of Curtius or Justin or the Metz Epitome of unknown authorship, all of later origin, which has led many scholars
to think that story is not true but was concocted by the
prurient vulgate sources. According to scholars, a lurid
tale was concocted to generate a sensational material to
excite the Roman readers about the decadence of the opulent Orient. O Seel* [62] and A. V. Gutschmid* [63] also
believe that Cleophis was not part of original Alexander
tradition but was inserted in Roman times (either by Trogus or by Timagenes..both familiar to Curtius) as an
allusion to Cleopatara VII of Egypt.* [64] Later on, Justin
picked up the story and made it still more graphic and

CHAPTER 35. CLEOPHIS


lurid to impress his Roman audience.* [65] Lawrence also
remarks: The story of Cleophis' relations with the Macedonian king is heavily romanticized.* [66]
Cleophis was a great leader, a valiant warrior, a skillful
administrator and a true patriot who had given a betting
ght possible under the circumstances to an invader and
led her people out of the unprecedented crisis at such a
critical juncture of their history. It appears that being
fromThe Fair' Sex, she fell a victim to romantic concotions or indulgences which the weak and careless classical writers like Justin have stamped as if authentic. The
women of Massaga were not merely consorts of their husbands, but, faced with adverse situations, they could rise
to the occasion with display of administrative and martial
skills.* [67]

35.7 On the trustworthiness of


classical accounts
Scholars believe that the values of classical accounts is
reduced by the fact that we have a clear evidences of
the texts being tampered with in later times.* [68] The
classical writers also suered from a superiority complex. They held that the nations conquered by Alexander
were barbarous and became civilized by contacts with the
Greeks, by whose inuence alone, the barbarianism was
crushed.* [69]* [70] We must dismiss from our mind the
notion that the statements of classical writers have any
special claims to be recognised as true or authentic and
based on ascertained facts.* [71] According to Dr Buddha Parkash, the historians of Alexander, (like the Indian
bards), were motivated with the thought to exaggerate and
extol, at any cost, the military achievements of their hero
i.e. Alexander.* [72]
Therefore, the statements of classical writers about
Cleophis also need to be examined more critically and
objectively before their being accepted at their face value.

35.8 See also


Kambojas
Ashvakas
Kamboja Horsemen
Alexander's Conict with the Kambojas

35.9 References
[1] According to scholars, Indian equivalent of classical name
Cleophis is Kripa: See e.g: Chandragupta Maurya and
His times, 1988, p 25, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Ancient India, 2003, p 261, Dr V. D. Majan; History of Punjab, Vol

35.9. REFERENCES

I, 1997, p 229 Editors Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh;


Bhavan's Journal, 1960, p 90, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan;
Archaeology of Punjab, 1992, p 76, Bl Madhu, Punjab
(India); Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981,
p 284, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Problems of Ancient India, 2000,
p 149, K. D. Sethna.
[2] The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 48, Dr Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, p 104,
India.
[3] History of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p
46, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Glimpses of
Ancient Panjab, 1966, p 23, Dr Buddha Prakash - Punjab
(India); Raja Poros, 1990, p 9, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala; Alexander the Great, Cambridge
University Press, Dec 2003, W. W. Tarn; Ancient Kamboja,, People and the Country, 1981.
[4] Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp
216-20, (Also Commentary p 576 fn 22), Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100
- History; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p110, Dr
E. Lammotte; Cf also: Essai sur les origines du mythe
d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C:, 1978, p 152, Paul
Goukowsky; Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal; The
History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 225, Editors Dr L. M.
Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala; History of Poros, 1967,
p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash; The Pakistan review, 1962, p
15, Published by Ferozsons, History. Dr J. W. McCrindle
says that the modern Afghanistan the Kaofu (Kambu) of
Hiun Tsang was ancient Kamboja, and the name Afghan
evidently derives from the Ashavakan, the Assakenoi of
Arrian (Alexandra's Invasion of India, p 38; Megasthenes
and Arrian, p 180, J. McCrindle); Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj;
These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi;
Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S
Kirpal Singh; Sir Thomas H. Holdich, in his classic book,
(The Gates of India, p 102-03), writes that the Aspasians
(Aspasioi) represent the modern Kars. But the modern
Kars, especially the Siah-Posh Kars (Kamoz/Camoje,
Kamtoz) etc are considered to be modern representatives
of the ancient Kambojas.
[5] Chinnick, Arrian's Anabasis, p 399; Political History of
Ancient India, 1996, p 211-12, Dr Raychaudhury.
[6] i.e. Ashva.yuddha.kushalah (MBH 12/101/5, Kumbhakonam Ed); See Pali evidence: 'Kambojo. Assanam.Ayatanam' =Kamboja, the land of horses (Sumangavilasini, Vol I, p 121); See: Dictionary of Pali Proper
Names (DPPN), Vol I, 526, Dr. G. P. Malalasekara
for Kamboja as the birth place of horses; See also Mahabharata VI.90.3; For more details see the Articles:
Kamboja Horsemen & Ashvakas.
[7] See: Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in
Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, 121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient
Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, 272, Dr J. L.
Kamboj.

87

[8] Ganapatha, Nadadigana IV.1.99.


[9] Ibid, p 45, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar;
Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in Hindu
Times, 1978, p 51, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Journal of Bihar and
Orissa Research Society, XX, 289 on their coins. The
Varta (or Vata) -Ashvakas (Arrian, Bk. V, Chap. I; Arrian Indika) were the Ashvakas who inhabited Eastern
Afghanistan and who were included in the general term
Kamboja.......Here Vata- stands for Varta- which reminds
us of the Varta.shastr.opajivin (Nation-in-arms) description of theirs (i.e. Kambojas) in the Arthashastra......
(Ref: Hindu Polity, Part I & II, pp 51, 121, Dr Jayswal;
Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 11,
Dr J. L. Kamboj).
[10] Cambridge History of India, 352, n 3; Political History of
Ancient India, 1996, p 215, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr
B. N. Mukerjee; Indological Studies, 1950, p 2, Dr B. C.
Law.
[11] Ashtadhyayi Sutra IV.1.110.
[12] Ref: The Pathans, 1958, p 55/56, Olaf Caroe.
[13] Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av.
J. C., 1978, p 152, n 12, Paul Goukowsky.
[14] Abhisara and Ursa were parts of Kamboja. See: Political
History of ancient India, 1996, p 21920; A History of India, p 269-71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha; Military History
of India, 1980, p 38, Hemendra Chandra Kar - History;
The Mahbhrata, Its Genesis and Growth: A Statistical
Study, 1986, p 115, M. R. Yardi, Bhandarkar Oriental
Research Institute - Mahbhrata.
[15] Hindu Civilization: (From the earliest times up to the establishment of the Maurya Empire), 1936, p 283, Dr Radhakumud Mookerji - Hindu Civilization.
[16] Ancient India, 1971, p 99, Dr R. C. Majumdar; History
and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity,
Foreign Invasion, p 46, Dr R. K Mukerjee; Ancient India,
2003, p 261, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Aspects of Ancient Indian Administration, 2003, p 53, D.K. Ganguly; Ancient
Kamboja, Peopoe and the Country, 1981, pp 283, 285,
Dr J. L. Kamboj; Chandragupta Maurya and His times,
1988, p 25, Dr R. K. Mukerjee.
[17] Anabasis, Book 4b, Ch XXVI.
[18] . The Invasion of Alexander The Great, pp 68-69, J. W.
McCrindle.
[19] History of Punjab, Vol I, p 228.
[20] Diodorus in McCrindle, p 269.
[21] cf: History of Ancient India, 1967, pp 120-21, Rama
Shankar Tripathi.
[22] cf: After promising the surrounded Assaceni their lives
upon capitulation, he executed all their soldiers who had
surrendered. Their strongholds at Ora and Aornus, were
also likewise stormed. Garrisons were probably all slaughterd (Ref: Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in
the Rise to Western Power, 2002, p 86, Victor Hanson).

88
[23] cf: In Massaga-the lands of the Assaceni, Alexander violated pacts and ordered the slaughter of several thousand
Indian soldiers who had surrendered (Ref: Alexander
the Great: The Conqueror, February 2005, Thunder Bay
Press, p 105, Giampaolo Casati).
[24] Diodorus gives following pictorial details as to how
the Ashvakayanas (Kambojas) had conducted themselves
when faced with sudden treacherous onslaught of Alexander: Undismayed by the greatness of their danger, the
Ashvakayanas drew their ranks together in the form of a
ring within which they placed their women and children to
guard them on all sides against their assailants. As they had
now become desperate, and by their audacity and feats of
valour, made the conict in which they closed, hot work for
the enemy great was the astonishment and alarm which
the peril of the crisis had created. For, as the combatants were locked together ghting hand-to-hand, death and
wounds were dealt round in every variety of form. While
many were thus wounded, and not a few killed, the women,
taking the arms of the fallen, fought side by side with their
men. Accordingly, some of them who had supplied themselves with arms, did their best to cover their husbands with
their shields, while the others, who were without arms, did
much to impede the enemy by inging themselves upon them
and catching hold of their shields. The defenders, however,
after ghting desperately along with their wives, were at
last overpowered by superior numbers, and thus met a glorious death which they would have disdained to exchange
for the life of dishonour (See: Diodorus in McCrindle,
p 269-70; History of Punjab, 1997, p 229, Editors: Dr
Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi; Classical Accounts of India,
p 112-113.
[25] Commenting on the heroic resistance displayed by the
Ashvakayanas (Kambojas), in the wake of the treacherous onslaught of Alexander, Dr Buddha Prakash remarks:
Hardly could any Thermopylae be more glorious !" (History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229).
[26] Plutarch in McCrindle, p 306; Annals of the Bhandarkar
Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1926, p 140, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Indo-Aryan philology; Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, 127,
Dr Buddha Prakash - India.
[27] History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229, Dr Budda Prakash.
[28] op cit, p 229, D Buddha Prakash.

CHAPTER 35. CLEOPHIS

Unity, Foreign Invasion, p 46, Dr R. K Mukerjee; Ancient India, 2003, p 261, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Problems of
Ancient India, 2000, p 149, K. D. Sethna).
[33]The women took up the arms of the fallen and fought side
by side with the men: (See: Political History of Ancient
India, 1996, p 231).
[34] Diodorus in McCrindle, p 270;History of Civilizations
of Central Asia, 1999, p 76, Ahmad Hasan Dani,
Vadim Mikhalovich Masson, Jnos Harmatta, Boris
Abramovich Litvinovski, Cliord Edmund Bosworth,
Unesco - Asia, Central.
[35] Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 125,
Dr Buddha Prakash.
[36] Metz Epitome 39, 45; Classical accounts of India, pp 11263; Arrian's Anabasis, Book 4b, Ch XXVI; Olaf Caroe,
The Pathans, p. 50, Ancient Kamboja, People and the
Country, 1981, p 284, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Cf: Who's Who
In The Age Of Alexander The Great: Prosopography Of
Alexander's Empire, 2006, p 59, Waldemar Heckel.
[37] Plutarch in McCrindle, p 306.
[38] Arrian's Anabasis, 4B, Ch XXVI.
[39] See: Quintus Curtius Rufus 8.10.34-35; The History of
Alexander the Great as described by Quintus Curtius Rufus, Arrian, Siculus Diodorus, Diodorus, Plutarch, Marcus Junianus Justinus etc, 1896, p 197, John Watson
M'Crindle; History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229, Editors: Dr Faujja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi.
[40] Dr Buddha Prakash, Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 125 seqq.
[41] Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute,
Poona, 1926, p 140, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Indo-Aryan philology.
[42] Alexander the Great: Volume 2, Sources and Studies,
2003, p 324, William Woodthorpe Tarn
[43] Justin, Book 12, Part 2, 7.11. See link: .
[44] Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute,
Poona, 1926, p 140, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Indo-Aryan philology; Studies in Indian History
and Civilization, 1962, p 125-127, Dr Buddha Parkash
[45] II. 214, and 421 with earlier literature.

[29] Cf: The story of Cleophis' relations with the Macedonian


king is heavily romanticized (Ref: The Greek World in the
Fourth Century: From the Fall of the Athenian Empire to
the Successors of..., 1997, p 211, Lawrence A. Tritle).

[46] Ps.-Call 3.18; Cf: Epitome of the Philippic History of


Pompeius Trogus: Books 11-12, 1997, p 241 seqq, Marcus Junianus Justinus, John Yardley, Waldemar Heckel Generals Greece Biography

[30] Also cf: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962,


p 125

[47] Historical Essays, Second Series, 3rd edition, pp 183184, Edward A. Freeman, M. A., HON. D. C. L. &
LL.D., Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford, London Macmillan and Co., And New
York,1892.

[31] Classical Accounts of India, p162, J. W. McCrindle.


[32]The army was led by the late king's mother, queen
Cleophis (Kripa?). The example of a woman commander
leading a struggle for freedom in person brought the entire
female population of Massaga into the ght: (See: History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial

[48] Cur 8.10.22; See also: Who's Who In The Age Of Alexander The Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire
2005, Page 59, by Waldemar Heckel - Biography & Autobiography.

35.10. BOOKS AND MAGAZINES

[49] W. Heckel & Waldemar Heckel observe: "Apprikes


(Airikes, Erices, (Ariplex according to Metz Epitome 42))
was brother of Assakenos, the deceased dynast of the
Assakenoi and of Amminais (Metz Epitome 39); thus
also a son of Kleophis (i.e Cleophis), together with whom
he is found at Massaga in the spring of 326 BC (Metz
Epitome 42). Aphrikes attempted to block one of the
passes of the Buner region (near Embolima) with a force
of 20,000 Indians (Curtius. 8. 12. 1; Diodorus. 17.
86. 2, giving him also 15 elephants) and he was killed
by his own troops, who sent his head to Alexander in order to win his pardon (Diodorus. 17. 86. 2)...."(See: The
Marshals of Alexander's Empire, Routledge, 1993, pp 6263, W. Heckel, Waldemar Heckel). Cleophis's second son
Amminais had recruited 7000 Kamboja soldiery from Abhisara.
[50] Curtius 8.10.34-35.
[51] Metz Epitome 45.
[52] The History of Alexander the Great, Quintus Curtius Rufus 8.10.36.
[53] Justin 12.7.10.
[54] Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus's Philippic History,
12.7
[55] The Metz Epitome is also a Latin source of later time and
of unknown authorship.
[56] Classical accounts attest at least three grown-up warrior
sons of Cleophis. There could be more too. And Assakenos is attested to be father of at least one daughter.
He may well have had more children older than his daughter. The classical source do not attest if Aphrikes and
Ammanais were elder or younger brothers of Assakenos.
What if one of them was (or both were) elder to Assakenos? There are many possibilities here. In this scenario, Cleophis could very well turn out to be within her
fties or sixties.
[57] Dr W. W. Taran calls Cleophis a middle-aged lady, see:
Alexander the Great, December, 2003 - Cambridge University Press, p 45, Dr W. W. Tarn; See also: Appian
XVIII, p. 324. Cf: The Marshals of Alexander's Empire,
1992, p 86, fn 2, Waldemar Heckel. But scholars like Dr
J. L. Kamboj and S Kirpal Singh etc say that Cleophis was
over 50 years at the time of Alexander's invasion.
[58]We have had the occasion to see that these classical
writers often jotted down the rumors and slanders aoat
among the people. Their remarks about the barberancestry of the Nandas have been examined in earlier
part of this paper. The reports about the wedlock of
Cleophis with Alexander are equivalent to the rumours
relating to the barber-ancestry of Nandas or the oating
reports similar to those which gave birth to the story of
marriage of Kaid with Alexander..."(See: Annals of the
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1962, p
140-142, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - IndoAryan philology; Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 127, Dr Buddha Prakash - India; Cf: History of Punjab, Volume I, 1997, p 230; Annals of the
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1926, p

89

140, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Indo-Aryan


philology.
[59] See also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country,
1981, p 283-286, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
[60] 'On Curtius' mentality (5 G, pp. 92 sq.)'.
[61] See: Alexander the Great, 2003, p 324, Dr W. W. Tarn.
Also see p 45
[62] Eine romische weltgewschchichte 181-2.
[63] Rh M 37 (1882) 553-54 .
[64] The History of Alexander, 1984, p 294, note68, Quintus
Curtius Rufus, John Yardley, Waldemar Heckel.
[65] Cf: The History of Alexander, 1984, p 294, Quintus Curtius Rufus, John Yardley, Waldemar Heckel.
[66] See: The Greek World in the Fourth Century: From the
Fall of the Athenian Empire to the Successors of..., 1997,
p 211, Lawrence A. Tritle.
[67] Cf: Aspects of Ancient Indian Administration, 2003, p
53, D.K. Ganguly.
[68] The Classical accounts of India, Introduction, p xxv, Dr
R. C. Majumdar.
[69] Ibid, Dr R. C. Majumdar.
[70] Greek Philosopher Aristotle preached the ideolgy that
the Hellenic race ranked above barbarians of Europe and
Asia, being endowed with brighter gifts of spirit and intellect by nature, and therefore, possessed the right to rule over
them despotically (See: Aristotle, Politics, VII,16,1).
With this historical background, it was only expected
that the classical writers would give anything but a fair
and impartial treatment to the Indians, be it royalty or
commonalty.
[71] ibid, Dr R. C. Majumdar.
[72] Studies in Indian History and Civilization, p 86-87, Dr
Buddha Parkash; Cf: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p
242, (Editors) Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Publication
Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala.

35.10 Books and Magazines


Historie du bouddhisme Indien, Dr E. Lammotte
Alexander the Great, 2003 - Cambridge University
Press, W. W. Tarn
Political History of Ancient India, 1996, Dr H. C.
Raychaudhury
The Invasion Of India By Alexander The Great
As Described By Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus,
Plutarch And Justin, J. W. McCrindle
Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-fated
Journey Across Asia, John Prevas

90
Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise
to Western Power, Victor Hanson
Alexander: A History of the Origin and Growth
of the Art of War from the Earliest Times to the
Battle of Ipsus, 301 Bc, With a Detailed Account
of the Campaigns, 1996- Da Capo Press, Theodore
Ayrault Dodge
Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction, 2002 - Oxford University Press, USA, A. B. Bosworth and E.
J. Baynham
The Wars of Alexander the Great, 2002- Osprey
Publishing, Waldemar Heckel
Classical Accounts of India, J. W. McCrindle
History and Culture of Indian People, The Age
of Imperial Unity, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D.
Pusalkar
Ancient India, 2003, Dr V. D. Mahajan
Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna
The Pathan., 1967, Olaf Caroe
Historical Essays, Second Series, 3rd edition, Edward A. Freeman, M. A., HON. D. C. L. & LL.D.,
Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford, London Macmillan and Co. And
New York,1892
Alexander the Great, 2003, Dr W. W. Tarn
Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Dr Buddha Parkash
Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981,
Dr J. L. Kamboj
Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in
Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, 121, Dr K. P. Jayswal

35.11 Wiki Classical Dictionary


Link
Krateros (Editor), Article Cleophis in ancientlibrary.com
2005.

CHAPTER 35. CLEOPHIS

Chapter 36

Cophen Campaign
The Cophen Campaign was a campaign conducted by
Alexander III of Macedon between May 327 BC* [1] all
the way to March 326 BC* [2] It was conducted in the
modern Punjab region, in the area specically known as
Swat, Pakistan. Alexander's goal was to secure his line of
communications so that he could conduct a campaign in
India proper without having to fear for his communications. To this eect, he had to take a number of fortresses
from various Barbarian (needs citation) tribes.

36.1 Background
Alexander had assumed the throne of Ancient Macedonia when he was 20 years of age after his father was assassinated at the hands of an intimate body guard .* [3]
Having taken up his throne and put down all those who
contested his claim to it, he then set about to conrm his
rule of Ancient Greece as Hegemon. A number of measures had been taken up by the Greek city states to reclaim
their independence from the Macedonians. He marched
his army to Thebes, at which point Thebes surrendered,
promptly followed by Athens.* [4] It was around this point
that Alexander made the decision to leave Ancient Sparta
independent,* [5] due to the political implications that
would have in his capacity as Hegemon of Greece, it
would depict him in the light of an autocrat instead of
the ruler by the consent of the governed. He therefore
decided to leave Antipater as his regent in Greece, with a
force equal to the Spartans in the case that they should get
ambitious.* [6] It was as the result of this decision that he
decided to extend the borders of his Macedonian Kingdomin other words he was simultaneously Hegemon of
Greece, which was a strictly a civil oce and the outright monarch of Macedoniato the Danube river and
subdue all the tribes between the northern Macedonian
border and the right bank of the Danube,* [6] which he
did. Greece required some nal mopping up before he
could begin his father's long planned expedition against
the Achaemenid Empire.

Granicus.* [9] From there, he marched westward to the


coast of Asia Minor, and then south, weaving it through
Asia Minor's coast taking a number of critical ports of
call from the Persians,* [10] who had stationed garrisons
in all the major oppidums situated on the coast. These
were largely Greek city states, and it was critical that they
should be friendly to his cause, so he settled their local
disputes and set about settling new governments more
preferable to the local inhabitants.* [10] At Miletus, the
last city on the western coast of Asia Minor and critical to
his control of Asia Minor, Alexander decided to disband
his eet and take the rest of the cities along the coast by
land. There were a number of reasons for this; it would
free up 30,000 sailors who could be employed in garrison duty along his lines of communication to Macedon
and Antipiter (Alexander is notable in his capacity as a
general for his scrupulousness towards his lines of communication);* [11] his eet was costing him fty talents a
month (which was equal to a month's rations);* [12] his
eet was only 160 ships* [12] strongit had no chance
of defeating the Persian eet (400 strong)* [12] who had
superior sailorsand a defeat would have terrible results
on not only his men's moral but on the political situation
in Greece. If he had not already developed it, it was at
this point that he decided to take the Mediterranean sea
coast of the Persian Empire before proceeding into the
heartland of the Empire. He nished taking the coast of
Anatolia in early 333 BC* [13]

He met Darius III on the extreme east coast of the


Mediterranean and fought him at the Battle of Issus,* [14]
which was a disastrous route for the Persians.* [15] The
battle itself lasted less than ten minutes. From Issus,
Alexander proceeded along the coast of Phoenicia, taking the various maritime trading centers existing on the
coastthere being 25 of those in all.* [16] He received
the submission from a number of their kings, potentates
or oligarchies.* [17] It was at that point, on news of Darius's defeat that the Persian eet started to crumble, and
came over to serve under their new king.* [18] Notably, he
received an embassy from the city of Tyrethe King of
Tyre being with the Persian eet in the Aegean* [19]deCrossing the Hellespont in the early part of spring 334 siring to know what his demands would beas they would
BC,* [7] he had with him 30,000 infantry and 5,200 cav- be willing to accept whatever terms he requested* [19]
alry.* [8] He subsequently marched east to the river Grani- he requested that he be allowed to sacrice in the Tyrcus and defeated the Persians there at the battle of the
91

92

CHAPTER 36. COPHEN CAMPAIGN

ian temple of Heracles (Melkart).* [17]* [19] This request


was denied, on the grounds that tradition dictated that
only the Tyrian king could do this.* [19] Alexander, had
been unaware of this when he made the request.* [19] To
the Tyrian's, allowing him to do this tacitly implied that
he was their king.* [19] As the embassies, under whatever pretense, did not explain this particular aspect of
their tradition to him, told him that they would grant him
any request except this one, Alexander became angry and
dismissed the embassy with contumely.* [19] As a result,
a seven-month siege ensued, the most celebrated of all
antiquity. As a result of this, and the Persian eet he'd
won, including Tyre's, he won the control of the Mediterranean. From here he marched along the rest of the
Mediterranean-Persian coast, notably taking Gaza in another dicult siege. After the siege of Gaza the Macedonians slew all the men in the city,* [20] and enslaved all the
women and children.* [21] He proceeded to take Egypt,
which fell without a ght. As a result of his march around
the entire Mediterranean coast of the Persian Empire, his
rear was absolutely secure; he could proceed into the interior of the Persian Empire without fear for his rear.
It was around this time that Alexander received a letter
from Darius entreating him to give him his mother, wife
and childrenwhich he'd captured after Darius' unceremonious * [22] ight from Issus.* [23] These were valuable assets, as Alexander could employ them as bargaining chips if matters should prove problematical. However, Alexander denied this request in spite of the oer
of friendship and alliance.* [23] His reply was
Your ancestors came into Macedonia and
the rest of Greece and treated us ill, without
any previous injury from us. I, having been appointed commander and chief of the Greeks,
and wishing to take revenge on the Persians,
crossed over into Asia, hostilities being begun
by you. For you sent aid to the Perinthians,
who were dealing unjustly with my father; and
Ochus sent forces into Thrace, which was under our rule. My father was killed by conspirators whom you instigated as you have yourself
boasted to all in your letters; and after slaying
Arses, as well as Bagoas, and unjustly seizing
the throne contrary to the law of the Persians,
and ruling your subjects unjustly, you sent unfriendly letters about me to the Greeks, urging them to wage war with me. You have also
despatched money to the Lacedaemonians, and
certain other Greeks; but none of the States received it, except the Lacedaemonians. As your
agents corrupted my friends, and were striving to dissolve the league which I had formed
among the Greeks, I took the eld against you,
because you were the party who commenced
the hostility. Since I have vanquished your generals and viceroys in the previous battle, and
now yourself and your forces in like manner,

I am, by the gift of the gods, in possession of


your land. As many of the men who fought in
your army as were not killed in the battle, but
ed to me for refuge, I am protecting; and they
are with me, not against their own will, but they
are serving in my army as volunteers. Come
to me therefore~ since I am lord of all Asia;
but if you are afraid you may suer any harsh
treatment from me in case you come to me,
send some of your friends to receive pledges
of safety from me. Come to me then, and ask
for your mother, wife, and children, and anything else you wish. For whatever you ask for
you will receive; and nothing shall be denied
you. But for the future, whenever you send to
me, send to me as the king of Asia, and do not
address to me your wishes as to an equal; but
if you are in need of anything, speak to me as
to the man who is lord of all your territories. If
you act otherwise, I shall deliberate concerning
you as an evil-doer; and if you dispute my right
to the kingdom, stay and ght another battle for
it; but do not run away. For wherever you may
be, I intend to march against you.* [24]
After the battle of Issus, Darius had ed to assemble a
new army from the eastern reaches of his kingdom.* [25]
Alexander marched his army at top speed to meet Darius, and nally made headway into the Persian heartland,
Mesopotamia.* [26] Crossing these fertile plains, he gathered victual * [26] and founded cities along his lines of
communication back to Macedonia* [26] to secure his
communications. He crossed the Tigris north of Eski
Mosul, near Nineveh; the crossing was dicult on account of the current but it was not disputed by the Persians.* [27] At the nal battle for the Persian Empire, near
the town of Arbela, the battle of Gaugumela was another
complete defeat for the Persians. As a result of this victory, Alexander easily gained both Babylon and Susa
two of the political centers of the Empire.* [23]
After taking these cities, the Macedonians had a dicult ght in the pass known as the battle of the Persian
Gates, which he was able to take by ruse.* [28] It was as
a result of taking this pass that Alexander was able to
take the ancient capital of the Persian Empire, known
as Passargadae.* [28] From this point, Alexander proceeded with the goal of capturing Darius in mind.* [29]
After a high-speed pursuit over great distancesmarching from the Caspian Gates to Shahrud (253 miles) in
just seven dayshe found Darius had been killed by his
cousin Bessus.* [30]* [31] A march of 253 miles in seven
days is an average of thirty-six miles a dayand it was
mid-summer and much of the country the Macedonians
marched over was barren and dry.* [30] This was a splendid feat.
Alexander then took up the formal titles of the Persian monarch, and started to wear their clothing and

36.3. FIRST PHASEASPASIANS


tiara, which upset the Macedonians.* [30] He also demanded that the Persians pay him proskynesis, which they
did.* [30] The topic of paying Alexander homage in the
traditional Persian fashion caused a lot of problems in the
Macedonian camp.* [32] However, the attire of state only
pertained to the aairs of state.* [32] Whenever Alexander took the eld with his Macedonians, he always took
up his traditional Macedonian armourwith its notable
white plumes on the helmet, which made him so auspicious to his men while in the eld.* [32]
After having seized Darius' body, Alexander reorganized
his army and gave it rest after its incredible exertions. His
army was strung out as not all the men had been able to
keep up. Bessus had taken up the royal Persian vestments
and Tiara as Artaxerxes IVand marched into Bactria
where he was gathering support with the Scythians.* [33]
A number of problems arose on his march towards
Bessus, including a revolt in his rear while marching towards Bessus.* [33] It was as a result of this that Alexander marched his army in a huge arc down to the south
before settling with Bessus.* [34]
Alexander would spend the next two years settling the
aairs of this region. Matters became so problematical
that he eventually settled on massacring the majority of
the population. This business took up some time, but the
majority of it was small arms war against numerous rebellions arising in his front or rear from whatever point
he was advancing towards or away from. Notably, he
faced o with Spitamenes at this time, a very able Persian Satrap who had fought at Gaugumela. This Satrap
caused Alexander many problems, and Alexander chased
him to and fro across Aria, Bactria and Sogdiana for no
short length of time.* [35] However, after some time the
Scythians whom Spitamenes had taken up with were sick
of running from Alexander, who it seemed, would never
let them rest as long as Spitamenes lived.* [35] They killed
Spitamenes, and to appease Alexander they gave the King
his head as a gift.* [36] However, the inhabitants of this
region would never be completely content unless there
were forced to do so, and to this eect he would eventually be forced to garrison the region with 10,000 infantry
and 3,500 cavalry.* [37]

36.2 Preliminaries
It had been Alexander's purpose to conquer the whole of
the Persian Empire for some time, who claimed the fealty
ofat least in nameas far as Gandara.* [38] Darius the
Great in former days had sent a commander by the name
of Skylax sailed down the Indus.* [39] As a result of this
expedition, Darius was able to conquer the Indian country
up to this neighborhoodand received 350 Euboic talents
from it per annuman extravagant sum.* [40] Relatively
little is known about the Punjab in Alexander's day.* [40]
There were a variety of princelings and Republics, which
the Indians called, Kingless* [41] peoplesbut they

93
were all vying for power over the region with each other.
The Indians, had contempt for these Republics.* [38]
The King of Taxila, whom the Macedonians just called
Taxilabut in fact his name was Omphis* [42] had invited Alexander to come to his aid in his struggle against
the neighboring potentate Porus* [38]who was deemed
the most powerful prince in the region, in addition to being capable in his own right. In addition to this, the Indian
King, Sisicotus who had served at Gaugumela in the
Persian Army* [38] and had afterwords been Alexander's vassal in some capacity.* [37] Allegedly, Alexander received plenty of information concerning the region from these individuals.* [37] What information he
received is not mentioned.
Alexander had begun planning the expedition two years
before, in 329 BC,* [43] but had been held up due to a series of revolts that had taken place in Aria, Sogdiana and
Bactria. However, he was held up in putting down this
revolt as he had been marching through the Hindu Kush
mid-winter and decided to camp in the mountains.* [44]
It was during this time that he founded the city of Alexandria ad Caucasum.* [44] This city is some twenty ve
miles northwest of modern Kabul, in Afghanistan. Returning to Alexandria ad Caucasum in May 327 BC* [1]
there was a surfeit of victual and supplies ready for the
army for its expedition into India.* [45] However, there
were administrative matters that required his attention.
Both the satrap of the parapamisus Proxes, and the commander of the garrison Neiloxinus were replaced due to
their unsatisfactory conduct. There were a number of
tribes * [45] that were shued around, and other necessary aairs were taken up. At this moment, before he set
out for Nicea, he is alleged to have had 150,000 soldiers
at this point.* [37] These included soldiers from Greece,
Thrace, Agriania and a healthy leaven of Oriental soldiers
from the new sections of his empire.* [37] It has been
alleged that 50-60,000 of these were Europeans.* [46]
Leaving Alexandria ad Caucasum, he marched to Nicea,
where he sacriced to Athenawhich was his habit at
the beginning of every campaign and began his advance
towards the Indus via the Cophen river.* [7]

36.3 First PhaseAspasians


While on the march Alexander sent ambassadors ahead to
the various tribes that were in his frontordering them
to submit and report to him with hostages.* [42] Not only
Taxila, but a number of other princes came to him bringing him gifts in proof of their vassalage and paying tribute
with gifts for the Macedoniansa proof that they were
ready to serve him.* [42] Including other gifts that the
Macedonians had never seen before, the Indian potentates
furnished Alexander with a number of Elephants* [45]
twenty-ve of which were on hand.* [47] As he had now
eectively replaced Darius as King of Persia, he had replaced him as overlord of the Empire and this region right

94
where Alexander was at present situated was the eastern
most Persian province.* [48] As a result of this particular outlook, Alexander was enabled to treat any who resisted him as in revolt against him. While descending into
the Cophen valley, Alexander informed his new vassals of
his intentions; He planned to spend the rest of the Summer and Autumn in reducing the region in his front up to
the river Indus.* [42] However, as matters eventuated, he
found that the campaign he proposed was going to be far
more dicult then he had anticipated.From there, he was
going to proceed beyond the Indus and punish the Indian
nations beyond that river and punish the nations that had
not submitted themselves to him and brought him tribute
and recognized him as their new master.* [42]
At Nicea, he took the time to split his army into two separate forces with a very specic goal in mind; to retain the
interior lines so that he could reinforce his army at any
point should any particular section of his army become
threatened during the course of his campaign in the valley
of the Cophen. In addition to this, these two forces were
to keep the Indians in the region from combining their
forces and coordinating against the Macedonians.* [49]
This is the sign of Alexander's conception of strategy, especially considering the nature of the topography of the
region. The army that was going to march along the river
Cophen was going to be commanded by Perdiccas and
Haphaestion;* [47] they were going to have the king of
Taxila with them so that they had his knowledge of the
region at their disposal.* [47]* [50] They were to proceed
along the right, or southern bank, of the Cophen and the
forces they were to have at their disposal were as follows;
the three brigades of Gorgias, Clitus (The White One)
and Meleager, half the Companion (mostly Macedonian
noblemen who were equipped with a spear,* [51] a shield
and were disciplined to such an extent that they've been
called, the rst real cavalry)* [51] and all the Greek
mercenary Cavalry.* [47]* [50] Their instructions were as
follows; to follow the river as fast as they could to the Indusreducing all the cities and oppidums to submission
on the waythrough either systematic reduction or by
terms.* [47]* [49]and immediately build a bridge upon
their arrival at the Indus* [47] so that when the King arrived and after the winter when the King had wintered his
army in the regionas plannedthey could proceed to
cross the river and punish the tribes across the Indus.* [49]

CHAPTER 36. COPHEN CAMPAIGN


and took it up. Taking up the task he deemed to be the
most dicult is a habit of his that he constantly displays
in the course of all his campaigns.* [11]
Alexander received information to the eect that the
Aspasians, the rst tribe whose lands he had entered
had raced o to their capital. Eager to defeat them,
the Macedonians crossed the rst river with all the cavalry and eight hundred Macedonian infantry mounted
on horses.* [52]* [53] The arrived quickly enough to kill
a number of the Indians and drive them within their
walls.* [53] The rest of the Army came up the next day,
and they took the city. However, a number of the Indians decided to make their exit before the city was taken,
seeing their cause as lost. The Macedonians followed
them up and killed a great many of them.* [53] Following up a victory and exploiting it to the utmost capacity,
was another habit of Alexander's, as with his father.* [54]
Alexander's men, who were enraged as their King had
been injured during the course of the siege, razed the city
to the ground. The Macedonians marched o to the next
town, Andaca, which capitulated.* [53]

The King's campaign through the Aspasians territory.

There being so many valleys in this particular region,


Alexander came to appreciate that if he held the head of
each of these regions with a suitable garrison, he could
hold the entirety of each of these valleys.* [53] He therefore left Crateruswhom he had probably kept in hand
in case of just such an occasionin command of a force
suitable to this task, and continued on his way.* [53] Now,
the Indians of this region were largely herders and were in
possession of very large ocks.* [55] These were probably
a species of hostages in their own right for the good behavior for the Indians, since at any point which they misbehaved the Macedonians could march into their ocks
and slaughter their herds and thereby destroy their livelihoods. As they were in valleys, there is nowhere they
could take these herds in time to escape the vengeance
of the Macedonians. It is not known whether Craterus
received instructions to this eect.

The King, meanwhile had at his disposal the bulk of the


forces in his army.* [49] These forces were as follows;
the shield bearing guards (at this time, they had become
known as the silver shields), four regiments of Companion cavalry, the Phalanx minus what marched with the
rst column, the foot agema, the archers, the other half
of the horse archers (or Daans) the Agrianians and the
horse lancers.* [24]* [49] Now, Alexander's plan was to
march up and down all the valleys that were in between
Nicea and the river Indus. To subdue those tribes that had
not paid tribute and bring them to heal.* [24] Alexander
*
clearly considered this the most dicult work at hand, Alexander's next destination was Euspla, [53] where the
King of the Aspasians was. At this point, deeming their

36.6. THIRD PHASEASSACENIANS

95

cause lost, the Aspasians burned this city and ed.* [53]
The Macedonians pursued them, during which an interesting combat took place between Ptolemy I Soter, The
Aspasian King and Alexander.* [56] One of the barbarians with the Aspasian King thrust his spear right through
Ptolemy's breast plate,* [24] but the spear did not make
contact with him due to the armour stopping the severity
of the blow.* [24]* [56] It was at this point that Ptolemy
killed the King of the Aspasians himself by thrusting his
spear through both of his thigh's.* [24]* [56] At this point,
in a combat between Alexander, Ptolemy and the Aspasian Kings body guard they fought over the corpse of
the fallen king.* [56]

36.4 Second PhaseGuraeans


After slaying the Aspasians to a satisfactory capacity to
put his lines of communication to a point of security beyond peradventure the Macedonians marched towards the
Indian oppidum of Arigaeum which hearing news of
Alexander's capacity as a general and besiegerthey had
burned.* [57] It was at this particular point that Craterus
returned from settling the aairs of the Aspasian valleys
specically having left Andaca in a state that Alexander was satised with.* [57] Alexander put Craterus back
to work, ordering him to set up a number of new colonies
in the region, including Arigaeum. This city, and Andaca were geographically advantageous for controlling
the Choaspes river, and the possession of oppidums with
healthy garrisons would prove advantageous in the case
of revolts.* [57]

The King's force takes up the center of the Macedonian line while
Ptolemy and Leonnatus' forces take a circuit to catch the barbarians by surprise.

talus' and Balacrus' brigades;* [58] and the King himself


took up the most dicult work in the center as was
his habitopposed to the Barbarian center.* [58] Alexander sent Ptolemy and Leonnatus to their respective anks
by hidden routes that the barbarians could not see,* [58]
thus hiding these two particular anks of his army
lined roughly obliquely with his center line* [58]from
the eyes and more importantly, the knowledge of the barbarians. Alexander's contingent was comparatively small,
and his plan was to lure them out and to ght them in their
front while Leonnatus and Ptolemy took them on both of
their anks respectively.* [58]

As predicted, the Barbarians attacked Alexander's small


contingent and after Ptolemy faced rough ghting in his
*
The Guraeans had retreated after burning their city to front [58] he was able to eectuate a victory on his ank
join some of their fellow tribesmen. These tribes had ef- of the barbarians. Leonnatus' victory was comparatively
*
[59]
fectuated a junction and were preparing to face Alexan- easier, after which time the barbarians surrendered.
*
Allegedly, all told there were 40,000 captured. [59] This
der.
number is highly unlikely.

36.5 Combat at Arigaeum


Ptolemy, who had been sent ahead to forage for victual
*
[57] came back to the main contingent of the army under Alexander and reported to the King that there was a
very large force of barbarians assembled and preparing
to face the Macedonians.* [57] The forces not only from
the oppidum of Arigaum itself, but also the neighboring
vicinity had taken up arms against the Macedonians.* [57]
The King raced o to meet this force with his wonted
speed.* [57]
When the Macedonians arrived, Alexander divided his
army into three parts; Ptolemy taking up the left, had
a third of the hypaspists, the brigades of Philip and
Philotas, two squadrons of horse archers (a new unit for
the Macedonians, an idea they stole from the Persians),
the Agrianians and half the other cavalry;* [57] Leonnatus was ordered to take up the right ank, with At-

36.6 Third PhaseAssacenians


Proceeding from his most recent victory, Alexander
marched down the river by the name of Garaeuswith
the intention of subdueing the tribes of this region to
tribute paying status. From here he proceeded into the
valley of the Suastoswhere there was a force of two
thousand cavalry, thirty thousand infantry and thirty elephants.* [60] Alexander raced forward with the van, planning to do all he could to upset their preparations, while
Craterus followed up at a more methodical pace with the
main force.* [59] It is specically mentioned that he had
the siege engines with him.* [59] It was in this region that
the results of the Indus attening the topography started
to bear results on the surrounding country, and it must
have been a great relief for the Macedonians to proceed
into the relatively at lands of this region compared to
the mountainous regions of the proceeding area they had

96
been in.* [59] The speed with which the Macedonian van
proceeded was such that he was able to prevent a full junction of the enemy from taking place, and each of the barbarian tribes raced o to their respective territories.* [61]

CHAPTER 36. COPHEN CAMPAIGN


it must have been a strange sight for them to watch the
Macedonians actually push this, frankly ridiculous, tower
forward along the terrace that they had built. No doubt
they'd never seen anything like it before.

36.7 Siege of Massaga


Alexander followed up the barbarian tribes, and marched
to Massaga, the largest oppidum of the Assacenians and
their capital.* [61] The denizens of this place had acquired
the services of 7,000 mercenaries from beyond the Indus.* [60] These mercenaries were soldiers of no common
order, and as a result of their presence the Assacenians as
well as the mercenaries themselves were condent of victory against the Macedonians.* [60]* [61]
Upon arriving, Alexander ordered that the camp be set up
outside of the oppidum. However, so condent with these
mercenaries by their side, the Assacenians decided to instantly attack.* [60]* [61] Seeing an opportunity, Alexander ordered his men to retreat to a hill about a mile distant
from the town, which they proceeded to do.* [60]* [62]
In pursuing the Macedonians, the Assacenians lost their
discipline and became disordered due to their excitement
at the prospect of having caught the Macedonians so o
guard. However, when they nally came within range of
the Macedonian bows, Alexander ordered them to re
on the barbarians.* [60]* [62] The mounted javelin men,
Agrianians and archers at once dashed forward to the attack.* [60] These were swiftly followed by the phalanx,
which Alexander led in person.* [60] Alexander was injured during the course of this action and is alleged to
have stated, They may call me son of Zeus, but I suer
none the less like a mortal. This is blood, not ichor!"* [62]
The proceeding night was spent in preparation for an assault, which proved to be unsuccessful.* [63] The professional mercenaries, wherever they had come from, were
worth the gold they were getting paid. The next day,
Alexander ordered the siege equipment to be brought
up and ordered a section of the wall to be battered
down.* [62] However, the mercenaries knew better than
to allow the Macedonians to be successful in such an effort, and were successful in preventing this from taking
place.* [62] As a result, the King ordered that a tower
and terrace be builtit took 9 days to build these.* [62]
On the day after the completion of these two things,
Alexander ordered that the tower be advanced toward the
wall.* [62] Archers and slingers, most likely from Cyprus,
were stationed on the tower as it was moved forward
in order to keep the defenders at a distance from their
own fortications.* [62] In spite of their expertise in warfare, it is not unlikely that the Indian mercenaries had
never come across such a sophisticated siege scheme and
equipment. The Macedonians had developed the most
advanced form of siegecraft that the world up to that
point had known.* [64] Although they had obviously been
watching the Macedonians build the tower and terrace,

Alexander ordered that a tower and terrace be builtit took nine


days after which time he ordered that archers and slingers be
stationed on top of the tower and force the defenders from the
ramparts.

In spite of this though, the mercenaries fought ercely,


and would not let the Macedonians through.* [60] The
next day, Alexander ordered that from the tower they extend a bridge and would have the same men who stormed
Tyre from the bridges built on the mole to storm the Assacenians. Meanwhile, the archers and slingers would
continue to re as before. However, again the mercenaries put up erce resistance. While this was going
on, Alexander ordered that a unit of Hypaspists charge
across the bridge at the mercenaries. However, too
many of them rushed upon it too quickly and the hastily
built bridge* [63] collapsed under their weight.* [60] Seeing that they had just gotten an opportunity the barbarians seized upon it. First they started to re volleys
of arrows, stones and even reballs into the ditch on
top of the men.* [63] The pit they had fallen into was
to be their tomb, and a great many of them were slain
once the barbarians made a sortie from one of the side
gates and started to kill these largely helpless soldiers in
earnest.* [63] However, Alexander saved those he could
by attacking this sortie with a counter-attack of his own
a number of his men were saved.* [65]
The next day, the Macedonians built another bridge and
attacked in a similar manner.* [63] However, during the
course of the attack the Macedonians red a lucky shot
and killed the leader of the mercenaries.* [66] Consequentially, the Barbarians decided to treat for surrender.
Alexander's conditions for their surrender were as follows; they agree to serve under him and they surrender to
him the Massagan King's family as hostages.* [66] However, they were unwilling to carry out their part of the
bargain, as a result of the fact that they were going to
have to march over the Indus and ght their fellow Indians as a function of the treaty.* [66] They decided to

36.9. SIEGE OF AORNUS


retreat from the encampment they had made near the city
after they had surrendered to Alexander.* [66] Alexander
hearing of this, had his Macedonians surround the hill
that they were encamped upon. Seeing the mercenaries
recreant to the treaty they just negotiated attempting to make their escape, all hell broke loose and the
Macedonians became enraged, slaying a great many of
them.* [66] After this, the Macedonians proceeded back
to Massaga and took it with ease, and killed all the soldiers in the garrison of the city. This happening, in spite
of the terms that had specically been negotiated with
Massaga.* [66] During the course of the siege, the Macedonians had lost no more than 25 men, however a number
of them were wounded.* [65] It is not specied whether
any of the wounded died or not.

