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CONTINUOUS Process

Playbook
2014 EDITION
The bottom line on core automation issues for the
Oil & Gas, water/waste water and chemical industries
Control System Security and Access
Ethernet, Wireless and the Mobile Workforce
PLC vs DCS
Smart Devices and Asset Management
Energy & Emissions Management
Safety: Lifecycle and Procedural Automation Approaches
Start-Ups, Upgrades & Migrations

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CONTENTS
Sponsored by:

4 Contributors

11 Introduction
12 SECTION ONE: AUTOMATION STANDARDS & TRENDS
13 Procedural Automation for Greater Safety and Productivity
16 Four IT Standards You Should Understand

19

Heard the News about Procedure Automation?

29

ISA-106 Releases First Procedure Automation Technical Report

31 SECTION TWO: BEST PRACTICES FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS

32

Eight Ideas for Successful DCS Implementation

35 Teamwork Is Critical in DCS Projects
36 Best Practices for DCS Infrastructure
38 PLC vs. DCS: Which is Right for Your Operation?
41 PLC Lifecycle Management

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CONTENTS
44 13 Suggestions for Control System Migrations

48

Migrations Are Emotional Events, So Work to Minimize the Pain

49 Four Considerations for Upgrades and Migrations
52 Control System Security Tips
55 How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access

59
60

SECTION THREE: SMART DEVICES & ASSET MANAGEMENT
The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans

66 Managing for Reliability Key to Asset Performance
68 Asset Reliability as a Performance Indicator
71 Measure First to Improve Control System Performance
75 10 Steps to Creating the Perfect HMI

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SECTION FOUR: ADVANCES IN SAFETY

79 Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box

CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTENTS 86 Many Factors Determine Choices in Intrinsic Safety Devices 88 12 Practical Tips for Implementing Intrinsic Safety 92 Safety: The Lifecycle Approach 97 SECTION FIVE: COMMUNICATION TRENDS 98 Wireless Trends 101 Wireless Sensor Applications 103 Wireless Protocols for the Process Industries 106 Nine Strategic Considerations for Using Wireless Technology 108 Five Practical Tips for Implementing Wireless 110 Wireless Is Evolving 111 Standards Help Ethernet Networks Stay in Sync 114 SECTION SIX: ENERGY & THE ENVIRONMENT 1 15 How to Conduct an Energy Audit 4 / 135 .

CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTENTS 120 Energy Management Best Practices 125 Five Ways to Manage Energy Costs 126 Managing Emissions with Automation 129 VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE 5 / 135 .

Dave Woll Bob Rochelle Vice President ARC Advisory Group Inc.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTRIBUTORS 6 / 135 The following experts contributed to this playbook: Brooke Robertson John Rezabek Project Manager Regional Control Specialist. Food and Packaging Industry Specialist Staubli Corporation . EPCD Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. P. Process Control Specialist Ashland Specialty Ingredients Michael Thibodeaux Joe Staples Industrial Automated Systems Security Engineer BASF Head of Manufacturing Systems North America Bayer CropScience Dennis Brandl Chris Wells President BR&L Consulting Senior Staff Instrumentation Engineer ExxonMobil Chemical Company Steven Toteda Steve Elwart. Chairman of WINA (Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance) Director of Systems Engineering Ergon Refining Inc.E.

E. Banerjee House Fang Instrumentation Limited Rockwell Automation George Buckbee. Fischer Fischer Technical Services Herman Storey Co-Vice Chair ISA-108 Standards Committee Richard Caro David R. Juan Facundo Ferrer Chris Bacon Production Manager Graham Packaging (formerly with Pepsi Bottling Ventures) ExperTune Sergio Canales Robert L.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTRIBUTORS 7 / 135 The following experts contributed to this playbook: Cyle Nelson Steven Baird Dave Emerson Senior Software Architect Adept Technology Moxa ISA-106 Editor Yokogawa S.N. Gulick CMC Associates Hexagon Lincoln Dani Alkalay Rama Chandran Kevin Davenport Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. P. Cisco Manufacturing Ken Austin Ted Dimm Augie DiGiovanni Phoenix Contact Honeywell Process Solutions Emerson Process Management MTL Instruments .

Kaushik Matt Newton Robert Schosker Opto 22 Pepperl+Fuchs Anup Pandit Bryan Sellner Krishnakumar Haya Water. City of Greeley Allen Hough Greg Livelli Sam Roosth Itw Drawform ABB Dave Huffman Francisco Mejia ABB Manufacturing IT Consultant Bryan Jones Erik Mathiason Paul Schneling Emerson Member.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTRIBUTORS 8 / 135 The following experts contributed to this playbook: Randy Durick Vignesh Kumar Dale Reed Turck ISA-106 Editor Yokogawa Rockwell Automation Avihu Hiram Pierre Lampron Steve Robben Hiram Process Control Engineering KSH Solutions Inc. ISA-108 Standards Committee Emerson Process Management R.V. Muscat Emerson Process Management Ulf Kristian Sandvik .

PE Co-Chair.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTRIBUTORS The following experts contributed to this playbook: Robin Slater Maurice Wilkins Valin Corporation Managing Director ISA-106 Standards Committee Yokogawa Jeff Smith American Axle & Manufacturing James Wilkinson MTL Instruments Kevin Starr ABB Process Automation Service Bill Wray. 9 / 135 . ISA-106 Standards Committee Bayer Material Science Jose Gonzalez Valero Roberto Zucchi Pemex ABB Sarah Wang Fluor Thanks as well to the many contributors who wanted to remain anonymous.

E. To become a member of CSIA. a control system integration firm must demonstrate experience and commitment to the field. Antonio Manalo Lead Engineer Avid Solutions Automation Systems Integrator Avid Solutions Alex Palmer Dario Rossi Team Lead Aseco Integrated Systems Chief Engineer Aseco Integrated Systems Scott Saneholtz. Power/ Facilities Dept. supporting systems.Process Solutions Dept.controlsys.E. Manager. P.. quality management. P. Members who earn CSIA Certification have passed an independent audit of 80 criteria covering all aspects of business performance. Matrix Technologies Alan E. financial management.E. P.E. Russel Treat Associate Dept. P.. Lyon. Matrix Technologies Senior Process Control Engineer Optimation Ronald Studtmann. For more information about CSIA and its system integrator members. CSIA Certified members must be re-audited every three years. including general management. To maintain their certification. human resources and more.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK CONTRIBUTORS Control System Integrators Association (CSIA) Automation World worked with CSIA to gain access to the expertise of its system integrator members to bring you much of the content in this playbook. visit http://www. project management. President Adaptive Resources Senior Consutant.org 10 / 135 The following CSIA experts contributed to this playbook: Chetan Chothani Bryan Curtis. Matrix Technologies President-CEO EnerSys Corp. Robert Snow Manager . Power/Facilities Dept. .

It also explores some of the many trends affecting how work gets done. These powerful tools range from intelligent instruments to wireless communications—and everything in between. new technologies.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 11 / 135 INTRODUCTION By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World Everywhere you look. new standards and a new generation of engineers are transforming the control of industrial processes. Ethernet and wireless communications. we thank the many industry experts and process engineers who have contributed their experiences and expertise to this playbook. asset and energy management. and changing expectations and best practices as well. automation project management and more. This 2014 edition of Automation World’s Continuous Process Playbook continues our goal of providing hands-on information.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . intrinsic safety. We hope you’ll find this Continuous Process Playbook to be a useful source of information now and in the years ahead as you plan for new projects or upgrade existing production functions. from procedure automation to reliability management. As always. Automation and information technologies are increasing our knowledge. automation implementation tips and best practices specifically for the continuous process industries. Among the many topics addressed in this playbook are implementing and migrating control systems. This peer-to-peer knowledge sharing is a hallmark of what makes Automation World’s playbooks unique.