36.8 Events Proceeding Aornus


During the course of the siege of the fortress of Massaga Alexander developed the opinion that the taking of
Massaga would strike the tribes in the surrounding territory with fear as to his power and ability.* [65] It was as
a result of this, and as the siege went on and it was becoming clearer and clearer that the stronghold would surrender,* [65] that Alexander decided to dispatch a number
of his lieutenants to the surrounding oppidums in order to
follow up on this victory. To that eect he issued the following orders, Coenus (Co-eh-nahs) was to proceed to an
oppidum by the name of Bazira* [65]he expected this
town to capitulate as a result of Massaga.* [65] Simultaneously, he sent Alcetas, Attalus and Demetrius to Ora
with the very specic orders to blockade the oppidum of
Ora until he could arrive himself and take it.* [65] It was
often Alexander's habit to take up each task in person,
himself. There are other occasions, notably the Mallian
Campaign where Alexander issueed orders to this same
eect. Alexander preferred to let as few of the denizens
of these towns escape as possible, as to retain the element
of surprise.
Upon arriving at Ora, Alcetas was assaulted by the inhabitants that had taken up in Ora.* [67] However, Alcetas was easily able to drive this sortie back into the
town.* [67] Coenus' town of Bazira however, which stood
on the precipice of a mountain was fortied by nature
and artas the saying employed by the ancient authors
goes, showed absolutely no signs of capitulating.* [67] After receiving the submission of Massaga and massacring
its inhabitants* [65] treacherously, Alexander set out in
the direction of Bazira.* [67] However, while proceeding
in the direction of this town he received news to the effect that Abisares, the Rajah of Hazara, was going to cross
the Indus* [68] with forces to interrupt the siege and assist Ora.* [67] Alexander changed his plans, he set out for
Ora at once with all the forces under his immediate command.* [67] In addition to this, he ordered Coenus to create a camp and fortify it as an eventual base of operations

97
against the town of Bazira,* [67] being situated as it was
in a dicult to reach location; Coenus was then to leave
a suitable garrison in that future base of operations to observe Bazira and join the King and his forces at Ora.* [67]
However, when Coenus left Bazira, the inhabitants of
the oppidum sallied out and attacked the encampment
he had set up.* [67] These tribesmen lost 500 of their
fellow tribesmen during the course of this attack, and
were easily driven back.* [67] A few days later on, the
Macedonians were able to take Ora, after which point
the denizens of Bazira looked on their cause as lost, and
abandoned Bazira to the Macedonians and headed o to
Aornus.* [67]
It was as a result of these conquests that Alexander conquered the Peshawar valley.* [67] The Peshawar valley
was situated perpendicularly to the Swat river, which was
situated on a north-south axis.* [67]* [68] This valley was
thereby, more or less, an opening through which Abisares
could pass through and make a junction with them.* [67]
It was therefore critical to take the whole of this valley so
that no reinforcements could be brought up into the valley and le through either the north or south exit of the
valley and debouch on Alexander while he was besieging
Aornus.* [67] A noted historian of Alexander's, who took
up the issue and examined the topography of the region,
had this to say about the strategic situation that Alexander
had developed for himself as a result of this campaign
to understand the sound strategic reasons
which caused Alexander, before attacking Aornus, rst to turn south to the Peshawar valley. Once he had consolidated his hold there
and made his arrangements for crossing the Indus quite secure, he could safely move up to
the right bank and attack the mountain retreat
of the Swat fugitives from the south. He thus
avoided the entanglement of the mountainous
region that would have attended and hampered
direct pursuit from the Swat side. The fugitive
host could be cut o from retreat to the east
of the Indus and from such assistance as Abisares, the ruler on that side, might oer. Finally, when attacking Aornus from the south,
Alexander could command all the advantages
that the Indus valley and the fertile plains of
the Peshawar valley would oer in respect of
supplies and other resources* [69]* [70]

36.9 Siege of Aornus


Aornos (in Swat, Pakistan) was the site of Alexander the
Great's last siege,the climax to Alexander's career as the
greatest besieger in historyaccording to Alexander's biographer Robin Lane Fox.* [71] The siege took place in
the winter of 327326 BCE. The site was satisfactorily
identied with the modern mountain Pir-Sar in Swat,

98

CHAPTER 36. COPHEN CAMPAIGN


celebration of the initial repulse, followed by a surprise
retreat. Alexander hauled himself up the last rockface on
a rope. Alexander cleared the summit, slaying some fugitives (Lane Fox), inated by Arrian to a massacre, and
erected altars to Athena Nike, Athena of Victory, traces
of which were identied by Stein.* [72]

36.10 Notes
[1] Dodge 1890, p. 509
[2] Dodge 1890, p. 540
[3] Fuller, J. F. C. (1958). The Generalship of Alexander The
Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, Ltd.
[4] Fuller, J. F. C. (1959). The Generalship of Alexander the
Great. Rahway, New Jersey: Quinn & Boden Company,
Inc. p. 83.
[5] Fuller 1959, p. 83
[6] Fuller 1959, p. 84
The Aornos is located to the north of Taxila.

[7] Dodge 1890, p. 225


[8] Dodge 1890, p. 226

Pakistan by Sir Aurel Stein in 1926, and has been conrmed since by archaeologists. It oered the last threat
to Alexander's supply line, which stretched, dangerously
vulnerable, over the Hindu Kush back to Balkh, though
Arrian credits Alexander's heroic desire to outdo his kinsman Heracles, who allegedly had proved unable to take
the place Pir-Sar, which the Greeks called Aornis. The
site lies north of Attock in Punjab, on a strongly reinforced mountain spur above the narrow gorges in a bend
of the upper Indus River. It had a at summit well supplied with natural springs and wide enough to grow crops:
it could not be starved to submission. Neighboring tribesmen who surrendered to Alexander oered to lead him to
the best point of access.
Ptolemy and Alexander's secretary Eumenes, whose account provided material for all later ones, reconnoitered
and reinforced a neighboring spur to the west with a
stockade and ditch. His signal re to Alexander also
alerted the defenders of Pir-Sar, and it took two days
of skirmishing in the narrow ravines for Alexander to
regroup. At the vulnerable north side leading to the
fort, Alexander and his catapults were stopped by a deep
ravine. To bring the siege engines within reach, an earthwork mound was constructed to bridge the ravine with
carpentry, brush and earth. The rst day's work brought
the siege mound 50 m (60 yards) closer, but as the sides
of the ravine fell away steeply below, progress rapidly
slowed; nevertheless, at the end of the third day, a low
hill connected to the nearest tip of Pir-Sar was within
reach and was taken, after Alexander in the vanguard and
his rst force were repelled by boulders rolled down from
above. Three days of drumbeats marked the defenders'

[9] Fuller 1959, p. 91


[10] Fuller 1959, p. 92
[11] Delbrck 1990, p. 231
[12] Dodge 1890, p. 261
[13] Fuller 1959, p. 97
[14] Fuller 1959, p. 99
[15] Delbrck 1990, p. 200
[16] Fuller 1959, p. 206
[17] Fuller 1959, p. 101
[18] Fuller 1959, p. 102
[19] Fuller 1959, p. 207
[20] Fuller 1959, p. 218
[21] Fuller 1959, p. 104
[22] Delbrck 1990, p. 198
[23] Fuller 1959, p. 100
[24] Arrian 1890, XV
[25] Delbrck 1990, p. 210
[26] Dodge 1890, p. 355
[27] Dodge 1890, p. 357
[28] Dodge 1890, p. 408
[29] Fuller 1959, p. 112

36.11. REFERENCES

99

[30] Fuller 1959, p. 113

[67] Fuller 1959, p. 247

[31] Dodge 1890, p. 424

[68] Fuller 1959, p. 125

[32] Dodge 1890, p. 436

[69] Fuller 1959, p. 247248

[33] Dodge 1890, p. 438

[70] Stein 2004, p.1234

[34] Dodge 1890, p. 439

[71] Lane Fox, p. 343.

[35] Dodge 1890, p. 479

[72] Lane Fox (1973); Arrian.

[36] Dodge 1890, p. 492


[37] Dodge 1890, p. 511
[38] Dodge 1890, p. 510
[39] Smith, Vincent (1914). The Early History of India. England: University of Oxford.
[40] Smith 1914, p. 37
[41] Dodge 1890, p. 539
[42] Dodge 1890, p. 513
[43] Smith 1914, p. 513
[44] Dodge 1890, p. 452
[45] Dodge 1890, p. 512
[46] Smith 1914, p. 48
[47] Arrian, XXII
[48] Fuller 1959, p. 126
[49] Dodge 1890, p. 515
[50] Dodge 1890, p. 514
[51] Delbrck 1990, p. 177
[52] Arrian, XXIII
[53] Dodge 1890, p. 517
[54] Delbrck 1990, p. 232
[55] Dodge 1890, p. 516
[56] Dodge 1890, p. 518
[57] Dodge 1890, p. 519
[58] Dodge 1890, p. 520
[59] Dodge 1890, p. 521
[60] Fuller 1959, p. 245
[61] Dodge 1890, p. 522
[62] Dodge 1890, p. 523
[63] Dodge 1890, p. 524
[64] Delbrck 1990, p. 181
[65] Fuller 1959, p. 246
[66] Dodge 1890, p. 525

36.11 References
Delbrck, Hans (1990). Warfare in Antiquity: History of the Art of War. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. 604. ISBN 978-0-8032-9199-7.
Fuller, J. F. C. (1958). The Generalship of Alexander The Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, Ltd.
Dodge, Theodore (1890). Alexander. Pennsylvania:
Stackpole Books. p. 681. ISBN 978-1-85367-1791.
Smith, Vincent (1914). The Early History of India.
England: University of Oxford.
Annabasis Alexandri. Retrieved 20 November
2011. |rst1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
Lane Fox, Robin. Alexander the Great. Penguin,
1973, ISBN 978-0-14-008878-6, 1973.
Arrian, Anabasis IV chapters 28.130.4 (in French)
Stein, Sir Aurel (1929). On Alexander's Track to the
Indus. Bhavan Books & Prints.

Chapter 37

Cynane
Cynane (Greek: K, Kynane or , Kyna; killed
323 BC) was half-sister to Alexander the Great, and
daughter of Philip II by Audata, an Illyrian princess.

37.2 References
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 5; Photius, Bibliotheca,
cod. 92; Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, xiii. 5; Diodorus
Siculus, Bibliotheca, xix. 52; Polyaenus, Stratagemata,
viii. 60; Aelian, Varia Historia, xiii. 36

Audata trained her daughter in riding, hunting, and ghting in the Illyrian tradition. Her father gave her in marriage to her cousin Amyntas, by whose death she was
left a widow in 336 BC. In the following year Alexander promised her hand, as a reward for his services, to
Langarus, king of the Agrianians, but the intended bridegroom became ill and died.
Cynane continued unmarried, and employed herself in
the education of her daughter, Adea or Eurydice, whom
she is said to have trained, after the manner of her own
education, in martial exercises. When her half brother
Philip Arrhidaeus was chosen king in 323 BC, Cynane
determined to marry Eurydice to him, and crossed over
to Asia accordingly.

[2] http://www.websfor.org/alexander/polyaenus/
polyaenus5.asp

37.3 External links


This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Her inuence was probably great, and her project alarmed


Perdiccas and Antipater, the former of whom sent his
brother Alcetas to meet her on her way and put her to
death. Alcetas did so in deance of the feelings of his
troops, and Cynane met her doom with an undaunted
spirit. Eurydice's wedding took place, but both daughter and son-in-law were eventually killed by Olympias.
In 317 BC, Cassander, after defeating Olympias, buried
Cynane with Eurydice and Arrhidaeus at Aegae, the royal
burying-place.* [1]
Polyaenus writes,Cynane, the daughter of Philip was famous for her military knowledge: she conducted armies,
and in the eld charged at the head of them. In an engagement with the Illyrians, she with her own hand slew
Caeria their queen; and with great slaughter defeated the
Illyrian army.* [2]

37.1 Cynane as ctional character


She appears as a character in the historical novel Funeral
Games by Mary Renault. Renault calls her Kynna.
100

Chapter 38

Darius III
Darius III (c. 380 July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks,* [1] was
the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from
336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name.* [1]

benefactor. Bagoas then tried to poison Darius as well,


when he learned that even Darius couldn't be controlled,
but Darius was warned and forced Bagoas to drink the
poison himself.* [4] The new king found himself in control of an unstable empire, large portions of which were
governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited
by disaected and rebellious subjects, such as Khabash
in Egypt. Compared to his ancestors and his fellow heirs
who had since perished, Darius had a distinct lack of experience ruling an empire, and a lack of any previous ambition to do so. Darius was a ruler of entirely average
stamp, without the striking talents and qualities which the
administration of a vast empire required during that period of crisis.* [5]

After Artaxerxes III of Persia and all of his sons were


killed by the vizier Bagoas, the vizier installed a cousin of
Artaxerxes III, Artashata, on the Persian throne as Darius
III. When Darius tried to act independently of the vizier,
Bagoas tried to poison him, but Darius was warned and
forced Bagoas to drink the poison himself. The new king
found himself in control of an unstable empire, large portions of which were governed by jealous and unreliable
satraps and inhabited by disaected and rebellious subjects. However, he lacked the skills and experience to In 336 BC Philip II of Macedon was authorized by the
deal with these problems.
League of Corinth as its Hegemon to initiate a sacred
In 334 BC, Alexander the Great began his invasion of war of vengeance against the Persians for desecrating and
the Persian Empire and subsequently defeated the Per- burning the Athenian temples during the Second Persian
sians in a number of battles before looting and destroy- War. He sent an advance force into Asia Minor under the
command of his generals Parmenion and Attalus tolibing the capital Persepolis, by re, in 331 BC. With the
Persian Empire now eectively under Alexander's con- eratethe Greeks living under Persian control. After they
took the Greek cities of Asia from Troy to the Maiandros
trol, Alexander then decided to pursue Darius. Before
Alexander reached him, however, Darius was killed by river, Philip was assassinated and his campaign was suspended while his heir consolidated his control of Macethe satrap Bessus, who was also his cousin.
donia and the rest of Greece.

38.1 Early reign

38.2 Conict with Alexander

Artaxerxes III and all of his sons except one, Arses, were
assassinated by the orders of the vizier, Bagoas, who installed Arses on the throne as a puppet king. However,
when Bagoas discovered that Arses couldnt be controlled, he had Arses killed in 336 BC, and installed Artashata on the throne, the last surviving legitimate heir
to the Persian throne. Artashata was a distant relative of
the royal house who had distinguished himself in a combat of champions in a war against the Cadusii* [2] and
was serving at the time as a royal courier.* [3] Artashata
was the son of Arsames, son of Ostanes, one of ArtaxDarius III portrayed (in the middle) in battle against Alexander
erxes's brothers, and Sisygambis, daughter of Artaxerxes
in a Greek depiction; Possible illustration of either Battle of Issus
II Mnemon. He took the throne at the age of 46.
or Battle of Gaugamela
Artashata took the regnal name Darius III,* [1] and
quickly demonstrated his independence from his assassin In the spring of 334 BC, Philip's heir, Alexander, who
101

102

CHAPTER 38. DARIUS III


refused to do so unless Darius would acknowledge him as
the new emperor of Persia.

Dariuss ight at the Battle of Gaugamela (18th-century ivory


relief)

had himself been conrmed as Hegemon by the League


of Corinth, invaded Asia Minor at the head of an army
of Macedonian and other Greek soldiers. This invasion,
which marked the beginning of the Wars of Alexander
the Great, was followed almost immediately by the victory of Alexander over the Persians at Battle of the Granicus. Darius never showed up for the battle, because there
was no reason for him to suppose that Alexander intended
to conquer the whole of Asia, and Darius may well have
supposed that the satraps of thelowersatrapies could
deal with the crisis,* [6] so he instead decided to remain
at home in Persepolis and let his satraps handle it. In
the previous invasion of Asia Minor by the Spartan king
Agesilaus, the Persians had pinned him in Asia Minor
while fomenting rebellion in Greece. Darius attempted
to employ the same strategy, with the Spartans rebelling
against the Macedonians, but the Spartans were defeated
at Megalopolis.
Darius did not actually take the eld against Alexanders
army until a year and a half after Granicus, at the Battle
of Issus in 333 BC. His forces outnumbered Alexander's
soldiers by at least a 2 to 1 ratio, but Darius was still outanked, defeated, and forced to ee. It is told by Arrian
that at the Battle of Issus the moment the Persian left went
to pieces under Alexander
s attack and Darius, in his warchariot, saw that it was cut o, he incontinently ed indeed, he led the race for safety.* [7] On the way, he left
behind his chariot, his bow, and his royal mantle, all of
which were later picked up by Alexander. Greek sources
such as Diodorus Siculus' Library of History and Justin's
Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum recount that Darius
ed out of fear at the Battle of Issus and again two years
later at the Battle of Gaugamela despite commanding a
larger force in a defensive position each time.* [8] At the
Battle of Issus, Darius III even caught Alexander by surprise and failed to defeat Alexander's forces.* [9] Darius
ed so far so fast that Alexander was able to capture Dariuss headquarters and take Dariuss family as prisoners
in the process. Darius petitioned to Alexander through
letters several times to get his family back, but Alexander

Circumstances were more in Dariuss favor at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. He had a good number of
troops who had been organized on the battleeld properly, he had the support of the armies of several of his
satraps, and the ground on the battleeld was almost perfectly even, so as not to impede movement of his scythed
chariots. Despite all these benecial factors, he still ed
the battle before any victor had been decided and deserted his experienced commanders as well as one of the
largest armies ever assembled.* [10] Another source accounts that when Darius perceived the erce attack of
Alexander, as at Issus he turned his chariot around, and
was the rst to ee,* [11] once again abandoning all of
his soldiers and his property to be taken by Alexander.
Many Persian soldiers lost their lives that day, so many
in fact that after the battle the casualties of the enemy
ensured that Darius would never again raise an imperial
army.* [12] Darius then ed to Ecbatana and attempted
to raise a third army, while Alexander took possession of
Babylon, Susa, and the Persian capital at Persepolis. Darius reportedly oered all of his empire west of the Euphrates River to Alexander in exchange for peace several
times, each time denied by Alexander against the advice
of his senior commanders.* [13] Alexander could have declared victory after the capture of Persepolis, but he instead decided to pursue Darius.
The Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander the Great
defeated Darius III of Persia in 331 BC, took place approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Erbil, Iraq.
After the battle, Darius managed to ee to the city. However, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the Battle of Arbela.

38.3 Flight,
death

imprisonment

and

Darius did attempt to restore his once great army after his
defeat at the hands of Alexander, but he failed to raise a
force comparable to that which had fought at Gaugamela,
partly because the defeat had undermined his authority,
and also because Alexanders liberal policy, for instance
in Babylonia and in Persis, oered an acceptable alternative to Persian domination.* [12]
When at Ecbatana, Darius learned of Alexander's approaching army, he decided to retreat to Bactria where
he could better use his cavalry and mercenary forces
on the more even ground of the plains of Asia. He
led his army through the Caspian Gates, the main road
through the mountains that would work to slow a following army.* [14] The Persian forces became increasingly
demoralized with the constant threat of a surprise attack
from Alexander, leading to many desertions and eventually a coup led by Bessus, a satrap, and Nabarzanes, who

38.4. REFERENCES

103

managed all audiences with the King and was in charge himself to Alexander by giving the conqueror Darius' faof the palace guard.* [15] The two men suggested to Dar- vored companion, Bagoas.* [21]
ius that the army regroup under Bessus and that power
would be transferred back to the King once Alexander
was defeated. Darius obviously did not accept this plan, 38.4 References
and his conspirators became more anxious to remove
him for his successive failures against Alexander and his
[1] Heckel, Waldemar (2002). The Wars of Alexander the
forces. Patron, a Greek mercenary, encouraged Darius
Great. p. 24. ISBN 978-1841764733. Retrieved 19 June
to accept a bodyguard of Greek mercenaries rather than
2012.
his usual Persian guard to protect him from Bessus and
Nabarzanes, but the King could not accept for political [2] Justin 10.3; cf. Diod. 17.6.1-2
reasons and grew accustomed to his fate.* [16] Bessus and
Nabarzanes eventually bound Darius and threw him in [3] Plutarch, Life of Alexander 18.7-8, First Oration on the
Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, 326.D.
an ox-cart while they ordered the Persian forces to continue on. According to Curtius' History of Alexander, at
[4] Diodorus 17.5.6.
this point Alexander and a small, mobile force arrived
and threw the Persians into a panic, leading Bessus and [5] Hermann Bengtson, History of Greece from the Beginnings
two other conspirators, Satibarzanes and Barsaentes, to
to the Byzantine Era, p. 205.
wound the king with their javelins and leaving him to
[6] George Cawkwell, The Greek Wars: The Failure of Persia,
die.* [17]
p. 209

[7] Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander.


[8] John Prevas, Envy of the Gods: Alexander's Ill-Fated Journey across Asia (Da Capo Press, 2004), 47.
[9] Prevas 47.
[10] Prevas 48
[11] Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great.
[12] N.G.L. Hammond, The Genius of Alexander the Great.
[13] Prevas 52
Alexander covers the corpse of Darius with his cloak (18thcentury engraving)

A Macedonian soldier found Darius either dead or dying in the wagon shortly thereaftera disappointment to
Alexander, who wanted to capture Darius alive. Alexander saw Dariuss dead body in the wagon, and took the
signet ring o the dead kings nger. Afterwards he
sent Dariuss body back to Persepolis, gave him a magnicent funeral and ordered that he be buried, like all
his royal predecessors, in the royal tombs.* [18] Dariuss
tomb has not yet been discovered.* [19] Alexander eventually married Darius' daughter Stateira at Susa in 324
BC.
With the old king defeated and given a proper burial,
Alexander's rulership of Persia became ocial. This led
to Darius being regarded by some historians as cowardly
and inecient,* [20] as under his rulership, the entirety
of the Persian Empire fell to a foreign invader.
After killing Darius, Bessus took the regal name Artaxerxes V and began calling himself the King of Asia.* [12]
He was subsequently captured by Alexander, tortured,
and executed. Another of Darius' generals ingratiated

[14] Prevas 55
[15] Prevas 60
[16] Prevas 64-5
[17] Prevas 69
[18] Prevas 71
[19] Siegfried Lauer, Alexander der Groe. third edition,
Dtv, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-423-04298-2, p. 114
[20] W.W. Tarn, Alexander the Great.
[21] This was a dierent Bagoas than the unfaithful minister
mentioned above. Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality &
Civilization (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,
2003), p. 76.

38.5 Bibliography
Prevas, John. Envy of the Gods: Alexander the
Great's Ill-Fated Journey across Asia. Da Capo
Press, 2004.

104

38.6 External links


A detailed biography of Darius
A genealogy of Darius
Pothos.org: Darius III (Codomannus)

CHAPTER 38. DARIUS III

Chapter 39

Death of Alexander the Great


323the Babylonian astrologers tried to avert the misfortune by substituting Alexander with an ordinary person on
the Babylonian throne, who would take the brunt of the
omen.* [4] The Greeks, however, did not understand that
ritual.* [4]

39.1.1 Prophecy of Calanus

The death of Alexander the Great, after Karl von Piloty.

The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates. According to a Babylonian astronomical diary, Alexander
died between the evening of June 10 and the evening of
June 11, 323 BC.* [1] This happened in the palace of
Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon.
Macedonians and local residents wept at the news of the
death, while Achaemenid subjects shaved their heads.* [2]
Sisygambis, having learned of Alexander's death, refused
sustenance and died a few days later.* [3] Historians vary
in their assessments of primary sources about Alexander's
death, which results in dierent views.

39.1 Background
In February 324 BC, Alexander ordered his armies to
prepare for the march to Babylon.* [4] According to
Arrian, after crossing the Tigris Alexander was met by
Chaldeans, who advised him not to enter the city because
their deity Bel had warned them that to do so at that
time would be fatal for Alexander.* [5] The Chaldeans
also warned Alexander against marching westwards as
he would then look to the setting sun, a symbol of decline.* [5] It was suggested that he enter Babylon via the
Royal Gate, in the western wall, where he would face to
the east. Alexander followed this advice, but the route
turned to be unfavorable because of swampy terrain.* [5]
According to Jona Lendering, it seems that in May

Calanus was likely to be a Hindu Naga sadhu, whom


Greeks called gymnosophists. He had accompanied the
Greek army back from Punjab, upon request by Alexander. He was seventy-three years of age at that time. However, when Persian weather and travel fatigue weakened
him, he informed Alexander that he would rather die than
live disabled. He decided to take away his life by selfimmolation. Although Alexander tried to desist him from
doing so but upon the insistence of Calanus, Alexander
relented and the job of building a pyre was entrusted to
Ptolemy.* [6] The place where this incident took place
was Susa in the year 323 B.C.* [7] Calanus is mentioned
also by Alexander's admiral, Nearchus and Chares of
Mytilene.* [8] He did not inch as he burnt to the astonishment of those who watched.* [9]* [10] Before, immolating himself alive on the pyre, his last words to Alexander wereWe shall meet in Babylon.* [11]* [12] Thus he
is said to have prophesied the death of Alexander in Babylon. At the time of the death of Calanus, Alexander, however, did not have any plan to go to Babylon.* [13]* [14]
No one understood the meaning of his words We shall
meet in Babylon. It was only after Alexander fell sick
and died in Babylon, that the Greeks came to realize what
Calanus intended to convey.

39.2 Causes
Proposed causes of Alexander's death included alcoholic
liver disease and strychnine poisoning, but little data support either version.* [15] According to the University of
Maryland School of Medicine report of 1998, Alexander probably died of typhoid fever* [16] (which, along
with malaria, was common in ancient Babylon* [17]). In
the week before Alexander's death, historical accounts
mention chills, sweats, exhaustion and high fever, typi-

105

106

CHAPTER 39. DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT


book was compiled in Polyperchon's circle, not before ca.
317 BC.* [20]
In Alexander the Great: The Death of a God, Paul
C. Doherty claimed that Alexander was poisoned with
arsenic by his possibly illegitimate half-brother Ptolemy I
Soter.* [19] However, this was disputed by New Zealand
National Poisons Centre toxicologist Dr Leo Schep who
discounted arsenic poisoning and instead suggested that
he could have been poisoned by a wine made from the
plant Veratrum album, known as white hellebore.* [21]
This plant was known to the Ancient Greeks and it can
produce prolonged poisoning symptoms that match the
course of events as described in the Alexander Romance.
The article was published in the peer-reviewed medical
journal Clinical Toxicology and suggested that if Alexander was poisoned, Veratrum album oers the most plausible cause.* [21]* [22]

With an eort he looked at them as they passed

cal symptoms of infectious diseases, including typhoid


fever.* [16] According to David W. Oldach from the
University of Maryland Medical Center, Alexander also
had severe abdominal pain, causing him to cry out in
agony.* [16] The associated account, however, comes
from the unreliable Alexander romance.
Previous most popular theories hold that Alexander either
died of malaria or was poisoned. Other retrodiagnoses
include noninfectious diseases as well.* [18] According
to author Andrew Chugg, there is evidence Alexander
died of malaria, having contracted it two weeks before
his death while sailing in the marshes to inspect ood defences.* [19] Chugg based his argument on Ephemerides
by otherwise unknown Diodotus of Erythrae, although
the authenticity of this source has been questioned.* [19]
It was also noted that the absence of the signature fever
curve of Plasmodium falciparum (the expected parasite,
given Alexander's travel history) diminishes the possibility of malaria.* [18] The malaria version was nonetheless
supported by Paul Cartledge.* [19]
Throughout the centuries suspicions of possible poisoning have fallen on a number of alleged perpetrators, including one of Alexander's wives, his generals, his illegitimate half-brother or the royal cup-bearer.* [19] The poisoning version is featured particularly in politically motivated Liber de Morte Testamentoque Alexandri (The Book
On the Death and Testament of Alexander), which tries to
discredit the family of Antipater. It was argued that the

Epidemiologist John Marr and Charles Calisher put forward the West Nile fever as possible cause of Alexander's death. This version was deemed as fairly compellingby the University of Rhode Island epidemiologist Thomas Mather, who nonetheless noted that the West
Nile virus tends to kill the elders or those with weakened
immune systems.* [23] The version of Marr and Calisher
was also criticized by Burke A. Cunha from Winthrop
University Hospital.* [24] According to analysis of other
authors in response to Marr and Calisher, the West Nile
virus could not have infected humans before the 8th century AD.* [24]
Other causes that have been put forward include acute
pancreatitis provoked by heavy alcohol consumption
and a very rich meal,* [25] acute endocarditis,* [17]
schistosomiasis brought on by Schistosoma haematobium,* [17] and porphyria.* [17] Fritz Schachermeyr proposed leukemia and malaria. When Alexander's symptoms were entered to the Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network, inuenza gained the highest probability (41.2%) on the list of dierential diagnoses.* [18]
However, according to Cunha, the symptoms and time
course of Alexander's disease are inconsistent with inuenza, as well as with malaria, schistosomiasis and poisoning in particular.* [24] Other theories include poisoning of Alexander's drinks in small doses by Callistenes,
his royal historian and advisor.
Another theory moves away from disease and hypothesizes that Alexander's death was related to a congenital scoliotic syndrome.* [26] It has been discussed that
Alexander had structural neck deformities and oculomotor decits,* [27] and this could be associated with
Klippel-Feil Syndrome, a rare congenital scoliotic disorder.* [28] His physical deformities and symptoms leading
up to his death are what lead experts to believe this. Some
believe that as Alexander fell ill in his nal days, he suffered from progressive epidural spinal cord compression,
which left him quadriplegic.* [29] However this hypothesis cannot be proven without a full analysis of Alexander's

39.5. NOTES
body.* [28]

39.3 Body preservation

107
322 or early 321 BC Ptolemy diverted the body to Egypt
where it was interred in Memphis, Egypt. In the late 4th
or early 3rd century BC Alexander's body was transferred
from the Memphis tomb to Alexandria for reburial* [30]
(by Ptolemy Philadelphus in c. 280 BC, according to
Pausanias). Later Ptolemy Philopator placed Alexander's
body in Alexandria's communal mausoleum.* [30] Shortly
after the death of Cleopatra, Alexander's resting place
was visited by Augustus, who is said to have placed owers on the tomb and a golden diadem upon Alexander's
head.* [30] By the 4th century AD the resting place of
Alexander was no longer known; later authors, such as Ibn
'Abd al-Hakam, Al-Masudi and Leo the African, report
having seen Alexander's tomb.* [30] Leo the African in
1491 and George Sandys in 1611 reportedly saw the tomb
in Alexandria.* [32] According to one legend, the body
lies in a crypt beneath an early Christian church.* [33]

39.5 Notes
[1] A contemporary account of the death of Alexander.
Livius.org. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
[2] Freeman, Philip (2011). Alexander the Great. Simon and
Schuster. p. 320. ISBN 1-4165-9280-6.
[3] Chugg, Andrew (2007). The Quest for the Tomb of
Alexander the Great. Lulu.com. p. 25. ISBN 0-95567900-1.
Funeral of Iskander (Alexander): pallbearers carry his con
draped with brocaded silk and his turban at one end. In Nizami's
version Iskandar fell ill and died near Babylon. Because he believed he had been poisoned, no antidotes could revive him.

One ancient account reports that the planning and construction of an appropriate funerary cart to convey the
body out from Babylon took two years from the time
of Alexander's death.* [30] It is not known exactly how
the body was preserved for about two years before
it was moved from Babylon. In 1889 E. A. Wallis Budge suggested that the body was submerged in a
vat of honey,* [31] while Plutarch reported treatment by
Egyptian embalmers.* [30]

[4] Jona Lendering. Death in Babylon. Livius.org. Retrieved Aug 22, 2011.
[5] Alexander and the Chaldaeans. Livius.org. Retrieved
Aug 22, 2011.
[6] Alexander the Great. Robin Lax Fox. 1973. p. 416.
[7] Ydnmah-i Panjumn Kungrih-i Bayn al-Milal-i
Bstnshins va Hunar-i rn. Ministry of Culture and
Arts, Iran. Vizrat-i Farhang va Hunar. 1972. p. 224.
[8] The Shhnma of Firdaus By Arthur George Warner, Edmond Warner. 2001. p. 61.

Egyptian and Chaldean embalmers who arrived on June


[9]
16 are said to have attested to Alexander's lifelike appearance.* [3] This was interpreted as a complication
of typhoid fever, known as ascending paralysis, which
causes a person to appear dead prior to death.* [16]
[10]

39.4 Resting place


Main article: Tomb of Alexander the Great

Defending the West: a critique of Edward Said's Orientalism Front Cover by Ibn Warraq. Prometheus Books. 2007.
p. 108.
The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy edited by
Keimpe Algra. 1999. p. 243.

[11] History of Philosophy By Silvano Borruso. 2007. p. 50.


[12] My library My History Books on Google Play National Geographic , Volume 133. 1968. p. 64.
[13] National Geographic , Volume 133. 1968. p. 64.

On its way back to Macedonia, the funerary cart with


Alexander's body was met in Syria by one of Alexan- [14] The philosophical books of Cicero. Duckworth. 1989. p.
der's generals, the future ruler Ptolemy I Soter. In late
186.

108

[15] Cunha BA (March 2004). The death of Alexander the


Great: malaria or typhoid fever?". Infect. Dis. Clin. North
Am. (Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 2004
Mar;18(1):53-63) 18 (1): 5363. doi:10.1016/S08915520(03)00090-4. PMID 15081504.
[16] INTESTINAL BUG LIKELY KILLED ALEXANDER
THE GREAT. University of Maryland Medical Center.
Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
[17] Carlos G. Musso.MEGAS ALEXANDROS (Alexander
The Great ): His Death Remains a Medical Mystery.
Humane Medicine Health Care. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
[18] John S. Marr, Charles H. Calisher. Alexander the Great
and West Nile Virus Encephalitis. CDC. Retrieved Aug
21, 2011.
[19] Disease, not conict, ended the reign of Alexander the
Great. The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved Aug 21,
2011.
[20] John Atkinson, Elsie Truter, Etienne Truter (Jan 1, 2009).
Alexander's last days: malaria and mind games?". Acta
Classica. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
[21] Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Wheatley P (January
2014). Was the death of Alexander the Great due to
poisoning? Was it Veratrum album?". Clinical Toxicology 52 (1): 727. doi:10.3109/15563650.2013.870341.
PMID 24369045.
[22] Bennett-Smith, Meredith (14 January 2014). Was
Alexander The Great Poisoned By Toxic Wine?". The
Hungton Post. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
[23] Nature-Alexander the Great. GIDEON. Retrieved Aug
21, 2011.
[24] Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis
. CDC. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
[25] Sbarounis CN (June 1997). Did Alexander the Great
die of acute pancreatitis?". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1997 Jun;24(4):294-6) 24
(4): 2946. doi:10.1097/00004836-199706000-00031.
PMID 9252868.
[26] Hutan Ashraan, The Death of Alexander the Great A Spinal Twist of Fate, Journal of the History of the
Neurosciences, Vol. 13, 2004, pg. 138
[27] Hutan Ashraan, The Death of Alexander the Great A Spinal Twist of Fate, Journal of the History of the
Neurosciences, Vol. 13, 2004, pg.139
[28] Hutan Ashraan, The Death of Alexander the Great A Spinal Twist of Fate, Journal of the History of the
Neurosciences, Vol. 13, 2004, pg. 140
[29] George K. York, David A. Steinberg,Commentary. The
Diseases of Alexander the Great, Journal of the History
of the Neurosciences, Vol. 13, 2004, pg. 154
[30] Robert S. Bianchi. Hunting Alexander's Tomb. Archaeology.org. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.

CHAPTER 39. DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

[31] Aufderheide, Arthur (2003). The scientic study of mummies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 261262. ISBN
0-521-81826-5.
[32] Madden, Richard (1851). The Shrines and Sepulchres of
the Old and New World. Newby. pp. 137138.
[33] Alexander's death riddle is 'solved'". BBC. June 11,
1998. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.

Chapter 40

Decree of Philippi
A Royal Decree of Alexander the Great, as an arbitration on a land dispute between the city of Philippi and
local Thracians (presumably of the Edonian tribes), was
discovered in a Byzantine basilica at Filippoi (1936) and
published in 1984. The inscription, in two columns, bears
the names of Leonnatus and Philotas, (possibly the companions), who act as arbitrators who would redraw the
boundaries. The units of measurement mentioned, are
plethra and stadia.

40.1 See also


Macedonia (ancient kingdom)#Institutions

40.2 References
Greek text - SEG 34:664- Meletemata 22, Epig.
App. 6
Interstate arbitrations in the Greek world, 337-90
B.C. By Sheila L. Ager page 47 ISBN 0-520-081625
Readings in Greek history: sources and interpretations By D. Brendan Nagle, Stanley Mayer Burstein
Page 243 ISBN 978-0-19-517825-8
The Genius of Alexander the Great By N. G. L.
Hammond Page 32 ISBN 0-8078-4744-5

109

Chapter 41

Demetrius (son of Althaemenes)


For other persons with the same name, see Demetrius (disambiguation)
Demetrius, son of Althaemenes was hipparch of one ile
of Hetairoi in the battle of Gaugamela. Demetrius' last
recorded command was in the Mallian campaign (325
BC).

41.1 References
Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great by
Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

110

Chapter 42

Diadochi
For other uses, see Diadochus.
The Diadochi (/dadka/; from Greek: ,

there are no modern equivalents, it has been necessary


to reconstruct the role from the ancient sources. There
is no uniform agreement concerning exactly which historical persons t the description, or the territorial range
over which the role was in eect, or the calendar dates
of the period. A certain basic meaning is included in all
denitions, however.
The New Latin terminology was introduced by the historians of universal Greek history of the 19th century.
Their comprehensive histories of ancient Greece typically covering from prehistory to the Roman Empire ran
into many volumes. For example, George Grote in the
rst edition of History of Greece, 1846-1856,
hardly mentions the Diadochi, except to say that they
were kings who came after Alexander and Hellenized
Asia. In the edition of 1869 he denes them asgreat ofcers of Alexander, who after his death carved kingdoms
for themselves out of his conquests.* [1]

Bust of Seleucus Nicator (Victor"; c.358 281 BC), the last of


the original Diadochi.

Diadokhoi, meaning Successors) were the rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who
fought for control over his empire after his death in 323
BC. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the
Hellenistic period.

42.1 Background
42.1.1

Modern concept

Diadochi is a New Latin word currently in use among


modern scholars of ancient Greek history to refer primarily to persons acting a role that existed only for a limited
time period and within a limited geographic range. As

Grote cites no references for the use of Diadochi but


his criticism of Johann Gustav Droysen gives him away.
Droysen, the modern inventor of Hellenistic history,
*
[2] not only denedHellenistic period(hellenistische
... Zeit),* [3] but in a further study of the successors
of Alexander(nachfolger Alexanders) dated 1836, after
Grote had begun work on his history, but ten years before publication of the rst volume, divided it into two
periods, the age of the Diadochi,or Diadochi Period(die Zeit der Diodochen or Diadochenzeit), which
ran from the death of Alexander to the end of the Diadochi Wars(Diadochenkmpfe, his term), about 278
BC, and theEpigoni Period(Epigonenzeit), which ran
to about 220 BC.* [4] He also called the Diadochi Period
the Diadochi War Period(Zeit der Diadochenkmpfe).
The Epigoni he dened as Sons of the Diadochi(Diadochenshne). These were the second generation of
Diadochi rulers.* [5] In an 1843 work, History of the
Epigoni(Geschichte der Epigonen) he details the kingdoms of the Epigoni, 280-239 BC. The only precise date
is the rst, the date of Alexanders death, June, 323 BC.
It has never been in question.
Grote uses Droysen
s terminology but gives him no credit
for it. Instead he attacks Droysens concept of Alexander planting Hellenism in eastern colonies:* [6]Plutarch
states that Alexander founded more than seventy new

111

112

CHAPTER 42. DIADOCHI

cities in Asia. So large a number of them is neither ver- ing performed by relays of work gangs, or metaphorically
iable nor probable, unless we either reckon up simple light being the successor of sleep.
military posts or borrow from the list of foundations really established by his successors.He avoids Droysen
s term in favor of the traditional successor.In a long Basileus
note he attacks Droysens thesis as altogether slender
and unsatisfactory.Grote may have been right, but he ig- It was exactly this expectation that contributed to strife
nores entirely Droysens main thesis, that the concepts of in the Alexandrine and Hellenistic Ages, beginning with
successorsandsons of successorswere innovated and Alexander. Philip had made a state marriage to a woman
perpetuated by historians writing contemporaneously or who changed her name to Olympias to honor the coinnearly so with the period. Not enough evidence survives cidence of Philips victory in the Olympic Games and
to prove it conclusively, but enough survives to win ac- Alexanders birth, an act that suggests love may have
ceptance for Droysen as the founding father of Hellenistic been a motive as well. Macedon was then an obscure
state. Its chief oce was the basileia, or monarchy, the
history.
chief ocer being the basileus, now the signatory title of
M.M. Austin localizes what he considers to be a problem Philip. Their son and heir, Alexander, was raised with
with Grotes view. To Grotes assertion in the Preface care, being educated by select prominent philosophers.
to his work that the periodis of no interest in itself,but Philip is said to have wept for joy when Alexander perserves only to elucidatethe preceding centuries,Austin formed a feat of which no one else was capable, taming
commentsFew nowadays would subscribe to this view. the wild horse, Bucephalus, at his rst attempt in front
*
[2] If Grote was hoping to minimize Droysen by not giv- of a skeptical audience including the king. Amidst the
ing him credit, he was mistaken, as Droysens gradually cheering onlookers Philip swore that Macedonia was not
became the majority model. By 1898 Adolf Holm incor- large enough for Alexander.* [15] The two developed a
porated a footnote describing and evaluating Droysens close and aectionate relationship. When Philip was on
arguments.* [7] He describes the Diadochi and Epigoni as campaign Alexander would remark with pride at the repowerful individuals.* [8] The title of the volume on port of each victory that his father would leave him noththe topic, however, isThe Graeco-Macedonian Age..., ing of note to do.
not Droysens Hellenistic.
And yet the faithless king fell in love with a young woman,
Droysens Hellenisticand Diadochi Periodsare Cleopatra. He married her apparently for love when he
canonical today. A series of six (as of 2014) international was too old for marriage, having divorced Olympias. By
symposia held at dierent universities 1997-2010 on the that time Philip had built Macedonia into the leading miltopics of the imperial Macedonians and their Diadochi itary state of the Balkans. He had acquired his experhave to a large degree solidied and internationalized tise ghting for Thebes and Greek freedom under his paDroysens concepts. Each one grew out of the previous. tron, Epaminondas. When Alexander was a teen-ager,
Each published an assortment of papers read at the sym- Philip was planning a military solution to the contention
posium.* [9] The 2010 symposium, entitled The Time with the Persian Empire. In the opening campaign against
of the Diadochi (323-281 BC),held at the University Byzantium he made Alexanderregent(kurios) in his abof A Corua, Spain, represents the current concepts and sence. Alexander used every opportunity to further his fainvestigations. The term Diadochi as an adjective is be- ther
s victories, expecting that he would be a part of them.
ing extended beyond its original use, such as Diadochi There was a source of disaection, however. Plutarch reChronicle,which is nowhere identied as such, or Di- ports that Alexander and his mother bitterly reproached
adochi kingdoms, the kingdoms that emerged,even him for his numerous aairs among the women of his
past the Age of the Epigoni.* [10]
court.* [16]
Alexander was at the wedding banquet when Attalus,
Cleopatras uncle, made a remark that seemed inappropriate to him. He asked the Macedonians to pray for
In ancient Greek, diadochos* [11] is a substantive (noun anheir to the kingship(diadochon tes basileias). Risor adjective) formed from the verb, diadechesthai,suc- ing to his feet Alexander shouted, using the royal we,
ceed to,* [12] a compound of dia- and dechesthai,re- Do we seem like bastards (nothoi) to you, evil-minded
ceive.* [13] The word-set descends straightforwardly man?and threw a cup at him. The inebriated Philip,
from Indo-European *dek-, receive,the substantive rising to his feet, drawing his sword, presumably to deforms being from the o-grade, *dok-.* [14] Some impor- fend his wifes uncle, promptly fell. Making a comment
tant English reexes are dogma, a received teaching, that the man who was preparing to cross from Europe to
decent,t to be received,paradox,against that which Asia could not cross from one couch to another, Alexanis received.The prex dia- changes the meaning slightly der departed, to escort his mother to her native Epirus
to add a social expectation to the received. The diadochos and to wait himself in Illyria. Not long after, prompted by
expects to receive it, hence a successor in command or Demaratus the Corinthian to mend the dissension in his
any other oce, or a succeeding work gang on work be- house, Philip sent Demaratus to bring Alexander home.

42.1.2

Ancient role

42.2. THE SUCCESSORS

113

The expectation by virtue of which Alexander was diado- grouped by their rank and social standing at the time of
chos was that as the son of Philip, he would inherit Philip Alexander's death. These were their initial positions as
s throne.
Diadochi. They are not necessarily signicant or deterAfter a time the king was assassinated. In 336 BC, at the minative of what happened next.
age of 20, Alexander received the kingship(parelabe
ten basileian).* [17] In the same year Darius succeeded to
the throne of Persia as he hn, King of Kings,
which the Greeks understood asGreat King.The role 42.2.1 The Diadochi category
of the Macedonian basileus was changing fast. Alexanders army was already multinational. Alexander was Craterus
acquiring dominion over state after state. His presence
on the battleeld seemed to insure immediate victory.
Main article: Craterus
Hegemon
Main article: Wars of Alexander the Great
When Alexander the Great died on June 10, 323 BC,
he left behind a huge empire which comprised many
essentially independent territories. Alexander's empire
stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along
with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to
Bactria and parts of India in the east. It included parts
of the present day Balkans, Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt,
Babylonia, and most of the former Persia, except for some
lands the Achaemenids formerly held in Central Asia.

42.2 The successors


An army on campaign changes its leadership at any level
frequently for replacement of casualties and distribution
of talent to the current operations. The institution of the
Hetairoi gave the Macedonian army a exible capability
in this regard. There were no xed ranks of Hetairoi,
except as the term meant a special unit of cavalry. The
Hetairoi were simply a xed pool of de facto general ofcers, without any or with changing de jure rank, whom
Alexander could assign where needed. They were typically from the nobility, many related to Alexander. A
parallel exible structure in the Persian army facilitated
combined units.
Sta meetings to adjust command structure were nearly
a daily event in Alexander's army. They created an ongoing expectation among the Hetairoi of receiving an important and powerful command, if only for a short term.
At the moment of Alexander's death, all possibilities were
suddenly suspended. The Hetairoi vanished with Alexander, to be replaced instantaneously by the Diadochi, men
who knew where they had stood, but not where they
would stand now. As there had been no denite ranks
or positions of Hetairoi, there were no ranks of Diadochi.
They expected appointments, but without Alexander they
would have to make their own.
For purposes of this presentation, the Diadochi are

Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under


Alexander during his conquest of Persia. After the revolt of his army at Opis on the Tigris River in 324,
Alexander ordered Craterus to command the veterans as
they returned home to Macedonia. Antipater, commander of Alexander's forces in Greece and regent of the
Macedonian throne in Alexander's absence, would lead
a force of fresh troops back to Persia to join Alexander
while Craterus would become regent in his place. When
Craeterus arrived at Cilicia in 323 BC, news reached him
of Alexander's death. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution
of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the
protection of Alexander's family. The news of Alexander's death caused the Greeks to rebel in the Lamian War.
Craeterus and Antipater defeated the rebellion in 322
BC. Despite his absence, the generals gathered at Babylon
conrmed Craterus as Guardian of the Royal Family.
However, with the royal family in Babylon, the Regent
Perdiccas assumed this responsibly until the royal household could return to Macedonia.

Antipater
Main article: Antipater
Antipater was an adviser to King Philip II, Alexander's father, a role he continued under Alexander. When
Alexander left Macedon to conquer Persia in 334 BC,
Antipater was named Regent of Macedon and General
of Greece in Alexander's absence. In 323 BC, Craterus
was ordered by Alexander to march his veterans back to
Macedon and assume Antipater's position while Antipater was to march to Persia with fresh troops. Alexander's
death that year, however, prevented the order from being carried out. When Alexander's generals gathered in
Babylon to divide the empire between themselves, Antipater was conrmed as General of Greece while the
roles of Regent of the Empire and Guardian of the Royal
Family were given to Perdiccas and Craterus, respectively. Together, the three men formed the top ruling
group of the empire.

114

CHAPTER 42. DIADOCHI

Somatophylakes

the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, Arrhidaeus,


while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supMain articles: Perdiccas, Ptolemy I Soter, Lysimachus, ported waiting until the birth of Alexander's unborn child
Peucestas, Peithon and Leonnatus
by Roxana. A compromise was arranged Arrhidaeus
(as Philip III) should become King, and should rule
jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy
(as it was, becoming Alexander IV). Perdiccas himself
Macedonian satraps
would become Regent of the entire Empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. Soon, however, Perdiccas had MeleaMain articles:
Antigonus I Monophthalmus, ger and the other infantry leaders murdered, and assumed
Neoptolemus (general), Seleucus I Nicator and full control.
Polyperchon
The other cavalry generals who had supported Perdiccas
were rewarded in the partition of Babylon by becoming
satraps of the various parts of the Empire. Ptolemy reRoyal family
ceived Egypt; Laomedon received Syria and Phoenicia;
Philotas took Cilicia; Peithon took Media; Antigonus reMain articles: Philip III of Macedon, Alexander IV ceived Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia; Asander received
of Macedon, Olympias, Eurydice II of Macedon and Caria; Menander received Lydia; Lysimachus received
Cleopatra of Macedon
Thrace; Leonnatus received Hellespontine Phrygia; and
Neoptolemus had Armenia. Macedon and the rest of
Greece were to be under the joint rule of Antipater, who
had governed them for Alexander, and Craterus, AlexanNon-Macedonian satraps and generals
der's most able lieutenant, while Alexander's old secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, was to receive Cappadocia and
Main articles: Eumenes of Cardia and Pyrrhus of Epirus
Paphlagonia.
In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander's arrangements intact Taxiles and Porus ruled over their
42.2.2 The Epigoni category
kingdoms in India; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes
ruled Gandara; Sibyrtius ruled Arachosia and Gedrosia;
Main articles: Cassander, Demetrius Poliorcetes and Stasanor ruled Aria and Drangiana; Philip ruled Bactria
Ptolemy Keraunos
and Sogdiana; Phrataphernes ruled Parthia and Hyrcania;
Peucestas governed Persis; Tlepolemus had charge
over Carmania; Atropates governed northern Media;
Archon got Babylonia; and Arcesilaus ruled northern
Mesopotamia.
42.3 Diadochi period

42.3.1

Struggle for unity (323319 BC)

Partition of Babylon
Main article: Partition of Babylon
Revolt in Greece
Without a chosen successor, there was almost immediMain article: Lamian War
Meanwhile, the news of Alexander's death had inspired a
revolt in Greece, known as the Lamian War. Athens and
other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Antipater was relieved by a
force sent by Leonnatus, who was killed in action, but the
war did not come to an end until Craterus's arrival with
a eet to defeat the Athenians at the Battle of Crannon
The distribution of satrapies in the Macedonian Empire after the on September 5, 322 BC. For a time, this brought an end
Settlement in Babylon (323 BC).
to Greek resistance to Macedonian domination. Meanwhile, Peithon suppressed a revolt of Greek settlers in the
ately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to who his eastern parts of the Empire, and Perdiccas and Eumenes
successor should be. Meleager and the infantry supported subdued Cappadocia.

42.4. EPIGONI PERIOD


First War of the Diadochi (322320 BC)

115
and attaining control of Macedon, the boy king, and his
mother.

Soon, however, conict broke out. Perdiccas' marriage


to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus,
Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. The 42.3.2 Wars of the Diadochi (319275 BC)
actual outbreak of war was initiated by Ptolemy's theft
of Alexander's body and its transfer to Egypt. Although Main article: Wars of the Diadochi
Eumenes defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, in a battle at
which Craterus was killed, it was all for nought, as Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon,
Seleucus, and Antigenes during an invasion of Egypt.
Ptolemy came to terms with Perdiccas's murderers, making Peithon and Arrhidaeus regents in his place, but soon
these came to a new agreement with Antipater at the
Treaty of Triparadisus. Antipater was made regent of
the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. Antigonus remained in charge of Phrygia, Lycia,
and Pamphylia, to which was added Lycaonia. Ptolemy
retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace, while the
three murderers of Perdiccas Seleucus, Peithon, and
Antigeneswere given the provinces of Babylonia, Media, and Susiana respectively. Arrhidaeus, the former
Regent, received Hellespontine Phrygia. Antigonus was
charged with the task of rooting out Perdiccas's former
supporter, Eumenes. In eect, Antipater retained for
himself control of Europe, while Antigonus, as leader of
the largest army east of the Hellespont, held a similar position in Asia.

42.4 Epigoni period

42.4.1 Kingdoms of the Diadochi (27530


BC)
Main articles: Hellenistic period and Hellenistic civilization

42.4.2 Decline and fall


Main article: Hellenistic period

Main article: Partition of Triparadisus

This division was to last for a century, before the


Antigonid Kingdom nally fell to Rome, and the
Seleucids were harried from Persia by the Parthians and
forced by the Romans to relinquish control in Asia Minor.
A rump Seleucid kingdom limped on in Syria until nally
put to rest by Pompey in 64 BC. The Ptolemies lasted
longer in Alexandria, though as a client under Rome.
Egypt was nally annexed to Rome in 30 BC.

Death of Antipater

42.5 Historical uses as a title

Soon after the second partition, in 319 BC, Antipater


died. Antipater had been one of the few remaining individuals with enough prestige to hold the empire together. After his death, war soon broke out again and
the fragmentation of the empire began in earnest. Passing over his own son, Cassander, Antipater had declared
Polyperchon his successor as Regent. A civil war soon
broke out in Macedon and Greece between Polyperchon
and Cassander, with the latter supported by Antigonus
and Ptolemy. Polyperchon allied himself to Eumenes
in Asia, but was driven from Macedonia by Cassander,
and ed to Epirus with the infant king Alexander IV
and his mother Roxana. In Epirus he joined forces with
Olympias, Alexander's mother, and together they invaded
Macedon again. They were met by an army commanded
by King Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice, which
immediately defected, leaving the king and Eurydice to
Olympias's not so tender mercies, and they were killed
(317 BC). Soon after, though, the tide turned, and Cassander was victorious, capturing and killing Olympias,

42.5.1 Aulic

Partition of Triparadisus

Ironically in the formal 'court' titulature of the Hellenistic


empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title
was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been
proven to be the lowest in a system of ocial rank titles,
known as Aulic titulature, conferred ex ocio or nominatim to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for
protocol) to various military and civilian ocials. Notably in Ptolemaic Egypt, it was reported as the lowest
aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V
Epiphanes.

42.6 Notes
[1] Grote 1869, p. 15
[2] Austin 1994, p. vii

116

[3] Droysen, Johann Gustav (1833). Geschichte Alexanders


des Grossen (in German). Hamburg: Friedrich Perthes.
p. 517.
[4] Droysen 1836, Einleitung
[5] Droysen 1836, p. 670
[6] Grote 1869, pp. 205206
[7] Holm 1898, p. 83
[8] Holm 1898, p. 67
[9] Carney, Elizabeth; Ogden, Daniel (2010). Preface.
Philip II and Alexander the Great: Father and Son, Lives
and Afterlives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[10]Diadochi and Successor Kingdoms. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Greece and Rome. Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. 2010.
[11] Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "". A
Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
[12] Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "". A
Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
[13] Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "". A
Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
[14] Frisk, Hjalmar (1960). "". Griechisches Etymologisches Wrterbuch (in German) I. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
[15] Plutarch, Alexander, Section VI.
[16] Plutarch, Alexander, Section IX.
[17] Plutarch, Alexander, Section XI.

42.7 References
Austin, M. M. (1994). The Hellenistic world from
Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Boiy, Tom (2000). Dating Methods During the
Early Hellenistic Period(PDF format). Journal of
Cuneiform Studies 52.
Droysen, Johann Gustav (1836). Geschichte der
Nachfolger Alexanders (in German). Hamburg:
Friedrich Perthes.
Grote, George (1869). A History of Greece: from
the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation
Contemporary with Alexander the Great XI (New
ed.). London: John Murray.

CHAPTER 42. DIADOCHI


Holm, Adolf (1898) [1894]. Clarke, Frederick
(Translator), ed. The History of Greece from Its
Commencement to the Close of the Independence of
the Greek Nation (in English, translated from the
German). IV: The Graeco-Macedonian age, the period of the kings and the leagues, from the death
of Alexander down to the incorporation of the last
Macedonian monarchy in the Roman Empire. London; New York: Macmillan.
Shipley, Graham (2000). The Greek World After Alexander. Routledge History of the Ancient
World. New York: Routledge.
Walbank, F.W. (1984). The Hellenistic World.
The Cambridge Ancient History. Volume VII. part I.
Cambridge.

42.8 External links


Lendering, Jona. Alexander's successors: the Diadochi. Livius.org.

Chapter 43

Drypetis
would have been of little threat to Roxana's position, as
she would not have borne Alexander a child.* [3] Instead,
Carney theorizes that Roxana killed Parysatis (daughter
of Artaxerxes III of Persia), who was likely also a wife of
Alexander.* [2]

43.1 References
[1] Heckel (2006), p. 116.
[2] Carney (2000), p. 110.
[3] Carney (2000), p. 111.
The marriages of Stateira II to Alexander III of Macedon and her
sister, Drypteis, to Hephaestion at Susa in 324 BC, as depicted in
a late-19th-century engraving

43.2 Sources
Carney, Elizabeth Donnelly (2000), Women and
Monarchy in Macedonia, Norman, OK: University
of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0-8061-3212-4

Drypetis or Drypteis (died 323 BCE), was a princess of


the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia.
Drypteis was born between 350 and 345 BCE, the daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia. When her father
began a military campaign against the invading army of
Alexander the Great, he was accompanied by Drypteis,
along with her mother, sister Stateira, and her grandmother Sisygambis.* [1] Following the Battle of Issus in
333 BCE, Darius ed, and his family was captured by
Macedonian troops. Alexander personally met with the
women and promised to provide dowries for Drypteis and
Stateira.* [1]

Heckel, Waldemar (2006), Who's who in the age of


Alexander the Great: A prosopography of Alexander's empire, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing,
ISBN 1-4051-1210-7

43.3 External links

Although Darius tried repeatedly to ransom his family,


Alexander kept them with him until 331 BCE. At that
point Drypteis and her sister were sent to Susa to learn
the Greek language.* [1]
Drypteis married Hephaestion Amyntoros, a general in
Alexander's army in 324 BCE. She was widowed soon
after.* [1]* [2]
Many historians accept Plutarch's account that Drypteis
was killed in 323 BCE alongside her sister Stateira.
Alexander had died earlier that year, and his other widow,
Roxana, wished to remove her rival.* [1]* [3]
According to historian Elizabeth Donnelly Carney, however, Drypteis was not killed by Roxana.* [2] Drypteis
117

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and


Mythology
Drypetis, daughter of Darius and wife of Hephaestion in Pothos.org

Chapter 44

Erigyius
Erigyius (in Greek Eo; died 328 BC), a
Mytilenaean, son of Larichus, was an ocer in Alexander
the Great's army. He had been driven into banishment by
Philip II, king of Macedon, because of his faithful attachment to Alexander, and returned when the latter came to
the throne in 336 BC. At the battle of Gaugamela, 331
BC, he commanded the cavalry of the allies, as he did
also when Alexander set out from Ecbatana in pursuit of
Darius III, 330 BC. In the same year Erigyius was entrusted with the command of one of the three divisions
with which Alexander invaded Hyrcania, and he was, too,
among the generals sent against Satibarzanes, whom he
slew in battle with his own hand. In 329 BC, together
with Craterus and Hephaestion, and by the assistance of
Aristander the soothsayer, he endeavoured to dissuade
Alexander from crossing the Jaxartes river against the
Scythians. In 328 BC he fell in battle against the Bactrian
fugitives.* [1]

44.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Erigyius,
Boston, (1867)

44.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iii. 6, 11, 20, 23, 28, iv. 4;
Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 57; Curtius Rufus,
Historiae Alexandri Magni, vi. 4, vii. 3-4, viii. 2

44.3 External links


Livius, Erigyius by Jona Lendering
Pothos.org, Erigyius, son of Larichus
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
118

Chapter 45

Gorgias of Macedon
For other persons with the same name, see Gorgias (disambiguation)
Gorgias was one of Alexander's ocers, among those
who were brought reluctantly from Macedonia by
Amyntas (son of Andromenes), when he was sent home
to collect levies in 332 BC. Gorgias was one of the commanders left by Alexander in Bactria to complete the reduction of the Bactrian insurgents, and to check further
rebellion, while the king himself marched to quell the revolt in Sogdiana, 328 BC. He accompanied Alexander in
his Indian expedition, and, together with Attalus (son of
Andromenes) and Meleager, commanded the mercenaries at the passage of the Hydaspes against Porus in 326
BC. This is perhaps the same Gorgias whose name occurs
in Justin (xii. 12) among the veterans whom Alexander
sent home under Craterus in 324 BC ; and, in that ease, he
must be distinguished from the Gorgias who is mentioned
by Plutarch (Eum. 7) as one of the ocers of Eumenes
in his battle against Craterus and Neoptolemus in Cappadocia in 321 BC

45.1 References
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

119

Chapter 46

Habreas
Habreas (Ancient Greek: or Abreas was a
Macedonian soldier of the rank of dimoirites (halfle leader, a soldier entitled to double pay). In the
siege of the city of the Malli in 325 BC, he, Peucestas
and Leonnatus were the only ones who could follow
Alexander the Great as he jumped into the city from the
walls during a sally, just before the ladders of the attackers collapsed, making it impossible for others to follow.
The four fought ercely against the Indians and Habreas
was hit by an arrow in the face while defending his king
and died. Alexander was also severely wounded in the
chest, air mixed with blood coming out from the wound,
fought for a short time, then collapsed and nearly died,
had not Peucestas stood over him, defending his body
with the sacred Trojan shield. Both Peucestas and Leonnatus were wounded before relief came from outside, as
the frantic soldiers desperately tried in any way to enter
the city and join their king. Arrian describes their eorts
to scale the walls with the use of stakes or by climbing on
one another. In the end the city was taken and Alexander
was saved.* [1]

46.1 References
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 6.10.1

Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander's empire ISBN 978-1-40511210-9

120

Chapter 47

Hegesias of Magnesia
Hegesias of Magnesia* [1] (Greek: ), Greek rhetorician, and historian, ourished about
300 BC. Strabo (xiv. 648), speaks of him as the founder
of the orid Asiatic style of composition.
Agatharchides, Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De compositione verborum 18) and Cicero all speak of him in disparaging terms, although Varro seems to have approved
of his work. He professed to imitate the simplest style of
Lysias, avoiding long periods, and expressing himself in
short, jerky sentences, without modulation or nish. His
vulgar aectation and bombast made his writings a mere
caricature of the old Attic. Dionysius describes his composition as tinselled, ignoble and eeminate. According
to Gualtiero Calboli, Hegesias and his fellow Asiatics rejected Attic examples (and in particular the example of
Thucydides) in favor of a return to the models of Ionic
and sophistic prose.* [2]

"Hegesias of Magnesia". Encyclopdia Britannica


(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

47.3 External links

It is generally supposed, from the fragment quoted as a


specimen by Dionysius (and cf. Plutarch, Life of Alexander 3), that Hegesias is to be classed among the writers
of lives of Alexander the Great. This fragment describes
the treatment of Gaza and its inhabitants by Alexander
after its conquest, but it is possible that it is only part of
an epideictic or show speech, not of an historical work.
This view is supported by a remark of Agatharchides in
Photius (cod. 250) that the only aim of Hegesias was to
exhibit his skill in describing sensational events.

47.1 Notes
[1] Magnesia ad Sipylum, on the plains of Lydia.
[2] Roberto Nicolai, "Ktma es aei: Aspects of the Reception
of Thucydides in the Ancient World,in Jerey Rusten
(ed.) Thucydides: Oxford Readings in Classical Studies, p.
386

47.2 References
This article incorporates text from a publication now
in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
121

Fragments: Greek text and Latin translation, ed.


Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Mller

Chapter 48

Heliopolis (ancient)
This article is about the ancient Egyptian city of Heliopolis. For the modern district, see Heliopolis (Cairo suburb).
Heliopolis (/hilipls/;* [1]* [2] Ancient Greek:

Heliopolis has been occupied since the Predynastic Period,* [4] with extensive building campaigns during the
Old and Middle Kingdoms. Today it is mostly destroyed;
its temples and other buildings were used for the construction of medieval Cairo. Most information about the
ancient city comes from textual sources.
The only surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the Temple of Re-Atum obelisk located in Al-Masalla in AlMatariyyah, Cairo. It was erected by Senusret I of the
Twelfth dynasty, and still stands in its original position.* [5] The 68 ft (20.73 m) high red granite obelisk
weighs 120 tons (240,000 lbs).

48.1 Location
Beneath a maze of busy narrow streets of north-east
Cairo, about fteen to twenty metres down, lie vast hidden remains of ancient Heliopolis. The modern inhabitants are mostly middle and lower-class Egyptians.
The site of ancient Heliopolis lies predominantly in the
northern Cairo suburb of Al-Matariyyah,* [4] and also
covers the districts of Ain Shams and Tel Al-Hisn east
of the Nile.* [6] It also straddles the Cairo Metro line 1.5
km (1 mile) west of the edge of the 20th century modern
Heliopolis,* [4] a suburb in the district Mar el-Gedda
(Arabic: New Egypt).

The Al-Masalla obelisk, the largest surviving monument from Heliopolis

, City of the Sunor City of Helios";


Egyptian: wnw; Arabic: n ams,Eye of the
Sun) was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, the
capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. It is now found
at the north-east edge of Cairo.
The ancient Egyptian cult center Junu, named Onin
the Hebrew bible, was renamed Heliopolis by the Greeks
in recognition of the fact that the sun god Ra (Helios in
Greek) presided there. Junu is mentioned in the Pyramid
Text as the House of Ra.* [3]

The site of Heliopolis has now been brought for the most
part under cultivation and suburbanization, but some ancient city walls of crude brick can be seen in the elds, a
few granite blocks bearing the name of Ramesses II remain, and the position of the great Temple of Re-Atum is
marked by the Al-Masalla obelisk. Archaeologists made
recent tomb discoveries underneath.* [7]

48.2 Etymology
The name Heliopolis is of ancient Greek origin,
, meaning city of the sun as it was the principal seat of worship of the sun god Ra and the closely
related deity Atum. Originally, this ancient city was
known by the Egyptians as Iunu, from the transliteration

122

48.4. HISTORY

123

wnw,* [8] probably pronounced *wanu, and means 2181 BCE), which were found in the southeast corner of
"(Place of) Pillars. In biblical Hebrew Heliopolis was the great Temple of Ra-Atum archaeological site.* [10]
referred to as, n ( )or wen (), Ancient Greek: . During the Amarna Period, Pharaoh Akhenaten introduced monotheistic worship of Aton, the deied solar
disc. As part of his construction projects, he built in He48.3 Worship
liopolis a temple named Wetjes Aton (ws tn Elevating
the Sun-disc). Blocks from this temple were later used
The chief cult centre of Ra was Heliopolis (called Iunu, to build the city walls of medieval Cairo and can be seen
Place of Pillars, in Egyptian),* [9] where he was iden- in some of the city gates. The cult of the Mnevis bull,
tied with the local sun-god Atum. Through Atum, or as an embodiment of the god Ra, had its centre here, and
Atum-Ra he was also seen as the rst being and the orig- possessed a formal burial ground north of the city.
inator of the Ennead, consisting of Shu and Tefnut, Geb
and Nut, Osiris, Set, Isis and Nephthys.

48.4 History

Model of a Votive Temple Gateway at Heliopolis, Brooklyn Museum


Map of ancient Lower Egypt showing Heliopolis

48.4.1

Egyptian Heliopolis

The Egyptian god Atum, was the chief deity of the city
Iunu (Heliopolis), who was worshipped in the primary
temple, known as Per-Aat (*Par-at, written pr- t,
'Great House') and Per-Atum (*Par-Atma, written prtmw 'Temple [lit. 'House'] of Atum"'; Hebrew:
Pithom). Iunu was also the original source of the worship of the Ennead pantheon. Although in later times,
as Horus gained in prominence, worship focused on the
syncretic solar deity Ra-harakhty (literally Ra, [who is]
Horus of the Two Horizons).

Egyptian mythology, and later Greco-Roman mythology,


said that the phoenix (Bennu), after rising from the ashes
of its predecessor, would bring the ashes to the altar of
the sun god in Heliopolis.
This image to the right is a reconstruction that was worked
up from the early Nineteenth Dynasty base of a model
temple gateway in the collection of the Brooklyn Museum
(acc. no. 49.183) decorated with representations of King
Sety I making oerings. The bottom of this model has
been cast from the original and painted brown to match
its quartzite stone. The statues, agstas, pylon, and sidewalls, all of which were lost from the original, have been
reconstructed to t the depressions in the base. The result simulates the basic elements of a typical approach to
a temple of the New Kingdom.* [11]

The main cult of Ra(or Re) was in Heliopolis, however


the High Priests of Ra are not as well documented as the 48.4.2 Greco-Roman Heliopolis
high priests of other deities. The Al-Masalla area of the
Al-Matariyyah district contains the underground tombs of Heliopolis was well known to the ancient Greeks and
High Priests of Ra of the Sixth Dynasty (c. 2345 BCE Romans, being noted by most major geographers of

124

CHAPTER 48. HELIOPOLIS (ANCIENT)

the period, including Ptolemy, Herodotus and others, territory of the Nile Delta. This was one of three main
down to the Byzantine geographer Stephanus of Byzan- store-city locations that grain was kept during the winter
tium.* [12]
months and during the seven year famine discussed in the
Joseph narrative of the Book of Genesis. The city gained
recognition as place of bread.

48.4.3

Greek era

Alexander the Great, on his march from Pelusium to


Memphis, halted at this city (Arrian, iii. 1); and, according to Macrobius (Saturn. i. 23), Baalbek, or the Syrian
Heliopolis, was a priest-colony from its Egyptian namesake.
The temple of Ra was said to have been, to a special degree, a depository for royal records, and Herodotus states
that the priests of Heliopolis were the best informed in
matters of history of all the Egyptians. Heliopolis ourished as a seat of learning during the Greek period; the
schools of philosophy and astronomy are claimed to have
been frequented by Orpheus, Homer,* [13] Pythagoras,
Plato, Solon, and other Greek philosophers. Ichonuphys
was lecturing there in 308 BC, and the Greek mathematician Eudoxus, who was one of his pupils, learned from
him the true length of the year and month, upon which he
formed his octaeterid, or period of 8 years or 99 months.
Ptolemy II had Manethon, the chief priest of Heliopolis,
collect his history of the ancient kings of Egypt from its
archives. The later Ptolemies probably took little interest
in their fatherRa, and Alexandria had eclipsed the
learning of Heliopolis; thus with the withdrawal of royal
favour Heliopolis quickly dwindled, and the students of
native lore deserted it for other temples supported by a
wealthy population of pious citizens. By the 1st century
BC, in fact, Strabo found the temples deserted, and the
town itself almost uninhabited, although priests were still
present.

48.4.4

Roman era

In Roman times Heliopolis belonged to the Augustamnica


province. Its population probably contained a considerable Arabic element. (Plin. vi. 34.) In Roman times
obelisks were taken from its temples to adorn the northern
cities of the Delta, and even across the Mediterranean to
Rome, including the famed Cleopatra's Needle that now
resides on the Thames embankment, London (this obelisk
was part of a pair, the other being located in Central Park,
New York). Finally the growth of Fustat and Cairo, only
6 miles (9.7 km) to the southwest, caused the ruins to be
ransacked for building materials. The site was known to
the Arabs as Ayn ams (the well of the sun), more
recently as Arab al-in.

48.4.5

Biblical Heliopolis

Heliopolis was the capital of the Province of Goshen,


country that comprised much of the northern Egyptian

In the time of the major prophets, Isaiah made a reference


to the City of the Sun as one of the ve cities of Egypt
that would come to speak Hebrew. However he made a
wordplay oncity of the sun(ir haeme ) by writing
ir haheres which literally means city of destruction
.* [14] These play of words were a prophetic description
later reinforced by both Jeremiah and Ezekiel.* [15] The
Hebrew name, Beth-shemesh, where Beth meanshouse
and shemesh means Sunwas also used to describe
Heliopolis by Jeremiah. He prophesied this city's fate
specically when he declared that the king of Babylon,
Nebuchadnezzar, would shatter the obelisks of Heliopolis
and burn the temple of the sun in re.* [16] Jeremiahs
contemporary Ezekiel, reinforced this message by saying
that theyoung men of Aven (or Beth-Aven) would fall by
the sword. Like Isaiah, Ezekiel also made a word play
on the original Hebrew name of Heliopolis that was used
in the time of Joseph, the city of On. The Hebrew word
aven meansfollyoriniquity, so that his reference
impliedtemple of follyortemple of iniquity.* [17]

48.5 See also


Heliopolis (Cairo Suburb) the 20th century suburb,
northeast of downtown Cairo
Ilioupoli - Athens suburb build from Greeks mainly
coming from Egypt
Ancient Egyptian creation myths in reference to the
religious belief system of Iunu at Heliopolis
List of Egyptian dynasties in reference to the reigns
centered at Heliopolis
Benben

48.6 References
Allen, James P. 2001. Heliopolis. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 2 of 3 vols. Oxford, New
York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The
American University in Cairo Press. 8889
Redford, Donald Bruce. 1992. Heliopolis. In
The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel
Freedman. Vol. 3 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday.
122123
Bilolo, Mubabinge. 1986. Les cosmo-thologies
philosophiques d'Hliopolis et d'Hermopolis. Essai

48.7. EXTERNAL LINKS


de thmatisation et de systmatisation, (Academy of
African Thought, Sect. I, vol. 2), KinshasaMunich
1987; new ed., Munich-Paris, 2004.
Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and
Goddesses, George Hart ISBN 0-415-34495-6
Reallexikon der gyptischen Religionsgeschichte Hans Bonnet

125

[15] Isaiah 19:18 NLT


[16] Jeremiah 43:13 NASB; Compare NIV
[17] Ezekiel 30:17 NIV

48.7 External links


Windows Live Local: The Site of ancient Heliopolis
Obelisk of Psametik II from Heliopolis, removed
and reerected by Augustus in Rome

This article incorporates text from a publication now


in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854 Coordinates: 300746.3N 311720E / 30.129528N
1857). "* article name needed". Dictionary of Greek 31.28889E
and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
[1] Denition of Heliopolis. The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
[2] Dene Heliopolis. Dictionary.com. Retrieved 15
November 2013.
[3] Reallexikon der gyptischen Religionsgeschichte - Hans
Bonnet
[4] Dobrowolska & Dobrowolski. Heliopolis: Rebirth of the
City of the Sun. (ISBN 9774160088, ISBN 978-977-416008-0), 2006, p.15
[5] Encyclopdia Britannica, 1911 edition.
[6] Al-Ahram Weekly | Features | City of the sun.
Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 2005-06-01. Retrieved 2013-0326.
[7] Descubrimientos - Egipto - Junio / Diciembre 2004;
Pharonic tomb uncovered in Cairo, suburbs of Matariya
; August 26, 2004. accessed 2011-01-28
[8] Hieroglyphs can be found in (Collier and Manley p. 29)
[9] The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, George Hart ISBN 0-415-34495-6
[10] Planetware: Priests of Ra tombs, Heliopolis AlMatariyyah . accessed 01.28.2011
[11] Model of a Votive Temple Gateway at Heliopolis
(49.183)". Retrieved 8 July 2014.
[12] Ptolemy, iv. 5. 54; Herodotus, ii. 3, 7, 59; Strabo, xvii.
p. 805; Diodorus, i. 84, v. 57; Arrian, Exp. Alex. iii. 1;
Aelian, H. A. vi. 58, xii. 7; Plutarch, Solon. 26, Is. et
Osir. 33; Diogenes Laertius, xviii. 8. 6; Josephus, Ant.
Jud. xiii. 3, C. Apion. i. 26; Cicero, De Natura Deorum
iii. 21; Pliny the Elder, v. 9. 11; Tacitus, Ann. vi. 28;
Pomponius Mela, iii. 8. Byzantine geographer Stephanus
of Byzantium, s. v. .
[13] The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book I, ch VI.
[14] Freedman, Myers, & Beck. Eerdmans Dictionary of the
Bible, (ISBN 0802824005, ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4),
City of the Sun, p. 261

Chapter 49

Hellenistic armies
The Hellenistic armies is the term applied to the armies
of the successor kingdoms, which emerged after the
death of Alexander the Great. After his death, Alexander's huge empire was torn between his successors, the
Diadochi (Greek: ). During the Wars of the Diadochi, the Macedonian army, as developed by Alexander
and Philip II, gradually adopted new units and tactics, further developing Macedonian warfare. The armies of the
Diadochi bear few dierences from that of Alexander,
but during the era of the Epigonoi (, Successors), the dierences were obvious, favoring numbers
over quality and weight over maneuverability. The limited availability of Greek conscripts in the east led to an
increasing dependence on mercenary forces, whereas in
the west, Hellenistic armies were continuously involved
in wars, which soon exhausted local manpower, paving
the way for Roman supremacy. The major Hellenistic
states were the Seleucid Empire, Ptolemaic Egypt and
the Antigonid kingdom (Macedonia). Smaller states included: Attalid Pergamum, Pontus, Epirus, the Achaean
League, the Aetolian League, Syracuse, and other states
(like Athens, Sparta etc.).

Hellenistic soldiers

49.1 Numerical strength

vary extremely, from a few thousand to over 70.000. Of


these armies, outside Greece, only a fraction would have
been of Greek origin, the rest being allied contingents and
conscripts from the local population.

49.1.1 Manpower and the State


The lack of manpower was a serious concern for many
Hellenistic rulers. In fact, the disparity between the manpower reserves available to Rome and to any Hellenistic
monarch had a profound inuence on the way in which
the opponents made war.* [1] Roman generals could more
easily risk defeat in battle, while for Hellenistic generals,
a defeat might cripple their manpower base for nearly
a generation. Many states had to rely on mercenaries
to bulk up their citizen forces: For example the army
of the Achaean League under Aratus of Sicyon was reorganized to contain a permanent corps of mercenaries
that numbered 8,000 foot and 500 horse, compared with
the corps of picked Achaean troops, which numbered
only 3,000 foot and 500 horse.* [2]
To take another example, by the mid-third century BC,
the Spartiate citizen population had decreased to a tiny
fraction of what it had been at the time of the Persian Wars (Cleomenes' army could only eld about 5,000
men* [3]). The inchoate reforms of Agis IV in the 240s
BC had failed after a reaction by those opposed to the reforms. The problem of the lack of man-at-arms was then
taken up by Cleomenes III of Sparta, who attempted to
address it by his radical reforms. Cleomenes launched a
coup against his rivals at home and used their demise to
push forward a reform to increase Spartan manpower. In
227 BC, Cleomenes cancelled all debts, pooled and divided the large estates and increased the citizen body by
enfranchising 5,000 Perioikoi and 'metics' (resident foreigners). Before long, he increased the citizen body further by allowing Helots to buy their freedom for ve minae and therefore he 'acquired 500 talents, some of which
he used to arm 2,000 men in the Macedonian fashion as
phalangites'.* [4] However, the defeat at Sellasia in 222
BC and the attendant great loss in manpower led to reliance on mercenaries, who were the basis of power for
Machanidas and Nabis, his successors.

The Diadochi were capable of deploying some of the


largest armies of their day, and could easily outmatch
the numerical strength of either Phillip II or Alexander's
Macedonian full strength contingents. However, the size
of the armies participating in dierent campaigns could The great losses aected Philip V of Macedon greatly,
126

49.2. TYPICAL UNITS AND FORMATIONS


especially after his defeat at Cynoscephalae in 197 BC.
With such a small population, and such drastic losses in
battle, the Antigonid king had to think radically as to how
to improve his states performance in the next war. In between the Second and Third Macedonian Wars, Philip
V embarked on a major reform and re-organization of
the kingdom. Expansion could secure 'the great reservoir of available man-power'* [5] that lay north in Thrace.
Philip then transported segments of the populations of the
coastal cities to the northern frontiers and moved those
Thracians south. This, combined with economic and political moves, re-built Macedonia and allowed for Perseus,
Philip's successor, to be in a stronger position. Perseus
had enough grain to last the army ten years (without drawing on harvests), enough money to hire 10,000 mercenaries for ten years, and eld an army of 43,000 men, a signicant improvement compared to the situation of Philip
V at Cynoscephalae in 197 BC, who elded an army of
25,500 men.* [6]

127
villagers, as was the case in the army of Ptolemy Philopator, the victor of Raphia. Certain reforms in the weight of
the phalangite equipment and the conscription methods
used, turned the phalanx from a maneuverable formation
into a bulky, slow moving steam roller, whose charge no
enemy was able to withstand. Maneuvers like the fake retreat of Phillip II at Chaeronea or the oblique advance of
Alexander at Arbela were never again attempted, but still,
as long as the phalanx remained on relatively level terrain
and its anks were kept secure, it was not conquered by
any other formation. Although it has been argued that
the role of the phalanx on the battleeld was to act as an
anchor for the entire army, holding the enemy in place,
pushing him back, exerting a heavy toll on enemy morale,
while the cavalry struck the enemy anks and delivered
the fatal blow to cripple their opponents, in most battles
it was used as the main weapon to achieve victory.

Equipment varied over the years, and was also dependent


on the geographical region, the preference/wealth of the
The eastern kingdoms, for example the Ptolemaic, Se- ruler, and the assets of the individual soldier.
leucid, Graeco-Bactrian and Indo Greek kingdoms, had Helmets ranged from simple, open-faced aairs to stylan even more problematic situation. The basis of their ized Thracian models (complete with mask-like cheek
militaries relied on Macedonians and Greeks, which were protectors that often imitated a human face). Historians
obviously not common to the areas that they ruled over. argue about how common body armour would have been
In order to overcome this, these kingdoms set up mili- among phalangites (especially those in the middle ranks),
tary colonies, known as Klerouchoi, to settle mercenaries but when it was worn it ranged from a cuirass of hardened
and others from Macedon and Greece. The system would linen (the linothorax), that may or may not have been reinallow for the colonists to be given a plot of land and in re- forced/decorated with metal scales to metallic (typically
turn they would provide military service when needed. bronze) breastplates.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, for example, soldiers and ocers
were given lots 'in exchange for military service, when- The phalangite's shield - long misconstrued thanks to its
ever needed'.* [7] W.W. Tarn even suggests that the Greek description as a bucklerby several writers - was a 2(known to the Indians as 'Yavanas') population in India foot (0.61 m)-diameter aair and less concave than the
may not have been as small as one would suppose, stat- hoplite's aspis. It was secured by both a shoulder harness
ing 'there may well have been many more Yavanas...than and a fore-arm brace, allowing the o-hand to release the
we should suppose; we may have to reckon with a consid- hand-grip and make wielding the enormous sarissa pike
erable number of men, adventurers or mercenaries from possible. Metallic greaves were also worn (especially by
the front and rear-most ranks) to cover the shins of the
the west'.* [8]
soldier as he stood his ground.

49.2 Typical units and formations


49.2.1

Hellenistic infantry

The phalanx

The primary weapon of the phalangite was the sarissa,


a massive spear that ranged from 16 feet (mid-late 4th
century BC) to as much as 22 feet (near the nadir of the
phalanx's development). First made famous by Philip
of Macedon, it allowed Macedonian infantry to outrangethe opposition's existing spear formations by several feet. The sarissa would have been largely useless
in single combat, but a compact, forward-facing infantry
formation employing it would have been almost impossible to challenge. The rst ve ranks of the phalanx would
have their sarissai projecting horizontally to face the enemy, with the remaining ranks angling theirs in a serried fashion, often leaning against their fellows' backs. If
front-rankers were killed, those behind would lower their
spears and step forward to maintain a solid front.

The Hellenistic armies based their strength on the pike


bearing phalanx, the legacy of Philip II and Alexander
the Great. Throughout the age of the Diadochi and the
Epigonoi, the phalanx, as the line of the pikemen was
commonly referred to by ancient authors, remained the
backbone of armies as diverse as those of Antiochos III
and Philip V. The phalanx was an infantry formation,
characterized by dense ranks, and pikes (sarissas). Their
In the event of close combat, or in circumstances where
soldiers (known as phalangites) ranged from professional
the sarissa was impractical, a variety of swords were emwarriors, drilled in tactics, weapon use and formation,
ployed - the classic xiphos, the kopis and the makhaira, for
typically of Greek origin, to basically trained, non-Greek

128

CHAPTER 49. HELLENISTIC ARMIES

example. It goes without saying that any sword-ghting Onomatology and development of the Hellenistic
in the vicinity of the phalanx's front was complicated by phalanx
the sarissai projecting from the 2nd-5th ranks around the
1st rank combatants.
Numerous individual units of the phalanx infantry are
The primary drawback of the phalanx was its vulnerabil- attested in use during the Hellenistic period. Some of
ity to attacks from the rear and anks. This is the rea- the old Alexandrian unit names were kept and units were
son why it depended on the units on its anks to at least named after Alexander's. An example of this are the
hold o the enemy until he would naturally break from the Argyraspides ('silver shields'), who were originally a unit
phalanx's irresistible pressure. It also had a tendency to of Alexander's most fearsome and disciplined veterans.
fracture, when led across broken terrain for extended pe- However, they were disbanded not long after having surriods of time in close ordered battle formation. The Ro- rendered their commander Eumenes to Antigonus the
mans would later be able to use this weakness against the One-Eyed. The name, however, was kept alive and
phalanx as their more mobile maniples could withstand formed into a corps of the Seleucid army. Livy describes
the pressure of the phalanx longer than more traditional them as a Royal Cohort in the army of Antiochus III the
formations, thus earning valuable time for their wings to Great. Fighting in phalanx formation, the Argyraspides
outank it, as at Cynoscephalae and Magnesia, or for the were present at Raphia (217 BC) and Magnesia (190 BC).
phalanx to lose its cohesion due to prolonged movement Chosen from across the kingdom, they constituted a corps
forward or advancement through unfavorable terrain, as of roughly 10,000 men. By the time of Antiochus IV
at Pydna. Yet, regardless of the many Roman victories Epiphanes' parade at Daphne in 166 BC, the Argyraspiagainst the Hellenistic Kingdoms, the legion never won des are counted as being only 5,000 strong. However,
against a phalanx by frontal assault. Even at Pydna, it Bar-Kochva is of the opinion that the 5,000 men dressed
took the strange withdrawal of the Macedonian cavalry and armed in the 'Roman' style counts for the other half
for the Romans to nally outank the phalanx and claim of the corps. This is because the men of the 'Roman Cona bloody victory.
tingent' are described as being in their prime of life.
As the reign of the Diadochi persisted from the late 4th In the Ptolemaic army the Graeco-Macedonian troops
century to the mid-1st century BC, they grew to rely more formed the phalanx. But Ptolemy IV Philopator and his
and more on an increasingly heavier and longer-speared ministers reformed the army in order to keep up manphalanx to ensure victory. Complementary arms of the power by allowing the native Egyptian warrior class, the
later Hellenistic armies were neglected, fell into disuse, or Machimoi, into the phalanx. Up until that point the
became the province of unreliable mercenaries and sub- Machimoi had only performed auxiliary duties such as
ject peoples. Sound and creative tactics became increas- archery, skirmishing and so on. The Machmioi Epilekingly rare, and were replaced by the belief that unbreak- toi, or 'Picked Machimoi', rst saw service at the battle
able phalanx walls could carry the day.
of Raphia and from then on were featured in more imHistorians and students of the eld alike have often compared the Hellenistic-era phalanx with the Roman legion,
in an attempt to ascertain which of the formations was
truly better. Detractors of the former point out that in
many engagements between the two (such as at Pydna
and Cynosephalae), the legion was the clear victor, and
hence represented a superior system. Opposing schools
of thought, however, point to the Pyrrhic and Hannibalic victories as evidence to the contrary. Finally, one
might note that these were not conicts that solely featured Republican Roman Legionaries engaged against
Hellenistic phalangites. The Roman victories of Magnesia, Cynoscephalae and Pydna were won by armies that
included thousands of non-Roman (often Hellenic) cavalry, elephants, as well as assorted heavy and light infantry. Such a comparison was also attempted in the ancient days, as is attested by Polybius' own eort to explain
why the Macedonian sarissa was eventually conquered by
the Roman gladius, but in the end, we should acknowledge that such a juxtaposition can be misleading, since
both infantry formations had clear advantages and disadvantages that were historically oftentimes exploited.

portant positions within the Ptolemaic army.


It was customary for the Hellenistic warlords to name
individual units of phalangites according to the color
of their shields. Thus, the phalanx of the Hellenistic
armies used terms such as Chrysaspides ('gold-shields'),
Chalkaspides ('bronze-shields') and Leukaspides ('whiteshields') to denote formations within their phalanxes, the
two latter being important in the composition of the
Antigonid phalanx. Antigonus Doson armed the citizens
of Megalopolis as Bronze Shields for the Sellasia campaign in 222 BC. These units are mentioned by classical writers when describing the Antigonid army in battle. Although these units most probably ceased to exist
after the battle of Pydna in 168, as the Antigonid kingdom had been crushed by Rome. These names were
not only limited to the Antigonid (or Achaean) phalanx
though. Plutarch tells us of Mithridates VI of Pontus, The Great, having a corps of 'Chalkaspides'
against Sulla at Chaeroneia.* [9] The majority of the Seleucid phalanx was probably formed by the two corps
that are mentioned in the Daphne Parade of 166 BC,
namely the 10,000 Chrysaspides and the 5,000 Chalkaspides.* [10] Little else is known specically about them,
although they may have been present at the battle of

49.2. TYPICAL UNITS AND FORMATIONS

129

Beth-Zachariah in 162.* [11] Leukaspides are mentioned


in the army of Pyrrhus of Epirus on his campaigns in
Italy. Under Cleomenes III, the Spartan army was reformed in 228 BC. Until then, the Spartans had merely
kept the traditional hoplite spear. Cleomenes created a
4,000 strong phalanx and then formed another phalanx
with 2,000 freed helots in order to counter the Antigonid Leukaspides. Philopoemen reformed the army of the
Achaean League into the Macedonian phalanx in 208
207 BC and we are told that, by the end of the 3rd century, the Boeotians did the same, thereby creating the
'Peltophoroi'.

enemy light infantry or to occupy dicult terrain.

The term peltast has also been coined by Diodorus Siculus to describe the Iphicratean hoplite, a type of hoplite introduced by the Athenian general Iphicrates, that
was equipped with a lighter armor, a longer spear and a
smaller shield.* [15] It could be that the peltasts of Polybius were similarly equipped.

were of high importance to Seleucid rulers from Antiochus III through to Demetrius II. Thirdly, changing
their equipment and training would add to their ghting
capability and eciency, hence making the army more
maneuverable. It has been suggested that the fact that
these 5,000 men are marching at the head of the army
was meant to show Antiochus IV's intention of reforming the entire Seleucid army along Roman lines, though
whether or not this complete reform actually took place
is unknown.* [20] The true extent of the adoption of Roman techniques is unknown, some have suggested that
the infantry are in fact more likely to be Thureophoroi
or Thorakitai, troops armed with an oval shield of the
Celtic type, a thrusting spear and javelins.* [21] The
Thureophoroi and Thorakitai pre-date any major Roman military inuence and while similarly equipped and
fought in a similar manner, had actually evolved independently from the Roman legions.

Roman inuence on Hellenistic warfare

Reforms in the late Seleucid and Ptolemaic armies reorganised them and tried to add some Roman aspects to
formations. This, however, would not be out of place as
some Roman style tactics were used by Pyrrhus of Epirus
in his campaigns against the Romans and by Antigonus II
Gonatas at Sellasia in 222 BC. Pyrrhus and Antigonus
both placed units of lighter troops in between the units
of their phalanx. This was after Pyrrhus had 'observed
the formation of the Roman legions and noticed how mobile they were and how unwieldy were his own forces...
Antigonid 'peltasts'
He therefore adapted his own formation to the Roman
In his description of the Battle of Cynoscephalae, Poly- model, deploying light mobile detachments alongside the
*
bius informs us of a unit he calls Peltasts, which he clearly phalanx'. [16] Philopoemen too used this tactic at Man*
places among the phalanx. Although the Macedonian tinea in 207 BC, making his phalanx more exible. [17]
shield could be characterized as a pelta (targe), the term Much is made of Polybius' description of 5,000 Seleupeltast was usually used to describe a type of shielded, cid infantryman in 166 BC armed in the 'Roman' fashskirmishing, light infantry. It has been suggested that ion at a parade at Daphne. 'Romanized' troops are also
these peltasts were indeed a picked corps, much like mentioned in battle against the Maccabee's.* [18] These
Alexander's hypaspists, 'an infantry force...which fought reforms were probably undertaken by Antiochus IV bebeside the phalanx in battle, but at other times em- cause of several factors. Firstly, Antiochus IV 'had spent
ployed for ambushes, forced marches and special expe- part of his early life in Rome and had acquired rather
ditions'.* [12] The Peltasts were sent on special missions, an excessive admiration for Rome's power and methsuch as an ambush in Lycestis* [13] or being used as shock ods'.* [19] Secondly, to re-train the army in this mantroops in the storming of Cephallenia.* [14] The elite of ner would allow it to perform better in the Seleucid emthe Peltast corps was known as the 'Agema'.
pire's eastern satrapies beyond the river Tigris, which

Thureophoroi and Thorakitai


New troop types, such as the Thureophoroi and the
Thorakitai, were developed. They used the Celtic
Thureos shield, of an oval shape that was similar to the
shields of the Romans, but atter. The Thureophoroi
were armed with a long thrusting spear, a short sword and,
if needed, javelins. While the Thorakitai were similar to
the Thureophoroi, they were more heavily armoured, as
their name implies, usually wearing a mail shirt. These
troops were used as a link between the light infantry and
the phalanx, a form of medium infantry to bridge the
gaps. Numerous armies used this form of troop, for example the Achaean League's armies before Philopoemen.
By the end of the 3rd century BC, the 'Macedonian' phalanx had become the dominant ghting style even for
states such as Sparta .

Stelae from Hermopolis show a Ptolemaic unit having a


standard-bearer and other sta attached. This unit was
like a Roman Maniple, being composed of two smaller
units led by a Hekatontarch (i.e. a Centurion). The title
of Hekatontarch appeared around the 150s BC. As well as
this, Asclepiodotus describes in his 'Tactica' a new institution, the Syntagma, which had a standard-bearer, other
Both the Thureophoroi and the Thorakitai were able to sta and was composed of two smaller units led by Hekaght both in a phalanx formation, armed with long spears, tontarchs. The Phalangarkhia, also described by Asclepior in more loose, irregular formations to be used against odotus, was about the size of a Roman Legion in strength.

130
The potential Roman inuence would have been great.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, Roman adventurers and veterans are
found commonly serving under the Ptolemies. Romans
are found in Ptolemaic service as early as 252/1 BC.* [22]
The Ptolemaic army was odd in that, out of all the Hellenistic armies, it was the only army where you could nd
Romans in Greek service. As Sekunda suggests 'such individuals would have spread knowledge of Roman military systems within the Ptolemaic military and political
establishment'.* [23]
However, there are numerous aspects of the Roman army
that were not carried into the Ptolemaic and Seleucid
ones. For example, the dierentiation of the Hastati,
Principes and Triarii, or the integration of light-armed
troops into the infantry structure. Hence, because of this,
there was no Hellenistic equivalent to the Cohort. Instead, there was a system of larger units that had no relation to Roman organization. In terms of equipment, most
of these so-called 'Romanized' troops did not abandon
their traditional spear for a sword, which the Hasati and
Principles abandoned between the 3rd and 2nd Century
BC.* [24] Also the Romans used the pila, while Greek
troops tended to use local variations of Javelins. Also
similarity of equipment in regards to helmets and chainmail can be explained by Celtic inuence experienced by
both the Greeks and Romans at a similar time. In this
sense, we can only assume that the Hellenistic kingdoms
did reform and re-organize their troops in some regards
along Roman lines, but these appear to be supercial at
best and quite possibly the result of convergent evolution,
with both cultures inuencing each other.

CHAPTER 49. HELLENISTIC ARMIES


The Aetolian League became well known for its cavalry
and, by the end of the 3rd century, they were considered
the best in Greece. Despite this fact, cavalry remained
only a small proportion of its total military force. We can
deduce this from the 400 cavalry accompanying 3,000
foot on campaign in 218 BC. All we know of specic
organisation is a reference to oulamoi, small squadrons
of uncertain strength.
The cavalry of the Achaean League was supposedly inefcient. Philopoemen, in the late 3rd century, having already reformed the foot soldiers into a Macedonian-style
phalanx, also reformed the cavalry. The Achaean cavalry was organised into lochoi, les of eight men, who
were then grouped into dilochiai, double les of 16, then
grouped into oulamoi of 32, ilai of 64, hipparchiai of 128
and syntagmata of 256.
The Antigonid kingdom of Macedon's cavalry only constituted a small fraction of the army. Duncan Head estimates this fraction as between 5 to 10% of the total
strength of the Antigonid armies. This may well be due to
over-campaigning, high casualties or even because many
of the Macedonian noblemen who formed much of the
heavy cavalry of Philip II and Alexander went east and
never came back. But, by the time of Philip V and
Perseus, cavalry strength had slowly increased. Philip V
had a cavalry force of 400 'Household' cavalry, called the
Royal or Sacred Ile in a campaign in 219 BC. This small
number of native horse was then supplemented by mercenary cavalry.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, the cavalry forces were led by a hipparchos, who commanded a hipparchia. The hipparchiai
were divided into ilai, then into lochoi and then into
dekades (sing. dekas, a le of 10 men). Hipparchiai fall
into two categories. There were ve known hipparchiai
in the 3rd century, of which the 4th and 5th are known to
have been in existence in the 2nd century BC. Other than
these, there were four hipparchiai of lower status known
by 'ethnic' names; the Thessalians, Thracians, Mysians
and Persians. These probably were not actual cavalry
troops from those ethnic groups, but more like the Tarantine cavalry mercenaries who did not need to be from
Taras to be called thus.