12 / 136 SECTION ONE Automation Standards & Trends .

as well as the more routine changes in state that can occur. The very stability of a continuous production process often induces a false sense of security in operators.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 13 / 135 Procedural Automation for Greater Safety and Productivity By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World Continuous process environments tend to be stable — until they’re not. Processing’s Most Vulnerable Areas The fact is. ISA-95’s “common denominator” data structure FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . ISA-95 did the same for enterprise to manufacturing data integration. shutdown. Procedural automation standards originally developed for batch processes and discrete manufacturing hold promise for helping continuous process operators deal more effectively with sudden emergencies. every continuous process has non-continuous elements. Think Deepwater Horizon. When that happens. ramp-up. emergency shutdown and clean-in-place activities. Lack of experience with system failure or unexpected alarms can lead operators to freeze when systems suddenly cascade out of control. such as startup. emptying and filling of tanks. A continuous process is really just a batch process with a very long steady state in the middle. the consequences can be catastrophic. The ISA-88 standard has established a common terminology and a framework for writing software to control batch production processes and procedures.

shutdowns and transitions. Defining common process procedures can also provide additional support for employees who are executing operations that can be more manual. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 14 / 135 continued Procedural Automation for Greater Safety and Productivity facilitates communication between business and process systems. These can result in unanticipated shutdowns that plant operators can be ill equipped to counter because they’re not confronted with them frequently enough to hone their skills. Automating procedural steps can counteract variations in operator skills and will become increasingly important as the current generation of experienced process control engineers retires. so that operators and managers can make better decisions. as is typical in equipment and plant startups. The thinking behind both of these standards has important implications in areas where continuous process control is most vulnerable—process variations and disruptions.

reduce risk to facilities and increase operational productivity in continuous process industries. and abnormal situations. upstream offshore oil rigs and chemical plants. critical. will define repeatable procedural steps that can lower the chances of accidents due to human error. upgrades. state mode procedural logic.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . exception handling for abnormal situations. The intent of the new standard is to reduce process variability. The technical report will also include standards for modularizing procedural steps. The report will give users common definitions to describe the requirements in improvements.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Procedural Automation for Greater Safety and Productivity 15 / 135 ISA-106 Defines Continuous Process Procedures A new ISA committee is working to develop standard methods and terminology for automating continuous process procedures. which includes representatives from the largest companies in the petrochemical industry. is working on its first technical report targeted at oil refineries. The ISA-106 committee plans to issue a series of documents to help users standardize designs to handle operator errors in normal. Procedural Automation for Continuous Process Operations”. the ISA-106 committee. and changes in procedural automation to system integrators and automation suppliers. As a first step. “ISA-106. process unit orientation and current practices.

or a world where every phone had a different type of connection and required a different type of switchboard. Imagine a world without electrical standards. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . These standards and technical reports define the best practices for implementing automated and manual control on the systems that reside above the PLC (programmable logic controller) and DCS (distributed control system) level. There are four production-related IT standards of special interest to the processing industries: • The ANSI/ISA 88 standard for batch control. Just as these standards are critical to the basic functioning of electrical equipment. and which perform the basic control that keep production running. and • The new ANSI/ISA 106 technical report on procedure automation. or 220 V at 50 Hz. there are also IT standards used daily to ensure optimal functioning of production systems in the process industries. • The ANSI/ISA 99 technical reports on industrial cyber security. These four standards all share a common view of a production facility. such as 110 V at 60 Hz.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 16 / 135 Four IT Standards You Should Understand By Dennis Brandl Chief Consultant BR&L Consulting Inc. • The ANSI/ISA 95 standard for MES and ERP-to-MES communication.

more accurate and faster than programming. CONTROL AND INFORMATION SOLUTIONS FOR INDUSTRY FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . such as SAP or Oracle. that the devices team up to accomplish. such as mixing. Configuration is easier.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 17 / 135 continued Stop Programming Batch Tasks. S88 Builder speeds project development by up to 90%. heating. and the multitude of shop floor systems. By configuring instead of programming batch control tasks. Start Configuring S88 Builder is the first process control system that is configured rather than programmed. It has also become the de facto standard for defining MES (manufacturing execution system) and MOM (manufacturing operations management) specifications. Configuration requires two steps. etc. S88 Builder lowers the total cost of ownership for a batch control system by: • Reducing time-to-market for new products • Reducing waste and downtime providing a consistent terminology that makes it easier to compare plants within a company and across companies.com (800) 471-3273 The ANSI/ISA 99 reports define structures and policies for designing effective and secure networked production facilities.. The ANSI/ISA 88 standard defines the most common and effective method for defining control systems for batch operations or for continuous and discrete startups and shutdowns.S88Builder. The ANSI/ISA 95 standard defines the most commonly used method for exchanging information between ERP systems.com CustomerSupport@ecssolutions. flow control. • Lowering initial development costs Four IT Standards You Should Understand Learn More About the Many Cost-Saving Benefits offered by S88 Builder www. define the devices that make up the physical system and define specific tasks.

and other types of process changes.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 18 / 135 continued Four IT Standards You Should Understand The new ISA 106 reports define the procedural control strategy for continuous production during upsets. switchovers.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . as well as functions and process models by which technical professionals are trained and upon which solution providers develop applications used in batch and process production operations (as well as discrete manufacturing). These standards establish a commonly accepted terminology. As such. and those who seeking a refresher on the fundamentals of industrial processes. they should be of particular interest to those who are new to the field.

So. “I’d like to see more people adopt this method because it can offer real benefits in many places where people rarely think about batch programming. He found that the benefits of borrowing from batch control to improve continuous processes were just too great for him to keep the news to himself.isa. tighten repeatability and improve the safety of continuous processes.org) in Research Triangle Park.” he explains.C. formed in 2010 by the International Society of Automation (ISA. he has become one of the committee’s co-chairs. Koelsch Contributing Writer Automation World Bayer MaterialScience and Dow Chemical are on the leading edge of pending industry standards that promise to widen the appeal of procedure automation—a system design and programming approach known to streamline control.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 19 / 135 Heard the News about Procedure Automation? By James R. he joined a small band of evangelists on the ISA-106 standards committee on Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . www. PE. For Bill Wray. It’s also how the Bayer engineering consultant is giving back to his profession. Since joining. Texas. spreading the good news about procedure automation is about more than simply generating hundreds of hours of productivity at Bayer MaterialScience in Channelview. N.

About 13 years ago at Bayer’s Channelview facility. Another example is the adjustments to a reactor to allow it to produce a different grade of polymer. Going by such names as procedural control and state-based control. Because the two FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Streamlining change Even without the standards in place yet. The committee intends to develop cross-industry standards for this form of automation. procedure automation is already streamlining operational changes in continuous processes. a triol based on glycerin and a diol based on propylene glycol.” notes Wray. “Anything in a plant that requires you to change the steady state and go from Point A to Point B can be done more effectively. more efficiently. and safer with well written code.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 20 / 135 The mission of this committee was to formalize a set of closely related methods that Bayer and other operators had developed over a few decades to accommodate change. these methods break continuous processes into operating states and automate the procedures for moving from one state to another. replicating the success that ISA has enjoyed in the batch industry with the ISA-88 and ISA-95 standards. such as the responses that a refinery might make to accommodate a shipload of a different grade of crude. A breakthrough in catalyst technology had permitted them to convert a batch reactor to produce the two polyols in a continuous mode. Wray and his colleagues developed a form of procedure automation to make two polyols.

they are incompatible enough that operations must deinventory the system and restart to switch from one product to the other twice a month.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 21 / 135 products are in different families. “With a dozen or so years of experience. “We had a good. Engineers wrote procedural scripts for such transitional phases of the reactor as cold starts. “Because the continuous process does not exercise the code as much.” says Wray. the team found that finishing the programming took longer than it had in the past when the process was batch. and rate changes. the batch process had given the team more opportunities to identify and debug programs. it took a little longer to work out the bugs. but that’s what it turned out to be. depending upon the product that it was making. Because the reactor had been running anywhere from one to four batches a day. nobody was calling it procedural automation.” says Wray.” A smooth transition As is often the case for users who already have experience with automating batch procedures. we get about two startups and two shutdowns a month. strong talent pool of people who knew how to do automation in the style that we like to do it. restarts after a trip. though. “At the time. “We even have one that runs an optimizer [on the multi-constraint controller to optimize feed rates] on the reactor. developing and automating the procedures on the continuous reactor was a natural next step for Bayer’s engineering and operations team in Channelview.” FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . de-inventory procedures. we had developed some well-tested approaches to automating batches. It made doing the procedural control a piece of cake.” says Wray. “With the continuous operation.” Even so. shutdowns.

“And 12 hours of production is quite a bit when you change over 24 times a year. startup was short because the team could draw upon its experience with automating the batch process and could deploy proven techniques. Although it was the catalyst technology that had made converting from batch to continuous processing possible. you’ll forget about them.” Another benefit has been better coordination between the distributed control system (DCS) and the safety instrumented system (SIS). the programmers wrote a script that permitted aborting a procedure if the operator encountered a problem.” says Wray. “By automating the de-inventory procedure. for example. telling it what recipe we’re making and confirming that all the values and trip settings are correct. “The automation communicates with the SIS.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 22 / 135 Despite the longer debugging period.” reports Wray. The automation. the reactor has never made off-spec product and has been more productive. If you write them down with the intent to fix them later. “We also modularized the programs as much as we could to allow us to plug in changes easily. For example. the script would return to the place in the sequence where it left off. “So. we tried to fix them right away. it enhances safety as well. “When we would run into coding errors and other problems.” says Wray. we cut about 12 hours off our downtime. sure enough.” FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . After being reloaded.” Since going continuous about 13 years ago. expedites changeovers. the procedure automation has allowed Bayer to take full advantage of it.

validate. N.brlconsulting.” reports Brandl. (www. in Cary. Not only should the ability to reuse modules of code reduce the time to write.” says Dennis Brandl. Before promulgation of the standard. Reusing code saves time Both users and vendors on the committee expect similar benefits from control architectures built with these models and structures. “On future implementations. A similar situation exists for control systems governing continuous processes. ladder logic. or other programming methods that you might be using. the 106 committee is adapting the design patterns and structures in 88 for procedures used in continuous processes. “So.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 23 / 135 Multiplying the benefits The ISA-106 committee hopes to multiply these kinds of benefits in continuous applications by adapting the equipment and control modules defined in the ISA-88 batch standard. debug.” FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . “People using 88 saw about a 30 percent decrease in either the time or the cost to do their first projects.” notes Brandl. they were getting 50-70 percent savings.com) and one of Wray’s fellow evangelists on the ISA-106 committee. batch control programs had a much less uniform structure. “What the 88 standard did for batch systems was to specify a structure for organizing the different parts of control code for flexibility and reusability. and install programs. “There really is no well-defined structure for procedures in function blocks. president of BR&L Consulting Inc.C.” The adaptations will account for the differences between batch and continuous processing. but it should also cut development and installation costs correspondingly.

filling a column to the right level. and other devices behind the scenes. and bringing the system to temperature. At startup. Take an incremental approach Yet another advantage of the standard structure is that programming can be done in increments. By not having to worry about the details for running each device. such as coordinating the various pieces of equipment within a particular unit. the operator can concentrate on starting the reboiler. Automate only pieces. for example. Take. allowing an engineering team to do the automation over time. and use the software to prompt the operator to do other pieces. Lower-level procedures take care of opening the required steam valves and setting the control loops necessary to do that. which is often the case in batch operations. Then a unit procedure for the distillation column can be built on those lower-level procedures. the task of heating a reboiler to 180 degrees C. A plant startup procedure can also be built on top of that unit level. Layered structure The layered structure also allows nesting so that programmers can automate procedures at the various levels within the production hierarchy. for example. as opposed to just automating everything at once.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 24 / 135 Another advantage to the industry-standard structures is that programmers can develop their code in layers and therefore separate operating procedures from the control loops that run pumps and other basic equipment. while the software takes care of the valves. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . the operator can focus on just the procedure for a particular layer. Do some of it at one shutdown and some more at the next one. pumps.

multi-week shutdown where everything really is shut down.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Heard the News about Procedure Automation? 25 / 135 The keys to identifying which tasks to automate and which to keep in the capable hands of operators are risk and bang for the buck. State-based control Continuous processes really operate in a series of definable states. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . A good place to start is at the bottom. alarms or other forms of monitoring. managing that risk might be a good place to spend your money on automation. rather than truly being continuous. The term “shutdown” usually describes at least two distinct states. low-level tasks. Other candidates are repetitive. such as the systems for maintaining measurements. which includes such devices as pump stations. Process engineers and senior operators should discuss in the initial stages how the process may be partitioned into states to establish state-based control. some parts of the process may still be running. Perhaps the most fundamental of these states are startup. heaters. shutdown and normal running. This will give operators small improvements to work with. The other is better described as a process interruption or a state of waiting. and compressors. It will also give them a vision of what the final product will look like as more individual items become grouped into larger control elements. The first is a fullmaintenance. that occupy an operator’s time. coolers. Start small. In this case. work up A good approach is to start small and work your way up to progressively bigger. If you have an exothermic process that requires keeping a close eye on some variables. such as daily filter flushes. equipment-module level.

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Heard the News
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Automation?

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Even “normal running” is rarely one process state. For example, a power-generation boiler
usually operates at three basic conditions: full, three-quarters and half. Different products,
minor product additives and changes in equipment, such as the switching of cracking
furnaces in an ethylene process, also cause changes in state. Because of variations like these,
process engineers and senior operators should include throughput conditions in their
discussions about state.
As you identify each state, create a functional specification that completely describes the
state, including alarming and visualization requirements. Once you define your states, you are
in a position to begin looking at the interactions between units. 

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continued

Heard the News
about Procedure
Automation?

ISA-106 TR1 Terminology
Here are some of the definitions being proposed in the first of the three technical reports
being written by the ISA-106 committee as groundwork for developing standards for
Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations.
Automation style – a consistent approach to developing and deploying
implementation modules.
Implementation Module – the developed and deployed result of implementing
procedure and control requirements in a BPCS.
Procedure – a specification of a sequence of actions or activities with a defined
beginning and end that is intended to accomplish a specific objective.
Procedure automation – Implementation of a procedure on a programmable
mechanical, electric, or electronic system.
Procedure requirement – the definition of what is required to accomplish an objective
using a procedure.
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Process state – a definable operating condition of process equipment as it progresses
from shutdown to operating and back to shutdown. Each process state represents a
unique operating regime that supports the process equipment’s objectives of processing
an input into a desired output.
State-based control – a plant automation control design based upon the principle
that all process facilities operate in recognized, definable process states that represent a
variety of normal and abnormal conditions of the process. 

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Given the typically slow movement in standards development. best practices. and the secretary is Charlie Green of Aramco Services. “Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations – Models and Terminology. and automated process control section (as defined by ISA-95 functional levels 1 and 2) of a production process (as defined by ISA-95 functional level 0). Consistent with the scope of the ISA106 Committee.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK First ISA technical report The ISA download page for the technical report describes it as providing an “overview of the benefits. It was a milestone in the committee’s efforts to develop a standard that applies batch manufacturing methods to improve continuous process operations. the ISA-106 standards committee on Procedure Automation for Continuous Process Operations released its first technical report. formed in 2010. for applying procedure automation across the continuous process industries.” DOWNLOAD SPREADSHEET 29 / 135 ISA-106 Releases First Procedure Automation Technical Report In mid-2013. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . monitoring.” was the committee’s first deliverable. including terms and definitions. and language. this technical report focuses on automated procedures that primarily reside on systems within the supervisory control. It was not the intent of the committee to have this technical report focus on procedure execution at the operations management functional level (as defined by ISA-95 level 3). the fact that this technical report was developed in just over three years after the first meeting is impressive and underscores the industry’s interest in the committee’s work. The committee’s former co-chair is Marty King of Chevron. Co-chairs of the ISA-106 committee are Yahya Nazer of Dow Chemical and Bill Wray of Bayer Material Sciences. The work of this committee. concentrates on standardizing methods— built on the work of engineers at companies like Bayer and Dow Chemical—that break continuous processes into operating states and automate the procedures for moving from one state to another.

The work involved in creating this standard involves digging into sequencing concepts that have been around a long time.S. In parallel with this second technical report. director of the U. procurement and construction companies.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued ISA-106 Releases First Procedure Automation Technical Report 30 / 135 Seeking feedback The first ISA technical report clearly establishes the value of automating procedures for continuous processes and provides the foundation for the reports and standards to follow. but applying them to a new context. and system suppliers we had a great source of knowledge and experience to draw upon” to create this technical report. says Dave Emerson. engineering. especially from energy and chemical companies.” The committee is now working on its second technical report that addresses work processes for automating procedures in continuous process operations. Development Center for Yokogawa and ISA-106 Editor. coupled with representation from consultants. “This first technical report should generate feedback for the committee that will be used in creating a standard.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . The next step for the committee is getting feedback from industry to help guide it moving forward and encouraging more participation to ensure the standard created is reasonable to adopt. the ISA-106 committee has started work on the standard itself. “With strong end user representation.

31 / 136 SECTION TWO Best Practices for Control Systems .

proper grouping of signals and proper termination of electrical signals. Use of standard wiring throughout the system will make it for easier for others to understand and troubleshoot. Here are recommendations for best practices and some pitfalls to avoid. 1. not just the electrical staff. Remember the basics. International standards can be misinterpreted. 2. Double check the grounding before powering up any DCS system to avoid any short circuits. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Standardize. If possible. Instruments and the control system need to be grounded separately. Doing one successfully requires everything from a well-defined project document to good grounding practices.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 32 / 135 Eight Ideas for Successful DCS Implementation Implementing a new distributed control system is one of the biggest and most complicated projects in a process control engineer’s career. It’s the little things that can trip you up. have two sources for the products being used or purchase interchangeable brands. Grounding principles need to be clearly understood by all automation engineers. Use standard. Make sure you understand the supplier’s grounding requirements for your DCS system. particularly during factory acceptance or site acceptance testing (FAT/SAT). Make sure you use proper grounding. off-the-shelf components for ease of stocking and reordering.