By the time of Mithridates VI, we are told that the Pontic army had troops armed in the Roman fashion and by
86 BC Mithridates had created an army of 120,000 such
troops.* [25] This was after an alliance between Mithridates and Sertorius, an enemy of Sulla, in which Sertorius
sent a military mission to reorganize Mithridates' army
along Roman lines.* [26] These 'Roman' troops fought
alongside the Pontic phalanx. 'Legions' of this sort are described by Julius Caesar in his campaigns against Juba in
Numidia* [27] and alongside Deiotarus of Galatia whilst
in the Middle East.* [28] If anything, these forces, as described by N. Sekunda, are nothing more than ersatzThe Seleucid empire's cavalry were placed in units of
legions.
oulamoi and then into divisions of ilai. Other than the
usual auxiliary, citizen and militia cavalry units, the main
49.2.2 Hellenistic cavalry
elite cavalry units of the Seleucids were the Agema and
the Hetairoi (Companions). The Hetairoi were the
Cavalry organisation
standing elite cavalry unit of the Seleucid army, serving both in peace and war. The Agema was recruited
The cavalry organization diered in the various Hellenis- from the Medes and their neighbours, although after the
tic states. Dierent variants of tactical formations were Parthian conquest of Media they were probably recruited
used to organise the state's cavalry, although there are from Macedonian settlers. The Hetairoi would escort the
cross-overs and similarities between dierent kingdoms. king into battle or both the Hetairoi and Agema would
The Boeotian League's cavalry was commanded by a escort the king under direct command. Amongst these
Hipparchos and each cavalry squadron (ile, pl. ilai) was units were the various grades of 'Kings Friends' or Basiled by an ilarchos. They also had a tarantinarchos who likoi Philoi, who made up other elite cavalry units similar
commanded the League's Tarantine skirmishing cavalry.

49.2. TYPICAL UNITS AND FORMATIONS

131

to the Companions.

formations attested and probably used were the Tarantenic circle, employed by the Tarentines proper and the
Scythian formation, attested in use by the Scythian horse
Cavalry tactics
archers. Both were skirmishing formations and facilitated
continuous harassment while at the same time providing
Hellenistic cavalry is much more diverse than the Greek the required mobility to avoid enemy charges.
cavalry of earlier eras. Greek tactical manuals categorize
them as cataphracts (fully armored, a type of cavalry not Although, throughout the Hellenistic era, more importo be confused with the Seleucid, Parthian or Byzantine tance was usually given to the role of the infantry than
cataphracts) and aphracts (unarmored). Cataphracts was to cavalry, most major battles of the era were gained bea term commonly employed to describe fully armored cause of good or bad cavalry performance. Antigonus
cavalry of various weights, with or without shield (usu- was defeated at Ipsus, because his victorious cavalry
ally a thureos), usually armed with a lance. Unarmored failed to return from the pursuit before the 400 enemy elecavalry was classied as lancers, javelineers and bowmen. phants eectively blocked its way back. Antiochus was
Lancers (xystophoroi or doratophoroi) charged the en- defeated at Raphia, when, engaging in pursue of the deemy in dense formations. Javelineers were also called feated enemy cavalry, he failed to return and charge the
Tarentines and attacked the enemy from afar. After- enemy phalanx. At Cynoscephalae, the Aetolian cavalry
wards, they would charge the enemy with lances or keep played a key role in the battle and at Pydna, the Macetheir distance, in which case they were called light cav- donian lancers suddenly left the battleeld allowing the
alry and/or Tarentines proper. A further category of light Romans to surround and massacre Perseus' phalanx. At
cavalry was that of the mounted bowmen, which were col- Magnesia, the cataphracts routed the Roman legions but
lectively called Scythians. These are broad categories, as it was Eumenes' cavalry that turned the tide and eecattested by both Aelian and Asclepiodotus. Arrian's cat- tively ensured victory for the Romans. In Sellasia, it was
Philopoemen's cavalry that conquered Oida, earning the
egorization is also very similar.
admiration of Antigonus Doson.
Most cavalry units of the Hellenistic era were moderately armored and would be armed with javelins or/and
lances. Cataphracts were introduced to the Hellenistic Heavy cavalry
world by the Seleucids in the late 3rd century BC and
are attested to have been used, probably in a lighter ver- A modern conception, there is no mentioning of aheavy
sion and for a very limited time, also by the kingdom of cavalryin the Greek military manuals. Unfortunately,
Pergamon. Antiochus III was able to eld an extraordi- even today, we don't have a concrete notion of what
nary 6,000 men at Magnesia, the rst testimony of cav- heavy cavalryshould be. According to one school of
alry gaining victory over the closed ordered ranks of a thought, it is any cavalry capable of shock action against
competent infantry, yet to no avail. The Seleucids also the enemy line, according to another, it should just be
had moderate access to horse archers from their east- heavily armored. According to the Greeks, we have to
ern borders, although they never elded them in large dene it as any cavalry that was not considered light
numbers. The Ptolemies also deployed heavy armored , that is, which was not purely skirmishing. Another aslancers, never cataphracts, probably because of the high pect of the cavalry of the ancient era we have to keep
temperatures prevalent in their empire. In Macedonia, ar- in mind is the unwillingness to use even the best trained
mored lancers were also deployed, after the tradition of and heaviest of cavalries against any dense mass of able
Alexander's Hetairoi, yet their capability could not com- infantry. This is evident in many ancient descriptions of
pare to that of their predecessors. In the rest of the Greek battles. According to Arrian, when Alexander faced the
world, cavalry maintained its traditional equipment of Indian tribe of the Malli, he did not dare assault them
javelin and short lance. Apart from the cavalry types used with his, by now, veteran Heteroi or Thessalians, but he
by the Greeks, the Hellenistic kingdoms also used cavalry followed the customary cavalry tactics of attacks and refrom subordinate and allied barbarian states, which var- treats (perispasmoi).
ied in quality, armor and equipment. Mercenary cavalry Thus, most cavalry types of the Hellenistic armies can
troops were also employed, including Thracians, Arme- be considered heavy, regardless of their armor, as long as
nians, and even Berbers.
they are equipped with lances and act in dense formations.
No cavalry formation is unfortunately mentioned in the
existent descriptions of cavalry battles, but all ancient
Greek tactical manuals, including Asclepiodotus' Techne
Taktike written in the 1st century BC, clearly and in detail
describe the wedge and the rhombus formations, stating
that they were in use at least at the time of their compilation as well as the more common square and rectangular formations. Thus, we have to accept the probability
that they were used throughout the Hellenistic era. Other

Traditional Greek cavalry was usually employed to cover


a retreat or pursue a retreating enemy. A cavalry engagement usually involved a lengthy exchange of javelins;
close combat was avoided. The Macedonian Hetairoi
(Companions; Companion Cavalry) may have been the
rst true, able shock cavalry, armed with long lances and
heavy armor. Their tradition was carried on in the Hellenistic times and troops similarly armed were called doratophoroi or xystophoroi (both terms translated as lance

132

CHAPTER 49. HELLENISTIC ARMIES

bearers or plainly lancers). The term Hetairoi was reserved for units comprising men of aristocratic blood.
These doratophoroi were primarily used against enemy
cavalry; their use against densely deployed infantry was
very limited. Their extreme version were the cataphracts
of the Seleucid cavalry. The various Agemata (pl. of
Agema), usually the elite bodyguards of the Hellenistic
Kings, were similarly armed.

with a shield and javelins, which it hurled at the enemy,


evading any attempt to engage in close combat. In the
Hellenistic era, we have numerous references to Tarantine units, even in the armies of the eastern Macedonian
empires, but unfortunately no denite account of their
equipment or their tactical use. From the Greek tactical
manuals we learn that Tarantines is the collective name
of the lightly armored cavalry, which was equipped with
javelins and lance, that rst skirmishes with the enemy
and then charges. Cavalry that avoided using the charge,
Cataphracts
preferring to remain at a distance and skirmish, was called
Tarantines proper. From these texts, we can safely deCataphracts were heavily armed and armoured cavalduce that, during Hellenistic times, the termTarantines
rymen. The Cataphract (Kataphraktoi) were rst inno longer bore a geographical signicance* [29]* [30] and
troduced into the Hellenistic military tradition with the
was used purely as a tactical term.
Seleucid Antiochus III the Great's anabasis in the east
from 212-205 BC. With his campaigns in Parthia and
Bactria, he came into contact with Cataphracts and 49.2.3 Special units
copied them. Most of the Seleucid heavy cavalry after
this period were armed in this manner, despite keeping Chariots
their original unit names. The Cataphract generally only
served in the eastern Hellenistic armies.
War chariots were rarely used during the Hellenistic era.
Both man and horse were entirely encased in armour
in the form of scale or banded segments sewn onto a fabric. Riders' faces were covered in seamless metal helmets.
The weight carried by the horse was excessive, and prolonged charges were out of the question. Instead, cataphracts trotted to within a reasonable distance before
charging, exerting energy only during the decisive engagement. Once in combat, the cataphract and his steed
enjoyed superb protection from attacks thanks to their armour. However, stamina, endurance and heat were always concerns in extended combat.
The standard cataphract weapon was a xyston-like spear.
For close-quarter combat, a mace or sword was made
available as a secondary weapon. The mace and
cataphract ideas were combined into the Sassanidintroduced and Roman-named Clibanarii, who were armoured, both man and beast, in chainmail, and armed
with a mace.

Their value against any opponent or commander of notable skill was very low as was already proven by the Ten
Thousand (the Greek mercenaries with whom Xenophon
served) at Cunaxa and Alexander in Arbela. Their use is
considered more harmful than benecial in the Greek tactical manuals, yet they could have a frightening eect on
badly trained, inexperienced opponents, such as Asiatic
tribal armies. The idea that the Romans had no previous
experience in ghting chariots might be the reason why
Antiochus III used them against the Roman army, with
disastrous results for his own army. Appian suggests that
wounding the horses drawing a war chariot can cast the
formation in disorder, because an out-of-control chariot
forces other chariots to engage in evading maneuvers to
avoid being hit by its scythes.* [31] Archelaus also used
them against Sulla in the battle of Chaeronea, again to no
avail.* [32]
Elephants

Light cavalry
Light horse archers
The writings of historians, from Arrian to Appian, detail
numerous tribes, nations, and ethnic groupsthe Dahae,
Mysians, etc.--from whom Hellenistic rulers recruited
such warriors.
Tarantine cavalry
Originally the cavalry of the army of the Greek city of
Tarantas (Tarentum) in Magna Graecia, it was renowned
for its peculiar battle tactics. It was the only cavalry of
the Graeco-Roman world to employ pure, advanced skirmishing tactics. It was unarmored and normally equipped

War elephants were considered untrustworthy by Greek


military writers, but played an important role in many
battles of the Hellenistic era, especially in the east. As
was proven many times before, as well as in the wars of
Pyrrhus and Hannibal, elephants could throw a competent
enemy battle line into confusion and win the day, as long
as the enemy was not accustomed to battle against them.
Yet, if used for a frontal assault, the danger of them being routed and falling in panic into the lines of their own
army was great. As Livy attested, elephants were more
dangerous when scared than when controlled.* [33] The
Hellenistic generals were well aware of this fact and thus
did not deploy them before or among their battle line, as
was the case in Hydaspes or in Zama, both examples of
how routing elephants could cost the battle. Instead, they
were deployed on the wings, where they could keep the

49.3. BATTLE ARRAYS

133

enemy cavalry at bay, protecting the infantry from a cavalry outank. Against them, the enemy would use his own
elephants, a necessity, since cavalry would never be able
to conquer them. There, should they be defeated, they
would have space to retreat without getting in the way of
the infantry. Elephants would sometimes be accompanied by irregular infantry battalions, which would assist in
the elephantomachia (elephant battle), while at the same
time protecting their side from enemy infantry.

the battleeld does not seem to have been important, as


mass use is not attested until much later, as Arrian clearly
suggests in his Array against the Alans.

War elephants were typically tted with a tower on their


back that housed several soldiers armed with sarissae and
projectiles (arrows or javelins) to unload on the enemy.
The rider (mahout) sat across the neck and guided the elephant into battle. Armour too, was sometimes wrapped
around the elephants to protect them and increase the natural defense oered by the thickness of their hides. The
size of the tower would be analogous to the size of the
elephants, the Asiatic being considerably larger than the
now extinct African bush elephant used by the Ptolemies.
Polybius gives a valuable account of an elephant battle
between these two species in his description of the battle
of Raphia, where the beasts of Antiochus easily routed
their African counterparts, yet the King failed to claim
victory, since Ptolemy's phalanx forced his center to retreat in disorder.* [34]

49.3 Battle arrays

Dromedaries

Camels are attested in use in the Seleucid army at the


battle of Magnesia, but their small number (500) sugA peculiar use of the elephants is attested during the battle gests they were not a regular addition.* [38] According to
of Ipsus, where Seleucus Nicator posted his elephants in a Xenophon,* [39] their scent scared o horses, but this eflong line between the battleeld and the victorious cavalry fect must not have been especially notable or more writers
of Demetrius, eectively keeping him away and gaining would have commented on this.
victory. This incident might be the best attestation to the
unwillingness of horses to approach an elephant.

The phalanx would be formed in the center, charging the


enemy in pursuit of a swift victory. Its anks would be
protected by units of infantry, which ideally would be
more trustworthy in case of disorder. Cavalry and elephants would be arrayed on the wings to counter those of
the enemy. Light infantry would be deployed in front of
the phalanx in an eort to throw the enemy line into confusion. Then they would run to the wings to assist in the
cavalry and elephant battles.

Deviations from the norm existed when the circumstances


called for a dierent plan. Pyrrhus countered the Roman
legions by using a mixed phalanx formation of pikemen,
spearmen and elephants, an array that proved successful
in all battles against them, regardless of his more than
averagelosses. A most competent tactician indeed, his
Artillery
decisions were inuenced by the composition of his army,
which included many untrustworthy troops from Magna
Main article: Greek and Roman artillery
Graecia. The battle of Sellasia was also peculiar, in reality
being more of an assault against a static enemy, a fact
Artillery was also used in the Hellenistic era, albeit rarely that enabled Antigonus to eectively launch a series of
and without much eect. Catapults and other heavy ar- separate attacks.
tillery had a short range, which meant they would have
to be up close to the enemy to make an impact. However, this made them vulnerable, indeed 'the diculty of
49.4 Siege warfare
getting catapults quickly into, and out of, action might
make them more of a liability than an asset in uid warfare'.* [35] Machanidas of Sparta learnt this the hard way In the Hellenistic period, development in science was
when his artillery at the battle of Mantinea in 207 BC was incredibly noteworthy and that could not but reect on
quickly taken by Philopoemen's Achaean infantry.* [36] siegecraft: Archimedes developed machines that terried
Philip V of Macedon used artillery, in conjunction with the Roman assailants of Syracuse; while Demetrius Podefensive eld works, in his defence of the Aous Valley in liorcetes was notorious for the incredible size of the siege
the Second Macedonian War, causing high Roman casu- machines employed in his exploits, especially against the
alties.* [37] Antiochus the Great is attested to have used it city of Rhodes. Yet, most sieges employed more tradiat Thermopylae, resting it in imposing positions over the tional methods, relying on speed, surprise and traitors
prospected battleeld. Perseus of Macedon used artillery rather than lengthy preparations and a comprehensive
in the Third Macedonian War to defend the Elpeus river barrage. Livius is very descriptive regarding the harassfrom Aemilius Paulus, who did indeed move away to seek ing manner of military campaigns, a complicated game
another route around this defensive line. It was also used of continuous attacks, movement of forces and constant
in fortied towns to harass enemy assailants. Its use in patrols.

134

49.5 Major wars


Wars of the Diadochi
Pyrrhic War
Syrian Wars
Macedonian Wars

49.6 Major battles

CHAPTER 49. HELLENISTIC ARMIES

49.8 References
[1] Sabin & van Wees & Whitby (eds.) (2007), The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Volume 1,
p. 336
[2] F.W. Walbank (1933), Aratos of Sicyon
[3] G.T. Grith (1935), The Mercenaries of the Hellenistic
World
[4] N.G.L. Hammond & F.W. Walbank (1988), A History of
Macedonia, Volume III, 336-167 BC, p. 356
[5] F.W. Walbank (1940), Philip V of Macedon

Battle of Ipsus

[6] F.W. Walbank (1940), Philip V of Macedon, p. 256

Battle of Heraclea

[7] Angelos Chaniotis (2005), War in the Hellenistic World,


p. 85

Battle of Asculum
Battle of Sellasia
Battle of Raphia

[8] W.W. Tarn (1980), The Greeks in Bactria and India, p.


251
[9] Plutarch, Life of Sulla, 16.7
[10] Sekunda, 2001, p.91

Battle of Mantinea

[11] I.Macc.6.39

Battle of Cynoscephalae

[12] F.W. Walbank (1940), Philip V of Macedon, p. 290

Battle of Magnesia

[13] Livy XXXI.36.1

Battle of Pydna

[14] Polybius V.4.9


[15] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, XV.44

49.7 See also


Hellenistic Greece
Ancient Macedonian army
Antigonid Macedonian army
Seleucid army
Ptolemaic army
Hoplite
Pezhetairoi
Chiliarch
Companion cavalry
Phalanx
Sarissa

[16] Petros Garoufalias (1979), Pyrrhus King of Epirus, p. 91


[17] F.W. Walbank (1967), A Historical Commentary on
Polybius, Volume III, p. 286
[18] I Macc. 6.35
[19] W.W. Tarn (1980), The Greeks in Bactria and India, p.
184
[20] Sekunda, 2001, p. 98
[21] Beston, 2002, pp. 388389
[22] N. Sekunda (2001) Hellenistic Infantry Reform in the
160's BC, p. 60
[23] N. Sekunda (2001), Hellenistic Infantry Reform in the
160's BC, p. 61
[24] Mommsen, Theodor (1903). The History of Rome, Book
III: From the union of Italy to the subjugation of Carthage
and the Greek states. The History of Rome. ISBN 0-41514953-3. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help);
[25] Plutarch, Life of Luc. 7.4
[26] Peter Green (1990), Alexander to Actium, p. 653

Xyston

[27] Caesar, De Bello Afrrico 48,55,59

Aelianus Tacticus

[28] Caesar, De Bello Alexandrino, 34

49.10. EXTERNAL LINKS

[29] Arrian, Tactica


[30] Asclepiodotus, Techne Taktike, 7.11
[31] Appian, Syriaca 6

135
Sekunda, N. (2001) Hellenistic Infantry Reform in
the 160's BC,
Tarn, W.W. (1930) Hellenistic military developments

[32] Frontinus, Stratagems, II.3.17

Tarn, W.W. (1980) The Greeks in Bactria and India

[33] Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 27.14

Walbank, F. W. (1940) Philip V of Macedon

[34] Polybius, Histories V.84

Warry, John Gibson, (1995), Warfare in the Classical World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons,
Warriors and Warfare in the Ancient Civilisations of
Greece and Rome, University of Oklahoma Press.

[35] E.W. Marsden (1969), Greek and Roman Artillery: Historical Development, p. 164
[36] Polybius XI.12.4
[37] N.G.L. Hammond (1965), The Opening Campaigns and
the Battle of Aoi Stena in the Second Macedonian War, pp.
3954
[38] Appian, Syriaca 7
[39] Xenophon, Cyropaedia, .1.27

49.9 Further reading


Anglim, Simon et al., (2003), Fighting Techniques
of the Ancient World (3000 B.C. to 500 A.D.):
Equipment, Combat Skills, and Tactics, Thomas
Dunne Books.
Bar-Kochva, B. (1976), The Seleucid Army: Organisation and Tactics in the Great Campaigns, Cambridge University Press
Bar-Kochva, B. (1989), Judas Maccabaeus: The
Jewish Struggle against the Seleucids, Cambridge
University Press
Connolly, Peter, (2006), Greece and Rome at War,
Greenhill Books, 2nd edition.
Hansen, Esther V., The Attalids of Pergamon,
Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press; London: Cornell University Press Ltd (1971)
Livy, History of Rome, Rev. Canon Roberts (translator), Ernest Rhys (Ed.); (1905) London: J. M.
Dent & Sons, Ltd.
Polybius, Histories, Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (translator); London, New York. Macmillan (1889);
Reprint Bloomington (1962).
Sabin, Philip & van Wees, Hans & Whitby, Michael
(eds.) (2007) The Cambridge History of Greek and
Roman Warfare: Volume 1, Greece, The Hellenistic
World and the Rise of Rome, Cambridge University
Press
Sekunda, N. (1994) Seleucid and Ptolemaic Reformed Armies 168-145 BC. 2 Vols., Montvert

Wilkes, John, The Illyrians, Blackwell Publishers


(December 1, 1995). ISBN 0-631-19807-5

49.10 External links


Polybius famous analogy between the Hellenistic
phalanx and the Roman legion
Interesting review of the Hellenistic armies' arms
and armours
Picture of a Thracian Peltast with one javelin in his
throwing hand and four javelins in his Pelte hand as
additional ammunition

Chapter 50

Heracles of Macedon
Heracles of Macedon (ca. 327 BC 309 BC) was a reputed illegitimate son of Alexander the Great of Macedon
by Barsine, daughter of Satrap Artabazus of Phrygia.
Heracles was named after the Greek mythological hero
of the same name, from whom the Argeads claimed descent.
It cannot be established denitively whether Heracles
was Alexanders son or not. Of the ancient sources,
both Plutarch and Justin mention Barsine and Heracles
but Arrian in the Anabasis Alexandri mentions neither.
Plutarch recounts that Alexander took Barsine as his mistress, but on the arguably spurious grounds that she was
recommended to him by Parmenion (despite the many
disagreements between him and Alexander, and Alexander's apparent contempt for his judgement).* [1] Of Barsine, Mary Renault states that:

Ed.
[3] Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander. p100-101, 2001
Ed.
[4] Green, Peter. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age.
p44, 2007 Ed.

50.2 External links

If Heracles were Alexanders illegitimate child, then it


also raises the pointed question as to why he, as Alexanders only living son at the time of his death, was not
immediately drawn into the succession disputes, and why
he was passed over in favour of Philip Arrhidaeus - himself illegitimate - who was only a son of Alexanders
father Philip, and thus a more distant claimant than Heracles. Renault concludes that the romance with Barsine
was invented retrospectively to validate Heracles' parentage.* [3]
Either way, Heracles lived in obscurity until Alexander
IV's murder by Cassander in 310 BC or 309 BC. At that
point Polyperchon, a regent of Macedon who had been
replaced by Cassander and had all but disappeared for
the previous six years, began championing Heracles as
Alexander's true heir, and Polyperchon began forming
an army. Instead of ghting, Cassander negotiated with
Polyperchon. By oering Polypercon various bribes such
as a sinecure and a large number of talents, Cassander
persuaded him to murder Heracles, and Polyperchon retired to obscurity once more.* [4]

50.1 Notes
[1] Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander. p100, 2001 Ed.
[2] Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander. p100-101, 2001

136

A detailed biography of Heracles' mother Barsine


A genealogical tree of Heracles

Chapter 51

Heraclides (son of Antiochus)


Heraclides or Heracleides (Greek: ), son
of Antiochus, was hipparch of the ile of Hetairoi from
Bottiaea, from the Triballian campaign of Alexander the
Great in 335 BC until the battle of Gaugamela.

51.1 References
Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great by
Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

137

Chapter 52

Heracon
Heracon (Greek: ) ocer in the service of
Alexander the Great, who, together with Cleander,
Agathon and Sitalces II, succeeded to the command of
the army in Media, which had previously been under the
orders of Parmenion, when the latter was put to death by
order of Alexander, 330 BC. In common with many others of the Macedonian governors, he permitted himself
many excesses during the absence of Alexander in the remote provinces of the East: among others he plundered a
temple at Susa, noted for its wealth, on which charge he
was put to death by Alexander after his return from India,
325 BC.

52.1 References
Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great ISBN
978-1-4051-1210-9
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

138

Chapter 53

Historiography of Alexander the Great


There are numerous surviving ancient Greek and Latin
sources on Alexander the Great, as well as some oriental texts. The ve main surviving accounts are by Arrian, Plutarch, Diodorus, Curtius and Justin.* [1] In addition to these ve main sources, there is the Metz Epitome, an anonymous late Latin work that narrates Alexander's campaigns from Hyrcania to India. Much is also recounted incidentally by other authors, including Strabo,
Athenaeus, Polyaenus, Aelian, and others. Strabo, who
gives a summary of Callisthenes, is an important source
for Alexander's journey to Siwah.* [2]

and he often criticizes them. He is not interested in


the King's private life, overlooking his errors . That
Alexander should have committed errors in conduct
from impetuosity or from wrath, and that he should
have been induced to comport himself like the Persian
monarchs to an immoderate degree, I do not think remarkable if we fairly consider both his youth and his
uninterrupted career of good fortune. I do not think
that even his tracing his origin to a god was a great error on Alexander's part, if it was not perhaps merely
a device to induce his subjects to show him reverence.
(Arrian 7b 29)

53.1 Contemporary sources

Indike

The primary sources written by people who actually knew


Alexander or who gathered information from men who
served with Alexander, are all lost, apart from a few in- 53.2.2 Plutarch
scriptions and fragments.* [1] Contemporaries who wrote
accounts of his life include Alexander's campaign his Life of Alexander (see Parallel Lives) and two oratorian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and
tions On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the
Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior ocer on the campaigns;
Great (see Moralia), by the Greek historian and biand Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman.* [1] Fiographer Plutarch of Chaeronea in the second cennally, there is the very inuential account of Cleitarchus
tury, based largely on Aristobulus and especially
who, while not a direct witness of Alexander's expedition,
Cleitarchus. Plutarch devotes a great deal of space
used sources which had just been published.* [1] His work
to Alexander's drive and desire, and strives to dewas to be the backbone of that of Timagenes, who heavtermine how much of it was presaged in his youth.
ily inuenced many historians whose work still survives.
He also draws extensively on the work of Lysippus,
None of his works survived, but we do have later works
Alexander's favourite sculptor, to provide what is
based on these primary sources.* [1]
probably the fullest and most accurate description
of the conqueror's physical appearance.

53.2 The ve main sources


53.2.1

53.2.3 Diodorus

Arrian

Anabasis Alexandri (The Campaigns of Alexander in


Greek) by the Greek historian Arrian of Nicomedia,
writing in the 2nd century AD, and based largely
on Ptolemy and, to a lesser extent, Aristobulus and
Nearchus. It is generally considered one of the best
sources on the campaigns of Alexander as well as
one of the founders of a primarily military-based
focus on history. Arrian cites his source by name
139

Bibliotheca historica (Library of world history),


written in Greek by the Sicilian historian Diodorus
Siculus, from which Book 17 relates the conquests
of Alexander, based almost entirely on Cleitarchus
and Hieronymus of Cardia. It is the oldest surviving
Greek source (1st century BC). Diodorus regarded
Alexander like Caesar as a key historical gure and
chronological marker.

140

53.2.4

CHAPTER 53. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Curtius

Historiae Alexandri Magni, a biography of Alexander in ten books, of which the last eight survive, by
the Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus, written in the 1st century AD, and based largely on
Cleitarchus through the mediation of Timagenes,
with some material probably from Ptolemy. His
work is uidly written, but reveals ignorance of geography, chronology and technical military knowledge, focusing instead on character. According to
Jona Lendering: ..the real subject was not Alexander, but the tyranny of Tiberius and Caligula. (It can
be shown that Curtius Rufus' description of the trial
of Philotas is based on an incident during the reign
of Tiberius)...Curtius copies Cleitarchus' mistakes, although he is not an uncritical imitator.* [3]

53.2.5

Justin

The Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius


Trogus by Justin, is highly compressed version of an
earlier history by Trogus, with the selections governed by Justin's desire to make moralistic points,
rather than with an eye for the history itself.* [1]

53.3 Lost works


Life of Alexander by Aesopus
Works of Anaximenes of Lampsacus
Works of Aristobulus of Cassandreia
Geographical work of Androsthenes of Thasos
Deeds of Alexander by Callisthenes (the ocial historian)
Personal Notebooks, or Hypomnemata, by Alexander himself (possibly inauthentic)* [4]
History of Alexander by Cleitarchus
On the empire of the Macedonians by Criton of
Pieria
Histories (also listed as Macedonica and Hellenica)
by Duris of Samos
Ephemerides (royal journal) of the royal secretary
Eumenes
Work of Ephippus of Olynthus

On the education of Alexander and Macedonian history by Marsyas of Pella


Work of Medius of Larissa
Work of Nearchus, the primary source of Arrian's
Indica
How Alexander was Educated and geographical
works by Onesicritus
Work of Ptolemy I Soter
History of Alexander by Timagenes
Historiae Philippicae by Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus

53.4 Greek epigraphy


Decree of Philippi (ca.335-330 BC) Alexander arbitrates a boundary dispute between local Thracian
tribes and the city of Philippi.
A dedicatory inscription to Apollo was found at
Toumbes Kalamotou, Thessaloniki regional unit ; it
records a list of priests of Asclepius who had fullled their duties from the time when King Alexandros gave Kalindoia and the villages around to
Makedones.* [5]
A dedicatory inscription to Olympian Zeus by
Philonides of Crete in which he is mentioned as King
Alexandros' hemerodromos (cursor) and bematist of
Asia.* [6]* [7]
Lindos Chronicle. King Alexandros having defeated
Darius in battle and become lord kyrios of Asia, sacriced to Athena of Lindos.* [8]* [9] boukephala (oxheads) and hopla (armour)* [10]
Antigonus (son of Callas) hetairos from Amphipolis, commemorates his victory in hoplite racing at
Heraclean games after the Conquest of Tyrus.

53.5 Oriental tradition


53.5.1 Babylonian Chronicles
Alexander Chronicle mentions the battle of
Gaugamela and the incident of Bessus, who was
pursued by Aliksandar.* [11]
Alexander and Arabia Chronicle refers to events
concerning the last years of the King.* [12]

Work of Hagnothemis upon which Plutarch rested


53.5.2
the belief that Antipater poisoned Alexander.
Work of Hieronymus of Cardia

Zoroastrian texts

Main article: Book of Arda Viraf

53.6. REFERENCES

53.6 References
[1] Green, 2007, pp xxiixxviii
[2] Cartledge, P., Alexander the Great (Vintage Books, 2004),
p. 290.
[3] Curtius - livius.org
[4] Cartledge 2007, p. 278.
[5] The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands,
and Asia Minor Page 94 by Getzel M. Cohen ISBN
0520083296
[6] Elis Olympia 336-323 BC IvO 276
[7] From the end of the Peloponnesian War to the battle of
Ipsus By Phillip Harding Page 135 ISBN 0521299497
[8] Lindos II 2 103-109
[9] The Greek world after Alexander, 323-30 B.C. Page 37
By Graham Shipley ISBN 0415046181
[10] New terms for new ideas By Michael Lackner, Iwo
Amelung, Joachim Kurtz Page 124 ISBN 9004120467
[11] livius.org
[12] livius.org
[13] Alexander the Great was calledthe Rumanin Zoroastrian tradition because he came from Greek provinces
which later were a part of the eastern Roman empire The archeology of world religions By Jack Finegan Page
80 ISBN 0415221552
[14] http://www.avesta.org/mp/viraf.html

141

Chapter 54

I am the Great Horse


I am the Great Horse is a general ction novel by
Katherine Roberts, published in August, 2006 by The
Chicken House and aimed at teens. It is about the life
of Alexander the Great, told from the point of view of
his horse, Bucephalus.
The pair meet in Pella, Macedonia, and Alexander manages to be the only rider on Bucephalus after a battle in
which Bucephalas lost his left eye by an enemy pike.
Katherine Roberts acknowledges that the characters
Charmia and Tydeos, both grooms in the royal stable,
were ction, as was the evil horsemaster.
The names of the other horses are also ction, though the
horses themselves were real enough. Prince Ochus, King
Darius's son, was given a larger part than most records do,
and the ghosts that Bucephalus often sees are also ction.
From the moment the battle-scarred horse Bucephalas allows a prince and a runaway girl to sit on his back, he is
bound to them for ever. The prince is the young Alexander the Great, who he proudly carries into battle, blazing
a trail to the very edge of the world in master's search for
glory and adventure. The girl, Charm, is a lowly stable
hand, who brushes away the ghosts Bucephalas sees and
forgives his arrogant ways. But unlike Alexander, Charm
has darker reasons to stay by his side. Through the eyes
of the horse, history, mystery and adventure unfold.

54.1 Notes
Throughout the book the name Bucephalus is written 'Bucephalas' (with an 'a' instead of a 'u') according to the
original Greek spelling (). the book is about
the conquests of Alexander and his horse.

142

Chapter 55

Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius


Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (third to fourth
century AD) of the Valerius gens was a translator of
the Greek Pseudo-Callisthenes, the romantic history of
Alexander the Great, to the Latin Res gestae Alexandri
Macedonis, in three books: birth; acts; death. The work
is important in connection with the transmission of the
Alexander story in the Middle Ages.

143

Chapter 56

Lord of Asia
Lord of Asia (in Greek ) was the
title given to Alexander the Great after the Battle of
Gaugamela in 331 BC.* [1] The title passed on to his successors (the Antigonids, Ptolemies and Seleucids) after
his death in Babylon in 323 BC., though none of them
held any actual power in Asia or any other part of the
Hellenistic Alexandrian Empire; the actual power fell to
the numerous regents or the rebellious Persian satraps.
With the partition of his empire and the rise of the
Diadochi, the title of Lord of Asia fell in abeyance.

56.1 References
[1] Britannica reference on Lord of Asia. Retrieved 201001-08.

56.2 See also


List of kings of Macedon
Empire of Japan

144

Chapter 57

Lanike
Lanike or Lanice (Greek: ), also called Hellanike or Alacrinis, daughter of Dropidas, was the sister
of Clitus the Black and the nurse of Alexander the Great.
She was born, most likely, shortly after 380 BC; for she is
named as the mother of Proteas and two other sons who
died in the battle at Miletus in 334 BC. Her husband may
have been Andronicus.* [1]

57.1 Lanike in ction


She is referenced in Alexander Revisited: The Final Cut
by Oliver Stone. Clitus asks Alexander, Who planned
the Asian invasion while you were still being spanked on
your bottom by my sister Lanike?" In a rage Alexander
proceeds to kill Clitus, but while mourning his actions,
Alexander weeps about what he has done to Lanike, i.e.
killing her brother. She also appears in numerous dramatic and ctional accounts of Alexander's life, such as
the novel Fire From Heaven by Mary Renault.

57.2 References
[1] Who's Who In The Age Of Alexander The Great: prosopography of Alexander's empire, Waldemar Heckel, Blackwell
Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1-4051-1210-7

57.3 External links


List of characters in Fire From Heaven

145

Chapter 58

List of ancient Macedonians


Amyntas III 393 BC

This is a list of the Ancient Macedonians of Greece


(Greek: , Makednes). For other uses, see
List of Macedonians

Argaeus II 393392 BC
Amyntas III 392370 BC
Alexander II 370368 BC

58.1 Mythology

Perdiccas III 368359 BC

Makednos

Ptolemy of Aloros , Regent of


Macedon 368365 BC

58.2 Kings

Amyntas IV 359356 BC
Philip II 359336 BC

58.2.1 Argead Dynasty

Alexander III, the Great


336323 BC

Karanus 808778 BC
Koinos 778750 BC

Antipater , Regent of Macedon


334323 BC

Tyrimmas

Philip III Arrhidaeus 323317 BC and


Alexander IV 323310 BC* [1]

Perdiccas I 700678 BC
Argaeus I 678640 BC

Perdiccas , Regent of the Macedon


Empire 323321 BC* [2]

Philip I 640602 BC
Aeropus I 602576 BC

Antipater , Regent of the Macedon Empire 321319 BC

Alcetas I 576547 BC

Polyperchon , Regent of the


Macedon Empire 319317 BC

Amyntas I 547498 BC

Cassander , Regent of Macedon


317305 BC

Alexander I 498454 BC
Alcetas II 454448 BC

58.2.2 Antipatrid Dynasty

Perdiccas II 448413 BC

Cassander 305297 BC

Archelaus 413399 BC

Philip IV 297 BC

Craterus 399 BC

Alexander V ' and Antipater II


' 297294 BC

Orestes and Aeropus II 399


396 BC
Archelaus II 396393 BC

58.2.3 Antigonid Dynasty

Amyntas II 393 BC

Demetrius I Poliorcetes
306286 BC* [3]

Pausanias 393 BC
146

58.3. MILITARY PERSONNEL

58.2.4

Non-Dynastic Kings

Lysimachus 286281 BC and Pyrrhus


of Epirus 286285 BC
Ptolemy Keraunos 281
279 BC

147
Attalus strategos of Philip and early taxiarch of
Alexander
Hephaestion Chiliarch (after 327 BC)
Perdiccas Chiliarch (after 324 BC)
Seleucus I Nicator Chiliarch (after 323 BC)

Meleager 279 BC
Somatophylakes

58.2.5 Antipatrid Dynasty

Aristonous of Pella

Antipater Etesias 279 BC

Arybbas (somatophylax)

Sosthenes 279276 BC

Balacrus
Demetrius (somatophylax)

58.2.6 Antigonid Dynasty


Antigonus II Gonatas ' 276
274 BC* [4]

58.2.7

Non-Dynastic Kings

Pyrrhus of Epirus 274272


BC

Hephaestion
Leonnatus
Lysimachus
Menes of Pella
Pausanias of Orestis Philip's
Peithon
Peucestas

58.2.8 Antigonid Dynasty


Antigonus II Gonatas ' 272
239 BC
Demetrius II Aetolicus '
239229 BC
Antigonus III Doson ' 229221 BC
Philip V ' 221179 BC
Perseus 179167 BC
After Perseus's defeat at the Battle of Pydna in 167 BC,
Macedon was divided into four republics under Roman
domination. In 150 BC, a man named Andriscus claimed
to be the son of Perseus, and claimed the throne of Macedon as Philip VI. This led to the Fourth Macedonian
War, in which Andriscus was defeated by the Romans,
and Macedon was annexed as a Roman province in 148
BC.

58.3 Military personnel


58.3.1

High generals

Parmenion Strategos of Philip and Alexander and


commander of pharsalian squadron

Ptolemy (somatophylax)
Ptolemy (son of Seleucus)
Ptolemy I Soter

58.3.2 Cavalry
Hipparchoi
Philotas (after 330 BC, Cleitus the Black, Coenus,
Hephaestion, Craterus, Perdiccas, Cleitus the
White) leaders of Hetairoi (1800 Horses)
Cleitus the Black, Royal cavalry
Sopolis, cavalry of Amphipolis
Heraclides (son of Antiochus), cavalry of Bottiaea
Peroidas cavalry of Anthemus
Socrates cavalry of Apollonia
Pantordanus cavalry of Leugaea
Hegelochus, (later Amyntas (son of Arrhabaeus),
Protomachus, Aretes), Prodromoi, light cavalry
(600 Horses)
Calas, Alexander of Lyncestis, Philip, Polydamas,
ParmenionThessalian cavalry (1800 Horses)

148

CHAPTER 58. LIST OF ANCIENT MACEDONIANS

Philip (son of Menelaus) (after 331 BC, Erigyius), Trierarchs of Nearchus


other allied Greeks (600 Horses)
Archon of Pella
Agathon (son of Tyrimmas), (later Ariston of Paionia) Thracian cavalry (900 Horses) *Total 5700
Archias of Pella
Horses in 333 BC
Aristonous of Pella
Demetrius (son of Althaemenes), Glaucias,
Asclepiodorus
Meleager, mentioned in the Battle of Gaugamela
Craterus

58.3.3

Infantry

Taxiarchs of Pezhetairoi

Demonicus of Pella
Hephaestion

Nicanor (son of Parmenion) 334 BC leader of Royal


Agema and Hypaspists (succeeded by Neoptolemus
(general))

Leonnatus

Alcetas

Metron

Amyntas 334 BC

Mylleas

Antigenes

Nicarchides

Antigonus I Monophthalmus 334 BC

Ophellas

Attalus (general) 334 BC

Pantauchus

Attalus (son of Andromenes from Stympha)

Peithon

Clitus the White

Perdiccas

Coenus 334 BC

Peucestas

Craterus 334 BC
Gorgias
Meleager (general) 334 BC
Menander (general) 334 BC
Peithon, son of Agenor
Perdiccas 334 BC
Philip (son of Amyntas) 334 BC
Philotas (satrap)
Polyperchon
Ptolemy (son of Seleucus)

Lysimachus

Ptolemy I Soter
Timanthes of Pella

58.3.5 Various
Agathon brother of Parmenion
Arrhidaeus
Asander
Caranus hetairos
Coragus

Ptolemy I Soter 334 BC

Derdas

Simmias

Eudemus (general)
Harpalus

58.3.4

Navy

Navarchoi

Iollas
Lagus

Proteas

Menedemus (general)

Hegelochus

Menelaus (son of Lagus)

Amphoterus

Nicanor (Antipatrid general)

Nearchus

Nicanor (father of Balacrus)

58.4. CIVILIZATION

149

Nicanor (Ptolemaic general)

Lampos of Philippi
Olympics* [12]

Nicanor the Elephant

BC

Tethrippon

Antigonus 292 and 288 BC Stadion Olympics* [10]

Philip (son of Antigonus)

Seleucus 268 BC Stadion Olympics* [10]

Philip (son of Antipater)

Belistiche 264 BC Tethrippon and Synoris Olympics

Philip (son of Machatas)

Apollodorus (runner) (1st century BC) Olympics

Philoxenus (general)
Polemon (general) son of Andromenes

Horse race Olympic Victors as recorded in recent discovered epigrams of Posidippus of Pella (c. 3rd century
BC)* [13]

Ptolemy (general) nephew of Antigonus


Teutamus

Ptolemy I Soter

Tlepolemus (son of Pythophanes)

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Arsinoe I

58.4 Civilization
58.4.1

304

Arsinoe II

Athletes

Berenice Phernophorus

Alexander I of Macedon 504 or 500 BC* [5] Stadion


2nd Olympics * [6]
c. 430420 BC Argive Heraean games* [7]
Archelaos Perdikas 408 BC Tethrippon in Olympic
and Pythian Games
Philip II of Macedon (Thrice Olympic Winner), 356
BC Horse Race, 352 BC Tethrippon, 348 BC twocolt chariot, Synoris
344 BC Tethrippon Panathenaics* [8]

Berenice II
Cleopatra II
Etearchus
Molycus
Plangon woman
Trygaios

58.4.2 Writers

Archon of Pella 334-332 BC Horse race Isthmian


and Pythian Games

Adaios (c. 450 BC) epigrammatic poet

Antigonus (son of Callas) 332-331 BC


Hoplitodromos Heraclean games in Tyrus, after the Conquest of the city

Antipater (c. 397 BC 319 BC) Illyrian Wars

Malacus 329/328
Amphiarian games* [9]

Alexander the Great (356323 BC) epistolist, rhetor


quotes

BC

Dolichos

Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC283 BC) patron of letters, historian of Alexander's campaign

Criton or Cliton* [10] 328 BC Stadion Olympics

Alexarchus, scholar, conlanger

Damasias of Amphipolis
Olympics* [10]

Leon of Pella (4th-century BC) historian On the


Gods in Egypt

320

BC

Stadion

Lagus (son of Ptolemeus) 308 BC Synoris


Arcadian Lykaia
Epaenetus (son of Silanus) 308 BC
Tethrippon Lykaia
Heraclitus
Lykaia* [11]

304

BC

stadion

Bubalus of Cassandreia 304 BC keles


(horse) at race Lykaia

Marsyas of Pella (356- 294) historian


Marsyas of Philippi (3rd century BC) historian
Hippolochus (early 3rd century BC) description of
a Macedonian wedding feast
Poseidippus of Cassandreia (c. 288 BC) comic poet
Poseidippus of Pella (c. 280 BC 240 BC) epigrammatic poet

150

CHAPTER 58. LIST OF ANCIENT MACEDONIANS

Amerias (3rd century BC) lexicographer


Craterus (historian) (3rd century BC) anthologist,
compiler of historical documents relative to the history of Attica
Oikiades (son of Nikandros) from Cassandreia
Tragoedus winner in Soteria (festival) 272 BC* [14]
Ptolemy IV Philopator, wrote a tragedy entitled
Adonis, and presumably played the lead.
Hermagoras of Amphipolis (c.
philosopher

225 BC), stoic

Samus (son of Chrysogonus), (late 3rd century BC)

58.4.4 Artists
Pamphilus (painter), teacher of Apelles (4th century
BC)
Parmeniskos group potters (3rd century BC)
Aetion of Amphipolis, sculptor
Erginus (son of Simylus) from Cassandreia
citharede winner in Soteria (festival) c. 260
BC* [17]
_ (son of Callistratus) from Philippi Dancer winner
in Soteria (festival) c. 250 BC* [18]

Craterus of Amphipolis (c. 100-30 BC) Rhapsode


winner in Amphiarian games* [15]

Heraclides (painter) (2nd century BC) marine


painter

Phaedrus of Pieria (c. 15 BC c. 50 AD) fabulist

Herophon (son of Anaxagoras) (2nd-1st century


BC) sculptor

Antipater of Thessalonica (late 1st century BC) epigrammatic poet and governor of the city
Philippus of Thessalonica (late 1st century AD) epigrammatic poet and compiler of the Greek Anthology

Evander of Beroea (1st century AD) sculptor


Adymus of Beroea (1st century AD) sculptor

58.4.5 Priests

Epigonus of Thessalonica

Menelaus (son of Lagus)

Perses epigrammatist

Agathanor

Archias, epigrammatist
Antiphanes (late 1st century AD), epigrammatist
Parmenion (late 1st century AD), epigrammatist
Polyaenus, (2nd century AD) military writer
Criton of Pieria (2nd century AD) historian
Stobaeus (5th century AD) anthologist of Greek authors
Macedonius of Thessalonica (the Consul), (6th century AD), epigrammatist of Greek Anthology

58.4.6 Theorodokoi
Perdiccas, possibly Perdiccas III of Macedon c.
365-311 BC Epidaurian* [19]* [20]
Pausanias of Kalindoia, possibly the same as
Pausanias the pretender to the Macedonian throne
in the 360s BC
Hadymos and Seleukos son of Argaios* [21]

58.4.7 Naopoioi
58.4.3

Scientists

Poseidonius, mechanician [16]


*

Naopoios (Temple-builder), an elected Archon by


Hieromnemones, responsible for restoring the temple of
Apollo in Delphi

Pyrrhus mechanician
Demetrius I Poliorcetes, mechanician

Philippus

Archias of Pella, geographer under Nearchus

Timanoridas (son of Cordypion)


c. 361-343 BC* [22]

Parmenion (architect)
Patrocles (geographer)

Leon (son of Hegesander) 331 BC* [23]

58.6. REFERENCES

58.4.8

Women

Arsinoe of Macedonia mother of Ptolemy I Soter


Belistiche olympionice

151

[2] Perdiccas (And his immediate Regency successors) did


not take the title of Regent, (Epitropos) but instead styled
himself 'Manager' (Epimelts), however his position was
that of Regent in all but name.

Cleopatra Eurydice, niece of Attalus (general), and


5th wife of Philip

[3] Demetrius was proclaimed King in 306 BC with his father,


but his reign in Macedonia only became eective after he
ousted the Antipatrids in 294, and his power there ended
after he was in turn expelled by Pyrrhus and Lysimachus
in 286. His death in 283 is often given as marking the end
of his reign.

Cynane half-sister of Alexander

[4] Antigonus claimed the kingship upon his father's death in


283, but it was only eective after 276.

Eurydice of Egypt daughter of Antipater and wife


of Ptolemy I Soter

[5] A History of Macedonia. Volume 2 Review: John Cole

Cleopatra of Macedon sister of Alexander, wife of


Alexander I of Epirus

Eurydice II of Macedon mother of Philip


Euridice III Adea, wife of Philip Arrhidaeus
Lanike sister of Clitus the Black and the nurse of
Alexander
Nicaea of Macedonia daughter of Antipater, wife of
Lysimachus
Nicesipolis wife of Philip, mother of Thessalonica
Olympias mother of Alexander
Phila, daughter of Antipater, wife of Demetrius Poliorcetes and mother of Antigonus II Gonatas

[6] Justin 7.2.14. (He contended for the prize in various


species of exercises at the Olympics)
[7] Thucydides and Pindar: Historical Narrative and the
World of Epinikian Poetry by Simon Hornblower SEG
30:648
[8] Aspects of Ancient Macedonian Costume -
, -Epigraphical Database SEG 49:842,
SEG 45:801
[9] Boeotia Amphiareion- Epigr. tou Oropou 520.10
[10] Chronicon (Eusebius)
[11] Arkadia Lykaion IG V,2 550.17
[12] Pausanias a Guide to Greece

Philinna of Larissa, wife of Philip, mother of Philip


III of Macedon

[13] Posidippus, Epigrams www.chs.harvard.edu

Stratonice of Macedonia wife of Demetrius Poliorcetes

[15] Boiotia Oropos: Amphiareion c. 80-50 BC Epigr.


tou Oropou 528.12

Thessalonica half-sister of Alexander, wife of Cassander

[16] Greek and Roman Siege Machinery 399 Bc-Ad 363 By


Duncan B. Campbell

[14] Phokis Delphi Syll. 424.42

[17] Phokis Delphi FD III 1:477.13

Olympias II of Epirus, wife of Alexander II of


[18] Phokis Delphi BCH 1928:259.26
Epirus
[19] Epidauros c. 365-311 BC IG IV,1 94 frg b.col I.1 9

58.5 See also


List of ancient Macedonians in epigraphy

[20] Martial, Buch VI: Ein Kommentar by Farouk Grewing


[21] Macedonian Institutions Under the Kings Page 211 By
Miltiads V. Chatzopoulos ISBN 960-7094-89-1
[22] Phokis Delphi stoichedon FD III 5:19.74

58.6 References
[1] As part of the compromise in Babylon after Alexander the
Greats death, it was agreed that Philip would be joint
king with Roxannes unborn child, should it prove to be
male. Hence Philip was sole king for several months until
Alexander IV was born, and Alexander too was sole king
from Philips murder in 317 BC to his own death. Neither had any eective power during this period; Philip was
mentally inrm and Alexander was under age.

[23] Phokis Delphi stoichedon FD III 5:58.29-30

Chapter 59

Malayaketu
Malayaketu was the king of a kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (Greek: the
Hydaspes and the Acesines) and dominions extending to
Hyphasis.* [1] Its capital may have been near the current
city of Lahore.* [2] He was the grandson of brother of
Porus', the king who confronted Alexander the Great in
the Battle of the Hydaspes.

59.1 References
[1] Arrian Anabasis of Alexander, V.29.2
[2] www.livius.org

59.2 External links


Porus at Livius, by Jona Lendering

152

Chapter 60

Mallus
Mallus (Greek:
Mallos;
ethnonym:
) was an ancient city of Cilicia Campestris
(later Cilicia Prima) lying near the mouth of the Pyramus
(now the Ceyhan Nehri) river, in Anatolia. In ancient
times, the city was situated at the mouth of the Pyramus
(which has changed course since), on a hill opposite
Magarsus which served as its port. The district was called
from it, Mallotis. The location of the site is currently
inland a few km from the Mediterranean coast on an
elevation in the Karata Peninsula, Adana Province,
Turkey, a few km from the city of Karata.

Mallus gures in the various revisions of the Antiochene


Notitiae Episcopatuum as suragan of Tarsus. Six bishops
are recorded. Bematius, present at the Council of Antioch (377); Valentine, present at the First Council of Ephesus (431) and the Council of Tarsus (434); Chrysippus
at the Council of Chalcedon (451). The see is included
in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.* [6] No titular
bishop of the see has been appointed since the death of
its last bishop in 1990.* [7]

60.2 Location
60.1 History
*

According to Strabo, [1] Mallus was founded by


Amphilochus and Mopsus, sons of Apollo, who together
founded Mallus after they left Troy following the Trojan
War and whom Strabo credits with powers of divination.* [2] Alexander the Great erected a bridge over the
Pyramus and visited Mallus during his conquest of the
region, and at Mallus he performed sacrices to Amphilochus.* [3] Alexander also exempted the town from
paying taxes.
It allied itself with Tarsus against Antiochus IV
Epiphanes, who according to the Bible, had presented
both cities to his concubine Antiochis.* [4] Mallus was a
town of considerable importance, though it does not appear to have possessed any particular attractions. In the
second century B.C., it was the hometown of the notable
philosopher and grammarian Crates of Mallus, credited
with having built the rst known globe; however, he left
the city at a young age and his scholarly career mainly
took place elsewhere.

The precise location of Mallus has been the subject of


some study. From the ancient sources we learn that it
was situated near the mouth of the river Pyramus, on
an eminence opposite to Megarsus (modern Karata), as
we must infer from Quintus Curtius,* [8] who states that
Alexander entered the town after throwing a bridge across
the Pyramus. Mallus therefore stood on the eastern bank
of the river. According to Scylax (p. 40) it was necessary
to sail up the river a short distance in order to reach Mallus; and Pomponius Mela (i.13) also states that the town
is situated close upon the river; whence Ptolemy (v.8.4)
must be mistaken in placing it more than two miles away
from the river.

Mallus is commonly believed to be in the town of


Kzltahta, Adana Province.
The nearby town of
Terkosan is mentioned being its necropolis.* [9] The city's
location at Kzltahta has been extrapolated by reference
to the ancient sources. Stadiasmus indicates that Mallus
was 150 stades away from Megarsus (Megarsus is identied to be modern Karata).* [10] One stadia equals 600
feet and 150 stades is 27.4 km. When this distance is
Its port-town was Magarsa, though in later times it seems measured from Karata within a 1:100,000 scale map of
to have had a port of its own, called Portus Palorum.* [5] Turkey, the city's location is in the periphery of KzlNumerous coins from Mallus have been preserved, and tahta.* [11]
those of the third century bear the inscription Mallus
Colonia or Colonia Metropolis Mallus. The city is
mentioned by numerous ancient authors, and in the Middle Ages by Arabian, Armenian, and Italian writers. The 60.3 See also
city declined in importance and disappeared with the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The ancient site of Antiochia
ad Pyramum lies a few km away on the coast.
Crates of Mallus
153

154

CHAPTER 60. MALLUS

60.4 Notes
[1] Geography, 14.5.16.
[2] Arrian, Anab. ii. 5.
[3] Strabo, Geography, 14.5.17
[4] 2 Maccabees 4:30, 31.
[5] Geogr. Nub. p.195; Sanut. Secret. Fid. ii. 4, 26, whence
we learn that in the Middle Ages it continued to be called
Malo; comp. Callim. Fragm. 15; Appian, Mithrid. 96;
Dionys. Per. 875; Ptolemy viii. 17. 44; Pliny H. N.
v. 22; Stadiasmus Mar. M. 151, 152; William Martin
Leake, Asia Minor, pp. 216, &c.
[6] Annuario Ponticio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana,
2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1)
[7] Mallus (Titular See)
[8] iii.7
[9] Seton-Williams, 1954: 171.
[10] Cohen, G, 1995: 360.
[11] Akpinar, 2006.

60.5 References
Akpinar, E. 2006 Ancient Settlement Pattern
Analysis for the region of Cilicia between Bronze
Age and the Byzantine Era. Chicago: AAG Conference
Blue Guide, Turkey, The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts (ISBN 0-393-30489-2), p. 563
Cohen, G. 1995. The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor Hellenistic Culture and Society ; 17
Seton-Williams, M.V. 1954. Cilician Survey. Anatolian Studies. V.4 pp 121174.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.
(18541857). "* article name needed". Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John
Murray.

This article incorporates text from a publication


now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.
(1913). "Mallus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert
Appleton Company.

60.6 External links


Perseus Project's translation of Strabo
Catholic Encyclopedia Mallusat New Advent
Hazlitt's Classical Gazetteer

Chapter 61

Mazaeus

Coin of Mazaeus.

Mazaeus (died 328 BC) was a Persian noble and governor of Babylon.
He was the second to last satrap (governor) of Cilicia.
Shortly afterwards, his successor was expelled by
Alexander the Great.
At the Battle of Gaugamela Mazaeus commanded the
right ank with the Syrian, Median, Mesopotamian,
Parthian, Sacian, Tapurian, Hyrcanian, Sacesinian,
Cappadocian, and Armenian cavalry.
Stateira II was originally bethrothed to him, but he died
too early. She was eventually married to Alexander.
It is thought that the Alexander Sarcophagus was actually
dedicated to him.

155

Chapter 62

Meleager (general)
Meleager (Greek: M Meleagros; died 323 BC) fected, principally by the intervention of Eumenes, and it
was a Macedonian ocer of distinction in the service of was agreed that the royal authority should be divided beAlexander the Great.
tween Arrhidaeus and the expected son of Roxana, and
Meleager, son of Neoptolemus, is rst mentioned in the that in the mean time Meleager should be associated with
Perdiccas in the regency. It was impossible that these two
war against the Getae (335 BC). At the Granicus in the
following year (334 BC), he commanded one of the di- should long continue on really friendly terms, and Meleager proved no match for Perdiccas. Perdiccas contrived
visions () of the phalanx, a post which he afterward held apparently throughout the campaigns in Asia. to lull his rival into fancied security, while he made himself master both of Philip Arrhidaeus. He struck the rst
He was appointed, together with Coenus and Ptolemy the
son of Seleucus, to command the newly married troops blow. The whole army was assembled under pretense of
which were sent home from Caria to spend the winter in a general review and lustration, when the king, at the inMacedon, and rejoined Alexander at Gordium in the fol- stigation of Perdiccas, suddenly demanded the surrender
and punishment of all the leaders in the late disorders.
lowing summer (333 BC).
The infantry were taken by surprise; 300 of the alleged
He was present at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela, as- mutineers were singled out and executed. Though Mesociated with Craterus in the task of dislodging the enemy leager himself was not personally attacked, he ed and
who guarded the passes into Persia. He bore a part in the took refuge in a temple, where he was pursued and put to
passage of the Hydaspes and in various other operations death by order of Perdiccas.* [3]
in India.
Despite a long series of services, Alexander did not promote him to any higher or more condential situation, nor
does Meleager take part in any separate command of importance.* [1]
After the death of Alexander (323 BC), he was the rst to
propose in the council of ocers, that either Arrhidaeus
or Heracles the son of Barsine should at once be chosen
king, instead of waiting for the chance of Roxana bearing a son.* [2] Curtius, on the contrary, represents him as
breaking out into violent invectives against the ambition
of Perdiccas, and abruptly quitting the assembly, in order
to excite the soldiery to a tumult. Diodorus states that he
was sent by the assembled generals to appease the clamors and discontent of the troops, but instead of doing so
he himself joined the mutineers.

62.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Meleager (1)",
Boston, (1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

62.2 Notes

Meleager assumed the lead of the opposition to Perdiccas and his party; and placed himself at the head of the
infantry, who had declared themselves (possibly at his instigation) in favor of the claims of Arrhidaeus to the vacant throne. Meleager ordered the execution of Perdiccas, but this project was disconcerted by the boldness of
the regent. The greater part of the cavalry, together with
almost all the generals, sided with Perdiccas, and quitting Babylon, established themselves in a separate camp
without the walls of the city. A reconciliation was ef156

[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 4, 14, 20, 24, ii. 8, iii. 11,
18, v. 12; Curtius, Historiae Alexandri Magni, iii. 24, v.
14, vii. 27; Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 57
[2] according to Justin
[3] Curtius, x. 6-9; Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, xiii.
2-4; Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 92; Diodorus, xviii. 2

Chapter 63

Memnon of Rhodes
Memnon of Rhodes (380 333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries in the service of the Persian
king Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia
invaded Persia in 334 BC. Memnon famously advocated
a scorched earth policy against Alexander, aware of the
Macedonian's lack of supplies and funds. He commanded
the mercenaries at the Battle of the Granicus River, where
his troops were massacred by the victorious Macedonians.

63.2 External links

He then began a campaign to capture the Aegean islands using the Persian eet and led a direct assault
on Macedonia, while Alexander was resting at Phaselis.
Memnon managed to capture the island of Chios and
most of Lesbos. Demosthenes, after hearing of Memnon's successes, began to prepare Athens for a revolt
against Alexander, along with other Greek cities, while
Sparta began to prepare for war. By a stroke of fortune
for Alexander, Memnon died of illness at Mytilene after
transferring command to his nephew, Pharnabazus.
Many scholars maintain that had Memnon's campaign
been successful, Alexander would have had diculty in
continuing his campaign in Asia, and might have soon
been defeated. It was not until after the major Persian defeat at the Battle of Issus that Memnon's strategy was revitalised and nally put into action, but by then the advantage had been lost, and Alexander showed himself willing
to forfeit Greece if necessary in favor of his greater goals.
Memnon was the brother of Mentor of Rhodes, brotherin-law of Artabazus of Phrygia, and husband and uncle of
Barsine, Artabazus' daughter and Alexander the Great's
mistress.

63.1 In Fiction
Memnon, (2006), a historical novel based on the life
of Memnon of Rhodes by Scott Oden.
In the historical lm Alexander the Great Memnon
was portrayed by Peter Cushing with Richard Burton as Alexander.4
Memnon appears as an antagonist in the Japanese
manga Historie, by Hitoshi Iwaaki.
157

Memnon of Rhodes from Livius.org, by Jona


Lendering
Memnon (1) from Smith, Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography
Wiki Classical Dictionary: Memnon of Rhodes

Chapter 64

Menedemus (general)
Menedemus (Greek: ) was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, who was sent in 329 BC
against Spitamenes, satrap of Sogdiana, but was surprised and slain, together with 2000 foot-soldiers and 300
horse.* [1]

64.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Menedemus
(1)", Boston, (1867)

64.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iv. 3; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, vii. 7, 9

64.3 References

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

158

Chapter 65

Metz Epitome
The Metz Epitome is a late antiquity summary of earlier historical fragments and covers the conquests of
Alexander the great between Hyrcania and southern India The only surviving manuscript was found in Metz,
of which the name originates. The manuscript was destroyed during the Second World War, but there are two
transcriptions of the original. The Epitome is commonly
referred to as Liber de Morte Alexandri Magni Testamentumque.
The sources of the anonymous author have much in common with the historian Cleitarchus, through the writings
of Diodorus Siculus and Quintus Curtius Rufus. NonCleitarchan elements in the text seem to reect a certain
Hebraic view concerning Alexander.
The epitome paints a unique portrait of Alexander and includes some information not found elsewhere but in view
of its late authorship and the few additional historical fact
it oers, the value of the Metz Epitome lies in its interpretation of Alexander's career rather than as a source for
it.

65.1 References
Baynham, Elizabeth and Yardley, J. (1997) The Historiography of Alexander the Great: The Metz Epitome. University of Newcastle 2000
Baynham, E.(1995) An Introduction to the Metz
Epitome: its Traditions and Value, Antichthon 29,
1995,
Loube, Heather The (1995) Metz Epitome":
Alexander (July, 330 B.C.-July, 325 B.C.) A commentary. University Ottawa ON Canada
Worthington Ian (2003) Alexander the Great: a
reader. page 10

159

Chapter 66

Mithridates (Persian general)


Mithridates or Mithradates (Greek: M or
M; killed 334 BC) was a Persian of high rank,
and son-in-law of the king Darius III, who was slain by
Alexander the Great with his own hand, at the Battle
of the Granicus in 334 BC, when he plunged his lance
through Mithridates' face.* [1]

66.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Mithridates
(5)", Boston, (1867)

66.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 15, 16

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

160

Chapter 67

Mithrobuzanes
Mithrobuzanes (Greek: ; d. 334 BC)
was a Persian governor (satrap) of Cappadocia in the 4th
century BC, in the reign of Darius III. As a Persian military commander he was killed at the Battle of Granicus
ghting Alexander the Great.
The victorious Alexander appointed Abistamenes in his
place.

67.1 References
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.16.3, 2.4.2
Curtius Rufus 3.4.1
Diodorus 17.21.3

161

Chapter 68

Molossians
For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molos- tled in Epirus where they joined with the local populasia.
tion. Molossus inherited the kingdom of Epirus after the
The Molossians (Greek: , Molossoi) were death of Helenus, son of Priam and Hecuba of Troy, who
had married his erstwhile sister-in-law Andromache after Neoptolemus' death. According to some historians
their rst king was Phaethon, one of those who came into
Epirus with Pelasgus. According to Plutarch, Deucalion
and Pyrrha, having set up the worship of Zeus at Dodona,
settled there among the Molossians.* [3]

68.2 Ancient sources

Coin of Molossi, 360-330/25 BC. Obverse: Vertical thunderbolt


on shield, (of Molossians) around shield. Reverse:
Thunderbolt within wreath.

Tribes of Epirus in antiquity.

an ancient Greek tribal state that inhabited the region of


Epirus since the Mycenaean era.* [1]* [2] On their northeast frontier, they had the Chaonians and on their southern frontier the kingdom of the Thesprotians; to their
north were the Illyrians. The Molossians were part of the
League of Epirus until they sided against Rome in the
Third Macedonian War (171168 BC). The result was
disastrous, and the vengeful Romans enslaved 150,000
of its inhabitants and annexed the region into the Roman
Empire.

68.1 Mythology
According to Greek mythology, the Molossians were
the descendants of Molossus, one of the three sons of
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia. Following the sack of Troy, Neoptolemus and his armies set-

According to Strabo, the Molossians, along with the


Chaonians and Thesprotians, were the most famous
among the fourteen tribes of Epirus, who once ruled over
the whole region. The Chaonians ruled Epirus at an earlier time, and afterwards the Thesprotians and Molossians
controlled the region. The Thesprotians, the Chaonians,
and the Molossians were the three principal clusters of
Greek tribes that had emerged from Epirus and were the
most powerful among all other tribes.* [3]
The Molossians were also renowned for their vicious
hounds, which were used by shepherds to guard their
ocks. This is where the canine breed Molossoid, native to Greece, got its name. Virgil tells us that in ancient
Greece the heavier Molossian dogs were often used by
the Greeks and Romans for hunting (canis venaticus) and
to watch over the house and livestock (canis pastoralis).
Never, with them on guard,says Virgil,need you fear

162

68.5. LIST OF MOLOSSIANS

163

for your stalls a midnight thief, or onslaught of wolves, or lyrians, who were encumbered with booty, and defeated
Iberian brigands at your back.
them.* [15]* [16]
Strabo records that the Thesprotians, Molossians, and
Macedonians referred to old men as pelioi and
old women as peliai (<PIE *pel-, 'grey'). Cf.
Ancient Greek peleia, "pigeon", so-called because of its dusky grey color. Ancient Greek
pelos meant grey.* [4] Their senators were called
Peligones (), similar to Macedonian Peliganes
().* [5]

68.3 Molossian royalty


The most famed member of the Molossian dynasty was
Pyrrhus, who became famous for his Pyrrhic victory over
the Romans. According to Plutarch, Pyrrhus was the
son of Aeacides of Epirus and a Greek woman from
Thessaly named Phthia, the daughter of a war hero in the
Lamian War. Pyrrhus was a second cousin of Alexander
the Great. In the 4th century BC, they had adopted
the term for oce of prostatai (Greek: )* [6]
literally meaning protectorslike most Greek tribal
states at the time. Other terms for oce were grammateus (Greek: ) meaning secretary,
demiourgoi (Greek: ) literally meaningcreators, hieromnemones (Greek: ) literally meaning of the sacred memoryand synarchontes
(Greek: ) literally meaningco-rulers* [7]
An inscription from the 4th century stated (referring to
Alexander I of Epirus):* [8]
The shrine of Dodona was used for the display of public
decisions.* [9] Despite having a monarchy, the Molossians
sent princes to Athens to learn of democracy, and they did
not consider certain aspects of democracy incompatible
with their form of government.* [10]* [11]
Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, was a
member of this celebrated sovereign house.

68.4 War
In 385 BC, the Illyrians, aided by Dionysius of Syracuse,
attacked the Molossians, attempting to place the exile
Alcetas on the throne.* [12] Dionysius planned to control all the Ionian Sea. Sparta intervened and expelled
the Illyrians who were led by Bardyllis.* [13]* [14]* [15]
Even with the aid of 2,000 Greek hoplites and 500 suits
of Greek armour, the Illyrians were defeated by the Spartans (led by Agesilaus) but not before ravaging the region
and killing 15,000 Molossians.* [15]
In another Illyrian attack in 360 BC, the Molossian king
Arymbas (or Arybbas) evacuated his non-combatant population to Aetolia and let the Illyrians loot freely. The
stratagem worked, and the Molossians fell upon the Il-

68.5 List of Molossians


Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great
Pyrrhus of Epirus (318272 BC) most prominent
Epirote king.
Neoptolemus son of Achilles and Deidamia (Aeacid
dynasty till 231 BC).
Molossus son of Neoptolemus and Andromache.
Alcon (6th century BC) suitor of Agariste of Sicyon.
Admetus, who gave asylum to Themistocles.
Eidymmas prostates, secretary Amphikorios gave
citizenship Philista, wife of Antimachos from
Arrhonos, under King Neoptolemos I 370368
BC.* [17]
Tharyps theorodokos in Epidauros 365 BC.* [18]
Myrtale Olympias mother of Alexander the Great
circa 376316 BC.
Arybbas winner in Tethrippon Olympics 344
BC.* [19]
Aristomachos prostates, secretary Menedamos gave
citizenship to Simias of Apollonia, resident at
Theptinon, under King Alexander I 342330/329
BC.* [20]
Deidamia II of Epirus (died circa 233 BC) last surviving representative of the royal Aeacid dynasty.
Kephalos, Antinoos sided with Perseus against
the Romans (Third Macedonian War) circa 170
BC.* [21]

68.6 See also


Chaonia
Chaonians
Olympias
Orestis (region)
Pyrrhus of Epirus
Thesprotians

164

68.7 References
[1] Lewis & Boardman 1994, pp. 430, 433434; Wilkes
1995, p. 104; Errington 1990, p. 43; Borza 1992, pp. 62,
78, 98; Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. 284; Hammond
1998; Encyclopdia Britannica (Epirus) 2013.
[2] Hornblower, Spawforth & Eidinow 2012, p. 966:
Molossi: common name of tribes forming a tribal state
(koinon) in Epirus, which originated in northern Pindus.
[3] Plutarch. Parallel Lives, "Pyrrhus".
[4] Liddell & Scott 1889: .
[5] Liddell & Scott 1889: .
[6] Horsley 1987, p. 243; Hornblower 2002, p. 199.
[7] Lewis & Boardman 1994, p. 431.
[8] Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 250.
[9] Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 257.
[10] Alcock & Osborne 2007, p. 392.
[11] Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 256.
[12] Hammond 1986, p. 479.
[13] Diodorus Siculus. Library, 15.13.1.
[14] Hammond 1986, p. 470.
[15] Lewis & Boardman 1994, p. 428.
[16] Diodorus Siculus. Library, 14.92, 15.2, 16.2.
[17] Cabanes, L'pire 534,1.
[18] IG IV,1 95 Line 31.
[19] Woodbury 1979, pp. 95133.
[20] Cabanes, L'pire 540,4.
[21] Smith 1844, p. 191: ANTI'NOUS (), a chief
among the Molossians in Epeirus, who became involved,
against his own will, in the war of Perseus, king of Macedonia, against the Romans.

68.8 Sources
Alcock, Susan E.; Osborne, Robin (2007). Classical
Archaeology. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell
Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-631-23418-7.
Boardman, John; Hammond, Nicholas Georey
Lemprire (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History
- The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth
Centuries B.C., Part 3: Volume 3 (Second Edition).
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23447-6.

CHAPTER 68. MOLOSSIANS


Borza, Eugene N. (1992). In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon (Revised Edition).
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
ISBN 0-691-00880-9.
Brock, Roger; Hodkinson, Stephen (2000).
Alternatives to Athens: Varieties of Political Organization. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-815220-5.
Encyclopdia Britannica (Epirus) (2013).
Epirus. Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved
1 July 2013.
Errington, Robert Malcolm (1990). A History of
Macedonia. Berkeley, California: University of
California Press. ISBN 0-520-06319-8.
Hammond, Nicholas Georey Lemprire (1986). A
History of Greece to 322 B.C. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-873096-9.
Hammond, Nicholas Georey Lemprire (1998).
Philip of Macedon. London, United Kingdom:
Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2829-1.
Hornblower, Simon (2002). The Greek World, 479323 BC. New York, New York and London, United
Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16326-9.
Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow,
Esther (2012) [1949]. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-954556-8.
Horsley, G. H. R. (1987). New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity: A Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri Published in 1979. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 085837-599-0.
Lewis, David Malcolm; Boardman, John (1994).
The Cambridge Ancient History: The Fourth Century
B.C.. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-23348-8.
Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1889).
An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford,
United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.
Smith, William (1844). Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology I. London, United
Kingdom: Taylor and Walton, Upper Gower Street.
Wilkes, John (1995) [1992]. The Illyrians. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-631-19807-5.
Woodbury, Leonard (1979).Neoptolemus at Delphi: Pindar, Nem.7.30 .. Phoenix (Classical Association of Canada) 33 (2): 95133. JSTOR
1087989.

Chapter 69

Musicanus
Musicanus (Indian: Mshika) was an Indian king at
the head of the Indus, who raised a rebellion against
Alexander the Great around 323 BCE. Peithon, one of
Alexander's generals, managed to put down the revolt:
Meantime he was informed that Musicanus
had revolted. He dispatched the viceroy, Peithon, son of Agenor, with a sucient army
against him, while he himself marched against
the cities which had been put under the rule
of Musicanus. Some of these he razed to the
ground, reducing the inhabitants to slavery;
and into others he introduced garrisons and fortied the citadels. After accomplishing this, he
returned to the camp and eet. By this time
Musicanus had been captured by Peithon, who
was bringing him to Alexander.Arrian Anabasis Book 6b * [1]

69.1 References
[1] Arrian Anabasis Book 6b

165

Chapter 70

The Nature of Alexander


The Nature of Alexander (1975) is the only nonction
work by novelist Mary Renault (19051983).

70.1 Summary
The book is a biography of King Alexander the Great,
(356-323 BCE/BC), ruler of Macedon, Egypt and Persia.
Renault wrote several historical novels in which Alexander appears: The Mask of Apollo (1966), Fire from
Heaven (1969), The Persian Boy (1972) and Funeral
Games (1981). She felt these were not enough to tell the
whole story of Alexander, and so she completed her nonction biography.
The book makes no attempt to be impartial or neutral,
but rather unabashedly advocates Alexander as a truly
great man. For example, Renault rejects the usual terminology of the murderof Kleitos, pointing out that
legally, murderrefers only to a killing with premeditation, which absolutely was not the case when the King
killed Kleitos in a drunken brawl, after much drink and
much provocation. She also points out that the beauty of
the mummy of Alexander was still much admired even
many generations after his death. She refutes many slurs
against Alexander, both ancient and modern. Renault
also defends Alexander's friend Hephaistion, pointing out
that he corresponded with Aristotle and was successful in
every mission and independent command he undertook.
The hardcover edition is illustrated.

70.2 Editions
1975. Pantheon Books (New York City). 1st American edition. ISBN 978-0-394-49113-4; ISBN 9780-394-73254-1.

70.2.1

See also

1975 in literature
Bagoas (courtier)
Phobos (mythology)
166

Chapter 71

Nicanor (son of Parmenion)


Nicanor (in Greek N; died 330 BC), son of
Parmenion, was a distinguished ocer in the service of
Alexander the Great. He is rst mentioned at the passage of the Danube river, in the expedition of Alexander
against the Getae, 335 BC, on which occasion he led the
phalanx.* [1] But during the expedition into Asia he appears to have uniformly held the chief command of the
body of troops called the Hypaspists () or
foot-guards, numbering three units of 1,000 men. As his
brother Philotas did that of the o, or horse-guards.
We nd him mentioned, as holding this post, in the three
great battles of the Granicus, of Issus, and of Gaugamela.
He afterwards accompanied Alexander with a part of the
troops under his command, during the rapid march of the
king in pursuit of the king Darius III Codomannus (330
BC); which was probably his last service, as he died of
disease shortly afterwards, during the advance of Alexander into Bactria. His death at this juncture was considered
a fortunate event, as it prevented him from participating
either in the designs or the fate of his brother Philotas.* [2]

71.1 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 4
[2] Arrian, i. 14, ii. 8, iii. 11, 21, 25; Curtius Rufus, Historiae
Alexandri Magni, iii. 24, iv. 50, v. 37, vi. 22; Diodorus
Siculus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 57

71.2 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Nicanor (1)",
Boston, (1867)
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

167

Chapter 72

Nicocreon
Nicocreon (Greek No; lived 4th century BC)
was king of Salamis in Cyprus, at the time of Alexander
the Great's (336323 BC) expedition against Persia. He
submitted to the conqueror in along with the other princes
of Cyprus, without opposition; in 331 BC, after the return of Alexander from Egypt, Nicocreon visited Tyre
(Lebanon) to pay homage to him, where he distinguished
himself by the magnicence which he displayed in furnishing the theatrical exhibitions.* [1] After the death of
Alexander, Nicocreon took allied with Ptolemy against
Antigonus, and in 315 BC, he colluded with Seleucus
and Menelaus, the generals of Ptolemy, in neutralizing
the Cypriot city-kingdoms who had supported Antigonus.
In return for these services, Ptolemy awarded him personal command of the areas that would later be called
Citium, Lapithos, Keryneia, and Marion, in addition retaining Salamis, and was also entrusted with the chief
command over the whole island.* [2] We know nothing
of the fortunes of Nicocreon after this: but as no mention occurs of his name during the memorable siege of
Salamis, by Demetrius Poliorcetes (306 BC), or the great
sea-ght that followed it, it seems probable that he must
have died before those events. One personal anecdote
transmitted to us of Nicocreon is his putting to death in
a barbarous manner the philosopher Anaxarchus in revenge for an insult which the latter had oered him on
the occasion of his visit to Alexander.* [3]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

72.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology,Nicocreon (1)",
Boston, (1867)

72.2 Notes
[1] Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Alexander, 29
[2] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xix. 59, 62, 79
[3] Cicero, The Tusculan Disputations, ii. 22, On the Nature
of Gods, iii. 33; Plutarch, Moralia, De virtute morali
(36 MB PDF); Diogenes Laertius, The Lives and Opinions
of Eminent Philosophers, ix. 59

168

Chapter 73

Nine Worthies

The thirteenth century carving Nine Good Heroes(known


as "Neun Gute Helden" in the original German) at City Hall
in Cologne, Germany is the earliest known representation of the
Nine Worthies. From left to right are the three Christians, Charlemagne bearing an eagle upon his shield, King Arthur displaying
three crowns and Godfrey of Bouillon with a dog lying before
him, then the three pagans, Julius Caesar, Hector and Alexander
the Great bearing a grion upon his shield, and lastly the three
Jews, David holding a sceptre, Joshua and Judas Maccabeus.

The Nine Worthies are nine historical, scriptural and


legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry
as were established in the Middle Ages. All are commonly referred to as 'Princes' in their own right, despite
whatever true titles each man may have held. In French
they are called Les Neuf Preux, meaningNine Valiants
,* [1] which term gives a slightly more focused idea of the
sort of moral virtue they were deemed to represent so
perfectly, that of soldierly courage and generalship. The
study of the life of each would thus form a good education for the aspirant to chivalric status. In Italy they are i
Nove Prodi.
The Nine Worthies include three good pagans: Hector,
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, three good Jews:
Joshua, David and Judas Maccabeus, and three good
Christians: King Arthur, Charlemagne and Godfrey of
Bouillon.

73.1 Origin
They were rst described in the early fourteenth century,
by Jacques de Longuyon in his Voeux du Paon (1312).* [2]
Their selection, as Johan Huizinga pointed out, betrays
a close connection with the romance genre of chivalry.
Neatly divided into a triad of triads, these men were con-

Statues of the Nine Worthies on the Schne Brunnen (beautiful


fountain) in Nuremberg (1385-1396). Visible on the fountain,
l to r are: Judas Maccabeus, David (with harp), Julius Caesar,
Alexander. The gure in the left foreground, St Mark, with his
lion, is part of another group

sidered to be paragons of chivalry within their particular


tradition: be it Pagan, Jewish, or Christian. Longuyon's
choices soon became a common theme in the literature
and art of the Middle Ages and earned a permanent place
in the popular consciousness. The medievalcraving for
symmetry* [3] engendered female equivalents, the neuf
preuses, who were sometimes added, though the women
chosen varied. Eustache Deschamps selected a group
of rather bizarre heroines* [4] selected from ction and
history, among them Penthesilea, Tomyris, Semiramis.
Literature and suites of tapestry featured the full complement of eighteen, whose allegorical gures preceded
King Henry VI of England in his triumphal royal entry
to Paris, 1431.* [5] A tenth worthy* [6] was added
by Deschamps, in the gure of Bertrand du Guesclin, the
Breton knight to whom France owed recovery from the
battles of Crcy (1346) and Poitiers (1356). Francis I of
France still occasionally paraded himself at court dressed
in theantique modeto identify himself also as one of
the Neuf Preux.* [7]

169

170

David, in Livro do Armeiro-Mor ( 1* v), a Portuguese armorial


from 1509. The book opens with ten full-page illustrations of the
Nine Worthies and Bertrand du Guesclin.

CHAPTER 73. NINE WORTHIES

The Three Good Pagans: Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius


Caesar, from the woodcut series by Hans Burgkmair, 1519.

uity or ethnicity, would suggest that the virtues that they


manifest are to be understood as timeless and universal.

73.3 Classication
The Nine Worthies comprise a triad of triads as follows:

Lucas van Leyden's depiction of the three Old Testament kings as


exotic contemporaries, in an engraving of c. 1520 depicting the
Worthies in three sections

73.3.1 Pagans
Hector
Alexander the Great

73.2 Symbolism

Julius Caesar

As a group, the nine worthies represents all facets of


the perfectly chivalrous warrior. All, with the exception 73.3.2 Jews
of Hector and arguably Arthur, are conquering heroes.
Joshua
Those not royal came from knightly families, it was
thought. All lived in the pre-heraldic era and attributed
David
arms were invented for them, as in Lucas van Leyden's
engraving. All brought glory and honor to their na Judas Maccabeus
tions and were noted for their personal prowess in arms.
As individuals, each displayed some outstanding quality
of chivalry which made them exemplars of knighthood. 73.3.3 Christians
That the nine individual gures were generally not distin King Arthur
guished, iconographically, with respect to relative antiq-

73.5. NINE WORTHY WOMEN


Charlemagne
Godfrey of Bouillon

171
though the choices for the Lady Worthies were not usually standardized and often varied by region, author and
artist.

73.4 Cultural references


73.4.1

Literature

The Nine Worthies were also a popular subject for


masques in Renaissance Europe. In William Shakespeare's play Love's Labour's Lost the comic characters
attempt to stage such a masque, but it descends into chaos.
(The list of Worthies actually named in the play include
two not on the original list, Hercules and Pompey the
Great, as well as Alexander, Judas Maccabaeus, and Hector.) Don Quixote evokes the Nine Worthies in Volume
I, Chapter 5, telling a peasant (who is trying to get him to
admit who he is) I know that I may be not only those I
have named, but all the Twelve Peers of France and even
all the Nine Worthies, since my achievements surpass all
that they have done all together and each of them on his
own account.* [8]

73.4.2

Art

The Nine Worthies had not devolved to folk culture


even in the seventeenth century, for a frieze of the Nine
Worthies, contemporary with Shakespeare's comedy, was Penthesilea as one of the Lady Worthies.
painted at the outset of the seventeenth century at North
Mymms Place, Hertfordshire, an up-to-date house built Eustache Deschamps to the neuf preux adds neuf preuses
by the Coningsby family, 1599.* [9]
(women), including Penthesilea, Tomyris and Semiramis.
The Cloisters, in New York City, has important portions Together with their male counterparts, they precede
of an early 15th-century tapestry series illustrating the Henry VI as he enters Paris in 1431, and gure in Le Jousurviving ve of the Nine Worthies: King Arthur, Joshua, vencel (1466). The list of preuses was however less xed,
and not always structured in pagan, Jewish and ChrisDavid, Hector, and Julius Caesar.* [10]
tian triads. Thomas III of Saluzzo* [11] has: Deiphille,
I Nove Prodi, a fresco by the Maestro del Castello della Synoppe, Hippolyte, Menalyppe, Semiramis, Lampetho,
Manta, an anonymous master, painted c. 1420 in the sala Thamarys, Teuta, Penthsile.
baronale of the Castello della Manta, Saluzzo, Italy. The
series also includes depictions of their female counter- A very ne set of Siennese fteenth century panel paintings, attributed to the Master of the Griselda Legend and
parts.
others, now incomplete and widely dispersed, showed
Montacute House has sculptures of the nine worthies male and female worthies - the remaining paintings were
spaced along the upper eastern faade on the exterior of reunited in a 2007 exhibition at the National Gallery,
the long gallery piers. These gures are dressed in Roman London.* [12]
armour.
In the German Renaissance, Hans Burgkmair made a set
of six woodcuts, each showing three of the Eighteen
Worthies.* [13] In addition to the usual males, his prints
73.5 Nine Worthy Women
showed the Pagan Lucretia, Veturia and Virginia, the
Jewish Esther, Judith and Jael, and the Christian Saints
In the late fourteenth century, Lady Worthies began to ac- Helena, Bridget of Sweden and Elizabeth of Hungary.
company the Nine Worthies, though usually not individu- Burgkmair was in touch with Augsburg Renaissance Hualized and shown as anonymous Amazon-styled warriors. manist circles, who may have helped choose the group.
In later years, nine of theMost Illustrious Ladies of All Apart from Veturia, mother of Coriolanus, who tried to
Ages and Nationswere chosen from scripture, history save Rome from defeat by her son, the other pagan two
and legend to be placed alongside their male counterparts, were examples of chastity, responsible for no heroic acts

172

CHAPTER 73. NINE WORTHIES

except their defence of their own virtue. In contrast, two [6]


of the Jewish women, Judith and Jael, are known for their
personal assassination of leaders opposed to Israel. Ju- [7]
dith carries a sword in one hand and Holofernes's severed [8]
head in the other, and Jael carries the mallet with which
she hammered a peg in the head of Sisera. The Power
of Womenand female violence was an interest of Ger- [9]
man artists at the time, and both Lucas van Leyden and
Albrecht Altdorfer made prints of Jael in the act.
[10]
The Christian trio of saints, all very popular in Germany
at the time, are all women who had been married - Bridget became an abbess as a widow. In addition, like three
of the male worthies, Elizabeth of Hungary was an an- [11]
cestor of Burgkmair's patron Maximilian I, Holy Roman
Emperor, and Helena was a Roman Empress. Unlike the
other two groups, who all face each other, apparently in [12]
conversation, these three all look down, and may illustrate
the female virtue of silence.* [14] Burgkmair's conception [13]
was not very widely followed.

73.6 Nine Worthies of London

Compare the concept of the "Tenth Muse".


Huizinga 1924:61.
Chapter V - In which the narrative of our knight's mishap
is continued
North Mymms Park - A short history - Chapter 3 - Wall
Paintings
King Arthur: Tapestry Fragment from the Series, Five
Worthies and Attendant Figures (with 32.130.3a, b) | All
| The Cloisters | Collection Database | Works of Art | The
Metrop...
le chevalier errant, Bibliothque nationale, Paris, mss. Fr.
12559, fol. 125v; manuscript dated to 1403-04
Artemesia in Milan, David in NGA Washington,
Alexander in Birmingham
http://www.heraldica.org/topics/worthies.htm

[14] (covers all Burgmair section)H Diane Russell;Eva/Ave;


Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints; Nos. 1, & for
Jael: 91, 92 National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990;
ISBN 1-55861-039-1

Further information: Nine Worthies of London

73.8 External links


Nine Worthies of London is a book by Richard Johnson, written in 1592, that borrows the theme from the
Nine Worthies. The book is subtitled Explaining the
Honourable Excise of Armes, the Vertues of the Valiant,
and the Memorable Attempts of Magnanimous Minds;
Pleasaunt for Gentlemen, not unseemely for Magistrates,
and most protable for Prentises, celebrated the rise of
nine famous Londoners through society from the ranks
of apprentices or commoners.
The nine were Sir William Walworth, Sir Henry
Pritchard, Sir Thomas White, Sir William Sevenoke, Sir
John Hawkwood, Sir John Bonham, Christopher Croker,
Sir Henry Maleverer of Cornhill and Sir Hugh Calverley.
The term Nine Worthieswas later used to refer to nine of the privy councillors of William
III: Devonshire, Dorset, Monmouth, Edward Russell,
Carmarthen, Pembroke, Nottingham, Marlborough and
Lowther.

73.7 References
[1] Larousse Dictionnaire de la Langue Francaise Lexis,
1993: Brave, Vaillant
[2] Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages, (1919)
1924:61.
[3] Huizinga 1924:61.
[4] Huizinga 1924:61.
[5] Huizinga 1924:61.

The Nine Worthiespresented by Heraldica.org.


A new list of Nine Worthies and Seven Wonders in
a poem by Harrison Gross

Chapter 74

Olympias
For other uses, see Olympias (disambiguation).
Olympias (Greek: , pronounced [olympias],

Olympias from "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum".

Imperial Roman medallion with Olympias: part of a 3rd-century


series representing Emperor Caracalla as the descendant of
Alexander the Great.* [1]

c. 375316 BC* [2]) was a princess of Epirus, daughter


of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the fourth wife of the
king of Macedonia, Philip II, and mother of Alexander
the Great. She was a devout member of the orgiastic
snake-worshiping cult of Dionysus, and it is suggested by
the 1st century AD biographer, Plutarch, that she may
have slept with snakes.* [3]

74.1 Origin
Olympias was the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king
of the Molossians, a tribe in Epirus, and sister of
Alexander I. Her family belonged to the Aeacidae, a wellrespected family of Epirus, which claimed descent from
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. Apparently, she was originally named Polyxena, as Plutarch mentions in his work
Moralia, and changed her name to Myrtale prior to her
marriage to Philip II of Macedon as part of her initiation

into an unknown mystery cult.* [4]


The name Olympias was the third of four names by which
she was known. She probably took it as a recognition of
Philip's victory in the Olympic Games of 356 BC, the
news of which coincided with Alexander's birth (Plut.
Alexander 3.8).* [5] She was nally named Stratonice,
which was probably an epithet attached to Olympias following her victory over Eurydice in 317 BC.* [4]

74.2 Marriage to Philip


When Neoptolemus I died in 360 BC, his brother
Arymbas succeeded him on the Molossian throne. In
358 BC, Arymbas made a treaty with the new king of
Macedonia, Philip II, and the Molossians became allies
of the Macedonians. The alliance was cemented with a
diplomatic marriage, when Arymbas' niece Olympias became Philip's wife in 357 BC and, consequently, queen
consort of Macedonia. Philip had rst fallen in love with
Olympias when both were initiated into the mysteries of
Cabeiri at the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, on the island
of Samothrace.* [6]

173

174

CHAPTER 74. OLYMPIAS


who sided with her, staying at the Molossian court of her
brother Alexander I, who was the king at the time.
In 336 BC, Philip cemented his ties to Alexander I of
Epirus by oering him the hand of his and Olympias'
daughter Cleopatra in marriage, a fact that led Olympias
to further isolation as she could no longer count on
her brother's support. However, Philip was murdered
by Pausanias, a member of Philip's somatophylakes, his
personal bodyguard, while attending the wedding, and
Olympias, who returned to Macedonia, was suspected of
having countenanced his assassination.

Zeus seduces Olympias. Fresco by Giulio Romano between 1526


and 1534, in Palazzo del Te, Mantua, Italy.

Ruins of the Temple of Apollo.

One year later, in 356 BC, Philip's race horse won in


the Olympic Games; for this victory his wife, who was
known then as Myrtale, received the name Olympias. In
the summer of the same year, Olympias gave birth to her
rst child, Alexander. In ancient Greece people believed
that the birth of a great man was accompanied by portents. As Plutarch describes, the night before the consummation of their marriage Olympias dreamed that a
thunderbolt fell upon her womb and a great re was kindled, its ames dispersed all about and then were extinguished. After the marriage Philip dreamed that he put
a seal upon his wife's womb, the device of which was
the gure of a lion. Aristander's interpretation was that
Olympias was pregnant of a son whose nature would be
bold and lion-like.* [7] Philip and Olympias also had a
daughter, Cleopatra.
Their marriage was very stormy; Philip's volatility and
Olympias' jealous temper had led to a growing estrangement. Things got even worse in 337 BC when Philip
married a noble Macedonian woman, Cleopatra, who was
given the name Eurydice by Philip and who was niece
of Attalus. The marriage caused great tensions between
Philip, Olympias and Alexander. Olympias went into
voluntary exile in Epirus along with her son Alexander,

74.3 Alexander's reign and the


wars of succession

Delphi Sarcophagus

After the death of Philip II, Olympias ordered the execution of Eurydice and her child, in order to secure Alexander's position as king of Macedonia. During Alexander's campaigns, she regularly corresponded with him and
may have conrmed her son's claim in Egypt that his father was not Philip but Zeus. The relationship between
Olympias and Alexander was cordial, but her son kept
her away from politics. However, she wielded great inuence in Macedonia and caused troubles to Antipater,
the regent of the kingdom. In 330 BC, she returned to
Epirus and served as a regent to her cousin Aeacides in
the Epirote state, as her brother Alexander I had died during a campaign in southern Italy.
After Alexander the Great's death in Babylon in 323
BC, his wife Roxana bore him a posthumous son who
was called Alexander IV. The latter, along with his uncle Philip III Arrhidaeus, half brother of Alexander the
Great and mentally disabled, were subject to the regency
of Perdiccas, who tried to strengthen his position by a
marriage with Antipater's daughter Nicaea. At the same
time, Olympias oered Perdiccas the hand of her daughter Cleopatra. Perdiccas chose Cleopatra, which angered
Antipater, who invaded Macedon, deposed Perdiccas,
and declared himself regent, only to die within the year.

74.6. SEE ALSO


Polyperchon succeeded Antipater in 319 BC as regent,
but Antipater's son Cassander established Philip II
s simpleminded son Philip III (Arrhidaeus) as king and forced
Polyperchon out of Macedonia.* [8] He ed to Epirus,
taking Roxana and her son Alexander IV with him. At
the beginning, Olympias had not been involved in this
conict, but she soon realized that in case of Cassander's
rule, her grandson would denitely lose the crown and as
a result, she allied with Polyperchon in 317.The Macedonian soldiers supported her return and the united army
of Polyperchon and Olympias with the house of Aeacides
invaded Macedonia to drive Cassander out from power.
After winning in battle, Olympias captured and executed
Philip III Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice in October
317 BC, as well as Cassanders brother and a hundred
of his partisans.* [8] Cassander blockaded and besieged
Olympias in Pydna and forced her to surrender. One of
the terms of the capitulation had been that Olympias's
life would be saved, but Cassander had decided to execute her, sparing only temporarily the lives of Roxana and Alexander IV (they were later executed in 310
BC). When the fortress of Pydna fell Kassandros ordered
Olympias killed but the soldiers refused to kill the mother
of Alexander. In the end, the families of her many victims
stoned her to death with the approval of Cassander,* [9]
who is also said to have denied to her body the rights of
burial.

74.4 Medals
A medal bearing the name Olympias was found in 1902
at Abukir, Egypt,* [1] and belongs to the Archaeological
Museum of Thessaloniki. The reverse shows a Nereid
mounted on a fantastic sea creature. It had been suggested
that the Olympias depicted on the medal was Queen
Olympias, but this theory has been challenged. The name
is thought to refer to the Olympiads instead.* [10]

175

74.6 See also


Alkimachos of Pydna
Olympias, reconstruction of Greek trireme.

74.7 References
[1] Thewalters.org. Medallion with Olympias The Walters Art Museum Works of Art. Part of three browsing
collections. Creator: Roman. Medium: Coins & Medals.
Location: Ancient Treasury. Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Retrieved 20 August 2012. Together with 59.1 and 59.3,
this piece is part of a series of large gold medallions that
was commissioned to honor Emperor Caracalla, representing him as the descendant of Alexander the Great.
These medallions, found at Aboukir in Upper Egypt,
demonstrate the artistry and technical prowess achieved
by an imperial mint, perhaps that of Ephesus or Perinthus
(both cities in western Asia Minor). Olympias, mother
of Alexander the Great, is depicted here in prole. The
back shows a nereid(sea nymph), perhaps Thetis, the
mother of Achilles, riding on a hippocamp, a mythical
sea-creature. Thus, the medallion forms part of a double comparison: Caracalla is compared to Alexander, the
conqueror of the East; Alexander is compared to Achilles,
a hero of the Trojan War.
[2] Olympias Queen of Macedonia.
american-pictures.com. Retrieved 2009-07-30.