These should be the function of a local dedicated controller. Choose a very solid and reliable link between processing units. leading to costly downtime in commissioning the plants. to interconnect the field I/O structures. Extended I/O terminal blocks (three to four terminals per channel) should also be used to allow field wiring to be connected directly. make sure they will transmit all the required information. Dual purpose. in a ring configuration to provide some level of redundancy. additional cost. Structuring I/O. although not often used. avoiding marshaling terminal strips with the related space. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . 4. The introduction of the “Control in Field” concept. Since today’s electronics are available with high-temperature specs and may be G3 compliant (conforming coating). Many systems only transmit the basic parameters. Is communication complete? While most automation suppliers have different software versions for communicating with the system. Good links. DCS control should not include auto tuning of control loops other than simple on/off or start/stop functions. Use the DCS to update the tuning parameters. Be sure you know the implications of controlling one way or another. Many times the programmability of the DCS renders a "take it easy" attitude in the engineers. reducing the rack room footprint and cabling cost.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Eight Ideas for Successful DCS Implementation Know Your Process When using a DCS. Centralized human control and interface to the plant as well as a centralized location for MIS info to the management network. The purpose of DCS is twofold. you need to understand the process clearly. installation cost and the possibility of poor connections. Try to understand the interrelations among the variables and the best way to control these. Distributed control systems are only as good as their communications links. has added some complications and needs to be thoroughly examined when implementing a DCS. the I/O structures should be moved to the field. 5. Communication links should be used over fiber optic. which means all diagnostic features will not be available. 33 / 135 3. 6.

Make sure you properly configure trends and history data for future analysis. FAT involves experienced operations people interacting with engineering to validate graphics and verify that instruments in the configuration exist and will remain in service. Care must also be taken in selecting appropriate layered switches for communication. management. FAT is where it’s at. project team. vendor. Good up-front engineering pays dividends. Make sure you do a comprehensive and detailed factory acceptance test (FAT) before cutover. In the end. the best tip is to keep the end in mind. Base the selection of a DCS system on its redundant capability. Operations must be completely sure how they operate and what is the best way to do it. Pay attention to the hardware license for client and server to avoid delays during a system or hard-disk crash. Maintenance must know what reports and information they really require to do their work. Be very specific. the best DCS is the one that best satisfies all the important requirements in the plant. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Write everything down that’s actually required and all the things the technology can do.) have a clear definition of what they want from the system. Writing and signing this definition document should be the first step in any project. maintenance. etc. Automation technology can only assist us if we know what the needs are. Don't assume anything.  Define in Detail Successfully implementing a DCS project requires that all stakeholders (operations. In both upgrading and installing new DCS systems. Use single server. 8.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Eight Ideas for Successful DCS Implementation 34 / 135 7. A single server system is preferred.

make sure you get someone on your team who can talk to people.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . If you’ve found a solution to a problem.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 35 / 135 Teamwork Is Critical in DCS Projects No matter how well you have planned. If you are not a people person. one of your other team members may run into the same issue. Even if you don't have anything new to share. but do so in a way that they will bring you other issues. schedule a weekly call so everyone knows what everyone else is doing. The fastest way to confuse a project is to have too many disjointed teams. If someone comes to you with an issue. do not shoot the messenger. If everything is a disaster. you have the basis for a successful project. handle it. but make sure everyone provides a good synopsis. on-time and on-budget installation depends on whether or not the team works well together. Most importantly. Otherwise. You may get off to a great start. A successful. Keep the calls short and sweet. people will hide their issues. DCS projects are extremely complicated and all the groups have to interact. always leave some slack in your schedule. but problems invariably surface. As long as you have a competent team and are using a good product. no one is going to tell you anything until it is too late to handle calmly (and cheaply). they'll know to call you. Instead of wasting precious time.

Other recommendations: • Separate grounding for each room. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • Need a good air filtering system for each room. but keeping the server and operator rooms close together. to protect electronics. • Make sure proper air conditioning is available all the time. These panels or rooms need to be kept separate. depending on the plant or process hazards. are some of best practices and human factors experience to keep in mind when implementing a DCS. server and instruments. instrument and signal and frame of the DCS. • Don’t mix MCC and DCS marshaling panels. • Have a dedicated UPS with the minimum required battery backup provided separately for marshaling.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 36 / 135 Best Practices for DCS Infrastructure Using separate DCS marshaling. server and operator rooms.

• Choose a reliable communication protocol for critical loops. it makes a mess for controls. such as conventional hardware instead of an OPC server or system.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • Educate everyone on the operational differences between a DCS and PLCs and where each should be used. • Use one programming approach for the entire system. If the OPC server hangs or stops.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Best Practices for DCS Infrastructure 37 / 135 • Use one communication protocol standard for electrical equipment and instruments. Most people don’t understand why you need a warm start option for controllers with a DCS. for example.

where’s the dividing line and are there still reasons to choose one over the other? PLCs grew up as replacements for multiple relays and are used primarily for controlling discrete manufacturing processes and standalone equipment. on the other hand. connecting human-machine interfaces (HMIs) and other control devices as needed. So what’s the difference between the two control approaches. PLCs gained processing power and networking became common. The vendor handles system integration. the functionality of different control systems has been merging. At the same time.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 38 / 135 PLC vs. As users demanded more production information. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) now have capabilities once found only in distributed control systems (DCSs). while a DCS can handle many functions previously thought more appropriate for PLCs. The DCS. PLC-based control systems began to function like a miniDCS. and HMIs are integral. was developed to replace PID controllers and is found most often in batch and continuous production processes. the DCS hybridized to incorporate PLCs and PCs to control certain FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . DCS: Which Is Right for Your Operation? By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Writer Automation World Over the past decade. If integration with other equipment is required. especially those that require advanced control measures. the user or his system integrator typically has to do it.

A DCS takes much longer to process data. In fact. a DCS makes more sense. Response time PLCs are fast. process enhancements and data integration. no doubt about it.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued PLC vs. wouldn’t it make sense to convert everything to PLCs? The answer. and have a large facility or a process that’s spread out over a wide geographic area with thousands of I/O points. If you need power or fault tolerant I/O. Scalability A PLC can only handle a few thousand I/O points or less. like OPC. much like the conductor in an orchestra. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . so it’s not the right solution when response times are critical. Since PLCs are less expensive and can now perform much like a DCS. If you require advanced process control. Protocols. Here are six key factors to consider: 1. have eased interactions between the two control systems. You’ll just end up raising the costs to equal or exceed those of a DCS. is that it depends on the needs of your application. 3. Response times of one-tenth of a second make the PLC an ideal controller for near real-time actions such as a safety shutdown or firing control. The DCS supervises the entire process. like most things in the world of automation. don’t try to force those requirements into a PLC-based control system. safety systems require a separate controller. Redundancy Another problem with PLCs is redundancy. DCS: Which Is Right for Your Operation? 39 / 135 functions and to provide reporting services. which can handle many thousands of I/O points and more easily accommodate new equipment. 2. It’s just not as scalable as a DCS.

DCS: Which Is Right for Your Operation? 40 / 135 4. such as pulp and paper. such as oil and gas.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued PLC vs. a DCS is typically the better solution. System integrators perform similar functions for PLC-based systems. Manufacturers also continue to reduce factory staff and a generation of experienced process control personnel has begun to retire. continue to require the advanced process control capabilities of the DCS. are trending toward PLC-based control. 5. Others. water treatment and chemical processing. If your process is complex and requires frequent adjustments or must aggregate and analyze a large amount of data. Process control has become increasing complex. 6. the very flexibility of a DCS system also makes it much more vulnerable to “meddling” by operators that can cause spurious shutdowns. It has also become common for PLC vendors to offer support services through their network of system integrator partners. It’s difficult for any individual to know everything about these sophisticated systems.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . As a result. Of course. Frequent process changes PLCs are best applied to a dedicated process that doesn’t change often. increasing the need for vendor support. the quality of support has become a critical factor in vendor selection. Vendor support DCS vendors typically require users to employ them to provide integration services and implement process changes. Complexity The complex nature of many continuous production processes.

your ability to effectively operate and manage these disparate PLC versions has a direct impact on your plant reliability and safety.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 41 / 135 PLC Lifecycle Management By David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World Discussion of controllers in the continuous process industries typically centers on distributed control systems (DCSs). Long plant maintenance shutdown intervals limit the opportunity to modify. 1. Following is a list of the top three PLC lifecycle management concerns for the process industries and how some of your peers are working with PLC suppliers to address those issues. Some of the more significant applications for PLCs in the process industries include control of safety-instrumented systems and control of major machinery. However. maintain and upgrade PLCs. Therefore you need to ensure that PLC management is a key part of your unit maintenance focus. programmable logic controllers (PLCs) play as important a role in the process industries as they do in discrete manufacturing. particularly when it comes to operations reliability and protection of personnel. compiled from presentations delivered at The Automation Conference 2012. particularly in continuous process operations. run eight years or more without shutting down. most process operations use a variety of PLCs from different vendors. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . your opportunity to do anything with the PLCs in that unit is very limited. Many process industry units. As a result. As a result. Like many discrete manufacturing operations.