[3]The nonsense about the snakesis from Plutarch's Life of


Alexander (2.6), according to Robin Lane Fox, Alexander
the Great 1973:26 and note p. 504; Fox suggests that the
snake-handling was the stuprum referred to by Justin9.5.9.
[4] Review of Elizabeth Carney's Olympias, Mother of
Alexander the Great by Michael D. Dixon. classicaljournal.org. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
[5] Heckel 2006, p. 181
[6] Plutarch, Alexander, 2.1

Archaeologists believe that these medals were awarded [7]


to the victors in the Olympic Games which survived dur- [8]
ing the Roman period in Macedonian cities such as Veria.
These Games, known as the Alexandrian Olympics, were
held in honor of the Roman emperors who visited the [9]
cities of Macedonia.
[10]

74.5 In popular culture


Olympias is a character in Mary Renault's historical
novels Fire from Heaven and Funeral Games.

www.

Plutarch, Alexander, 2.22.3


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/427989/
Olympias
http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/462448
Jean Gag, Alexandre le Grand en Macdoine dans la Ire
moiti du IIIe sicle ap. J.-C., Historia: Zeitschrift fr
Alte Geschichte, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1st Qtr., 1975), pp. 116

74.8 Bibliography

Angelina Jolie portrayed Queen Olympias in Oliver Primary sources


Stone's 2004 biopic Alexander, opposite Colin Far Plutarch, Alexander, Parallel Lives, online at
rell as Alexander the Great and Val Kilmer as Philip
II.
Perseus Project.

176
Secondary sources
Heckel, Waldemar (2006). Who's who in the age of
Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander's
empire. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-1210-7.
Watereld, Robin (2011). Dividing the Spoils: The
War for Alexander the Greats Empire. New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. 273 pages. ISBN
9780199647002.

74.9 External links


Olympias (Macedonian leader)". Encyclopdia
Britannica Eleventh Edition. Retrieved July 31,
2006.
Olympias. Livius. Articles on Ancient History.
Retrieved July 30, 2006.
Olympias. Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved July
30, 2006.

CHAPTER 74. OLYMPIAS

Chapter 75

Orontobates
Orontobates (in Greek oo. Old Persian Aurandabad, lived 4th century BC) was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of
Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him.
On the approach of Alexander III of Macedon (334 BC)
Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. But at last, despairing of defending it, they set re to the town, and under cover of
the conagration crossed over to Cos, whither they had
previously removed their treasures. In addition to the island of Cos, Orontobates, retained control of the citadel
at Salmacis, and the towns Myndus, Caunus, Thera and
Callipolis together with Triopium.
Next year, while at Soli, Cilicia, Alexander learnt that
Orontobates had been defeated in a great battle by
Ptolemy and Asander. It is natural to infer that the places
which Orontobates held did not long hold out after his
defeat.* [1]
An ocer of the name of Orontobates was present in the
army of Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC),
being one of the commanders of the troops drawn from
the shores of the Persian Gulf.* [2] Whether he was the
same or a dierent person from the preceding, we have
no means of knowing. We are not told that the latter was
killed as well as defeated.
It is likely that Alexander the Great knew Orontobates
intimately as there was a princess between the two. In his
youth Alexander wanted to marry Ada II, the daughter of
Pixodarus but this was negated by his father. Incidentally
Orontobates married a daughter of Pixodarus, who was
probably the same as Ada II. Thus the relation between
the two may have been far more complex than what Justin
or even Plutarch knew.

75.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Orontobates
(1)", Boston, (1867)

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William,
ed. (1870). "* article name needed". Dictionary of
177

Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 18, ii. 5; Curtius Rufus,
Historiae Alexandri Magni, iii. 7
[2] Arrian, iii. 8

Chapter 76

Parysatis II
Parysatis, the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III of
Persia, married Alexander the Great in 324 BC at the
Susa weddings. She may have been murdered by Alexander's rst wife, Roxana, in 323 BC.

76.1 Early life

Alexander. Carney maintains that Parysatismakes more


sense as a murder victim.* [1] If Parysatis were Alexander's wife, then, like Stateira, there was a possibility that
she could be or could claim to be pregnant with his
child, and thus pose a threat to Roxana.* [1]

76.3 References

Parysatis was the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III


of Persia.* [1] After her father's murder in 338 BC, her
brother Arses ruled briey, before being succeeded by
their second cousin, Darius III, in 336 BC.* [2] It is likely
that after her father's death, Parysatis and her sisters
continued to live at the Persian court. During Darius's
campaign against the invasion by Alexander the Great,
Parysatis and her sisters, along with many other members
of the Persian elite, accompanied the Persian army. Following the Battle of Issus in 333 BC, Parysatis and many
of her relatives were captured in Damascus by Macedonian general Parmenion.* [1]

[1] Carney (2000), p. 110.


[2] Garthwaite (2005), p. 39.
[3] O'Brien (2001), p. 197.

76.4 Sources
Carney, Elizabeth Donnelly (2000), Women and
Monarchy in Macedonia, Norman, OK: University
of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0-8061-3212-4
Garthwaite, Gene R. (2005), The Persians, Malden,
MA: Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-55786-860-3

76.2 Alexander
It is possible that Parysatis remained at Susa with the
women of Darius's family while Alexander led a campaign in India.* [1] According to Arrian, in 324 Parysatis
married Alexander at Susa. On the same day, Alexander married Darius's eldest daughter, Stateira. By wedding both women, Alexander cemented his ties to both
branches of the royal family of the Achaemenid Empire.* [1]* [3] The marriage celebration lasted ve days.
During that time, 90 other Persian noblewomen were
married to Macedonian and other Greek soldiers who
were loyal to Alexander.* [3]
After the marriage, there are no further written accounts
that refer to Parysatis by name; however, some historians, including Elizabeth Donnelly Carney, believe that in
an account of the death of Stateira, Plutarch misidentied Parysatis as Stateira's sister Drypetis. In Plutarch's
history, after Alexander's death in 323 BC, his rst wife,
Roxana, ordered the murder of Stateira and her sister in
order to cement her own position and that of her son,
178

O'Brien, John Maxwell (2001), Alexander the Great:


The Invisible Enemy - A Biography, New York:
Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10617-6

Chapter 77

Pausanias of Orestis
started a new aair with Attalus' friend (also named Pausanias). The former Pausanias, feeling spurned, insulted
his romantic rival in public. To secure his honor, Attalus'
friend committed suicide by recklessly putting himself
into danger in battle, while at the same time protecting
the king. Devastated, Attalus sought to punish Pausanias
of Orestis, and did so by getting the man drunk, and then
submitting him to a rape. For any number of reasons,
Philip did not punish Attalus. Pausanias of Orestis was
promoted to the rank of somatophylax, probably as a consolation.* [1]
It has been supposed then that Pausanias' motive in killing
Philip was at least in part a personal anger for not having
been granted justice against Attalus. However Diodorus
who supports the attribution of a personal motive to Pausanias dates the events which led to the assault on Pausanias to the time of the Illyrian Pleurias and the last known
campaign taken by Philip against the Illyrians took place
in 344 BC. This would mean that Pausanias waited eight
years to act against Philip for his lack of justice. But not
all wars of Philip against the Illyrians are known; so it is
possible that he fought against them also in 337 BC.

Pausanias of Orestis (Greek:


) was a member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard. He
assassinated Philip in 336 BC, possibly at the instigation of Philip's wife Olympias, or even his son Alexander
the Great. He was captured and killed. The most popular story explaining the murder comes from Diodorus
Siculus, who expanded upon its mention by Aristotle.
However Diodorus was writing over two centuries after
Philip's reign, and without mentioning sources, thus his
depiction must be taken with a grain of salt.

Pausanias killed Philip at the wedding ceremony of


Philip's daughter Cleopatra to Alexander I of Epirus,
and as he tried to ee to the city gate, tripped on a
vine-root and was speared by Attalus (not Parmenios
son-in-law), Leonnatus, and Perdiccas, who were also
bodyguards and friends of Alexander.* [2] Alexander had
Pausanias' corpse crucied, but as soon as he had left
Macedon, Olympias built a memorial to the slain man.
The murder was certainly premeditated, as horses were
found near where Pausanias had ed.* [3] At the murder
trial, two other men, Heromenes and Arrhabaeus, were
found guilty of conspiracy with Pausanias, and executed.
Leonnatus, who threw the spear that killed Pausanias, was
demoted, possibly under suspicion he was trying to prevent him from being interrogated.

77.1 Notes

According to Diodorus, the general Attalus blamed Pausanias for the death of his friend. Philip and Pausanias
had once been lovers, but the aair ended, and Philip
179

[1] Diodorus Siculus 16.93.4-16.94.4; Aristotle, Politics 5.10,


1311b
[2] Diodorus Siculus 16.94.3-4

180

CHAPTER 77. PAUSANIAS OF ORESTIS

[3] Justin 9.7.9-11

77.2 Sources
77.2.1

Ancient sources

Plutarch: Life of Alexander


Philip's Assassination, Plutarch
Diodorus Siculus, 16.94

77.2.2

Modern commentary

Death of Philip: Murder or Assassination?


Alexander The Great, J.R. Hamilton
Alexander Of Macedon 356-323 B.C., Peter Green

Chapter 78

Peritas
78.1.2 Breed
The breed of Peritas is hard to ascertain and remains unknown. Peritas is sometimes referred to as a
Molosser,* [6] perhaps from the erce nature of a few
stories. Others will say Peritas would have been a
greyhound.* [7] Bulldog has also been mentioned.* [4]

78.1.3 Tales of Peritas

Stag hunt mosaic from Pella, by Gnosis. The dog depicted here
could be Peritas.* [1]

Peritas (Greek: ) was Alexander the Great's favorite dog, who accompanied him during his military
exploits. The name Peritas seems to come from the
Macedonian word for January.* [2]

78.1 History
78.1.1

The Eponymous City

Not much is known of the historical Peritas aside from


a city named in his honor. Peritas' death, however
it happened, was a venerable one. Like Alexander's
horse Bucephalus, Peritas was awarded a city named in
his honor, with a monument to his glory in its central
square.* [3]* [4] According to Plutarch, after recalling the
story of Bucephalus, It is said, too, that when he lost a
dog also, named Peritas, which had been reared by him
and was loved by him, he founded a city and gave it the
dog's name.* [3] The city was probably somewhere in
India, perhaps not far from the town named after Bucephalus; since both cities would have been the spoils of
war for Alexander after having defeated King Porus at the
Battle of the Hydaspes.* [5]

According to Pliny, it was perhaps the king Pyrrhus of


Epirus (NW Greece), who delighted Alexander by giving him a dog which had attacked and beaten both a lion
and an elephant.* [8] There is also the story of Alexander meeting Sopeithes, a ruler of an area probably around
Jech Doab in Punjab.* [9] Sopeithes gave Alexander one
hundred and fty dogs known for their fearsome strength
and courage. Wishing to test their strength, Sopeithes had
a lion ght two of the weakest dogs. He released two others to help once those two seemed at a disadvantage. The
four were doing well against the lion when Sopeithes sent
a man with a scimitar to hack at a leg of one of the dogs.
Alexander protested strongly, and guards took the man
with the blade away, until Sopeithes oered Alexander
three dogs for that one. The dog then calmly accepted
its fate without making a sound, and continued to have a
rm bite on the lion until it had succumbed to its loss of
blood.* [10] It is unsure whether any of these pertain to
Peritas.
One tale about the dog involves its biting the lip of an elephant in the Battle of Gaugamela against Persia's Darius
III,* [11] resulting in the dog's death. Perhaps this is the
story of Pliny's embellished. Another says when Alexander was trapped behind Mallian fortications, Leonnatus
heard Peritas howl from behind him. While still ghting,
Leonnatus told Peritas to run to Alexander; and Peritas
attacked the Mallians, who had just wounded Alexander
with a javelin. This allowed the troops to salvage Alexander in time. In saving Alexander, Peritas had also been
wounded by a javelin, dying in his master's lap.* [6]

181

182

78.2 References
[1] Andrew Chugg (2006). Alexander's Lovers. Raleigh,
N.C.: Lulu. pp. 7879.
[2] John Maxwell O'Brien (1994). Alexander the Great: The
Invisible Enemy. Psychology Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0415-10617-7.
[3] Plutarch's Life of Alexander 61. Plutarch claims this information came from Sotion who heard it from Potamon
the Lesbian.
[4] John Kistler (2011). Animals in the Military: From Hannibal's Elephants to the Dolphins of the U.S. Navy. ABCCLIO. pp. 56. ISBN 978-1-59884-346-0.
[5] Charles Harcourt Ainslie Forbes-Lindsay (1903). India,
Past and Present 1. John C. Winston. pp. 3334.
[6] Ryan O'Meara (2011). Clever Dog: Life Lessons From the
World's Most Successful Animal. Veloce Publishing. p.
16. ISBN 978-1-84584-345-8.
[7] Cynthia A. Branigan (2004). The Reign of the Greyhound:
a Popular History of the Oldest Family of Dogs (2nd ed.).
John Wiley & Sons. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7645-4445-3.
[8] Pliny, Natural History Book VIII. pp. 149150.
[9] Pierre Herman Leonard Eggermont (1993). Alexander's
Campaign In Southern Punjab. Peeters Publishing. p. 16.
ISBN 978-9-06831-499-1.
[10] Diod. Sic. 17.92
[11] E. Bougerol (November 1, 2007).Ten dogs that changed
the world. CNN. Retrieved November 19, 2011.

CHAPTER 78. PERITAS

Chapter 79

Peroidas
Peroidas or Peroedas (Greek: ), son of
Menestheus, was hipparch of the ile of Hetairoi from
Anthemus from the beginning of the campaign of
Alexander the Great. At the Battle of Issus, his squadron
was transferred, along with that of Pantordanus, from
the left to the right wing before the battle began (Arrian
2.9.3).

79.1 References
Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great, by
Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

183

Chapter 80

Persian Gates
Coordinates: 304230N 513555E / 30.70833N
51.59861E

80.3 External links


Livius.org: Persian Gate

Site of the Persian Gate; the road was built in the 1990s.

Persian Gates was the ancient name of the pass now


known as Tang-e Meyran, connecting Yasuj with Sedeh to
the east, crossing the border of the modern Kohgiluyeh va
Boyer Ahmad and Fars provinces of Iran, passing south
of the Kuh-e-Dinar massif, part of the Zagros Mountains.
The pass controls the link between the shore and the central part of Persia.
In the last weeks of 331 BCE, it was the site of the erce
Battle of Persian Gate, in which the Macedonian king,
Alexander the Great, faced sti resistance by the last
Achaemenid troops commanded by Ariobarzan.

80.1 See also


Battle of the Persian Gate

80.2 Literature
Henry Speck, Alexander at the Persian Gates. A
Study in Historiography and Topographyin: American Journal of Ancient History n.s. 1.1 (2002) 15234.
184

Chapter 81

Personal relationships of Alexander the


Great
Alexander III of Macedon was admired during his life- The above quotations would be in line with the thoughts
time for treating all his lovers humanely. Plutarch has laid about before him by Aristotle, who regarded relaargued that Alexander's love of males took an ethical ap- tionships based purely on carnal relations to be shameful.
proach, inspired by the teachings of his mentor, Aristotle.
He gives several examples of Alexander's morality in this
domain:
When Philoxenus, the leader of the
seashore, wrote to Alexander that there was
a youth in Ionia whose beauty has yet to be
seen and asked him in a letter if he (Alexander) would like him (the boy) to be sent over, he
(Alexander) responded in a strict and disgusted
manner:You are the most hideous and malign
of all men, have you ever seen me involved in
such dirty(sexual) work that you found the urge
to atter me with such hedonistic business?* [1]
Plutarch also wrote:
When Philoxenus, the commander of his
forces on the sea-board, wrote that there was
with him a certain Theodorus of Tarentum,
who had two youths of surpassing beauty to
sell, and inquired whether Alexander would
buy them, Alexander was incensed, and cried
out many times to his friends, asking them what
shameful thing Philoxenus had ever seen in him
that he should spend his time in making such
disgraceful proposals.* [2]

81.1 Relationships
Diodorus Siculus writes,Then he put on the Persian diadem and dressed himself in the white robe and the Persian
sash and everything else except the trousers and the longsleeved upper garment. He distributed to his companions
cloaks with purple borders and dressed the horses in Persian harness. In addition to all this, he added concubines
to his retinue in the manner of Darius, in number not less
than the days of the year and outstanding in beauty as selected from all the women of Asia. Each night these paraded about the couch of the king so that he might select
the one with whom he would lie that night. Alexander, as
a matter of fact, employed these customs rather sparingly
and kept for the most part to his accustomed routine, not
wishing to oend the Macedonians "* [4]
Curtius reports, He scorned sensual pleasures to such
an extent that his mother was anxious lest he be unable
to beget ospring.To encourage a relationship with a
woman, King Philip and Olympias were said to have
brought in a high-priced Thessalian courtesan named Callixena.

There is no evidence that Alexander sought intimacy with


women outside of marriage, however he did marry three
His moral approach towards sexual relations also ex- times: to Roxana of Bactria, Stateira, and Parysatis,
tended to relations with prisoners of war:
daughter of Ochus. He fathered at least one child,
Alexander IV of Macedon, born by Roxana shortly afBut as for the other captive women, seeter his death in 323 BC. There is speculation that Stateira
ing that they were surpassingly stately and
could have been pregnant when he died; if so, she and
beautiful, he merely said jestingly that Perher child played no part in the succession battles which
sian women were torments to the eyes. And
ensued after his death. There is speculation that he may
displaying in rivalry with their fair looks the
have fathered another child, (Heracles), of a woman Lala
said to be his concubine Barsine (the daughter of satrap
beauty of his own sobriety and self-control, he
Artabazus of Phrygia) in 327 BC. Mary Renault's rebutpassed them by as though they were lifeless imtal of this theory is worth quoting:
ages for display.* [3]
185

186

81.1.1

CHAPTER 81. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Hephaestion

The family of Darius in front of Alexander, by Justus Sustermans


and preserved in the Biblioteca Museu Vctor Balaguer. In this
picture we can see Hephaestion point out Alexander

Alexander had a close emotional attachment to his companion, cavalry commander (hipparchos) and childhood
friend, Hephaestion. He studied with Alexander, as did a
handful of other children of Macedonian aristocracy, under the tutelage of Aristotle. Hephaestion makes his appearance in history at the point when Alexander reaches
Troy. There the two friends made sacrices at the shrines
of the two heroes Achilles and Patroclus; Alexander honouring Achilles, and Hephaestion honouring Patroclus.
Aelian in his Varia Historia (12.7) recounts that Hephaestionthus intimated that he was the eromenos ["beloved"]
of Alexander, as Patroclus was of Achilles.

One story tells that Campaspe was painted by Apelles,


who enjoyed the reputation in Antiquity for being the
greatest of painters. The episode occasioned an apocryphal exchange that was reported in Pliny's Naturalis
Historia (35.7997): seeing the beauty of the nude portrait, Alexander saw that the artist appreciated Campaspe
(and loved her) more than he. And so Alexander kept
the portrait but presented Campaspe to Apelles. Modern
historian Robin Lane Fox says so Alexander gave him
Campaspe as a present, the most generous gift of any patron and one which would remain a model for patronage
and painters on through the Renaissance".
The story is memorable, but may have been invented:
Campaspe does not appear in the ve major sources for
the life of Alexander. Robin Lane Fox traces her legend back to the Roman authors Pliny the Elder, Lucian
of Samosata and Aelian's Varia Historia.
Campaspe became a generic poetical pseudonym for a
man's mistress.

81.1.3 Barsine
Barsine was a noble Persian, daughter of Artabazus, and
wife of Memnon. After Memnon's death, several ancient historians have written of a love aair between her
and Alexander. Plutarch writes, At any rate Alexander, so it seems, thought it more worthy of a king to subdue his own passions than to conquer his enemies, and
so he never came near these women, nor did he associate
with any other before his marriage, with the exception
only of Barsine. This woman, the widow of Memnon,
the Greek mercenary commander, was captured at Damascus. She had received a Greek education, was of a gentle disposition, and could claim royal descent, since her
father was Artabazus who had married one of the Persian kings daughters. These qualities made Alexander the
more willing he was encouraged by Parmenio, so Aristobulus tells us to form an attachment to a woman of such
beauty and noble lineage.* [9] In addition Justin writes,
As he afterwards contemplated the wealth and display
of Darius, he was seized with admiration of such magnicence. Hence it was that he rst began to indulge in
luxurious and splendid banquets, and fell in love with his
captive Barsine for her beauty, by whom he had afterwards a son that he called Heracles.* [10]

No contemporary source states that Alexander and Hephaestion were lovers;* [6] historian Paul Cartledge writes
that:Whether Alexander's relationship with the slightly
older Hephaestion was ever of the sort that once dared
not speak its name is not certain.* [7] Alexander and
Hephaestion were, in Fox's words, exceptionally deep
and close friendsuntil Hephaestion's death, after which
Alexander mourned him greatly and did not eat for
days.* [8] Alexander held an elaborate funeral for Hephaestion at Babylon, and sent a note to the shrine of Ammon, which had previously acknowledged Alexander as
a god, asking them to grant Hephaestion divine honours.
The priests declined, but did oer him the status of divine
hero. Alexander died soon after the receipt of this letter;
Mary Renault suggests that his grief over Hephaestion's The story may be true, but if so, it raises some dideath had led him to be careless with his health.
cult questions. The boy would have been Alexander's
only child born during his lifetime (Roxane's son was
born posthumously). Even if Alexander had ignored him,
81.1.2 Campaspe
which seems highly unlikely, the Macedonian Army and
the successors would certainly have known of him, and
Campaspe, also known as Pancaste, may have been the would almost certainly have drawn him into the succesmistress of Alexander, if so one of the rst women with sion struggles which ensued upon Alexander's death. Yet
whom Alexander was intimate. She was thought to be a we rst hear of the boy twelve years after Alexander's
prominent citizen of Larisa in Thessaly; Aelian surmised death, when a boy was produced as a claimant to the
that she initiated the young Alexander in love.
throne. Especially since Alexander's own half brother

81.2. SEE ALSO


Philip III Arrhidaeus (Philip II's illegitimate and physically and mentally disabled son) was Alexander's original successor. Alexander's illegitimate son would have
had more rights to the throne than his illegitimate halfbrother. Heracles played a brief part in the succession
battles, and then disappeared. It seems more likely that
the romance with Barsine was invented by the boy's backers to validate his parentage.* [11]

187
and took his seat by Alexander's side; at sight of which
the Macedonians clapped their hands and loudly bade the
king kiss the victor, until at last he threw his arms about
him and kissed him tenderly.A novel by Mary Renault,
The Persian Boy, chronicles that story with Bagoas as narrator.

Robin Lane Fox claims that both direct and indirect evidence suggest asexual element, this time of pure physical desirebetween the two, but, as for the consummation of that passion, he comments that "[l]ater gossip pre81.1.4 Roxana
sumed that Bagoas was Alexander's lover. This is uncertain.* [16] Whatever Alexander's relationship with
Ancient historians, as well as modern ones, have also
Bagoas, it was no impediment to relations with his queen:
written on Alexander's marriage to Roxana. Robin Lane
6 months after Alexander's death, Roxana gave birth to
Fox writes, Roxana was said by contemporaries to be
his son and heir, Alexander IV.
the most beautiful lady in all Asia. She deserved her
Afghan name of Roshanak, meaning 'little star', (probably rokhshana or roshna which means light and illuminating). Marriage to a local noble's family made sound 81.2 See also
political sense. But contemporaries implied that Alexander, aged 28, also lost his heart. A wedding-feast for the
Ancient Greek eros
two of them was arranged high on one of the Sogdian
rocks. Alexander and his bride shared a loaf of bread,
a custom still observed in Turkestan. Characteristically,
81.3 Notes
Alexander sliced it with his sword.* [12] Ulrich Wilcken
writes,The fairest prize that fell to him was Roxane, the
daughter of Oxyartes, in the rst bloom of youth, and in [1] Plutarch, On the Luck and Virtue of Alexander A, 12.
the judgment of Alexander's companions, next to Stateira [2] Plutarch, Parallel Lives: Alexander, 22, 1.
the wife of Darius, the most beautiful woman that they
had seen in Asia. Alexander fell passionately in love with [3] Plutarch, Parallel Lives: Alexander, 21.
her and determined to raise her to the position of his con[4] Diodorus XVII.77.5
sort.* [13]
As soon as Alexander died in 323 BC, Roxana murdered
Alexander's two other wives. Roxana wished to cement
her own position and that of her son, unborn at that time,
by ridding herself of a rival who could be - or claim to
be - pregnant. According to Plutarch's account, Stateira's
sister, Drypetis, was murdered at the same time; Carney
believes that Plutarch was mistaken, and it was actually
Parysatis who died with Stateira. * [14]

[5] Renault, pp. 110.


[6] Renault, pp. 19-68.
[7] Cartledge, History Today
[8] Fox (1980) p. 67.
[9]Caratini, p. 170.

Roxana bore Alexander a posthumous child also named [10] Justinius 9.10.
Alexander (Alexander IV), 6 months after Alexander the
[11] Renault, pp. 110-1.
Great died.
[12] Fox (1980), p. 298.

81.1.5

Bagoas

[13] Wilcken.

Ancient sources tell of another favorite, Bagoas; a eunuch [14] Carney (2000), p. 110.
exceptional in beauty and in the very ower of boyhood,
with whom Darius was intimate and with whom Alexan- [15] Rufus, VI.5.23.
der would later be intimate.* [15] Plutarch recounts an [16] Fox (1980), p. 67.
episode (also mentioned by Dicaearchus) during some
festivities on the way back from India in which his men
clamor for him to kiss the young man: We are told,
too, that he was once viewing some contests in singing 81.4 References
and dancing, being well heated with wine, and that his
Cartledge, Paul. Alexander the Great: hunting for
favourite, Bagoas, won the prize for song and dance, and
a new past?" History Today, 54 (2004).
then, all in his festal array, passed through the theatre

188

CHAPTER 81. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Cartledge, Paul. Alexander the Great: The Hunt for


a New Past. Woodstock, NY; New York: The Overlook Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-5652); London: PanMacmillan, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN
1-4050-3292-8); New York: Vintage, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-4000-7919-5).
Fox, Robin Lane, The Search for Alexander, Little
Brown & Co. Boston, 1st edition (October 1980).
ISBN 0-316-29108-0.
Fox, Robin Lane, "Riding with Alexander" Archaeology, September 14, 2004.
Justinus, Junianus Epitome of the Philippic History
of Pompeius Trogus
Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander, 1st American edition (November 12, 1979), Pantheon Books
ISBN 0-394-73825-X.
Rufus, Quintus Curtius Historiae Alexandri Magni.
Wilcken, Ulrich, Alexander the Great, W. W. Norton & Company; Reissue edition (March 1997).
ISBN 0-393-00381-7.

Chapter 82

Pharnabazus III
Halicarnassus, which Alexander was then diverted to capture, forcing him to seek reinforcements. This allowed
the Persians time to regroup.
Memnon and Pharnabazus then directed their strategy
to disrupt Alexander's supply lines by taking Aegean islands near the Hellespont and by fomenting rebellion in
Greece.* [1] At around the same time, the Spartan king
Agis III and the Athenian statesman Demosthenes organised forces to liberate Greece from the Macedonians.
Memnon and Pharnabazus took Cos and Chios, but during the siege of Mytilene, the capital of Lesbos, Memnon
died of a fever.
Pharnabazus took control of the Persian forces in the
Aegean, assisted by Autophradates. They captured Mytilene and the isle of Tenedos, which gave him control over
the Hellespont.* [1]
coin of Pharnabazus III

Pharnabazus further threatened Alexander's supplies by


establishing a fortied position near Halicarnassus, which
made the harbour inaccessible. He also took Samothrace,
Siphnos and Andros and seized all Greek supply ships.

Pharnabazus III (in Greek ; c. 370 BC


- after 320 BC) was a Persian satrap who fought against However, after the Persian king Darius III lost the decisive Battle of Issus in November 333 BC, Pharnabazus
Alexander the Great.
became increasingly isolated. The Spartan king, Agis
III, withdrew from outright rebellion. Pharnabazus had
to deal with rebellions in his conquered territory and
82.1 Youth
many of his troops deserted him.* [2] His much reduced
navy was defeated near Chios and Pharnabazus was capPharnabazus was the son of Artabazus, satrap of Helle- tured.* [1] While being taken to Alexander, he managed
spontine Phrygia. However, Artabazus was exiled after to escape and go to Cos.
a failed rebellion against Artaxerxes III in 358 BC. The
family went into exile to Macedonia, where they met the
young Alexander. With Artabazus and Pharnabazus was
Memnon of Rhodes, a Greek mercenary and relative by
marriage.

82.3 Later life

Artabazus, Pharnabazus and Memnon were later allowed


to return to Persia, where Memnon took command of the
Persian navy in the Aegean with Pharnabazus in support. What happened after his escape is not known. There
is a gap in the records.* [1] It is assumed that he eventually submitted to Alexander, since in 324 BC, Artonis, the sister of Pharnabazus, was given in marriage to
82.2 War against Alexander
Eumenes by Alexander the Great; and in 321 BC we
nd Pharnabazus commanding a squadron of cavalry for
When Alexander invaded the Persian empire, Mem- Eumenes, in the battle in which he defeated Craterus and
non defended the strategically important town of Neoptolemus.* [3]
189

190

82.4 Notes
[1] Pierre Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the
Persian Empire, Translated by Peter T. Daniels, Eisenbrauns, 2006, pp.826-832.
[2] Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C.: a historical biography, 1974, p.254.
[3] Arrian, vii. 4; Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Eumenes, 7;
Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xviii. 30-32

CHAPTER 82. PHARNABAZUS III

Chapter 83

Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon (Greek: , Phlippos II ho Makedn; 382336 BC) was
the King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of
Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC.
He was a member of the Argead dynasty, the third son
of King Amyntas III, and father of Alexander the Great
and Philip III. The famous phrase "divide and conquer"
is attributed to him.* [1]

83.1 Biography

corps in Macedonia.
Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the
Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did
not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and
crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000
Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his
authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of
the Epirotes.* [4]
He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold
mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna (lost by Macedon in 363).
However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the
cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word
and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip
had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the
daughter of the king of the Molossians.

Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III


and Eurydice I. In his youth (c. 368 365 BC), Philip
was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While
a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos
of Pelopidas,* [2]* [3] and lived with Pammenes, who was
an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes.
During 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of
In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi: he established
Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which
III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally granted him much of the gold later used for his camappointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who paigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated
was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and
Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In 355
kingdom for himself that same year.
354 he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic
Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedo- Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost
nian greatness brought him early success. He rst had to an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenian eets, the city
re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on
by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdic- the Thracian seaboard (354353).
cas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians
had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the coun- Philip was involved in the Third Sacred War which had
try, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the begun in Greece in 356. During the summer of 353 he
coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the
brother of Onomarchus. The latter however defeated
Argeus.
Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to
Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paionians and Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of
Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all ThesAthenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his op- salian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phoponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal cians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later
position and, above all, his army. His most important drowned.
innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx
infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceed- This battle granted Philip an immense prestige, as well
ingly long spear, at the time the most important army as the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was also tagus
191

192

CHAPTER 83. PHILIP II OF MACEDON

O
PR

TIS

N
PO

A
E
G

later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however,


did nothing to help the city, its expeditions held back by
a revolt in Euboea (probably paid by Philip's gold). The
Macedonian king nally took Olynthus in 348 BC and
razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inicted
on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula.

E
A
N
S
E
A
D
O

ES
LAD
CYC

EC

AN

ES
E

Map of the territory of Philip II of Macedon.

of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with


the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt
to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians,
unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied
Thermopylae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens
was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's
gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did
not again come south. He was active in completing the
subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and
north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as
far as the Hebrus. To the chief of these coastal cities,
Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its
neighboring cities were in his hands.

Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been


securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic
Games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled
the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. In
346 BC, he intervened eectively in the war between
Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south,
peace was sworn in Thessaly.
With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip II turned
to Sparta; he sent them a message: If I win this war,
you will be slaves forever.In another version, he warned:
You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I
bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms,
slay your people, and raze your city.According to both
accounts, the Spartans' laconic reply was one word:If.
Philip II and Alexander both chose to leave Sparta alone.
Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus
to the Adriatic Sea.
In 345 BC, Philip conducted a hard-fought campaign
against the Ardiaioi (Ardiaei), under their king Pluratus,
during which he was seriously wounded by an Ardian soldier in the lower right leg.* [5]
In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north
against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortied
settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippopolis
(modern Plovdiv).
In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip
began another siege in 339 of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's inuence
all over Greece was compromised. However, he successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating
an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of
Chaeronea in 338 BC, while in the same year, Philip destroyed Amssa because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to Delphi.
It was these decisive victories that nally secured Philip
s position as having the majority of Greece under Macedonian sovereignty.

Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC.


Members of the League agreed never to wage war against
each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip
was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion
Philip II gold stater, with head of Apollo.
against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was asIn 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, sassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon
apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives by his son Alexander III.
Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian
throne. Olynthus had at rst allied itself with Philip, but

83.3. MARRIAGES

193

83.2 Assassination (336 BC)


The murder occurred during October 336 BC, at Aegae,
the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The
court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander I of Epirus and Philip's daughter, by his fourth wife Olympias, Cleopatra. While the
king was entering unprotected into the town's theater
(highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats
present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his
seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him
with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by The tomb of Philip II of Macedon at the Museum of the Royal
three of Philip's bodyguards; tripping on a vine, he died Tombs in Vergina.
by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Philip are difcult to expound fully, since there was already controversy among ancient historians. The only contemporary
account in our possession is that of Aristotle who states
rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias
had been oended by the followers of Attalus, the king's
father-in-law.

stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the


other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias
seems specious: to act as they did would have required
brazen erontery in the face of a military personally loyal
to Philip. What seems to be recorded in this are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneciaries of the
murder; their actions after the murder, however sympaFifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and thetic they might seem (if actual), cannot prove their guilt
embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was in the deed itself.
to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians
Whatever the actual background to the assassination, it
who used Cleitarchus. According to the sixteenth book
might have had an enormous eect on later world hisof Diodorus' history,* [6] Pausanias had been a lover of
tory, far beyond what any conspirators could have prePhilip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attendicted; as asserted by some modern historians, had the
tion to a younger man, also called Pausanias. The elder
older and more settled Philip been the one in charge of
Pausanias's taunting of the new lover caused the youth
the war against Persia, he might have rested content with
to throw away his life, which turned his friend Attalus
relatively moderate conquests, e.g. making Anatolia into
against the elder Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by
a Macedonian province, and not pushed further into an
inviting Pausanias to dinner, getting him drunk, then suboverall conquest of Persia and further campaigns in India
jecting him to sexual assault.
*
[7]
When Pausanias complained to Philip, the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to
Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his
83.3 Marriages
planned invasion. He also married Attalus's niece, or
daughter, Eurydice. Rather than oend Attalus, Philip
tried to mollify Pausanias by elevating him within the The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names
bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of
turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his dam- marriages oered by Athenaeus, 13.557be:
aged honour, so he planned to kill Philip. Some time after
the alleged rape, while Attalus was already in Asia ght Audata, the daughter of Illyrian King Bardyllis.
ing the Persians, he put his plan in action.
Mother of Cynane.
Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the
intrigue, if not themselves instigators. The latter seems to
have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, according to Justin's report: he says
that the same night of her return from exile she placed a
crown on the assassin's corpse and erected a tumulus to
his memory, ordering annual sacrices to the memory of
Pausanias.
Many modern historians have observed that all the accounts are improbable. In the case of Pausanias, the

Phila of Elimeia, the sister of Derdas and Machatas


of Elimiotis.
Nicesipolis of Pherae,
Thessalonica.

Thessaly,

mother of

Olympias of Epirus, mother of Alexander the Great


and Cleopatra
Philinna of Larissa, mother of Arrhidaeus later
called Philip III of Macedon.

194

CHAPTER 83. PHILIP II OF MACEDON

Meda of Odessa, daughter of the king Cothelas, of On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis AnThrace.
dronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened
tomb at Vergina in the Greek regional unit of Imathia.
Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of The nds from this tomb were later included in the travgeneral Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her elling exhibit The Search for Alexander displayed at four
Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon.
cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. It is generally accepted that the site at Vergina was the burial site
of the kings of Macedon, including Philip, but the debate
83.4 Archaeological ndings
about the unopened tomb is ongoing among archaeologists.
The initial suggestion that the tomb might belong to Philip
II was indicated by the greaves, one of which was shaped
in a way consistent with tting a leg having a misaligned
tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia).
What is viewed as possible proof that the tomb indeed did
belong to Philip II and that the surviving bone fragments
are in fact the body of Philip II comes from forensic analysis of the remains of the skull. By wax casting the skull
was reconstructed, showing apparent damage to the right
eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically
recorded to be an arrow).* [8]

The golden larnax and the golden crown of Philip II of Macedon,


Vergina Museum.

Victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd century BC,


Cabinet des Mdailles, Paris

Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the unopened tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Philip was probably buried in the simpler
adjacent tomb, which had been looted in antiquity. Disputations often relied on contradictions between the
bodyor skeletonof Philip II and reliable historical
accounts of his life (and injuries), as well as analyses of
the paintings, pottery, and other artifacts found there.* [9]
According to a study published in 2000,* [10] the style of
the artifacts of the royal tomb date to 317 BC, a generation after Philip II's assassination. Moreover, according
to paleoanthropologist Antonis Bartsiokas of the Anaximandrian Institute of Human Evolution at the Democritus University of Thrace in Voula, Greece, and assistant
professor at the Democritus who used a technique called
macrophotography to study the skeleton in meticulous detail, the features identied by Musgrave, Prag, and Neave
are simply normal anatomical quirks, accentuated by the
eects of cremation and a poor reassembly of the remains. The bump, for example,says Bartsiokas, is
part of the opening in the skull's frontal bone called the
supraorbital notch, through which a bundle of nerves and
blood vessels pass.Most people can feel this notch by
pressing their ngers underneath the ridge of bone beneath the eyebrow. The bone at the site of the injury
is simply the frontal notch and also shows no signs of healing in the bone fabric, a problem for Bartsiokas given that
the wound was inicted 18 years before Philip II's death.
Instead, according to Borza, Tomb I, also known as the
Tomb of Persephone may have contained the remains of
Phillip II and his family. If this theory is true, then the
golden weaponry and royal objects found in Tomb II may
have belonged to Alexander the Great.* [11]

Silver tetradrachms dated back to the reign of Philip II

Hatzopoulos (2008) summarized the studies involved in


the dispute around the tomb and argued that claims

83.6. REFERENCES

195

against Philip II are scientically baseless. Moreover, he (his statue was placed in the temple of Artemis), and
indicated that personal and political issues had confused Olympia, where the Philippeion was built.
the debate.* [12]
Isocrates once wrote to Philip that if he defeated PerMusgrave, et al. (2010)* [13] showed that there is no valid sia, there was nothing left for him to do but to become a
evidence Arrhidaeus could have been buried in the un- god,* [15] and Demades proposed that Philip be regarded
opened tomb, hence those who made those claims, like as the thirteenth god; however, there is no clear evidence
Borza, Palagia and Bartsiokas, had actually misunder- that Philip was raised to the divine status accorded his
stood certain scientic facts which led them to invalid son Alexander.* [16]
conclusions. Musgrave's study of the bones of Tomb II
of Vergina found that the cranium of the male was deformed possibly by a trauma, a nding that is consistent 83.5.2 Fictional portrayals
with the history of Philip II.* [14]
David Gemmell's fantasy novels, Lion of Macedon
(1991) and The Dark Prince (1992), both published
by Random House, feature Philip II as a character.

83.5 Legacy

Val Kilmer portrayed Philip II of Macedon in Oliver


Stone's 2004 biopic Alexander, opposite Colin Farrell as Alexander the Great and Angelina Jolie as
Queen Olympias.
Fredric March portrayed Philip II of Macedon in the
lm Alexander the Great (1956).

83.5.3 Games
Hegemony: Philip of Macedon is a PC game about
Philip II's campaigns in Greece.
Philip II appears in the Battle of Chaeronea in Rome:
Total War: Alexander

83.5.4 Dedications
Filippos Veria, one of the most successful handball
teams of Greece, bears the name of Pillip II. He is
also depicted in the team's emblem.
The Philip II Arena (until 2009 known as Skopje
City Stadium) is a sporting ground in Skopje.
Phillip II is depicted in the emblem of the 2nd
Support Brigade of the Hellenic Army, stationed in
Kozani.* [17]
Statue of Philip II of Macedon in Thessaloniki, capital of the
region of Macedonia, Greece.

83.5.1

Cult

The heroon at Vergina in Greek Macedonia (the ancient


city of Aegae ) is thought to have been dedicated
to the worship of the family of Alexander the Great and
may have housed the cult statue of Philip. It is probable
that he was regarded as a hero or deied on his death.
Though the Macedonians did not consider Philip a god,
he did receive other forms of recognition by the Greeks,
such as at Eresos (altar to Zeus Philippeios), Ephesos

83.6 References
[1] Latin Phrases, Latin Phrases.info. Accessed March 8,
2014
[2] Dio Chrysostom Or. 49.5
[3] Homosexualities by Stephen O. Murray,University of
Chicago Press,page 42
[4] The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 6: The Fourth
Century BC by D. M. Lewis, 1994, page 374, ISBN 0521-23348-8: "... The victory over Bardylis made him an
attractive ally to the Epirotes, who too had suered at the
Illyrians' hands, and his recent alignment ...

196

[5] Ashley, James R., The Macedonian Empire: The Era of


Warfare Under Philip II and Alexander the Great, 359
323 BCE., McFarland, 2004, p.114, ISBN 0-7864-19180
[6] Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History, 16.91-95
[7] Dr. Laurence T. Stevens, The Assassin Who Launched
The Hellenistic Agein Jane Trent (ed.)Is History Made
By Accident?"
[8] See John Prag and Richard Neave's report in Making
Faces: Using Forensic and Archaeological Evidence, published for the Trustees of the British Museum by the
British Museum Press, London: 1997.
[9] National Geographic article outlining recent archaeological examinations of Tomb II.
[10] Not Philip II of Macedon, Angela M.H. Schuster senior
editor of ARCHAEOLOGY.
[11] Alexander the Great'sCrown,Shield Discovered?".
News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved
2012-11-07.
[12] Hatzopoulos B. Miltiades, The Burial of the Dead (at
Vergina) or The Unending Controversy on the Identity of
the Occupant of Tomb II. Tekmiria, vol. 9 (2008)
[13] The Occupants of Tomb II at Vergina. Why Arrhidaios
and Eurydice must be excluded
[14] Musgrave J, Prag A. J. N. W., Neave R., Lane Fox R.,
White H. (2010) The Occupants of Tomb II at Vergina.
Why Arrhidaios and Eurydice must be excluded, Int J Med
Sci 2010; 7:s1s15
[15] Backgrounds of early Christianity By Everett Ferguson
Page 202 ISBN 0-8028-0669-4
[16] The twelve gods of Greece and Rome By Charlotte R.
Long Page 207 ISBN 90-04-07716-2
[17] " :
". Hellenic Army General Sta. Retrieved 24
July 2014.

83.7 Sources
This article incorporates text from a publication now
in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press.

83.8 External links


A family tree focusing on his ancestors
A family tree focusing on his descendants
Plutarch: Life of Alexander

CHAPTER 83. PHILIP II OF MACEDON


Pothos.org, Death of Philip: Murder or Assassination?
Philip II of Macedon entry in historical sourcebook
by Mahlon H. Smith
Facial reconstruction expert revealed how technique
brings past to life, press release of the University of
Leicester, with a portrait of Philip based on a reconstruction of his face.
Twilight of the Polis and the rise of Macedon
(Philip, Demosthenes and the Fall of the Polis). Yale
University courses, Lecture 24. (Introduction to Ancient Greek History)
The Burial of the Dead (at Vergina) or The Unending Controversy on the Identity of the Occupants of
Tomb II

Chapter 84

Philippeioi
Philippeioi (Greek: , Philppeioi), later called
Alexanders (, Alxandroi),* [1] were the
gold coins used in the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia. First issued at some point between 355 and 347
BCE,* [2] the coins featured a portrait of the Greek deity
Apollo on the obverse, and on the reverse, an illustration
of a biga, a Greek chariot drawn by two horses.* [3] They
had the value of one gold stater each.* [2] In the rst issuing, Apollo was depicted with long hair, but after that the
design was altered permanently to one in which Apollo's
hair was shorter.* [4] The coins were intended primarily
for large purchases outside of Macedonia.* [3] As a result,
they spread quickly, rst to the Balkans and continental
Greece,* [2] and eventually throughout the Western world
of the time; stashes of philippeioi have been uncovered
in Italy, Constantinople, Southern Russia, Cyprus, Syria,
and Egypt. The vast majority of these were actually
struck by Philip's successor, Alexander the Great.* [2]
The philippeioi issued by Alexander after Philip's death
continued to use that name ocially, though they were
often calledalexandersby Alexander's supporters.* [1]

84.2 References
[1] Bernstein, Peter L. (2000). The Power of Gold. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 4243. ISBN 0-471-25210-7.
[2] Metcalf, William (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Greek
and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 176
177. ISBN 0-19-530574-4. Retrieved 10 December
2012.
[3] Hammond, N. G. L. (1998). The Genius of Alexander the
Great. UNC Press Books. pp. 5354. ISBN 0-80784744-5. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
[4] Greek Coins. Taylor and Francis. p. 201. Retrieved 10
December 2012.
[5] Psoma, Selene (2009). Monetary Terminology in PreRoman Asia Minor. Epigraphica Anatolica 42: 170,
175176. Retrieved 21 December 2012.

84.3 External links


Ancient Macedonian coins, Numismatic Museum of
Athens

84.1 Inuence
Considered the most famous coins to be struck by king
Philip II,* [3] the philippeioi continued to be highly inuential even after they were no longer in circulation.* [2]
Their design was widely mimicked or replicated by
currencies outside of Greece,* [4] even long after the
philippeioi themselves were no longer in circulation. The
Gaulish gold staters, whose design closely mimicked that
of the philippeioi, continued to be minted up until the end
of the Gallic Wars three centuries later (BCE 51).* [2] In
many cases, the design of the coins changed as it was appropriated by cultures outside of Greece; in some Gaulish
imitations, Apollo's hair became large and stylized, while
the chariot was often reduced to a single horse (sometimes sporting a humanoid head), with the remaining
space occupied by Celtic symbols such as a sun cross, the
head of a boar, or a depiction of the sun god Ogmios.* [4]
The coins were so widespread that in many ancient Roman texts, the word philippeioi is used generically, to refer
to any heavy gold coins.* [2]* [5]
197

Chapter 85

Philoxenus of Cythera
Philoxenus of Cythera (Greek: ; c. 435
380 BC) was a Greek dithyrambic poet, an exponent of
the new music.

85.1 References

On the conquest of the island by the Athenians he was


taken as a slave to Athens, where he came into the possession of the dithyrambic poet Melanippides, who educated
him and set him free. Philoxenus afterwards resided
in Sicily, at the court of Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse,
whose bad verses he declined to praise, and was in consequence sent to work in the quarries. After leaving Sicily
he travelled in Greece, Italy and Asia, reciting his poems,
and died at Ephesus.
According to the Suda, Philoxenus composed twentyfour dithyrambs and a lyric poem on the descendants of
Aeacus. In his hands the dithyramb seems to have been a
sort of comic opera, and the music, composed by himself,
of a debased character. His masterpiece was the Cyclops,
a pastoral burlesque on the love of the Cyclops for the fair
Galatea, written to avenge himself upon Dionysius, who
was wholly or partially blind of one eye. It was parodied
by Aristophanes in the Plutus (388 BC).
Another work of Philoxenus (sometimes attributed to
Philoxenus of Leucas, a notorious glutton) is the Deipnon
(Dinner), of which considerable fragments have been
preserved by Athenaeus. This is an elaborate bill of fare
in verse, probably intended as a satire on the luxury of the
Sicilian court.
The great popularity of Philoxenus is attested by a complimentary resolution passed by the Athenian Senate in
393 BC. A character in a comedy by Antiphanes spoke of
him asa god among men"; Alexander the Great had his
poems sent to him in Asia; the Alexandrian grammarians
received him into the canon; and down to the time of
Polybius his works were regularly learned and annually
performed by the young men of Arcadia.
Fragments, with life, by G. Bippart (1843); T. Bergk, Poetae lyrici graeci.
Arthur Woollgar Verrall was a scholar of Philoxenus, and
an acquaintance of his wife allegedly channeled poems
from Philoxenus after his death.* [1]

198

[1] The Ear of Dionysius: Further Scripts Aording Evidence


of Personal Survival (1920)

This article incorporates text from a publication now


in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press.