following is a set of three requests that many top process industry operations Global manufacturer of process control and factory automation solutions For more information: Call: 1-800-463-3786 www. and leads to challenges with spare parts management and training. 3.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK Complete Automation Solutions for the Process Industry 42 / 135 continued PLC Lifecycle Management 2.) Control Cabinets To better manage your PLC lifecycle. Integration with main control systems Process Valves — Three aspects are critical to any plan involving the integration of PLCs with DCSs. Because across-the-board standardization is unlikely due to regional differences tied to support and availability. Standardization of PLCs is difficult. if not Pilot Valves impossible in a multi-plant operation.festo. (See “Control System Security Tips” in this playbook for more details on this topic.com/us FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . and 3) it must address industrial control system security. 1) The integration process needs to be reliable and shareable with all other plants to standardize the process for ease of maintenance. a strategy for PLC support and training for each region should be developed to ensure that these critical controllers are maintained in a standardized fashion. 2) the integration plan should be flexible for adaptability to local requirements.

users need to be able to source and use components for longer-than-expected lives. the cost of the hardware is dwarfed by the cost of labor to re-do things like I/O rewiring and the cost of the unit shutdown. training.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued PLC Lifecycle Management 43 / 135 are asking of their PLC vendors to help them better manage their PLC assets over the long. Talk to your vendor about their ability to support backwards compatibility with new components as they become available over these long lifecycles. continuous operation periods common to the process industries. Increased flexibility in design to address standardization. Life extension.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Because of the long periods of time that typically pass between maintenance shutdowns in process facilities. Having the same hardware requirements across-the-board for your PLCs enables you to better manage spare components. More end users in the process industries are looking for scalable PLC systems from vendors that use the same hardware. Online upgrades. and configurable I/O requirements. online version upgrades that can be installed while the PLC is running and that work with the existing I/O is ideal. 2. Many facilities in the continuous process industries are still looking at 20 to 30 years as a life cycle for their equipment. 1. 3. as it is often the easiest way to upgrade a PLC’s logic without shutting it down or rewiring the I/O. Therefore. One process industry end user told us: If you look at the total cost of an upgrade. These new components should be able to be integrated into your system without requiring a shutdown for upgrading. More vendors are coming around to this request of process industry end users.

maintenance. configuration or control systems. proactive incident response.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 44 / 135 13 Suggestions for Control System Migrations As anyone who has been involved in a control system migration will tell you. workflow tools. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . stepwise migration or rip-and-replace. expansion. it’s never an easy process. investment.) and the different degrees of automation (automating just a few actions. Automation World readers share their recommendations and suggest pitfalls to avoid: 1. 2. time scale. partial workflows or end-to-end) will determine your strategy in terms of resources. Virtualization has many benefits in terms of technology. the bigger and more complex the project. The future of automation will need virtualized infrastructure and platforms to deal with the IT spectrum. To help you get through the project with your sanity intact. policy-based orchestration. etc. production stops. the more fraught with tension and risk. etc. production execution. Automation upgrades or migrations need to be scheduled properly in terms of system commission date to extend the warranty or for a vendor’s obsolete notice date. Whether it’s an upgrade. The different activities that can be automated (provisioning. maintenance and lifecycle cost. Your migration strategy will depend on which type of automation you’re dealing with: scripts. cyber security and better management capabilities. Determine strategy. The best practice is to conduct a virtualization of the new automation system. Virtualize first.

that is the best choice. Make sure you work with an experienced vendor and proven technology. what is the expected lifecycle of the new system. or months depending on the circumstances) and you know that it works. Make no assumptions. Don’t assume anything. there is a counter-argument for doing what you know will work. Take it one step at a time. Upgrading to the newer modules or systems of the same vendor provides a bit more reliability. since the basic architecture remains the same. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . But if you can’t afford a shutdown. The needs could range from some reporting or alarm functions to an action initiated due to alarm. When doing a migration there are three points to think about: how to update software and whether you have the right conversion tools. then go for a step-by-step migration. 6. Don’t experiment. Always visit the site to understand the requirements and the nuances completely. 4. what you need to do to avoid system failure or risk for the migration step. Every implementation is done to achieve some objective of the operation. Try to foresee every small step in a migration implementation. 5. Avoid changing the entire system or manufacturer if you are upgrading. If rip-and-replace is possible (and that means you have to stop the plant for several days.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 13 Suggestions for Control System Migrations 45 / 135 3. Consider three critical migration issues. While innovation is important. weeks.

migrating from one generation of processor to another one may not be a wise choice. The second priority is to determine the impact on the safety and productivity of the plant. then replace the I/O chassis piece-by-piece going forward. For example. Reviewing the instruction sets and information available about conversions and manufacturer recommendations will give you insight into the difficulty of the conversion. The difficulty of a process migration usually increases when you change DCS suppliers. Factor that into your timeline and risk assessment when weighing whether to switch vendors. Start with data needs.The best strategy is to first upgrade the controllers. Focus on controllers. such as a motor control center(MCC) replacement. Some I/O changes could be driven by other projects. Do some up-front analysis to avoid creating problems for yourself by not choosing the right migration path. 8. Do your homework. 10. 9. First you need to understand what data the user will require and how quickly the data is needed. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . If you do your homework. That should be the starting point in developing your migration strategy.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 13 Suggestions for Control System Migrations 46 / 135 7. since different brands often don’t have similar functions. Changing suppliers adds some complexity. you might choose a different processor to make the conversion easier.

If you are just making some modifications you can upgrade or make an expansion only. Depending on the technology you have installed. It is important to educate everyone on the new technology. Most of the problems that arise during a migration are with the field equipment you have installed and control room facilities. 12. 13. The architecture has to be critically reviewed and transformed. it is easy to use "old" thinking instead of changing practices to take advantage of the benefits of the new technology. Your mantra should be to decentralize the controls as far as possible. Aging equipment.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Decentralize.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 13 Suggestions for Control System Migrations 47 / 135 11. keeping in view the improved performance of the local controllers. Remember. when your equipment is more than 10 years old you will need to implement a rip-and-replace. Technology education.

Regardless of the benefits. but it turns out it can't. while the more-experienced people will be able to stop you from doing something stupid. nobody is going to like it. maintenance and management teams so that the suggested transition will be "blessed" by all. Making the transition as smooth as possible will require the cooperation of all involved. Involve operations. It is mandatory to conduct an extensive upfront study to identify and clearly define the implementation strategy and the potential consequences to production. the success of any control system migration will be mainly people-related. When you are explaining the new equipment. Structure your team to include both seasoned personnel who are the old-system's experts (and know how it really works) and relatively new personnel who are competent enough to learn. Plan for disruption and try to minimize that. but not already ingrained with the old system. So Work to Minimize the Pain Even if the technology being used is important. do not exaggerate or misstate anything because everyone will only remember the thing you said it could do. technicians and everyone else directly touched by a migration will be upset. Just accept this.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . The newer people will pick up the new system more easily.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 48 / 135 Migrations Are Emotional Events. Operators.

Following are the principal steps involved in assessing your plant’s technology to gauge whether a technology upgrade or migration is in order: 1. Consider the full range of aspects that relate to your existing systems.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 49 / 135 Four Considerations for Upgrades and Migrations By David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World Regardless of whether you want to increase productivity or shorten time-to-market. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . attaining success in these areas depends on the application of suitable automation technologies in a continuous process operation. • Ability to expand production or introduce new products. • Ongoing maintenance costs. and • Effect on the efficiency and productivity of plant personnel. • Need for continuing support of the legacy system. • Ability to integrate with enterprise-level business software and at what cost. such as: • Risk of unplanned plant downtime and production stoppages.

A huge investment in hardware and application software is associated with the installed process control system. 4. and ongoing technical support. For this reason. it’s important to understand the history of the technologies supported by the company behind the product under consideration. without any plant downtimes or loss of production that would negatively affect the investment return. every migration should include a robust lifecycle support strategy for the new system that considers not only the availability of the components. Does this company actively support the long-term lifecycles of products as they are typically employed in a process operation? Do upgrades have significant backwards compatibility? How often are upgrades FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . engineering. In a migration. if possible. return on investment plays a crucial role. This assessment is important in order to maximize the return on assets (ROA). and maintenance personnel.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Four Considerations for Upgrades and Migrations 50 / 135 2. Obsolescence. For this reason. Assess the long-term security of existing investments. but also product warranties. the prime objective of any migration strategy should be to modernize the installed base gradually without any system discontinuity and. there are two aspects of obsolescence to assess. 3. as well as the accumulated know-how of the operating. When deciding whether to upgrade or migrate to a new system. on-site service. In each case of upgrade or migration.

you should always consider your risk of system obsolescence and the associated costs incurred with such a scenario versus the costs of moving to a better-supported system. in the process industries.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Four Considerations for Upgrades and Migrations 51 / 135 typically released for this system and what is required for installation? For upgrades. it’s important to understand what the future outlook is for the system under consideration. be sure to talk with your supplier about their support plan for those newer technologies. As newer automation technologies become core components of process control systems. With the significant maintenance and security issues tied to process control systems. The good news is that. as is more common with office IT systems.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . most vendors are very aware of the long-term use of their systems by end users and thus tend to support their systems for multiple decades rather a single decade.

model. Lay those out and understand how they impact control systems and security. it would be really ugly. Where do you have to focus your effort? The answer is going to drive your decisions and your capital allocation. Get a feel for the significant risks. Each company will have a series of policies and procedures for things like safety and performance.com. and then build on that to create a set of additional security requirements. not so ugly. 2. Where are your computers? Where are your PLCs? It’s difficult to secure something when you don’t know it exists. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . and serial number. No company operates in a vacuum.com. For a thorough analysis of your risks and setup of reliable control system security technologies and processes. This should be a high-level assessment in which you go through your plant and figure out what is high risk and what is low risk. if something happened to your chlorine tank. That chip pile. Assess your systems. which is determined by two key factors: how likely is a problem to occur? How serious is the problem? For example.com. Compile an accurate list of all the assets in your plant: make. Following are the groundlevel security steps that a continuous process facility should implement at a bare minimum: 1. tofinosecurity. Document your policies and procedures. consult an industrial control system security expert such as scadahacker. reliability. and change management.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 52 / 135 Control System Security Tips David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World Recognizing that the biggest security risk to your control system assets are the operators who interface with the system on a daily basis is the most important step to successfully securing your systems. or industrialdefender.

Use separate networks. 4. Leverage safety reports. and so on. Those responsible for safety. For this approach. utilize operating system (OS) implemented security. No one is going to follow policies unless they know about them and understand why they are necessary. and HMI. which may not be viable in the longer term. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . it doesn't have to be onerous. Understand your traffic flows. Access should be segmented to specific network resources. and also isolated from the Internet. with active directory “domain group security” as the preferred approach. but it has to be done.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Control System Security Tips 53 / 135 3. and maintenance needs data out of this area. Effective security practices should prevent access to all layers by unwanted external connections. Remember that SCADA security is used to control access. You should end up with a matrix of training for the various levels of users. hardware resources. 5. Start training. some still advocate that the process control network be kept separate from business networks. Smart companies will have a comprehensive diagram showing that the accounting department needs data out of this area. 7. You need a diagram that shows all the things that require intercommunication. have done a good deal of the work needed to understand the security risks. Though this step is becoming less and less practical. when they do reports and analyses. 6. All levels of employees that interact with the control system need to understand what an attack looks like and how to respond to one.

Use an antivirus solution that is compatible with the installed SCADA software. All users should have unique user accounts and passwords to minimize the risk of unauthorized access. you can prevent unwanted devices from accessing the network. When using port security. 11. with user-specific exceptions. security can be implemented for individual attributes. Roles need to be defined and an understanding of what each group needs must be accomplished so true collaboration can take place to begin and continue the process of enabling a fully functional control system with adequate security protection. With this approach. 10.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . connected to the control operating system at a dedicated user station. Open and facilitate communications between IT and process control groups. 9. Use unique user accounts and passwords. the Ethernet MAC address connected to the switch port allows only that MAC address to communicate on that port.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Control System Security Tips 54 / 135 8. If any other MAC address tries to communicate through the port. HMI should be the only accessible program. All other resources for that particular terminal should be restricted. Provide port security. With advanced human-machine interface technologies. Administer antivirus protection. Security in the operator interface should be considered broadly. Most of the time. 12. network administrators configure the switch to send an SNMP trap to their network monitoring solution that the port’s disabled for security reasons. port security will disable it.

therefore. individual systems may conflict. This issue can be avoided if you select a network that is open and allows everything to work together. they often find themselves saddled with applications and automation products that don’t work cohesively as a single system. and systems that you have more work and headaches than you imagined possible. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . This is typical of problems that occur when automation products are implemented hastily. More often you find yourself managing so many different applications. Once you start implementing various silos—be they applications or products—things get more complex. Following are some basic tips and considerations for achieving secure and reliable remote access: 1. Wi-Fi or another protocol). But so do the potential for security problems. or analyzing current and future goals. are open to Internetbased access. When people have installed devices on a proprietary network then try to use something different (e. so that there is no communication whatsoever. Anticipate network interactions. Or they may just cancel each other out..g. 2. protocols. planning. without doing proper research. or without realizing that implementing remote access monitoring for a facility is just step one of many. Map out your project from the start. the potential for greater collaborative operation and a freer work environment increases.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 55 / 135 How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access By David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World As more operations aspects are tied to Ethernet networks and. When companies fail to map out their projects thoroughly from the start.

CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access 56 / 135 3. • Reporting or regulatory entities. but are not limited to: • System operators and engineers for local systems. and • Managed service providers. Understanding users and their roles can have a significant impact on how the remote access strategy evolves. the roles that may require remote access to control assets may include. The roles of users that would require remote access to mission-critical operations can be extensive and the assignment of specific access depending on those roles can be FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • System integrators. In most control systems operations. • Vendors. • Business/supply chain partners. Understand users and roles. • System support specialists and maintenance engineers. • Field technicians. • System operators and engineers for remote systems.

Beginning at the remote user and following the connection to the data or service. Map out and document all acceptable access policies and procedures related to allowable network access and coordinate this with industrial control system security experts. Any user access that goes beyond simple viewing of data and permits changes to system parameters should be extremely limited. • C ommunication can be listened to by third parties anywhere along the communication chain. 4. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • T he target system can be impersonated by an attacker to fool the user and thus gain credentials or other information from the user system. compromised. etc. • T he user’s access device (laptop. Know your vulnerabilities. • T he attacker can intimidate or coerce the user to provide valid credentials. • T he attacker can use captured or guessed credentials to impersonate the user. and used to access the control system network.) can be attacked.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access 57 / 135 complicated. remote access can be compromised at any of the following points: • T he user or system can be impersonated to fool the target system. PDA. or to perform activities at the attacker’s demand.

• T he target communication software listening for requests can be attacked and potentially compromised. radius server or RAS). • C ommunications can have data injected into them by an attacker.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access 58 / 135 • T he communication can be interrupted or jammed.g.g. • A denial-of-service attack can happen to the authentication server (e. an outside router for remote access). even if the attacker cannot decipher the content (also known as a replay attack). • C ommunication can be hijacked after it has been initiated (does not rely on impersonation) or intercepted during initiation (impersonating both user and target.. also known as a man-in-the-middle attack). • P arts of a communication can be replayed to a target. • A denial-of-service attack can happen to the outward communication device (e..  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • A n attacker can impersonate a valid communications node and gain access to the underlying communications medium.

59 / 136 SECTION THREE Smart Devices & Asset Management .

say the experts.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 60 / 135 The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World Automation suppliers having been building microprocessors and digital communications capabilities into process control instruments for more than 20 years. and processes that are no more efficient or safer than they ever were. By 2010. Others point to a lack of sustained management support for following best practices. companies continue to follow the traditional inspect and test practices they used with analog devices. and even less is actually used as intended to improve diagnostics and process control. Blame that.2 million field devices. The result is hundreds of thousands of man-hours wasted every year on routine and unnecessary maintenance. more than 60 percent of them microprocessor-based. on the difficulty of changing human behavior and longaccepted practices. according to a study by the ARC Advisory Group. process industries had installed an estimated 69. The lack of links from process instruments to digital communications networks also means workers can access little of the information available from smart field devices. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Though nearly all of the instruments shipped today have built-in intelligence. the promised new world of lower maintenance costs and significantly lower risk of process failures has not yet arrived. Despite that massive investment in intelligent instrumentation.

Part two. diagnostic work processes.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans 61 / 135 In a perverse way. the cost cutting and workforce downsizing in the process industries is finally leading many companies to a tipping point for change. a former Shell Oil employee. “There are a huge amount of options. on configuration work processes and guideline templates. it is working to define standard templates of best practices and work processes for the design. development. Defining standards An industry-wide effort has been underway for several years to define standards and best practices for smart field device management. and Koji Demachi of Yokogawa. Lacking the number of workers required to control processes and inspect and test devices manually.isa. “These devices don’t come from the factory pre-set with the specific configurations needed for an application. and part three. The first draft of the committee’s initial report on models and terminology is scheduled for completion in the first quarter of 2014 and will then be presented as a proposed standard to an IEC technical committee. you have to tell an FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . and train process engineers and maintenance workers on how to apply and benefit from them. is due in 2015.” Storey explains.org) was formed in 2012. they’re being forced to find ways to make better use of the information provided by their intelligent instruments. To that end. installation and use of diagnostic and other information from intelligent field devices. in 2016. the ISA-108 committee on intelligent device management (www. make intelligent instruments easier to use. Co-chaired by Herman Storey.