Chapter 86

Poseidonius (mechanician)
Poseidonius (Ancient Greek: ) was a
Macedonian military engineer of Alexander the Great.

86.1 See also


Polyidus of Thessaly
Diades of Pella

86.2 References
Greek and Roman Siege Machinery 399 Bc-Ad 363
page 6 By Duncan B. Campbell ISBN 1-84176-6054
Athenaeus Mechanicus, On Machines = Peri
Mchanmatn Page 85 By Athenaeus, David
Whitehead, P. H. Blyth ISBN 3-515-08532-7
Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great by:
Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

199

Chapter 87

Potamo of Mytilene
Potamo or Potamon (Greek: ; c. 75 BC c.
15 AD) of Mytilene in Lesbos,* [1] son of Lesbonax the
rhetorician, was himself a rhetorician in the time of the
Roman emperor Tiberius, whose favour he enjoyed.* [2]
He is mentioned by Plutarch as an authority regarding
Alexander the Great.* [3] It is probably he whom Lucian
states to have attained the age of ninety.* [4] The Suda
informs us that, in addition to his work On Alexander of
Macedon, he wrote several other works, namely Annals
of the Samians, Encomium of Brutus, Encomium of Caesar, and On the Perfect Orator. To these should perhaps
be added On the Dierent, quoted by Ammonius Grammaticus.

87.1 Notes
[1] Strabo, xiii.
[2] Suda, Potamon
[3] Plutarch, Alex. 61
[4] Lucian, Macrob. 23

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

200

Chapter 88

Priene Inscription
The Priene Inscription is a dedicatory inscription by 88.4 Translation of the Inscription
Alexander the Great that was discovered at the Temple of
Athena Polias, in the city of Priene in Asia Minor (mod- A translation of the inscription reads:
ern Turkey) in the nineteenth century. It now forms an
important part of the British Museum's Ancient Greek King Alexander dedicated the Temple to Athena Polias.
epigraphic collection and provides a direct link to one of
the most famous persons in ancient history.* [1]

88.5 References

[1] British Museum Highlights

88.1 Discovery

[2] British Museum Collection

The inscription was found in the precincts of the temple in 1868-9 by the architect Richard Pullan, who at the
time was leading an archeological exploration of Priene
on behalf of the Society of Dilettanti. The dedicatory
inscription was found at the end of one of the temple's
walls, together with records of the Prienean Civic Codes.
Pullan brought back inscriptions, sculptures and architectural remains from the site to England, where they were
immediately deposited in the national collection.

88.6 Further reading


F. Frances (Ed), Treasures of the British Museum,
London, 1972
B.F. Cook, Greek inscriptions (London, The British
Museum Press, 1987)
I. Jenkins, Greek Architecture and its Sculpture,
The British Museum Press, 2006

88.2 Background
Alexander the Great's army crossed the Hellespont in 334
BC and defeated the Persian army at the Battle of the
Granicus; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, touring cities and expelling Persian garrisons as he did so.
At Priene he generously supported the completion of the
temple, which is recorded for posterity on this large marble block.

88.3 Description
The marble wall block is inscribed on both sides in the
ancient Greek language. Part of the inscription records
the gift of funds provided by Alexander to build the temple. Another part refers to a resolution of land disputes
between dierent neighbouring kingdoms following the
expulsion of the Persians.* [2]
201

Chapter 89

Rhoesaces
Rhoesaces was the brother of Spithridates, a satrap of
Ionia, both who fought and died against Alexander the
Great at the Battle of Granicus in 334. Alexander had
claimed the life of his brother Spithrobates in the battle
just moments before Rhoesaces could get there to help
his brother. According to Diodorus of Sicily the ght between Alexander and Spithridates happened like this:
He threw his javelin rst at Alexander with so
might an impulse and so powerful a cast that he
pierced Alexander's shield and drove through
the breastplate. Alexander shook the weapon
o as it dangled by his arm, then applying his
spurs to his horse and using the momentum of
his charge, he drove his lance squarely into the
satrap's chest. At this the adjacent ranks in
both armies cried out at the amazing display
of manhood. The point, however, snapped o
against the breastplate and the broken shaft recoiled. The Persian drew his sword and drove
at Alexander; but the king recovered his grip
on his lance just in time to stab at the man's
face and drive the blow home.
Diodorus of Sicily goes on to describe Rhoesaces behavior:
The Persian fell, but just at this moment his
brother Rhosaces galloped up and brought his
sword down on Alexander's head so hard that
he split his helmet and wounded his scalp. As
Rhoesaces aimed another blow at the same
break in the helmet, Cleitus (Clitus), known as
the Black,dashed up and cut o the Persian's
arm.
Thus ending Rhoesaces attempted revenge for his
brother's death. This act from Cleitus (Clitus), would lead
to his demise later on in life. It is said that Clitus openly
mocked Alexander of how he saved his life at Granicus,
and that it was a reason he could not be a god. Alexander,
in a drunken rage, stabbed his friend Clitus and ended up
going into a crazed frenzy, even going as far as trying to
impale himself on the spear he stabbed Clitus with.

202

Chapter 90

Roxana
For other uses, see Roxana (disambiguation).
After Alexander's sudden death at Babylon in 323 BC,
Roxana (Greek: ; Avestan: Raoxshna; she bore him a posthumous son called Alexander. Also,
after Alexander's death, Roxana murdered Alexander's
other widow, Stateira II, as well as either Stateira's sister
Drypteis* [2] or Parysatis II (Alexander's third wife).
Roxana and her son were protected by Alexander's
mother, Olympias, in Macedonia, but her assassination
in 316 BC allowed Cassander to seek kingship. Since
Alexander IV was the legitimate heir to the Alexandrian
empire, Cassander ordered him and Roxana to be killed
ca. 310 BC.

90.2 Historical novels and lm


Roxana is one of the main characters in The Romance of Alexander and Roxana by Marshall Monroe Kirkman, 1909, reprinted 2010, ISBN 978-1160-01995-8.
Roxana appears as one of the characters in A Conspiracy of Women by Aubrey Menen, 1965.
Roxana appears as one of the minor characters in
The Persian Boy by Mary Renault, 1972, ISBN 0394-48191-7. Renault uses the spelling Roxane.

Alexander the Great and Roxana, in a 1756 painting by Italian


Baroque artist Pietro Rotari.

Roxana appears as one of the characters in Funeral


Games by Mary Renault, 1981, ISBN 0-394-520688. Renault uses the spelling Roxane.

Persian: ,luminous beauty"; Persian: ,


Rokhsna; sometimes Roxanne, Roxanna, Roxandra
and Roxane, was a Bactrian princess and a wife of
Alexander the Great. She was born earlier than the year
343 BC, though the precise date remains uncertain, and
died in ca. 310 BC.

Roxana appears as one of the characters in Alexander: The Ends of the Earth by Valerio Massimo
Manfredi, 2002, ISBN 978-0-7434-3438-6.
Roxana is the main character in Roxana Romance by
A. J. Cave, 2008, Hardcover ISBN 978-0-98020610-4, eBook ISBN 978-0-9802061-1-1.

90.1 Life
Roxana was the daughter of a minor Bactrian baron
named Oxyartes of Balkh in Bactria (around modern-day
Balkh province of Afghanistan), and married Alexander
the Great at a young age, after he visited the fortress of
Sogdian Rock. In 327 BC Alexander married Roxana despite the strong opposition from all his companions and
generals.* [1]

In the lm Alexander (2004), Roxana is played by


Rosario Dawson.

90.3 See also

203

Balkh
Alexandre et Roxane, opera by Mozart

204

CHAPTER 90. ROXANA

90.4 References
[1] The Nature of Alexander by Mary Renault
[2] Plutarch. Alex. 77.4

90.5 External links


Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
(1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.).
University Press.

"Roxana".
Cambridge

Roxane by Jona Lendering


Wiki Classical Dictionary: Roxane, daughter of Oxyartes
Roxana from Charles Smith's Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography and Mythology (1867)

Chapter 91

Sabaces
Sabaces (name variants: Sauaces; Sataces; Diodorus
Siculus calls him Tasiaces;* [1] died in 333 BC) was a
satrap of Egypt during the reign of king Darius III of Persia.
Some time before the Battle of Issus Sabaces left Egypt
with his army to join Darius III in Syria and support him
in his ght against Alexander the Great. When the Battle
of Issus took place (November 333 BC) Alexander and
his horsemen fought their way through the enemy troops
until they came in close vicinity to Darius III, whose life
was therefore threatened. Darius III was protected by the
most noble Persians, among them also Sabaces, who was
killed.* [2] The Persian king ed because he feared for his
life; therefore the Macedonians won the battle.
Mazaces was probably the successor of Sabaces in Egypt,
but because Sabaces had taken with him nearly all occupying forces, Mazaces was not able to organize military
resistance against the Macedonians. Therefore Alexander the Great was able to take Egypt without ghting (332
BC).

91.1 Notes
[1] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 17.34.5
[2] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 2.11.8; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 17.34.5; Quintus Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni 3.11.10 and 4.1.28

91.2 References
Waldemar Heckel: Whos who in the age of Alexander the Great. Prosopography of Alexander
s empire.
Blackwell, Oxford 2006, ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9
Siegfried Lauer: Alexander der Groe. dtv, Munich 1978, third edition 1993, ISBN 3-423-042982, p. 78 and 87.

205

Chapter 92

Satibarzanes
Satibarzanes (in Greek: ; died 330 BC),
a Persian, was satrap of Aria under Darius III, king of
Persia.
In 330 BC, Alexander the Great, marching through the
borders of Aria on his way from Hyrcania against the
Parthians, was met at a city named Susia by Satibarzanes,
who made submission to him, and was rewarded for
it by the restoration of his satrapy. In order to prevent the commission of any hostilities against the Arians by the Macedonian troops which were following
from the west, Alexander left behind with Satibarzanes
forty horse-dartmen, under the command of Anaxippus.
These, however, together with their commander, were
soon after murdered by the satrap, who excited the Arians to rebellion, and gathered his forces together at the
city of Artacoana.

92.3 External links


Livius.org: Satibarzanes
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

On the approach of Alexander, he ed to join the traitor


Bessus; and the city, after a short siege, was captured by
the Macedonians. Towards the end of the same year (330
BC), Alexander, heard that Satibarzanes had again entered Aria with 2000 horses, supplied by Bessus, and had
excited the Arians to another revolt. According to Arrian,
upon this, he sent a force against him, led by Artabazus,
Erigyius, and Caranus. In a battle which ensued, and of
which the issue was yet doubtful, Satibarzanes came forward and deed any one of the enemy's generals to single
combat. The challenge was accepted by Erigyius, and
Satibarzanes was slain.* [1]

92.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Satibarzanes
, Boston, (1867)

92.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iii. 25, 28; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 78, 81, 83; Curtius Rufus, Historiae
Alexandri Magni, vi. 6, vii. 3-4

206

Chapter 93

Side
This article is about the town Side on the Mediterranean Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate.
coast of Turkey. For other uses of Side, see Side Next to no information exists concerning Side under
(disambiguation).
Lydian and Persian sovereignty.
Side (Greek: ) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one 93.1.1
of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies
near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from
Antalya in the province of Antalya.* [1]

Alexander the Great

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian


coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the
Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city
is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km
long and 400 m across.

93.1 History
Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by
Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western
Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century
BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned
its coinage.

Vespasian Gate

Dating from the tenth century B.C., its coinage bore the
head of Athena (Minerva), the patroness of the city, with
a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their
own language to adopt that of the aborigines.
Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's
natural geography made it one of the most important
places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade
centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand
the dialect. After a short while, the inuence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot
their native Greek and started using the language of Side.
Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in
this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and
2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that
the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations
at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC
and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be

Temple of Apollo detail.

Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in


333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to
occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the
people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which ourished
from the 4th to the 1st century BC. After Alexander's
death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's
generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of
Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side

207

208

CHAPTER 93. SIDE

until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd


century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and
became an important cultural centre.

well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established


itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its
large commercial eet engaged in acts of piracy, while
wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works,
monuments, and competitions as well as the games and
gladiator ghts. Most of the extant ruins at Side date
from this period of prosperity.

Walls of the ancient theatre of Side

In 190 BC a eet from the Greek island city-state of


Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the
Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's eet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general
Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the
Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship
of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188
BC) forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of
Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom.
This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia (the present Antalya), although
Side already possessed an important harbour of its own.
Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money,
tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign
of victory).

One of the maps (portolani) of Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i
Bahriye, which Piri produced in several editions, supplementing
in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.

Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the


philosopher Troilus, of the fth-century ecclesiastical
writer Philip; of the famous lawyer Tribonian.* [3]

93.1.3 Decline

Side began a steady decline from the 4th century on.


Even defensive walls could not stop successive invasions
of highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the
5th and 6th centuries, Side experienced a revival, and
became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia.
Arab eets, nevertheless, raided and burned Side during
In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cili- the 7th century, contributing to its decline. The combician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre nation of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids,
for their slave-trade.
left the site abandoned by the 10th century, its citizens
having emigrated to nearby Antalya.* [2]

93.1.2

Romans

The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78


BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.* [2]
Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration
and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province
of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas
of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another
prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia
Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population
grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last

In the 12th century, Side temporarily established itself


once more as a large city. An inscription found on
the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable
Jewish population in early Byzantine times. However,
Side was abandoned again after being sacked. Its population moved to Antalya, and Side became known as Eski
Adalia 'Old Antalya' and was buried.

93.1.4 Ecclesiastical history


As capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima,
Side was ecclesiastically the metropolitan see. The earliest known bishop was Epidaurus, presiding at the Synod
of Ancyra, 314. Others are John, fourth century; Eustathius, 381; Amphilochius, 426-458, who played an im-

93.2. RUINS

209

93.2 Ruins
The great ruins are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory where a wall and
a moat separate it from the mainland. During medieval
times, the wall and moat were repaired and the promontory houses a wealth of structures.

A hospital dating back to the 6th century.

There are colossal ruins of a theatre complex, the largest


of Pamphylia, built much like a Roman amphitheatre that
relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman
style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion
more typical of Asia Minor. The theatre is less preserved
than the theatre at Aspendos, but it is almost as large, seating 15,000 - 20,000 people. With time and the shifting of
the earth, the scena wall has collapsed over the stage and
the proscenium is in a cataract of loose blocks. It was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during
Byzantine times (5th or 6th century).

The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the


site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of
the ancient city, although this gate from the 2nd century
BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street,
whose marble columns are no longer extant; all that remains are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths.
The street leads to the a public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman
period. Next is the square agora with the remains of the
round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd century BC), a
periptery with twelve columns, in the middle. In later
times it was used as a trading centre where pirates sold
This portion of the main street in Side is lined with the ruins of slaves. The remains of the theatre, which was used for
homes or shops, many of which feature their original mosaic tile
gladiator ghts and later as a church, and the monumental
ooring.
gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theatre. The fountain gracing
the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains
of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored.* [2]
portant part in the history of the time; Conon, 536; Peter,
553; John, 680-692; Mark, 879; Theodore, 1027-1028; The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an
Anthimus, present at the synod held at Constantinople in aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. Side's nymphaeum
1054; John, then counsellor to the Emperor Michael VII a grotto with a natural water supply dedicated to the
Ducas, presided at a council on the worship of images, nymphs was an articial grotto or fountain building of
1082; Theodosius and his successor Nicetas, twelfth cen- elaborate design.
tury. John, present at a synod at Constantinople in 1156. There is also a virtually unknown, but expansive site, up
The Notitiae Episcopatuum continued to mention Side as in the Taurus foothills, several miles inland, known loa metropolis of Pamphylia until the thirteenth century. cally as Seleucia. Virtually unknown to the outside world
It does not appear in the Notitiaof Andronicus III. and not represented on the internet at all, it is the Roman
From other documents we learn that in 1315 and for some garrison, built by Marc Anthony, to support the city of
time previous to that, Sidon had bishops of its own the Side. It covers at least a couple of square miles and is
Bishop of Sinope was called to the position, but was un- almost completely unexcavated, apart from two weeks in
able to leave his own diocese; this call was repeated in 1975, when the Turkish government funded two weeks of
1338 and 1345. In 1397 the diocese was united with that excavations. The site was, apparently, nally abandoned
of Attalia; in 1400 the Metropolitan of Perge and Attalia in the 7th century, when an earthquake caused the spring
was at the same time the administrator of Side.* [4]
which fed the site with water to dry up completely. Many
No longer a residential see, Side is today included in the of the buildings are in remarkably good shape, particuCatholic Church's list of titular sees.* [5]
larly since, due to the lack of available stone, a signicant

210
quantity of the sites stonework contains egg and gravel
based concrete blocks.
Turkish archaeologists have been excavating Side since
1947 and intermittently continue to do so.* [6]

CHAPTER 93. SIDE


Hazlitt, Classical Gazetteer, Side
Acceptable pictures of the museum, 105 of them
Not bad pictures of the town, 230 of them
Side Turkey Guide for UK Travellers

93.3 Today

Photo of basalt Neo-Hittite column base found at


Side.

In 1895 Turkish Muslim* [7]* [8]* [9] refugees from Crete


moved to the ruined town and called it Selimiye. Today, This article incorporates text from a publication now
Side has become a popular holiday destination and expe- in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge Univerriences a new revival.
sity Press.
It was a popular spot for watching the solar eclipse of
March 29, 2006.

93.4 See also


Coinage of Side
Manavgat Waterfall
Oymapinar Dam
Philip of Side
Saint Probus of Side
Sidetic language

93.5 Notes
[1] The Ancient Library. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
[2] Side - History of the City. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
[3] Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1912, s.v. 'Sidon'
[4] This section contains text from the Catholic Encyclopedia
of 1907-1912, a work in the public domain
[5] Annuario Ponticio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana,
2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 971
[6] Aspendos - Perge - Side. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
[7] From link: In 1895 Turkish people from Crete moved to
the ruined town and called it Selimiye.
[8] Side Travel Guide
[9] Turkish Riviera - Side

93.6 External links


About Side and Manavgat
Excellent Pictures - Pictures Of Side and Manavgat
Side photos with explanations

Chapter 94

Sisygambis

The family of Darius in front of Alexander, by Charles le Brun.


Sisygambis (in yellow) kneels before the king
Alexander at the tent of Darius's family, by Sebastiano Ricci

Sisygambis was the mother of Darius III of Persia, whose


reign was ended during the wars of Alexander the Great.
After she was captured by Alexander at the Battle of Is- mistake, she was acutely embarrassed, but Alexander resus, she became devoted to him, and Alexander referred assured her with the words, You were not mistaken,
Mother; this man too is Alexander.* [2]
to her as mother.
At the Battle of Gaugamela Sisygamis and her family
were kept in the baggage train behind Alexander's army.
When the Persian army's Scythian cavalry broke though
94.1 Early life
Alexander's forces to reach them, she allegedly refused to
celebrate what appeared at rst to be Persian victory.* [1]
She may have been the daughter of king Artaxerxes II
Quintus Curtius Rufus informs us of that Sisygambis
Memnon, or possibly of his brother Ostanes. If the
could never forgive her son Darius for abandoning his
latter, she married her own brother Arsames (an anfamily at Issus. After Darius was killed shortly followcient Zoroastrian tradition).* [1] She gave birth to Darius,
ing his defeat at Gaugamela, Alexander sent his body to
Oxyathres, and possibly also Stateira I.* [1]
her for burial. Called upon to mourn his death, she was
reported to have said, I have only one son [Alexander]
and he is king of all Persia.

94.2 Alexander's invasion

At the Battle of Issus (333 BC), Darius' army was routed


and the Persian king ed the eld, leaving his extended
family, including his mother, his wife Stateira I, his
children, and many others to the mercy of Alexander.
Alexander captured them but treated them well. When
Alexander the Great and Hephaestion went together to
visit the captured Persian royal family, Sisygambis knelt
to Hephaestion to plead for their lives, mistaking him
for Alexander, because he was the taller, and both young
men were wearing similar clothes. When she realized her

94.3 Under Alexander


She married her granddaughter, Stateira II, to Alexander
in 324 BC, an event which was the centrepiece of the Susa
weddings. She was left at Susa with tutors to teach her
Greek, while Alexander pursued his conquests.* [1]
On hearing of the death of Alexander, Sisygambis had
herself sealed into her rooms and refused to eat. She
is said to have died of grief and starvation four days

211

212
later.* [1]

94.4 Legacy
The scene of Sisygambis mistakenly kneeling before
Hephaestion has been a popular subject in Western art,
represented by Charles le Brun, Paolo Veronese, Justus
Sustermans and many others.* [3]
Asteroid 823 Sisigambis is named after her.

94.5 References
[1] Waldemar Heckel, Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the
Great: Prosopography of Alexander's Empire, John Riley,
2008.
[2] John Maxwell O'Brien, Alexander the Great: The Invisible
Enemy: A Biography, Routledge, London, 1994, p.58
[3] James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art,
Westview Press, Boulder, 1979, p.13.

CHAPTER 94. SISYGAMBIS

Chapter 95

Sittacene
Sittacene was an ancient region of Babylonia and Assyria
situated about the main city of Sittace. Pliny in his Natural History, Book 6, 205-206, places Sittacene between Chalonitis, Persis and Mesene and also between
Arbelitis and Palestine (or that it also bore those names,
id., vi. 27. s. 31). Besides Sittace, Sabata, and Antiochia
are identied as important cities. The district of Sittacene
appears to have been called in later times Apolloniatis
(Strabo xi. p. 524), and which adjoined the province of
Susis (xv. p. 732). It is probably the same country which
Curtius calls Satrapene (v. 2).
Alexander the Great's forces marched through Sittacene
on their way from Babylon to Susa. Curtius and Diodorus
place Alexander's major reorganization of his forces between their reinforcement at Babylon and the campaign
against Susa in Sittacene. (Curt. v. 1. 40-42, v. 2. 1
7; Diod. xvii. 65)* [1] A depiction of the games which
were held to boost morale became the subject of a famous painting in the collection of the Getty Museum.
Under Hellenistic domination, Boeotian settlers were
placed in Sittacene. (Diod. xvii 110).

95.1 Notes
[1] Arrian places these at Susa (iii. 16. 10)

95.2 References
This article incorporates text from a publication now
in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854
1857). "* article name needed". Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

95.3 External links


Pliny's Natural History
Hazlitt's Classical Gazetteer

213

Chapter 96

Socrates of Macedon
Socrates, son of Sathon was hipparch of the ile* [1] of
Hetairoi from Apollonia, since at least the beginning of
the Asiatic expedition. He fought in the Battle of the
Granicus.

96.1 References
[1] See Companion cavalry#Unit. Each ile numbered between 200 and 300 horsemen.

Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great (2006)


by Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

214

Chapter 97

Sopolis of Macedon
For other persons with the same name, see Sopolis
Sopolis (Greek: ), son of Hermodorus, was
hipparch of the ile of Hetairoi from Amphipolis, since
at least the Triballian campaign of Alexander the Great
335 BC. That he belonged to the Macedonian aristocracy
is indicated not only by his important cavalry command
but also by the fact that his son, Hermolaus, served as one
of Alexander's Pages in 327 BC.

97.1 References
Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great by
Waldemar Heckel ISBN 978-1-4051-1210-9

215

Chapter 98

Spitamenes
Spitamenes (in old Persian Spitamaneh; Greek
; born 370 BC and killed 328 BC) Sogdian
warlord, leader of the uprising in Sogdiana and Bactria
against Alexander of Macedon 329 BC.

98.2 External links

When Alexander was founding the new city of Alexandria


Eschate on the Jaxartes river, news came that Spitamenes
had roused Sogdiana against him and was besieging the
Macedonian garrison in Maracanda. Too occupied at
the moment to personally confront Spitamenes he sent
an army under the command of Pharnuches which was
promptly annihilated with a loss of no less than 2000 infantry and 300 cavalry.
The uprising now posed a direct threat to his army, and
Alexander moved personally to relieve Maracanda, only
to learn that Spitamenes had left Sogdiana, attacking now
Bactra, from where he was repulsed with great diculty
by the satrap of Bactria Artabazus (328 BC).
The decisive point came in December 328 BC when Spitamenes was defeated by Alexander's general Coenus at
the Battle of Gabai. Spitamenes' wife killed him and sent
his head to Alexander, suing for peace and eectively dissolving Spitamenes' army.
Spitamenes had a daughter, Apama, who was married to
one of Alexander's most important generals and an eventual Diadochi (successor), Seleucus I Nicator (February
324 BC). The couple had a son, Antiochus I Soter, eventually a ruler of the successor Seleucid Empire. Several
towns were named Apamea in her honour.

98.1 In ction
Spitamenes is a central, but indirect character in Steven
Presseld's novel The Afghan Campaign. In it, Spitamenes is described as a cunning military commander of
natural talent. The novel is largely the description of
the campaign which destroyed Spitamenes' Sogdian uprising. Spitamenes was not decapitated by his wife. He
was seized by his allies, the Massagetae, who upon nding out that Alexander was going to invade their country,
decapitated his head and sent it to Alexander as a peace
oering.
216

Livius, Spitamenes, by Jona Lendering


Wiki Classical Dictionary: Spitamenes

Chapter 99

Spithridates
Spithridates (in Greek ; lived 4th century BC) was a satrap of Lydia and Ionia under the
high king Darius III Codomannus and was one of the
Persian commanders at the Battle of the Granicus, in
334 BC, in which engagement, while he was aiming a
blow from behind at Alexander the Great, his arm was
cut o by Cleitus, son of Dropides.* [1] Diodorus calls
him Spithrobates, and appears to confound him with
Mithridates, the son-in-law of Darius, whom Alexander slew in the battle with his own hand; while what
Arrian records of Spithridates is related by Diodorus of
his brother Rhoesaces.* [2]

99.1 References
Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology, Spithridates
(2)", Boston, (1867)

99.2 Notes
[1] Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, i. 12, 15, 16
[2] Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 19, 20; Plutarch, Parallel
Lives, Alexander, 16, Moralia, On the Fortune or
the Virtue of Alexander, i. 2

This article incorporates text from a publication now in


the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "* article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

217

Chapter 100

Stateira I
Stateira I (died circa 332 BC) was the wife of Darius III
of Persia of the Achaemenid dynasty. She accompanied
her husband while he went to war. It was because of this
that she was captured by Alexander the Great after the
Battle of Issus, in 333 BC at the town of Issus.* [1] Her
husband abandoned his entire family at the site as he ed
from Alexander, including his mother Sisygambis and his
daughters Stateira II and Drypteis. Alexander is reported
to have treated them with great respect.

100.1 References
[1] A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Vol III, edited by William Smith, 1872 p.901

100.2 External links


Pothos.org - Stateira, mother and daughter
Livius.org - Barsine/Statira

The family of Darios in front of Alexander, by Justus Sustermans and conserved in the Biblioteca Museu Vctor Balaguer,
Vilanova i la Geltr

Stateira I died giving birth around 332 BC. Some rumors


speculated the father of the child might not have been
Darius'. Darius' mother Sisygambis had a lifelong respect
and genuine friendship with Alexander.
In 324 BC, her daughter, Stateira II, married Alexander, and her other daughter, Drypteis, married one of
his lifetime companions, Hephaestion. When Alexander
died one year later these royal Persian women mourned
his death, further indicating personal relationships rather
than merely diplomatic ones. Both of her daughters
and their families were assassinated by another wife of
Alexander, Roxana, who sought to remove any competition and assure that her son would succeed him. Upon
hearing the news of Alexander's death, Sisygambis said
farewell to her family, turned to the wall, and fasted herself to death.
218

Chapter 101

Stateira II
101.2 Early life

The marriages of Stateira II to Alexander III of Macedon and her


sister, Drypteis, to Hephaestion at Susa in 324 BC

Stateira II (Greek: ; died 323 BC), possibly


also known as Barsine, was the daughter of Stateira I
and Darius III of Persia. After her father's defeat at the
Battle of Issus, Stateira and her sisters became captives of
Alexander of Macedon. They were treated well, and she
became Alexander's second wife at the Susa weddings in
324 BC. At the same ceremony Alexander also married
her cousin, Parysatis, daughter of Darius' predecessor.
After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Stateira was killed
by Roxana, his rst wife.

101.1 Name
Scholars have debated her name. In his list of marriages
that occurred at Susa, Arrian (c. 86 after 146), calls
her Barsine. Historian William Woodthorpe Tarn
asserts that her ocial name was Barsine, but she
was likely commonly called Stateira.* [1] Tarn cites
other instances of confusion, noting that by the end of
the 3rd century BC, legend often confused Roxane with
Stateira as the daughter of Darius.* [2]

Stateira was the eldest daughter of Darius III of Persia


and his wife, also named Stateira.* [3] Both of her parents were frequently described as handsome or beautiful, leading Tarn to speculate Stateira was suciently
good-looking, at any rate for a princess, to be called ...
beautiful.* [4] Her birthdate is unknown; by 333 BC
she was of marriageable age.* [3] After Alexander the
Great invaded Persia, Stateira and her family accompanied Darius' army. In November 333 Alexander's army
defeated the Persians at the Battle of Issus. Darius ed,
and the Macedonian army soon captured his family. Although many captured Persian women were treated brutally, under Alexander's orders Stateira, her mother, her
sister Drypetis, her younger brother, and their paternal
grandmother, Sisygambis, were treated well and allowed
to retain their social status.* [3]

101.3 Marriage to Alexander the


Great
For the next two years, Stateira and her family followed
Alexander's army. Her mother died at some point between 333 and 331, leaving Sisygambis to act as her
guardian.* [3] Although Darius tried several times to ransom his family, Alexander refused to return the women.
Darius then oered Alexander Stateira's hand in marriage and agreed to relinquish his claim to some of the
land Alexander had already seized in exchange for ending the war. Alexander declined the oer,* [5] reminding
Darius that he already had custody of both the land and
Stateira, and that if he chose to marry her Darius' permission would not be necessary.* [4]
In 330 BC, Alexander left Stateira and her family in Susa
with instructions that she should be taught Greek. Historian Elizabeth Donnelly Carney speculates that Alexander
had already decided to marry Stateira and was preparing her for life as his wife.* [5] Stateira became Alexander's second wife in 324 BC, almost ten years after
her capture, at in a mass ceremony known as The
Susa weddings.* [5] The marriage ceremony lasted ve
days. Ninety other Persian noblewomen were married to

219

220
Macedonian - Greek soldiers who were loyal to Alexander; this included Drypetis, who married Alexander's
friend, Hephaestion.* [6] At the same ceremony, Alexander married Parysatis, daughter of previous Persian ruler
Artaxerxes III.* [7] It was fairly common practice for conquering rulers to marry the widow or daughter of the man
they had deposed.* [4] By wedding both women, Alexander cemented his ties to both branches of the royal family
of the Achaemenid Empire.* [6]* [7]
Alexander died the following year, 323 BC. After his
death, his rst wife Roxana colluded with Perdiccas to
kill Stateira. Roxana wished to cement her own position
and that of her son, Alexander IV, by ridding herself of
a rival who could be - or claim to be - pregnant.* [7] According to Plutarch's account, Stateira's sister, Drypetis,
was killed at the same time; Carney believes that Plutarch
was mistaken, and it was actually Parysatis who died with
Stateira.* [7]

101.4 Depictions

CHAPTER 101. STATEIRA II

101.5 References
[1] Tarn (2002), p. 334.
[2] Tarn (2002), p. 335.
[3] Carney (2000), p. 108.
[4] Tarn (2002), p. 336.
[5] Carney (2000), p. 109.
[6] O'Brien (2005), p. 197.
[7] Carney (2000), p. 110.
[8] Stewart (1993), p. 186.

101.6 Sources
Carney, Elizabeth Donnelly (2000), Women and
Monarchy in Macedonia, Norman, OK: University
of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0-8061-3212-4
O'Brien, John Maxwell (2001), Alexander the Great:
The Invisible Enemy - A Biography, New York:
Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10617-6
Stewart, Andrew F. (1993), Faces of Power: Alexander's image and Hellenistic politics, Berkely, CA:
University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-068513
Tarn, W.W. (2002), Alexander the Great: Volume
II Sources and Studies, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 0-521-22585-X originally published 1948 by
Cambridge University Press

101.7 External links


Pothos.org - Stateira, mother and daughter
Livius.org - Barsine/Statira

A mural in Pompeii, depicting Alexander and Stateira

Stateira may be depicted in a fresco found during the excavations at Pompeii. The fresco depicts a nude warrior in a purple Macedonian cloak, likely Alexander. On
his left stands a woman wearing a crown and holding a
scepter. Scholars debate whether the woman is Roxana
or Stateira.* [8]
In the 2004 lm Alexander by Oliver Stone, Stateira is
portrayed by the French actress Annelise Hesme.

Chapter 102

Susa weddings
each by her groom, who took them by the hand and kissed
them. The king was the rst to be married, for all the
weddings were celebrated in the same manner, and in this
ceremony he showed even more than his customary approachability and comradeship. Then the bridegrooms
took their wives back to their homes and Alexander gave
each of them a dowry. All the other Macedonians who
had previously married Persian women he ordered to be
registered and these were found to number more than
10,000. To all of these Alexander gave wedding-presents.
By marrying the daughters of Darius and Artaxerxes,
Alexander was both identifying himself with the Persians
and also making his own position more secure. He could
now claim to be the son and rightful heir of both previous
Alexander the Great marries Stateira and Hephaistion marries
Persian kings. He also wanted to honour Hephaestion by
her sister Drypetis at Susa.
making him his brother-in-law.
The Susa weddings was a mass wedding arranged by What the Macedonians thought of these marriages is eviAlexander of Macedon in 324 BC in the Persian city of dent from the fact that the nobles all divorced their wives
after Alexander's death, except Hephaestion, who died
Susa.
before Alexander, and Seleucus. So in spite of AlexanAlexander intended to symbolically unite the Persian and der's precedent, the Macedonians were no more inclined
Macedonian cultures, by taking a Persian wife himself to share equally with the Persians than before.
and celebrating a mass wedding with Persian ceremony
along with his ocers, for whom he arranged marriages
with noble Persian wives.* [1] The union was not only
symbolic, as the new ospring were to be the progenitors 102.1 See also
of both civilizations.
Ariston (actor)
Alexander was already married to Roxana, the daughter of a Bactrian chief, but Macedonian and Persian customs allowed several wives. Alexander himself married
Stateira (sometimes called Barsine, but not to be con- 102.2 References
fused with Barsine, wife of Memnon), the eldest daughter
of Darius, and, according to Aristobulus, another wife in [1] pothos.org - Drypetis, daughter of Darius and wife of
Hephaestion
addition, Parysatis, the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes
*
III. [2] To Hephaestion he gave Drypetis; she too was the [2] Alexander the Great: the marriages at Susa
daughter of Darius, his own wife's sister, for he wanted
Hephaestion's children to be his own nephews and nieces.
To Seleucus he gave Apama, the daughter of Spitamenes
the Bactrian, and likewise to the other Companions the
daughters of the most notable Medes and Persians, eighty
in all.
The weddings were solemnized in the Persian fashion:
chairs were placed for the bridegrooms in order of precedence; after the toasts the brides entered and sat down
221

Chapter 103

Thessalonike of Macedon
Thessalonike (Greek: ; 352 or 345 295
BC) was a Macedonian princess, the daughter of king
Philip II of Macedon by his Thessalian wife or concubine,
Nicesipolis, from Pherae.* [1]* [2]* [3] History links her to
three of the most powerful men in Macedondaughter of
King Philip II, half sister of Alexander the Great and wife
of Cassander.

Philip, Antipater, and Alexander; and her husband paid


her the honour of conferring her name upon the city of
Thessaloniki, which he founded on the site of the ancient
Therma, and which soon became, as it continues down
to the present day, one of the most wealthy and populous cities of Macedonia.* [9]* [10]* [11]* [12] After the
death of Cassander, Thessalonike appears to have at rst
retained much inuence over her sons. Her son Philip
succeeded his father, but while Antipater was the next
in line for the throne, Thessalonike demanded that it be
103.1 Life
shared between Philip and Alexander. Antipater, becoming jealous of the superior favour which his mother
*
*
Thessalonike was born around 352 or 345 BC. [4] [5] To showed to his younger brother Alexander, put his mother
*
*
commemorate the birth of his daughter, which fell on the to death, in 295 BC. [3] [13]
same day as the armies of Macedon and Thessalian league
won the signicant battle of Crocus Field in Thessaly over
the Phocians, King Philip is said to have proclaimed,Let 103.2 The legend of Thessalonike
her be called victory in Thessaly. In the Greek language
her name is made up of two words Thessaly and nike, that There exists a popular Greek legend* [14]* [15] which
translates into 'Thessalian Victory'.* [6] Her mother did talks about a mermaid who lived in the Aegean for hunnot live long after her birth and upon her death Thessa- dreds of years who was thought to be Thessalonike. The
lonike appears to have been brought up by her stepmother legend states that Alexander, in his quest for the FounOlympias. In memory of her close friend, Nicesipolis, the tain of Immortality, retrieved with great exertion a ask
queen took Thessalonike to be raised as her own daugh- of immortal water with which he bathed his sister's hair.
ter. Thessalonike was, by far, the youngest child in the When Alexander died his grief-stricken sister attempted
care of Olympias. Her interaction with her older brother to end her life by jumping into the sea. Instead of drownAlexander would have been minimal, as he was under the ing, however, she became a mermaid passing judgment
tutelage of Aristotle in The Gardens Of Midaswhen on mariners throughout the centuries and across the seven
she was born, and at the age of six or seven when he left seas. To the sailors who encountered her she would alon his Persian expedition. She was only twenty-one when ways pose the same question: Is Alexander the king
Alexander, king of the then most known world, died.
alive?" (Greek: ;), to which
Thus favored, she spent her childhood in the queens
quarters, to whose fortunes she attached herself when the
latter returned to Macedon in 317 BC, and with whom
she took refuge, along with the rest of the royal family,
in the fortress of Pydna, on the advance of Cassander
in 315 BC.* [7]* [8] The fall of Pydna and the execution of her stepmother threw her into the power of Cassander, who embraced the opportunity to connect himself with the Argead dynasty by marrying her; and he
appears to have studiously treated her with the respect
due to her illustrious birth. This may have been as much
owing to policy as to aection: but the marriage appears to have been a prosperous one; Thessalonike became queen of Macedon and the mother of three sons,

the correct answer would be He lives and reigns and


conquers the world(Greek: ,
!). Given this answer she would allow the
ship and her crew to sail safely away in calm seas. Any
other answer would transform her into the raging Gorgon,
bent on sending the ship and every sailor on board to the
bottom.

103.3 Notes

222

[1] Pausanias, Description of Greece, viii 7.7


[2] Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, xiii

103.5. EXTERNAL LINKS

[3] Pausanias, Description of Greece, ix. 7.3


[4] Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death: The Hellenistic Dynasties - Page 36 by Daniel Ogden ISBN 0-7156-2930-1
[5] Women and monarchy in Macedonia - Page 155 by Elizabeth Donnelly Carney ISBN 0-8061-3212-4
[6] The pocket guide to Saint Paul By Peter E. Lewis, Ron
Bolden - Page 118 ISBN 1-86254-562-6
[7] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xix. 35
[8] Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, xiv. 6
[9] Diodorus, xix. 52
[10] Pausanias, ibid.
[11] Strabo, Geographica, vii
[12] Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, Thessalonike
[13] Diodorus, xxi
[14] Mermaids and Ikons: A Greek Summer (1978) page 73
by Gwendolyn MacEwen ISBN 978-0-88784-062-3
[15] Folktales from Greece Page 96 ISBN 1-56308-908-4

103.4 References

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.
(1870). Thessalonice. Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology.

103.5 External links


Ancient Worlds - Thessalonike The Tragic Queen
Lysimachos Biographies - Thessalonike
The pedigree of Thessalonice of Macedonia
Smith, William (ed.); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Thessalonice,
Boston, (1867)

223

Chapter 104

Timoclea

Timoclea before Alexander the Great, in a painting by Domenico


Zampieri, ca. 1615.

not punished for killing the Thracian captain.* [1]

104.1 References
1659 painting by Elisabetta Sirani depicting Timocleia of Thebes
pushing the Thracian captain who raped her into a well.

Timocleia of Thebes is a woman mentioned by Plutarch


in his Life of Alexander. According to Plutarch, when
the forces of Alexander the Great seized Thebes during
Alexander's Balkan campaign of 335 BC, Thracian forces
pillaged the city, and the captain of the Thracian forces
raped Timocleia.* [1] After raping her, the captain asked
if she knew of any hidden money. She told him that she
did, and led him into her garden, and told him there was
money hidden in her well.* [1] When the Thracian captain stooped to look into the well, Timoclea pushed him
into the well, and then hurled heavy stones into the well
until the captain was dead.* [1] Timocleia was seized by
the Thracian soldiers and brought before Alexander the
Great. She comported herself with great dignity and told
Alexander that her brother had fought at the Battle of
Chaeronea with Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon,
for the liberty of Greece.Alexander was so impressed
with Timocleia that he ordered her released and she was
224

[1] Plutarch - Life of Alexander

Chapter 105

Timotheus (aulist)
Timotheus (Greek: ) was a famous aulos
player from Thebes, who ourished in Macedon during
the reigns of Philip II and Alexander the Great. He
later accompanied Alexander in his campaigns. After his
death, a story about the eect of his music on Alexander became a familiar reference point in literature on the
power of music to manipulate emotion.

king's character by selecting a piece that was not languishing or slow nor of the kind that would cause relaxation or
listlessness, but rather, I fancy, the ringing strain which
bears Athena's name and none other.Other rulers, such
as Sardanapalus who was of languid temperament, would
not have responded to such music, but being of a highly
volatile nature, Alexander did.* [5]

105.1 Life

105.2.2 Modern

According to Didymus he was the son of Oeniades.* [1]* [2] He participated in musical competitions under Philip. When Philip lost an eye after Timotheus and
others had performed a ute song about the cyclops, this
was interpreted as an omen.* [2] Athenaeus says that Timotheus was noted for his long beard.* [3]

In later literature Timotheus the autist is sometimes confused with the famous Macedonian singer, poet and lyre
player Timotheus of Miletus.* [6] In fact Timotheus of
Miletus lived earlier, during the reign of Archelaus I of
Macedon.* [7]

According to Suda, Timotheus excited the young Alexander so much with a battle hymn to Athena that he jumped
from his seat and grabbed his weapons ready to ght,
declaring that the music was kingly. Timotheus was apparently using the steep-risingstyle.* [4]

The Renaissance music theorist Vincenzo Galilei refers


to the story that Timotheus aroused Alexander's passions
with his music. Galilei suggests that Timotheus must have
acted out the feelings he was conveying during his performance,

Timotheus joined Alexander in Memphis, Egypt where


he took part in the musical competitions held there.
He also performed at the mass-marriage organised by
Alexander in Susa in 324.

105.2 In literature
105.2.1

Ancient

When he roused the great Alexander with


the dicult mode of Minerva [Athena] to combat with the armies of his foes, not only did the
circumstances mentioned reveal themselves in
the rhythms, the words and the conceptions in
the entire song in conformity with his desire,
but in my opinion at least, his habit, the aspect
of his countenance and each particular gesture
and member must have shown on this occasion that he was burning with desire to ght,
to overcome and conquer the enemy. For this
reason Alexander was forced to cry out for his
arms and to say that this should be the song of
kings.* [8]

He is the principal gure in Lucian's dialogue Harmonides, in which Timotheus discusses musicianship
with Harmonides, a pupil of his. Harmonides wants to
achieve fame. Timotheus advises him to impress the experts within his profession rather than seek popular ap- Timotheus's apparent ability to manipulate Alexander's
proval in big public venues. If leading musicians admire emotions through music is also the subject of John Dryhim, popular approval will follow.
den's poem Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music, later
Dio Chrysostom, in a speech on ideal kingship addressed set to music by Handel. However, the portrayal of the
to Trajan, refers to the story of how Timotheus' music in- musician singing and playing the lyre ts the earlier Timspired martial thoughts in Alexander. For Chrysostom, otheus. Dryden appears to merge the two, referring to
Timotheus's skill was in adapting his playing to the his breathing ute / And sounding lyre. He is also
225

226
mentioned in Alexander Pope's poem An Essay on Criticism, in whichTimotheus' varied lays surprise, so that
the world's Victor stood subdued by sound.

105.3 References
[1] Didymus col. 12.612
[2] Craig Gibson, Interpreting a classic: Demosthenes and his
ancient commentators, University of California Press, p.97
[3] Athenaus, 13.565a
[4] Suidas. vv. 'Alexander', 5O.
[5] Dio Chrysostom, Oration 1, On Kingship.
[6] Claude V. Palisca, Nancy Kovale Baker, Barbara Russano Hanning, Musical humanism and its legacy: essays in
honor of Claude V. Palisca, Pendragon Press, 1992, p.37.
[7] Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology > v. 3, page 1149
[8] Galilei, Dialogo della Musica, quoted in Carl Dahlhaus,
Ruth Katz (eds) Contemplating Music: Source Readings in
the Aesthetics of Music, Volume 2, Pendragon Press, New
York, 1987, p.72.

CHAPTER 105. TIMOTHEUS (AULIST)

Chapter 106

Tomb of Alexander the Great


The tomb of Alexander the Great and, particularly, its
exact present location has been a recurring conundrum.
Shortly after Alexander's death in Babylon the possession
of his body became a subject of negotiations between
Perdiccas, Ptolemy I Soter, and Seleucus I Nicator.* [1]
According to Nicholas J. Saunders, while Babylon was
the obvious sitefor Alexander's resting place, some
favored to inter Alexander in the Argead burial at Aegae, modern Vergina.* [2] Aegae was one of the two originally proposed resting places, according to Saunders, the
other being Siwa Oasis and in 321 BC Perdiccas presumably chose Aegae.* [3] The body, however, was hijacked
en route by Ptolemy I Soter. According to Pausanias
and the contemporary Parian Chronicle records for the
years 321320 BC, Ptolemy initially buried Alexander in
Memphis. In the late 4th or early 3rd century BC Alexander's body was transferred from Memphis to Alexandria,
where it was reburied.
The so-called Alexander Sarcophagus, unrelated to
Alexander's body and once thought to be the sarcophagus
of Abdalonymus, is now believed to be that of Mazacus,
a Persian governor of Babylon.* [4]

106.1 Background
Further information: Death of Alexander the Great
According to Quintus Curtius Rufus and Justin, Alexander asked shortly before his death to be interred in the
temple of Zeus Ammon at Siwah Oasis.* [5] Alexander,
who requested to be referred to and perceived as the
son of Zeus Ammon, did not wish to be buried alongside his actual father at Aegae.* [5] Alexander's body was
placed in a con of hammered gold, according to
Diodorus, which wastted to the body.* [6] The cofn is also mentioned by Strabo and Curtius Rufus* [6]
(subsequently, in 8990 BC the golden con was melted
down and replaced with that of glass or crystal* [7]).
Alexander's wish to be interred in Siwa was not honored.
In 321 BC, on its way back to Macedonia, the funerary
cart with Alexander's body was hijacked in Syria by one
of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter. In late 322 or

early 321 BC Ptolemy diverted the body to Egypt where it


was interred in Memphis, the center of Alexander's government in Egypt. While Ptolemy was in possession of
Alexander's body, Perdiccas and Eumenes had Alexander's armor, diadem and royal scepter.* [8]
According to Plutarch, who visited Alexandria, Python
of Catana and Seleucus were sent to a serapeum to ask
the oracle whether Alexander's body should be sent to
Alexandria and the oracle answered positively.* [9] In
the late 4th or early 3rd century BC Alexander's body
was transferred from the Memphis tomb to Alexandria
for reburial* [10] (by Ptolemy Philadelphus in c. 280
BC, according to Pausanias). Later Ptolemy Philopator placed Alexander's body in Alexandria's communal
mausoleum.* [10] The mausoleum was called the Soma
or Sema, which means bodyin Greek. By 274 BC
Alexander was already entombed in Alexandria.* [11]

106.2 Historical attestations


In 48 BC Alexander's tomb was visited by Caesar.* [7]
Shortly after the death of Cleopatra, Alexander's resting place was visited by Augustus, who is said to have
placed owers on the tomb and a golden diadem upon
Alexander's head.* [10] According to Suetonius, Alexander's tomb was then partially looted by Caligula, who
reportedly removed his breastplate. In 199 Alexander's
tomb was sealed up by Septimius Severus during his visit
to Alexandria.* [7] Later, in 215 some items from Alexander's tomb were relocated by Caracalla.* [7] According to
chronicler John of Antioch, Caracalla removed Alexander's tunic, his ring, his belt with some other precious
items and deposited them on the con.
Later authors, such as Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam, Al-Masudi
and Leo the African, report having seen Alexander's
tomb.* [10] Leo the African, who visited Alexandria in
1491, wrote: In the midst of the ruins of Alexandria,
there still remains a small edice, built like a chapel, worthy of notice on account of a remarkable tomb held in
high honor by the Mahometans; in which sepulchre, they
assert, is preserved the body of Alexander the Great...
An immense crowd of strangers come thither, even from
distant countries, for the sake of worshipping and doing

227

228
homage to the tomb, on which they likewise frequently
bestow considerable donations.* [12] George Sandys,
who visited Alexandria in 1611, was reportedly shown a
sepulchre there, venerated as the resting place of Alexander.* [13]

106.3 Present location

CHAPTER 106. TOMB OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT


cavation at Amphipolis will reveal if there is any truth in
the suggestion. In November 2014, a skeleton was discovered within the tomb,* [20] and its full examination
is expected to last a few months in order to determine
the characteristics of the deceased person in the eort to
identify it.

106.4 Notes

The Egyptian Supreme Council for Antiquities has ocially recognized over 140 search attempts for Alexan- [1] Saunders 2007, p. 34
der's tomb.* [10] Mahmoud el-Falaki, who compiled the
map of ancient Alexandria, believed Alexander's tomb [2] Saunders 2007, p. 35
is in the center of Alexandria, at the intersection of the
[3] Saunders 2007, p. 38
Via Canopica (modern Horreya Avenue) and the ancient
street labeled R5.* [14] Since then several other schol[4] Alexander the Great at War: His Army - His Battles ars such as Tasos Neroutsos, Heinrich Kiepert and Ernst
His Enemies. Osprey Publishing. 2008. p. 123. ISBN
von Sieglin placed the tomb in the same area.* [14] In
1846033284.
1850 Ambroise Schilizzi announced the discovery of alleged Alexander's mummy and tomb inside the Nabi [5] Lauren O'Connor (2008). The Remains of Alexander
Daniel Mosque in Alexandria.* [15] Later, in 1879 a stone
the Great: The God, The King, The Symbol 10 (1).
worker accidentally broke through the vaulted chamber
Constructing the Past. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
inside the basement of that mosque. Some granite monuments with an angular summit were discerned there, but [6] Chugg 2007, p. 43
the entrance was then walled up and the stone worker was
asked not to disclose the incident* [16] (the image on a [7] Saunders 2007, p. x
Roman lamp in the National Museum of Pozna and others at the British Museum and the Hermitage Museum [8] Saunders 2007, p. 41
are interpreted by some scholars as showing Alexandria
with the Soma Mausoleum pictured as a building with a [9] Ancient sources. Hellenic Electronic Center Portal.
Retrieved 1 November 2013.
pyramidal roof).* [9] In 1888 an attempt to locate Alexander's tomb within the Nabi Daniel Mosque was made by
[10] Robert S. Bianchi. Hunting Alexander's Tomb. ArHeinrich Schliemann, but he was denied permission to
chaeology.org. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
excavate.* [15]
In 1995 Greek archaeologist Liana Souvaltzi announced
she identied one alleged tomb in Siwah with that of
Alexander. The claim was put in doubt by the thengeneral secretary of the Greek Ministry of Culture,
George Thomas, who said that it was unclear if the excavated structure is even a tomb.* [17] Thomas and members of his team said that the style of the excavated object
was not, as Souvaltzi contended, Macedonian, and that
the fragments of tablets they were shown did not support
any of the translations provided by Souvaltzi as proof of
her nding.* [17]

[11] Saunders 2007, p. 53


[12] Madden 1851, p. 138
[13] Madden 1851, p. 137
[14] Where is Alexander Buried?". Hellenic Electronic Center. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
[15] Saunders 2007, p. xii
[16] Chugg 2007, p. 149

According to one legend, the body lies in a crypt beneath


[17]No evidence seen of Alexander's tomb, Greeks say. The
an early Christian church.* [18]
Baltimore Sun. February 6, 1995. Retrieved 1 November

The recent discovery of a large Alexander-era tomb at


2013.
Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis in the region of Macedonia,
Greece,* [19] has once again invited speculation about [18] Alexander's death riddle is 'solved'". BBC. June 11,
Alexander nal resting place. Some have speculated that
1998. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011.
it was built for Alexander but never used due to Ptolemy
I Soter having seized the funeral cortege. They suggest [19] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-29239529
that the Roman Emperor Caracalla, a great admirer of
Alexander, may have had him re-interred in Amphipolis [20] Greek Goverment - Ministry of Culture and Sports - 12th
November 2014 Press Release (in Greek)
in the late second century AD. However, only future ex-

106.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

106.5 References
Saunders, Nicholas (2007). Alexander's Tomb: The
Two-Thousand Year Obsession to Find the Lost Conquerer. Basic Books. ISBN 0465006213.
Chugg, Andrew (2007). The Quest for the Tomb of
Alexander the Great. Lulu.com. ISBN 0955679001.
Madden, Richard (1851). The Shrines and Sepulchres of the Old and New World. Newby.

106.6 External links


Alexanderstomb.com

229

Chapter 107

Wars of Alexander the Great


The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King
Alexander III of Macedon The
(
Great), rst against the
Achaemenid Persian Empire, under its King of Kings
Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords
as far east as Punjab, India. Alexander the Great was one
of the most successful military commanders of all time.
He was undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he
had conquered most of the world known to the ancient
Greeks.* [1]

E
A
N
S
E
A

Philip II was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard,


Pausanias. Philip's son, and previously designated heir,
Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian noblemen and army.* [4]

107.1 Background

Alexander had already made more plans prior to his


death for military and mercantile expansions into the
Arabian peninsula, after which he was to turn his armies
to the west (Carthage, Rome, and the Iberian Peninsula).
However, Alexander's diadochi quietly abandoned these
grandiose plans after his death. Instead, within a few
years of Alexander's death, the diadochi began ghting
with each other, dividing up the Empire between themselves, and triggering 40 years of warfare.

Alexander assumed the kingship of Macedon following the death of his father Philip II, who had unied* [2] most of the city-states of mainland Greece under
Macedonian hegemony in a federation called the League
of Corinth.* [3] After reconrming Macedonian rule by
quashing a rebellion of southern Greek city-states and
staging a short but bloody excursion against Macedon's
northern neighbors, Alexander set out east against the
Achaemenid Persian Empire, under its King of Kings
(the title all Achaemenid kings went by), Darius III,
which he defeated and overthrew. His conquests included
Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria,
and Mesopotamia, and he extended the boundaries of his
own empire as far as Punjab, India.

IS

T
ON

OP

PR

DES

LA
CYC

EC

AN
ES

The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC

volt reached Alexander he responded quickly. Though


his advisers advised him to use diplomacy, Alexander
mustered the Macedonian cavalry of 3,000 men and rode
south towards Thessaly, Macedon's immediate neighbor
to the south. When he found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus and Mount
Ossa, he had the men ride through Mount Ossa and,
when the Thessalians awoke, they found Alexander at
their rear. The Thessalians surrendered and added their
cavalry to Alexander's force as he rode down towards the
Peloponnese.* [5]
Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Sacred League before heading south to Corinth. Athens sued for peace and Alexander received the envoy and pardoned anyone involved
with the uprising. At Corinth, he was given the title 'Hegemon' of the Greek forces against the Persians.
While at Corinth, he heard the news of the Thracian rising in the north.* [6]

107.2 Balkan campaign

News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt Main article: Alexander's Balkan campaign
including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian
tribes to the north of Macedon. When news of the re- Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard
230

107.3. ASIA MINOR


his northern borders and, in the spring of 335 BCE, he
advanced into Thrace to deal with the revolt, which was
led by the Illyrians and Triballi. At Mount Haemus, the
Macedonian army attacked and defeated a Thracian garrison manning the heights. The Macedonians were then
attacked in the rear by the Triballi, who were crushed in
turn. Alexander then advanced on to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. The
Getae army retreated after the rst cavalry skirmish,
leaving their town to the Macedonian army.* [7] News
then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Illyria, and
King Glaukias of the Taulanti were in open revolt against
Macedonian authority. Alexander defeated each in turn,
forcing Cleitus and Glaukias to ee with their armies,
leaving Alexander's northern frontier secure.* [8]
While he was triumphantly campaigning north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once more. Alexander reacted immediately, but, while the other cities once again
hesitated, Thebes decided to resist with the utmost vigor.
This resistance was useless, however, as the city was
razed to the ground amid great bloodshed and its territory divided between the other Boeotian cities. The end
of Thebes cowed Athens into submission, leaving all of
Greece at least outwardly at peace with Alexander.* [9]

107.3 Asia Minor

231

Map of what would become Alexander's empire.

of the Satrapy of Phrygia. The various satraps of the Persian empire gathered with their forces at the town of Zelea and oered battle on the banks of the Granicus River.
Alexander ultimately fought many of his battles on a river
bank. By doing so, he was able to minimize the advantage the Persians had in numbers. In addition, the deadly
Persian chariots were useless on a cramped, muddy river
bank.
Arrian, Diodorus, and Plutarch all mention the battle,
with Arrian providing the most detail. The Persians
placed their cavalry in front of their infantry, and drew
up on the right (east) bank of the river. The Macedonian
line was arrayed with the heavy Phalanxes in the middle, and cavalry on either side. The Persians expected
the main assault to come from Alexander's position and
moved units from their center to that ank.

Main article: Chronology of the expedition of Alexander


the Great into Asia

107.3.1

Persia

In 334 BC, Alexander crossed the Hellespont into Asia.


It took over one hundred triremes (boats with oars) to
transport the entire Macedonian army, but the Persians
decided to ignore the movement.
In these early months, Darius still refused to take Alexander seriously or mount a serious challenge to Alexander's movements. Memnon of Rhodes, the Greek mercenary who aligned himself with the Persians, advocated
a scorched earth strategy. He wanted the Persians to
destroy the land in front of Alexander, which he hoped
would force Alexander's army to starve, and then to turn
back. Eventually, with Alexander advancing deeper into
Persian territory, Darius put Memnon in control of an
army, and told him to nally confront Alexander.
Battle of the Granicus River
Herma of Alexander (Roman copy of a 330 BC statue by

The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC Lysippus, Louvre Museum). According to Diodorus, the Alexanwas fought in Northwestern Asia Minor (modern-day der sculptures by Lysippus were the most faithful.
Turkey), near the site of Troy. After crossing the
Hellespont, Alexander advanced up the road to the capital Alexander's second-in-command, Parmenion, suggested

232
crossing the river upstream and attacking at dawn the
next day, but Alexander attacked immediately. This tactic caught the Persians o guard. The battle started with
a cavalry and light infantry attack from the Macedonian
left, so the Persians heavily reinforced that side. However, by this point, Alexander led the horse companions
in their classic wedge-shaped charge, and smashed into
the center of the Persian line. Several high-ranking Persian nobles were killed by Alexander himself or his bodyguards, although Alexander was stunned by an axe-blow
from a Persian nobleman named Spithridates. Before
the noble could deal a death-blow, however, he was himself killed by Cleitus the Black. Alexander's horse was
killed, although he was not at the time riding his beloved
Bucephalus, either because Bucephalus was lame or because Alexander believed this battle to be too dangerous
for Bucephalus. The Macedonian cavalry opened a hole
in the Persian line, and the Macedonian infantry charged
through to engage the poor quality Persian infantry in the
rear. At this, and with many of their leaders already dead,
both anks of the Persian cavalry retreated, and the infantry was cut down as it ed.
Alexander consolidates his support in Asia Minor
After the battle, Alexander buried the dead (Macedonians, Greeks and Persians), and sent the captured Greek
mercenaries back to Greece to work in the mines, as
an object lesson for any Greek who decided to ght
for the Persians. He sent some of the spoils back to
Greece, including three hundred panoplies (complete
Persian suits of armor) back to Athens to be dedicated
in the Parthenon with the inscriptionAlexander, son of
Philip and the Greeks, Lacedaemonians (Spartans) excepted, these spoils from the barbarians who dwell in
Asia.
Antipater, whom Alexander had left in charge of Macedon in his absence, had been given a free hand to install
dictators and tyrants wherever he saw t in order to minimize the risk of a rebellion. As he moved deeper into Persia, however, the threat of trouble seemed to grow. Many
of these towns had been ruled for generations by heavy
handed tyrants, so in these Persian towns, he did the opposite of what he did in Greece. Wanting to appear to
be a liberator, he freed the population and allowed selfgovernment. As he continued marching into Persia, he
saw that his victory at Granicus had been lost on no one.
Town after town seemed to surrender to him. The satrap
at Sardis, as well as his garrison, was among the rst of
many satraps to capitulate.
As these satraps gave up, Alexander appointed new ones
to replace them, and claimed to distrust the accumulation
of absolute power into anyones hands. There appeared
to be little change from the old system. Alexander, however, appointed independent boards to collect tribute and
taxes from the satrapies, which appeared to do nothing
more than improve the eciency of government. The

CHAPTER 107. WARS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT


true eect, however, was to separate the civil from the
nancial function of these satrapies, thus ensuring that
these governments, while technically independent of him,
never truly were. Otherwise, he allowed the inhabitants
of these towns to continue as they always had, and made
no attempt to impose Greek customs on them. Meanwhile, ambassadors from other Greek cities in Asia Minor came to Alexander, oering submission if he allowed
their 'democracies' to continue. Alexander granted their
wish, and allowed them to stop paying taxes to Persia, but
only if they joined the League of Corinth. By doing so,
they promised to provide monetary support to Alexander.

Siege of Halicarnassus
The Siege of Halicarnassus was undertaken in 334 BC.
Alexander, who had no navy, was constantly being threatened by the Persian navy. It continuously attempted
to provoke an engagement with Alexander, who would
have none of it. Eventually, the Persian eet sailed to
Halicarnassus, in order to establish a new defense. Ada
of Caria, the former queen of Halicarnassus, had been
driven from her throne by her usurping brother. When he
died, Darius had appointed Orontobates satrap of Caria,
which included Halicarnassus in its jurisdiction. On the
approach of Alexander in 334 BC, Ada, who was in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surrendered the fortress
to him. Alexander and Ada appear to have formed an
emotional connection. He called her mother, nding her more amicable than his megalomaniacal snakeworshiping mother Olympias. In return for his support,
Ada gave Alexander gifts, and even sent him some of the
best cooks in Asia Minor, realizing that Alexander had a
sweet tooth. In the past, Alexander had referred to his
biological father, Philip, as his so-calledfather, and
preferred to think of the deity Amon Zeus as his actual
father. Thus, he had nally managed to divorce himself
from both of his biological parents.
Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. Alexander had sent spies to meet
with dissidents inside the city, who had promised to open
the gates and allow Alexander to enter. When his spies arrived, however, the dissidents were nowhere to be found.
A small battle resulted, and Alexander's army managed
to break through the city walls. Memnon, however, now
deployed his catapults, and Alexander's army fell back.
Memnon then deployed his infantry, and shortly before
Alexander would have received his rst (and only) defeat,
his infantry managed to break through the city walls, surprising the Persian forces and killing Orontobates. Memnon, realizing the city was lost, set re to it and withdrew with his army. A strong wind caused the re to destroy much of the city. Alexander then committed the
government of Caria to Ada; and she, in turn, formally
adopted Alexander as her son, ensuring that the rule of
Caria passed unconditionally to him upon her eventual
death.

107.3. ASIA MINOR

107.3.2

233

Syria

Shortly after the battle, Memnon died. His replacement


was an Athenian named Karademas. Darius's generals
wanted Darius to personally command the army during a
major battle against Alexander. Karademas, who thought
that this would be too reckless, got into an argument
with Darius's generals. He implied that he should lead
the army because, as a Greek, he was a better general
than any of the Persians. An argument resulted, Karademas made some uncomplimentary comments about Persian culture, and Darius ordered Karademas executed.
Shortly thereafter, Darius realized that he had made a
mistake, because he had just executed the only competent general he had left. He decided to take his army, and Alexander's decisive attack.
leave Babylon in order to intercept Alexander.
Alexander marched his army east through Cappadocia,
where, for a stretch of nearly 150 km (93 mi), there
was no water. As his army approached Mount Taurus,
they found only one route through which to pass, which
was a narrow dele called The Gates. The dele
was very narrow, and could have been easily defended.
However, the Persian satrap of Cappadocia had an inated view of his own abilities. He had been at the Battle
of the Granicus River, and had believed that Memnon's
scorched Earth strategy would work here. He didn't realize that the dierent circumstances of the terrain made
that strategy useless. Had he mounted a credible defense
of the dele, Alexander would have been easily repulsed.
He left only a small contingent to guard the dele, and
took his entire army to destroy the plain that lay ahead of
Alexander's army. The Persian contingent that was supposed to guard the dele soon abandoned it, and Alexander passed through without any problems. Alexander supposedly said after this incident that he had never been so
lucky in his entire career.

parently unaware that, by deciding to stage the battle on


a river bank, he was minimizing the numerical advantage
his army had over Alexander's.
Initially, Alexander chose what was apparently unfavorable ground. This surprised Darius who mistakenly elected to hold the wrong position while Alexander instructed his infantry to take up a defensive posture. Alexander personally led the more elite Greek
Companion cavalry against the Persian left up against the
hills, and cut up the enemy on the less encumbering terrain and thereby generating a quick rout. After achieving
a breakthrough, Alexander demonstrated he could do the
dicult and held the cavalry successfully in check after
it broke the Persian right. Alexander then mounted his
beloved horse Bucephalus, took his place at the head of
his Companion cavalry, and led a direct assault against
Darius. The horses that were pulling Darius' chariot were
injured, and began tossing at the yoke. Darius, about to
fall o his chariot, instead jumped o. He threw his royal
diadem away, mounted a horse, and ed the scene. The
Persian troops, realizing they had lost, either surrendered
or ed with their hapless king. The Macedonian cavalry
pursued the eeing Persians for as long as there was light.
As with most ancient battles, signicant carnage occurred
after the battle as pursuing Macedonians slaughtered their
crowded, disorganized foe.

After reaching Mount Taurus, Alexander's army found


a stream that owed from the mountain with water that
was ice cold. Not thinking, Alexander jumped into the
stream, suered a cramp and then a convulsion, and was
pulled out nearly dead. He quickly developed pneumonia,
but none of his physicians would treat him, because they
feared that, if he died, they would be held responsible.
One physician named Philip, who had treated Alexander
since he was a child, agreed to treat him. Although he The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in
November 333 BC. The invading troops led by Alexansoon fell into a coma, he eventually recovered.
der were outnumbered more than 2:1, yet they defeated
the army personally led by Darius III of Achaemenid
Persia. The battle was a decisive Macedonian victory and
Battle of Issus
it marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. It
The battle of Issus took place in November 333 BC. Af- was the rst time the Persian army had been defeated with
ter Alexander's forces successfully defeated the Persians the King present on the eld. Darius left his wife and
at the Battle of the Granicus, Darius took personal charge an enormous amount of treasure behind as his army ed.
of his army, gathered a large army from the depths of the The greed of the Macedonians helped to persuade them
empire, and maneuvered to cut the Greek line of sup- to keep going, as did the large number of Persian concuply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, set- bines and prostitutes they picked up in the battle. Darius,
ting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus now fearing for both his throne and his life, sent a letter
River and south of the village of Issus. Darius was ap- to Alexander in which he promised to pay a substantial

234
ransom in exchange for the prisoners of war, and agreeing to a treaty of alliance with and the forfeiture of half
of his empire to Alexander. Darius received a response
which began King Alexander to Darius. In the letter, Alexander blamed Darius for his father's death and
claimed Darius was but a vulgar usurper, who planned
to take Macedonia. He agreed to return the prisoners
without ransom, but told Darius that he and Alexander
were not equals, and that Darius was to henceforth address Alexander as King of all Asia. Darius was
also curtly informed that, if he wanted to dispute Alexander's claim to the Achaemenid throne, that he would have
to stand and ght, and that if he instead ed, Alexander
would pursue and kill him. By this, Alexander revealed
for the rst time that his plan was to conquer the entire
Persian Empire.
Siege of Tyre

A naval action during the siege, Drawing by Andr Castaigne

The Siege of Tyre occurred in 332 BC when Alexander


set out to conquer Tyre, a strategic coastal base. Tyre
was the site of the only remaining Persian port that did
not capitulate to Alexander. Even by this point in the
war, the Persian navy still posed a major threat to Alexander. Tyre, the largest and most important city-state of
Phoenicia, was located both on the Mediterranean coast
as well as a nearby Island with two natural harbors on the
landward side. At the time of the siege, the city held approximately 40,000 people, though the women and chil-

CHAPTER 107. WARS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT


dren were evacuated to Carthage, an ancient Phoenician
colony.
Alexander sent an envoy to Tyre, proposing a peace
treaty, and asked to visit their city and oer sacrices to
their God Melqart. The Tyrians politely told Alexander
that their town was neutral in the war, and that allowing
him to oer sacrices to Melqart would be tantamount
to recognizing him as their king. Alexander considered
building a causeway that would allow his army to take the
town by force. His engineers didn't believe it would be
possible to successfully build such a massive structure,
and so Alexander sent peace envoys once more to propose an alliance. The Tyrians believed this to be a sign of
weakness, and so they killed the envoys and threw their
bodies over the city wall. The dissent against Alexander's
plans to take the city by force disappeared, and his engineers began to design the structure. Alexander began
with an engineering feat that shows the true extent of his
brilliance; as he could not attack the city from sea, he
built a kilometer-long causeway stretching out to the island on a natural land bridge no more than two meters
deep.* [10] Alexander then constructed two towers 150
feet high and moved them to the end of the causeway.
The Tyrians, however, quickly devised a counterattack.
They used an old horse transport ship, lling it with dried
branches, pitch, sulfur, and various other combustibles.
They then lit it on re, creating what we might call a primitive form of napalm, and ran it up onto the causeway.
The re spread quickly, engulng both towers and other
siege equipment that had been brought up.
This convinced Alexander that he would be unable to take
Tyre without a navy. Fate would soon provide him with
one. Presently, the Persian navy returned to nd their
home cities under Alexanders control. Since their allegiance was to their city, they were therefore Alexanders.
He now had eighty ships. This coincided with the arrival
of another hundred and twenty from Cyprus, which had
heard of his victories and wished to join him. Alexander then sailed on Tyre and quickly blockaded both ports
with his superior numbers. He had several of the slower
galleys, and a few barges, ret with battering rams, the
only known case of battering rams being used on ships.
Alexander started testing the wall at various points with
his rams, until he made a small breach in the south end
of the island. He then coordinated an attack across the
breach with a bombardment from all sides by his navy.
Once his troops forced their way into the city, they easily overtook the garrison, and quickly captured the city.
Those citizens that took shelter in the temple of Heracles
were pardoned by Alexander. It is said that Alexander
was so enraged at the Tyrians' defense and the loss of his
men that he destroyed half the city. Alexander granted
pardon to the king and his family, whilst 30,000 residents
and foreigners taken were sold into slavery. There was a
family, though, that Alexander gave a very high position
in his government, but the only contact he ever had with
them was when he spent the night with the wife of the

107.3. ASIA MINOR


household.

235
Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela took place in 331 BC in what


is now Iraqi Kurdistan, possibly near Dohuk,* [13]* [14]
and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.
107.3.3 Egypt
After the Siege of Gaza, Alexander advanced from Syria
towards the heart of the Persian empire, crossing both
the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers without any opposiSiege of Gaza
tion. Darius was building up a massive army, drawing
men from the far reaches of his empire, and planned to
The stronghold at Gaza was built on a hill and was
use sheer numbers to crush Alexander. Though Alexan*
heavily fortied. [11] The inhabitants of Gaza and their
der had conquered part of the Persian empire, it was still
Nabataean allies did not want to lose the lucrative trade
vast in area and in manpower reserves, and Darius could
*
which was controlled by Gaza. [11]
recruit more men than Alexander could dream of. Also
present in the Persian army, a sign that the Persians were
still very powerful, were the feared war elephants. While
Darius had a signicant advantage in number of soldiers,
most of his troops weren't as organized as Alexander's.

Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the House of


the Faun, Pompeii

Batis, the commander of the fortress of Gaza, refused


to surrender to Alexander. Though a eunuch, Batis
was physically imposing and ruthless. After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold was nally taken by
force,* [12] but not before Alexander received a serious
shoulder wound. When Gaza was taken, the male population was put to the sword and the women and children
were sold into slavery. According to the Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus, Batis was killed by Alexander
in imitation of Achilles' treatment of the fallen Hector.
A rope was forced through Batis's ankles, probably between the ankle bone and the Achilles tendon, and Batis
was dragged alive by chariot beneath the walls of the
city. Alexander, who admired courage in his enemies and
might have been inclined to show mercy to the brave Persian general, was infuriated at Batis's refusal to kneel and
by the enemy commander's haughty silence and contemptuous manner.
With Gaza taken, Alexander marched into Egypt. The
Egyptians hated the Persians, in part because Persia considered Egypt as nothing more than one big bread basket. They welcomed Alexander as their king, placed him
on the throne of the Pharaohs, giving him the crown of
Upper and Lower Egypt, and named him the incarnation of Ra and Osiris. He set in motion plans to build
Alexandria, and, though future tax revenues would be
channeled to him, he left Egypt under the management
of Egyptians, which helped to win him their support.

Alexander's decisive attack

The battle began with the Persians already present at the


battleeld. Darius had recruited the nest cavalry from
his eastern satrapies. Darius placed himself in the center with his best infantry as was the tradition among Persian kings. The Macedonians were divided into two, with
the right side of the army falling under the direct command of Alexander, and the left to Parmenion. Alexander began by ordering his infantry to march in phalanx
formation towards the center of the enemy line. Darius now launched his chariots, which were intercepted by
the Agrianians, and quickly rendered useless. Alexander,
while leading the charge, formed his units into a giant
wedge, which quickly smashed right into the weakened
Persian center. Darius' charioteer was killed by a spear,
and chaos rang out as everyone (incorrectly) thought it
was Darius who had been killed. The Persian line then
collapsed, and Darius ed. Darius escaped with a small
core of his forces remaining intact, although the Bactrian
cavalry and Bessus soon caught up with him. The remaining Persian resistance was quickly put down. In all, the
Battle of Gaugamela was a disastrous defeat for the Persians, and possibly one of Alexander's nest victories.

236

107.3.4

CHAPTER 107. WARS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

End of the Achaemenid Persian Battle of the Persian Gate


Empire

After the battle, Parmenion rounded up the Persian baggage train while Alexander and his own bodyguard chased
after Darius in hopes of catching up. Substantial amounts
of loot were gained following the battle, with 4,000 talents captured, as well as the King's personal chariot and
bow. Darius planned to head further east, and raise another army to face Alexander while he and the Macedonians headed to one of the Persian capitals, Babylon, and
then to another, Susa. There, Alexander found wealth
that even he had never imagined possible. He paid his
troops, and sent a sum of money six times the annual income of Athens to Greece, in order to put down a Spartan rebellion. Darius, meanwhile, dispatched letters to
his eastern satrapies asking them to remain loyal. The Map of the Persian Gate
satrapies, however, had other intentions, and quickly capitulated to Alexander.
In the winter of 330 BC, at the Battle of the PerBessus fatally stabbed Darius, before eeing eastwards. sian Gate northeast of today's Yasuj in Iran, the Perled a last stand of the PerDarius was found by one of Alexander's scouts, moan- sian satrap *Ariobarzanes
*
sian
forces.
[15]
[16]
After
the Battle of Gaugamela,
ing in pain. Darius, dying and chained to a baggage
Alexander
had
advanced
to
Babylon
and Susa. A Royal
train being pulled by an ox, was lying next to a lone
Road
connected
Susa
with
the
more
eastern capitals of
dog and royal robes covered in blood. He asked for waPersepolis
and
Pasargadae
in
Persis
(the Persian Emter, and then, clutching the Macedonian soldier's hand,
pire
had
several
capitals),
and
was
the natural venue
said that he was thankful that he would not die utterly
for
Alexander's
continued
campaign.
After
the conquest
alone and abandoned. Alexander, who may have felt genof
Susa,
Alexander
split
the
Macedonian
army
into two
uinely saddened at Darius' death, buried Darius next to
parts.
Alexander's
general,
Parmenion,
took
one
half
his Achaemenid predecessors in a full military funeral.
along
the
Royal
Road,
and
Alexander
himself
took
the
Alexander claimed that, while dying, Darius had named
route
towards
Persis.
Passing
into
Persis
required
traversAlexander as his successor to the Achaemenid throne and
had asked Alexander to avenge his death, a striking irony ing the Persian Gates, *a narrow mountain pass that lent
since it was Alexander who had pursued him to his death. itself easily to ambush. [17]
The Achaemenid Persian Empire is considered to have Believing that, after his victory over the Uxians, he
fallen with the death of Darius.
would not encounter any more enemy forces during his
Alexander, viewing himself as the legitimate march, Alexander neglected to send scouts ahead of his
Achaemenid successor to Darius, viewed Bessus as vanguard, and thus walked into Ariobarzanes' ambush.
a usurper to the Achaemenid throne, and eventually Once the Macedonian army had advanced suciently
found and executed this 'usurper'. The majority of the into the narrow pass, the Persians rained down boulders
existing satraps were to give their loyalty to Alexander, on them from the northern slopes. From the southern
and be allowed to keep their positions. Alexanders slope, Persian archers and catapults launched their proheavy casutroops now thought the war was over. Alexander was jectiles. Alexander's army initially suered
*
[18]
Ariobarzanes
alties,
losing
entire
platoons
at
a
time.
unsure how to deal with this, so he decided to scare
them into submission. He gave a speech, arguing that had hoped that defeating Alexander at the Persian Gates
their conquests were not secure, that the Persians did not would allow the Persians more time to eld another army,
want the Greeks to remain in their country, and that only and possibly stop the Macedonian invasion altogether.
the strength of Macedon could secure the country. The
speech worked, and Alexander's troops agreed to remain
with him. Alexander, now the Persian King of Kings
, adopted Persian dress and mannerisms, which, in time,
the Greeks began to view as decadent and autocratic.
They began to fear that Alexander, the king they had
hero-worshiped, was turning into an eastern despot,
although a young eunuch was eventually introduced to
Alexander, and helped to keep his decadence in check.

Ariobarzanes held the pass for a month,* [19] but Alexander succeeded in encircling the Persian army and broke
through the Persian defenses. The defeat of Ariobarzanes's forces at the Persian Gate removed the last military obstacle between Alexander and Persepolis. Upon
his arrival at the city of Persepolis, Alexander appointed a
general named Phrasaortes as successor of Ariobarzanes.
Four months later, Alexander allowed the troops to loot
Persepolis. A re broke out and spread to the rest of the

107.5. INVASION OF INDIA

237

city. It is not clear if it had been a drunken accident, or a


deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis
of Athens during the Second Greco-Persian War.* [20]

107.4 Siege of the Sogdian Rock


After Alexander defeated the last of the Achaemenid Empire's forces 328 BC, he began a new campaign against
the various Indian kings in 327 BC. He wanted to conquer the entire known world, which in Alexander's day,
ended on the eastern end of India. Greeks of Alexander's day knew nothing of China, or any other lands east
of India. The Siege of the Sogdian Rock, a fortress located north of Bactria in Sogdiana, occurred in 327 BC.
Oxyartes of Bactria had sent his wife and daughters, one
of whom was Roxana, to take refuge in the fortress, as it
was thought to be impregnable, and was provisioned for a
long siege. When Alexander asked the defenders to surrender, they refused, telling him that he would needmen
with wingsto capture it. Alexander asked for volunteers,
whom he would reward if they could climb the clis under the fortress. There were some 300 men who from
previous sieges had gained experience in rock-climbing.
Using tent-pegs and strong axen lines, they climbed the
cli face at night, losing about 30 of their number during the ascent. In accordance with Alexander's orders,
they signaled their success to the troops below by waving bits of linen, and Alexander sent a herald to shout the
news to the enemy's advanced posts that they might now
surrender without further delay. The defenders were so
surprised and demoralized by this that they surrendered.
Alexander fell in love with Roxana, whom ancient historians call the most beautiful woman in the world(not
an uncommon claim for an ancient queen) on sight and
eventually married her. The story of the siege is told by
the Roman historian Arrian of Nicomedia, in Anabasis
(section 4.18.4-19.6).

Campaigns and landmarks of Alexander's invasion of the Indian


subcontinent.

a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar


valley, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.* [21] A erce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart but eventually the Aspasioi lost the ght. Alexander then faced the
Assakenoi, who fought bravely and oered stubborn resistance to Alexander in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora
and Aornos. The fort of Massaga could only be reduced
after several days of bloody ghting in which Alexander
himself was wounded seriously in the ankle. According
to Curtius, Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire
population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubbles.* [22] A similar slaughter then followed
107.5 Invasion of India
at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenoi. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians ed to
Main articles: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind
and Battle of the Hydaspes
their heels and captured the strategic hill-fort after the
After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to fourth day of a bloody ght. This ght was the challenge
Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement his relations Alexander was looking for, an army with huge elephants
with his new Central Asian satrapies, Alexander was - that were almost able to defeat Alexander.
nally free to turn his attention to the Indian subcontinent. After reducing Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and
Alexander invited all the chieftains of the former satrapy fought and won an epic battle against a local ruler Porus,
of Gandhara, in the north of what is now Pakistan, to who ruled a region in the Punjab, in the Battle of Hycome to him and submit to his authority. Omphis, ruler daspes in 326 BC. After the battle, Alexander was greatly
of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore
the Hydaspes, complied, but the chieftains of some hill made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of
clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of his own kingdom, even adding some land he did not own
the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas before. Alexander then named one of the two new cities
and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit.
that he founded, Bucephala, in honor of the horse who
In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led had brought him to India, who had died during the Battle

238

CHAPTER 107. WARS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

homeland. Alexander, seeing the unwillingness of his


men agreed and turned south. Along the way his army
conquered the Malli clans (in modern day Multan), reputed to be among the bravest and most warlike peoples
in South Asia. Following this, the surviving Malli surrendered to Alexander's forces, and his beleaguered army
moved on, conquering more Indian tribes along the way.
In the territory of the Indus, he nominated his ocer
Peithon as a satrap, a position he would hold for the next
A painting by Charles Le Brun depicting Alexander and Porus ten years until 316 BC, and in the Punjab he left Eudemus
(Puru) during the Battle of the Hydaspes
in charge of the army, at the side of the satrap Porus and
Taxiles. Eudemus became ruler of a part of the Punjab
after their death. Both rulers returned to the West in 316
*
of Hydaspes. [23]
BC with their armies. In 321 BC, Chandragupta Maurya
East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, was the founded the Maurya Empire in India and overthrew the
powerful Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gangaridai Em- Greek satraps.
pire of Bengal. Fearing the prospects of facing other powerful Indian armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River, refusing to 107.6 Return from India
march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost
extent of Alexander's conquests.
Alexander now sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and comAs for the Macedonians, however, their
missioned a eet to explore the Persian Gulf shore unstruggle with Porus blunted their courage and
der his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his
stayed their further advance into India. For
forces back to Persia by the southern route through the
having done all they could do to repulse an enGedrosian Desert (now part of southern Iran and Makran
emy who mustered only twenty thousand innow part of Pakistan). According to Plutarch, during the
fantry and two thousand horse, they violently
60 day march through the desert, Alexander lost threeopposed Alexander when he insisted on crossquarters of his army to the harsh desert conditions along
ing the river Ganges also, the width of which,
the way.* [25]
as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its
depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on
the further side were covered with multitudes
107.7 References
of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.
For they were told that the kings of the Gan[1] See, e.g., ac.wwu.edu
derites and Praesii were awaiting them with
eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thou[2] Bowra, C. Maurice ([1957] (1994)). The Greek Experisand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six
ence. London: Phoenix Orion Books Ltd. p. 9. ISBN
thousand ghting elephants.* [24]
1-85799-122-2. Check date values in: |date= (help)

[3] Sacks, David, (1995), Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek


World, London: Constable and Co. Ltd, ISBN 0-09475270-2, p. 16.
[4] McCarty, Alexander the elmo, p. 30-31.
* Plutarch, The Age of Alexander, p. 262-263
* Renault, The Nature of Alexander the Great, p. 61-62
* Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 72

Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empire of


Ancient India in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors.

Alexander spoke to his army and tried to persuade them to


march further into India but Coenus pleaded with him to
change his opinion and return, the men, he said,longed
to again see their parents, their wives and children, their

[5] McCarty, Alexander the Great, p. 31.


* Plutarch, The Age of Alexander, p. 263
* Renault, The Nature of Alexander the Great, p. 72
* Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 104
* Bose, Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy, p. 95
[6] Bose, Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy, p. 96.
* Renault, The Nature of Alexander the Great, p. 72
[7]

Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, p. 4448.


* Renault, The Nature of Alexander the Great, p.
7374.

107.8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

[8]

Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, p. 5054.


* Renault, The Nature of Alexander the Great, p.
77.

[9] Plutarch. Phocion. p. 17.


[10] Staord, Ned (14 May 2007). How geology came to
help Alexander the Great. Nature.com. Retrieved 17
May 2007.
[11] Siege of Tyre and Gaza. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
[12] Leaders and Battles: Gaza, Siege of. Leaders and Battles Database. Archived from the original on 22 October
2006. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
[13] http://www.kurdishglobe.net/article/
18EDF300EF8A0184B86ADF8FB69F6BC0/
The-Location-of-the-Battle-of-Gaugamela-Discovered.
html

239

107.8 Bibliography
Arrian (1976) [140s AD]. The Campaigns of
Alexander. trans. Aubrey de Slincourt. Penguin
Books. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Bowra, C. Maurice ([1957] (1994)). The Greek Experience. London: Phoenix Orion Books Ltd. p. 9.
ISBN 1-85799-122-2. Check date values in: |date=
(help)
Farrokh, Kaveh (April 24, 2007). Shadows in the
Desert: Ancient Persia at War (General Military).
Osprey Publishing/Google Books. p. 106. ISBN
1846031087. Retrieved April 1, 2013. ISBN 9781846031083.
Lane Fox, Robin (1973). Alexander the Great.
Allen Lane. ISBN 0-86007-707-1.

[14] http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-364051719.html

Lane Fox, Robin (1980). The Search for Alexander.


Little Brown & Co. Boston. ISBN 0-316-29108-0.

[15] Robinson, Cyril Edward (1929). A History of Greece.


Methuen & Company Limited/Google books. Retrieved
April 1, 2013.

Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon: 356


323 B.C. A Historical Biography. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.

[16] Farrokh, Kaveh (April 24, 2007). Shadows in the Desert:


Ancient Persia at War (General Military). Osprey Publishing/Google Books. p. 106. ISBN 1846031087. Retrieved April 1, 2013. ISBN 978-1846031083.

Plutarch (2004). Life of Alexander. Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-7133-7.

[17] For the identication, see Henry Speck, Alexander at


the Persian Gates. A Study in Historiography and Topographyin: American Journal of Ancient History n.s. 1.1
(2002) 15-234; more....
[18] Quintus Curtius Rufus
[19] N. G. L. Hammond (1992).The Archaeological and Literary Evidence for the Burning of the Persepolis Palace
, The Classical Quarterly 42 (2), p. 358-364.
[20] Google.ca
[21] Narain, A. K. (1965). Alexander the Great: Greece and
Rome 12. pp. 155165.
[22] Curtius in McCrindle, Op cit, p 192, J. W. McCrindle;
History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229, Punajbi University,
Patiala, (Editors): Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi; Kambojas
Through the Ages, 2005, p 134, Kirpal Singh.
[23] Arrian (2004). Tania Gergel, ed. The Brief Life and Towering Exploits of History's Greatest Conqueror as Told By
His Original Biographers. Penguin Books. p. 120. ISBN
0-14-200140-6.
[24] Plutarch, Alexander. p. 62.
[25] Plutarch, The Life of Alexander, 66.

Renault, Mary (1979). The Nature of Alexander.


Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-73825-X.
Robinson, Cyril Edward (1929). A History of
Greece. Methuen & Company Limited/Google
books. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
Wilcken, Ulrich (1997) [1932]. Alexander the
Great. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-39300381-7.
Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander the Great.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29187-9.
Worthington, Ian (2004). Alexander the Great: Man
And God. Pearson. ISBN 978-1-4058-0162-1.

107.9 Further reading


Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction, edited by
A.B. Bosworth, E.J. Baynham. New York: Oxford
University Press (USA), 2002 (Paperback, ISBN 019-925275-0).
Baynham, Elizabeth. Alexander the Great: The
Unique History of Quintus Curtius. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1998 (hardcover,
ISBN 0-472-10858-1); 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0472-03081-7).

240

CHAPTER 107. WARS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Brill's Companion to Alexander the Great by Joseph


Roisman (editor). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.

Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary


sources from Livius.org

De Santis, Marc G. At The Crossroads of Conquest.Military Heritage, December 2001. Volume


3, No. 3: 4655, 97 (Alexander the Great, his military, his strategy at the Battle of Gaugamela and
his defeat of Darius making Alexander the King of
Kings).

Alexander the Great on the Web, a comprehensive


directory of some 1,000 sites

Wiki Classical Dictionary, extant sources and


Cartledge, Paul. Alexander the Great: The Hunt for
fragmentary and lost sources
a New Past. Woodstock, NY; New York: The Overlook Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-565- Other
2); London: PanMacmillan, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN
1-4050-3292-8); New York: Vintage, 2005 (paper A Bibliography of Alexander the Great by Waldeback, ISBN 1-4000-7919-5).
mar Heckel
Dahmen, Karsten. The Legend of Alexander the
Pothos.org: Alexander's Home on the Web
Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Oxford: Routledge, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-39451-1; pa Alexander III the Great, entry in historical sourceperback, ISBN 0-415-39452-X).
book by Mahlon H. Smith

Fuller, J.F. C; A Military History of the Western


World: From the earliest times to the Battle of Lepanto; New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 and
1988. ISBN 0-306-80304-6
Gergel, Tania Editor Alexander the Great (2004)
published by the Penguin Group, London ISBN 014-200140-6 Brief collection of ancient accounts
translated into English
Larsen, Jakob A. O. Alexander at the Oracle of
Ammon, Classical Philology, Vol. 27, No. 1. (January 1932), pp. 7075.
Lonsdale, David. Alexander the Great, Killer of
Men: History's Greatest Conqueror and the Macedonian Way of War, New York, Carroll & Graf, 2004,
ISBN 0-7867-1429-8
Pearson, Lionel Ignacius Cusack. The Lost Histories
of Alexander the Great. Chicago Ridge, IL: Ares
Publishers, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-89005-5904).
Thomas, Carol G. Alexander the Great in his World
(Blackwell Ancient Lives). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-23245-1; paperback, ISBN 0-631-23246-X).

107.10 External links


Primary sources
Plutarch, Of the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander the
Great (English)
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius
Trogus (English)

Alexander The Great in the French museum Le Louvre


Alexander, The Great Mystery by T. Peter Limber
in Saudi Aramco Magazine
Trace Alexander's conquests on an animated map
Alexander the Great of Macedon, a project by John
J. Popovic
Alexander in the Punjab. A Photo Essay, photos of
all sites Alexander visited
Alexander the Great Coins, a site depicting Alexander's coins and later coins featuring Alexander's image

Chapter 108

Youtab
Youtab (Persian: , ourished 4th century BC)
was an ancient Persian noblewoman.
She was the sister of Ariobarzanes, Satrap of Persis. She
is notable for ghting alongside her brother against Greek
Macedonian King Alexander the Great at the Battle of the
Persian Gate in the winter of 330 BC.* [1]
Iranian legends recall the exploits of female warrior
Youtab who fought ferociously before falling in battle.
Hand to hand ghting was erce, and even unarmed tribal
refugees joined the ght against Alexander.

108.1 References
[1] Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War By Kaveh
Farrokh p.106

108.2 Sources
Farrokh (PhD), Dr. Kaveh. Shadows in the desert Ancient Persia at war. p. 106.

108.3 See also


Ariobarzanes, Satrap of Persis
Euttob (disambiguation)

241

Chapter 109

Aornos
alerted the defenders of Pir-Sar, and it took two days
of skirmishing in the narrow ravines for Alexander to
regroup. At the vulnerable north side leading to the
fort, Alexander and his catapults were stopped by a deep
ravine. To bring the siege engines within reach, an earthwork mound was constructed to bridge the ravine with
carpentry, brush and earth. The rst day's work brought
the siege mound 50 m (55 yd) closer, but as the sides
of the ravine fell away steeply below, progress rapidly
slowed; nevertheless, at the end of the third day, a low
hill connected to the nearest tip of Pir-Sar was within
reach and was taken, after Alexander in the vanguard and
his rst force were repelled by boulders rolled down from
above. Three days of drumbeats marked the defenders'
celebration of the initial repulse, followed by a surprise
retreat. Alexander hauled himself up the last rockface on
a rope. Alexander cleared the summit, slaying some fugitives (Lane Fox), inated by Arrian to a massacre, and
erected altars to Athena Nike, Athena of Victory, traces
of which were identied by Stein.* [2]
Alexander was now free to pursue his journey into
Punjab, and his reputation for invincibility seemed to be
established in India. The Battle of the Hydaspes River lay
in the future.

The Aornos is located to the north of Taxila.

Aornos was the site of Alexander the Great's last siege,


the climax to Alexander's career as the greatest besieger
in historyaccording to Alexander's biographer Robin
Lane Fox.* [1] The siege took place in the winter of 327
326 BCE. It oered the last threat to Alexander's supply
line, which stretched, dangerously vulnerable, over the
Hindu Kush back to Balkh, though Arrian credits Alexander's heroic desire to outdo his kinsman Heracles, who allegedly had proved unable to take the place Pir-Sar, which
the Greeks called Aornis. The site lies north of Attock
in Punjab, on a strongly reinforced mountain spur above
the narrow gorges in a bend of the upper Indus River. It
had a at summit well supplied with natural springs and
wide enough to grow crops: it could not be starved to
submission. Neighboring tribesmen who surrendered to
Alexander oered to lead him to the best point of access.

109.1 References
[1] Lane Fox, p. 343.
[2] Lane Fox (1973); Arrian.

109.2 Sources

Ptolemy and Alexander's secretary Eumenes, whose account provided material for all later ones, reconnoitered
and reinforced a neighboring spur to the west with a
stockade and ditch. His signal re to Alexander also
242

Lane Fox, Robin. Alexander the Great. Penguin,


1973, ISBN 0-14-008878-4.
Arrian, Anabasis IV chapters 28.130.4 (in French)

Chapter 110

Alexander's Balkan campaign


The Balkan campaign of Alexander the Great took
place in 335 BC, against a number of rebellious vassals of the Macedonian kingdom. Alexander successfully
pacied each in turn, leaving him free to begin the long
planned invasion of Persia.

110.1 Background

vanced into Thrace to deal with the revolt, which was led
by the Illyrians and Triballi. He was reinforced along the
way by the Agriani, a Thracian tribe under the command
of Alexander's friend, Langarus. The Macedonian army
marched up to Mount Haemus, where they met a Thracian garrison manning the heights. The Thracians had
constructed a palisade of carts, which they intended to
throw upon the approaching Macedonians. Alexander ordered his heavy infantry to march in loose formation and,
when the carts were thrown, to either open the ranks or
lay at on the ground with their shields over them. The
Macedonian archers opened re and when the Macedonian infantry reached the top of the mountain they routed
the Thracians.* [4]

In 336 BCE, while attending the wedding of his daughter by Olympias, Cleopatra and Olympias' brother,
Alexander I of Epirus at Aegae, Philip II was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard, Pausanias. Philip's
son, and previously designated heir, Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian noblemen and army.* [1] Meanwhile, a large Triballian army led by their king, Syrmus, advanced upon the Macedonian rear. The TribNews of Philip's death roused many states into revolt in- allians retreated to a gorge, where they were drawn out
cluding Th