That’s where selfdiagnostics are critical and where routine predictive and preventive maintenance practices are of less value. “Doing asset management in a different way requires a different culture. “It’s not an instrument. he adds. A lot of things get deferred. such as machinery and offshore oil drilling. will finally help establish accountability for following good practices.” FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . “The goal is to refocus maintenance on early problem identification so that operational issues can be quickly resolved without all the expense and risk. “making better use of diagnostics is not part of the culture. which typically fail slowly over decades.” Standards.” Industry has been doing inspect and test for years. Then you have to create a backup database to maintain configuration accuracy over the lifecycle of the device. not managing assets well over time.” Storey says condition-based monitoring and maintenance practices are starting to take hold in a number of industry segments.” Although traditional test and inspect practices work well for production assets like pressure vessels and piping. he notes. and the tools to do it well are poorly developed and integrated. Management engagement. an IT or a vendor problem. But for most process industries. People are focused on keeping things working. it’s a management problem. it just reduces the impact of failures.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans 62 / 135 instrument what you want it to do. automation assets such as transmitters and valves are more vulnerable and can degrade quickly. “The diagnostic information in intelligent instruments lets you anticipate problems and be proactive. It doesn’t reduce the failure rate.” Storey says. accountability and metrics will drive behavior change. it’s actually in decline. While a plant may run nicely for a while.

users are often overwhelmed with all the information they can get from their instruments. even though the devices might do different things. Many include dashboards to display data with a similar look and feel across multiple devices.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans 63 / 135 Wireless a catalyst The adoption of wireless has been a spur to interest in intelligent instruments. says Erik Mathiason. The younger people are more open to change and hungry for information because they believe it will help them solve problems. a member of the ISA 108 committee and an employee of Emerson Process Management. Younger people don’t have the instincts honed by years of experience in a plant. Wireless technology has allowed intelligent devices to be more useful at a lower power budget. Data is all they have.” Human-centered design Instrument suppliers are working to make life easier for the process industry workforce. Once they get more digital information. They want to know. ‘What does it all mean?’ “That’s especially true with so much of the process industry workforce retiring. On the flip side. managing and assessing the data. This includes making products that are easier to use and have device dashboards that make it easier to see data. Suppliers are spending a lot of time and money to learn how customers need to interact with data. They’re asking suppliers for help in accessing. users want more multi-variable data for troubleshooting and to gain insights into their process. “They don’t know what to do with it. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .

Its goal is to design human-technology interactions around how people learn. In addition. Today there are more device types. devices are more reliable. think and work. can improve the probability that the correct actions will be taken with fewer errors. Modular components. multiple variables Many suppliers are re-designing their instrument lines to make products more modular. and devices themselves are more complex. With process plants staffed with fewer and less experienced workers. software and even mechanical components such as connectors. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . This means all have the same programming requirements. software interface and approach to diagnostics. the foundation for human-centered design.” Studies show that up to 80 percent of abnormal situations are caused by human error. allowing replacements to be made easily in the field. “That meant workers did the same things to the same device types many times. “In the past. building expertise.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans 64 / 135 This human-centered design approach owes much to the model established by the consumer electronics industry.” Mathiason says. so worker-device interactions are less frequent but more varied. Consistent navigation and operation across multiple devices. The redesigns frequently involve electronics. which facilitate simple plug-in modules. The result is unfamiliar human-device interactions and more human error. the potential for both minor problems and major catastrophes rises exponentially. Many have adopted a common platform across all instrument lines to make devices easier for customer to use. there were fewer device types and simpler devices.

Driving adoption Intelligent transmitters are the most widely deployed intelligent instruments today. which are used in every industry where custody transfer is critical in controlling process input costs. outnumbering analog transmitters by an estimated two to one in heavy process industries. as well as wiring. food processing. want multi-variable instruments that will reduce the number of pipe penetrations the company is required to make. Also popular are positioners for control valves and flow controllers. and biotech and pharmaceutical companies. which will save on both installation and maintenance costs. Industries that have been early to appreciate the value of intelligent field devices include oil and gas drilling. End users in the oil and gas industry. chemical plants. for example.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . refining.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued The Smartest Instruments Still Need Smart Humans 65 / 135 Another trend is the development of instruments that can measure multiple variables. Positioners provide maintenance technicians with critical information on a valve’s activity and can help proactively determine what a reasonable maintenance schedule should be in a process application.

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66 / 135

Managing for Reliability Key
to Asset Performance
By Jeanne Schweder

Contributing Editor
Automation World

The powerful combination of smart devices and communication networks has great potential
for helping industrial plants achieve significant gains in productivity and efficiency. But
making that happen requires companies to use the information from their production
equipment to change their asset management and maintenance practices.
Take the example of two plants, owned by the same company but located on opposite sides
of the globe. The two sites made the same products, using identical production equipment,
quality specifications and automation systems. They both spent a similar amount of time on
maintenance. Yet one plant was experiencing constant failures, shutdowns and quality issues,
while the other was performing to goals. The question was, why?

Proactive vs. reactive maintenance
An analysis by an automation supplier found the answer. The findings revealed the
root cause of the disparity: the plant experiencing difficulties operated under a run-tofailure philosophy for maintenance, spending nearly 35 percent of maintenance time on
unscheduled corrective procedures.

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continued

Managing for
Reliability Key to
Asset Performance

67 / 135

In contrast, the plant meeting its goals spent only eight percent of maintenance time on
unscheduled activities. More revealing, 34 percent of their maintenance time was spent on
preventive maintenance, and another 12 percent on optimizing assets. Employees at the
proactive plant also received more than three times the amount of training as those working
at the reactive plant.
Unfortunately, this lack of training is not uncommon at plants with a reactive approach to
asset management. Reactive managers assume it’s less costly to fix something only when
it’s broken and they know what to fix. They see training as wasted dollars. But industry
experts will tell you this is a mistake and results in frustrated engineers who take longer to
solve a problem and are unsure of the best practices to use to make sure the problem does
not come back.
Proactive-minded users, on the other hand, have seen the benefits of this service philosophy.
They see training and certification as an investment to ensure not only that results don’t
erode, but that production and quality performance continue to improve. 

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68 / 135

Asset Reliability as a Performance
Indicator
By Jeanne Schweder

Contributing Editor
Automation World

The methodologies for managing assets to ensure reliable performance first began to be
developed by the airline and power industries and the U.S. military in the 1970s. Over the
past 15 years, an understanding of the value of asset reliability as a plant performance issue
has spread to all industries.
Many universities began offering programs in reliability management over the past decade
and graduates are now entering leadership positions in operations and maintenance at many
companies. They’re realizing that their plants are not executing the reliability methodologies
they learned in school. When they experience too many failure events and issues, they
recognize that this can’t go on.
Industries with an active interest in asset reliability include the oil and gas, chemical, refining,
pulp and paper, power, metals and mining and food and beverage industries. Reliability is
often one of their top three business objectives.

Rank assets for criticality
Any reliability program must begin by ranking assets for criticality in terms of the potential
impact of their failure on plant production. Strategies then need to be developed to ensure
the optimal performance of these critical assets and extend their operating life.

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Often a process needs to be improved. so that an operator or maintenance technician can be alerted to take action. It’s also essential to understand how work gets done in a plant. decisions must be made about what technologies and what data to use to determine asset health. more information has become actionable. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . You also need really good KPIs such as availability and return on asset value. Some examples include when and how often to measure motor vibration or motor stops and starts. Smart devices that can diagnose their own health and provide in-depth process information are key to improving asset management. streamlined and documented to improve asset reliability. which make it easier for companies to get data from assets in places where it’s difficult or dangerous for humans to reach.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Asset Reliability as a Performance Indicator 69 / 135 Finally. How work gets done Having the right people resources and assuring they have the right skills or adequate training is another important aspect of reliability management. or whether to use wireless vibration sensors or wireless mesh networks. Software lets you analyze performance and detect a problem long before it begins. With more network or wireless connectivity. It takes multiple people with different skills and properly documented work orders that provide them with an understanding of what went wrong and what tools are needed to fix a device. and the ability to communicate all the findings in a work management system.

Although most people will say that keeping reactive maintenance at 20 percent or lower is optimum. can save a typical plant hundreds of thousands of dollars in costs and thousands of man hours every year. proactive and reactive maintenance. cost and equipment wear.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Asset Reliability as a Performance Indicator 70 / 135 Getting the right balance The combination of the speed of technology change. the growth of automated systems and the decline in the number of plant personnel with the experience and skill set to maintain those systems is causing problems for manufacturers in all industries. no strict definition for what is a good balance. Condition-based maintenance that allows you to repair or replace only what’s needed. as well as company objectives in terms of variability. Systems are always degrading. There is no magic number. One automation supplier conservatively estimates that 75 percent of all plants are running sub-optimally. even valves have moving parts. the right service schedule depends on how critical an asset is to plant and process performance. vs. trial and error work based on historical schedules. The first step in addressing the issue is to get the right balance between predictive.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .

000 control loops. A typical oil refinery may have 3. representing a lost investment of over $6 million. such as measuring the percentage of the plant running in manual mode. you must measure and manage the performance of your control system. A typical process plant runs with between 20 and 30 percent of controls in manual mode. Consider that a typical control loop costs $10.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 71 / 135 Measure First to Improve Control System Performance Most continuous process plants have lost millions of dollars from poor control system performance. Basic steps. which are at least as high. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . are a good place to start. yet many plant managers and engineers are unaware of these losses.000 or more. And that doesn't even count the annual process losses. with 600 to 900 in manual at any given point. FIGURE 1 – Square wave /sawtooth pattern indicates valve stiction. To capture savings.

poorly tuned controllers and process problems. you can confirm whether your plant has a significant opportunity to improve. Software tools can monitor various measures. This step is critical to recognizing where problems exist in your plant on any given day. Chances are. FIGURE 3 – Power spectral density chart identifies oscillations. Modern software tools can find failed instruments. CO plot confirms stiction. The next step is to measure and monitor control performance regularly. such as the percentage of control valves at a limit. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT If 30 percent of controllers are operating in manual mode. Start by taking a random sample of 100 control loops. Any good control performance project can use data from your process historian to help pinpoint and resolve the true root cause of the issue. can give you a better idea of the opportunity for savings at your plant. the solution is not as simple as putting everything into automatic mode. RETURN TO CONTENTS . provide reporting and notification of problems. FIGURE 2 – Ladder attern on PV vs. and overall variability. Automated monitoring also allows for more sophisticated measures and diagnostics.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Measure First to Improve Control System Performance 72 / 135 Additional simple measures. In one hour sitting with the operator. the operator put these controllers in manual for a reason. broken control valves. These analytics are needed for the next step: resolving the root cause of the problem.

With the problems identified and prioritized. Whenever possible. such as oscillations and interactions between various parts of the process. it is important to track the effect of these improvements. can also be used to pinpoint the cause of a problem that may be far upstream in the plant. assignment of responsibilities and expected completion dates. your focus can now turn to managing the required repairs. Process Interaction analysis.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Measure First to Improve Control System Performance 73 / 135 Some problems. as shown in Figure 4. Other problems. Tools such as Fourier Transforms and the resulting power spectrum chart. tuning changes and process adjustments. The square wave pattern on the process measurement and sawtooth movement of the control output are a sure sign of valve stiction. can find the cause of oscillation problems. The ladder pattern in the PV/CO plot shown in Figure 2 further confirms valve stiction. you should also identify the economic impact of your work. such as valve stiction. shown in Figure 3. FIGURE 4 – Process interaction map pinpoints the root cause of process problems. as shown in Figure 1. A simple before/after trend can be very useful to show the results. and share it with your management team. but others can be completed on the fly. have a unique signature pattern. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Some repairs may need to wait until planned shutdowns. This work should be managed and organized like any project: with specific plans. Finally. need more sophisticated analysis.

But it is common to see reductions in variability that lead to energy savings. What kind of results can you expect? That depends. starting with site evaluation and progressing all the way through capture of benefits and sustaining the results. ExperTune FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . not years. Experienced software and service suppliers can also provide all or part of these activities as a service. each of these steps can be accomplished in-house. Because automation system improvements have a direct effect on process results. P. the return on investment is typically measured in months.. of course.E. production increases and quality improvement.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Measure First to Improve Control System Performance 74 / 135 If you have enough staff at your plant. on your starting situation.  This article was adapted from content provided by George Buckbee.

realize that you are attempting to capture the essence of the machine or process. you lose money. A good design requires careful use of layout. It’s important to keep the HMI simple and with the operator in mind. The ”bad” screen is less than satisfactory: The layout is poor. try to make the pages similar and follow the same page layout throughout. Less is more. your operator misses an indication. If you get it wrong. Design tips. less really is more. Don’t try to save money by selecting an HMI display screen that’s too small. Operational feedback is vital for efficient HMI screen layouts. Think of yourself as an artist. not just with their managers. Operators usually have different needs and the success of your system depends on their usage. commissioned by manufacturing operations to create the HMI screens. Size the display according to the amount of information that is most important for the operator to see. not just posting key automation variables and control mechanisms. Avoid making the display too technical. It’s normal for engineers to try to give the customer everything. It’s best when it’s self-explanatory and easily understood. someone is injured. Always discuss requirements with the equipment’s operators well ahead of time. Also. Right-size displays. color and content. It’s also important not to cram too much information onto a screen. 2. but with HMI. the plant representation isn’t FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . 3. 1.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 75 / 135 10 Steps to Creating the Perfect HMI When developing HMI screens. or worse.

choose colors that contrast with the normal process view so the operator will notice the change. events. Doing this prior to specifying equipment helps to identify the features that users will want in the HMI station.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 10 Steps to Creating the Perfect HMI 76 / 135 logical and the screen layout makes it difficult to locate the data. 5. both from the perspective of an audio-visual action and an operations response. Hold a design review with a group of plant personnel to discuss any status notifications. once as the designer. Plant review forum. Real estate can be prime in a busy production area. once as the user and then invite at least two levels of users who will be interfacing with the HMI. out of heavy traffic areas but accessible. Poor selection of colors. Avoid colors that could create problems for people with color blindness. Guard the HMI location so others don’t park or configure something else on top of the station. Step through the intended functional system. Minimize the use of colors to allow actual device state and alarms to stand out. It also avoids surprises at point of commissioning. Be aware of near-future projects in the area. Location. 4. Locate the HMI in a practical place. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . location. For alarming. excessive use of capitals in a serif font and repetitive use of units with all data values makes this a really difficult screen to read—especially at a glance or from a distance. location. alerts and alarms that need to be programmed.

Alarms must be used for conditions that require intervention and must have a clear corrective action associated with each one. 8. 9. Alarm strategy. Visualize the process. Anything else should not be an alarm. navigation and other requirements.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Make control and monitoring of the process simpler by selecting only the most essential information from the process database for the historian. 7. Alarming needs to have a well-articulated strategy. The S88 functional hierarchy is a good place to start.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 10 Steps to Creating the Perfect HMI 77 / 135 6. Software such as Norton’s Ghost Image can be invaluable to support and maintain HMI systems. and review with clients prior to designing and making electronic screens. Backups are especially important before implementing upgrades or changes. This will reduce the load on the system and keep it from stalling or failing. Decide how the display blocks naturally flow and how sections need to be grouped together for the operator. Use hardware that meets minimum requirements and keeps the number of failure points low and assures high availability of the system. Do not blindly follow P&I diagrams. Don’t forget the need for maintenance and make sure you schedule periodic backups. Make paper-based designs to get a feel for screens. Back up work periodically. Only essential data. HMI graphics should illustrate the production process in the plant to provide better visualization to the operators. 10. giving them a sense of the action that’s required. It is essential to have a clear design approach to the HMI. Think about flow.

78 / 136 SECTION FOUR Advances in Safety .

” says James Wilkinson. going back to a control panel. switch gears. pushbuttons. where voltages are 24 V or less. As you develop your safety plan for a hazardous production environment. That makes it a good fit for field instruments such as thermocouples.S. for example. senior applications specialist and technical support lead for MTL Instruments. For variable-frequency drives. you might want to move beyond the explosion-proof methods that have been popular for so many years in the U.” That’s because intrinsic safety makes the most sense at low energy levels.. and currents are 300 mA or less. simple transmitters and low-power solenoids. Particularly for process industries.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 79 / 135 Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box By Aaron Hand Executive Editor Automation World Unlike explosion-proof schemes. Consider whether it makes sense for your production environment. which aim to contain explosions inside enclosures. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . intrinsic safety keeps them from ever happening at all. Process automation is the sweet spot for intrinsic safety. RTDs. “Process automation is intrinsic safety’s world. “That’s where intrinsic safety shines. Coriolis meters—anything high-voltage or highcurrent—explosion-proof makes more sense. it could be time to take a closer look at intrinsic safety (IS). describing analog signals from level measurement on a tank. and start thinking outside the box.

the cost savings and its overall ease of use. People here in North America do not understand it. Intrinsic safety falls within the third category. Intrinsic safety is suited to the most hazardous locations—Class I. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . low-power instrumentation. Older engineers don’t understand what it is and how it works. Source: ABB When it comes to protecting hazardous environments. but has been slower to catch on in North America. upstream oil and gas. It is used in a variety of hazardous industries—in oil refineries. preventing it from reaching the surrounding area. petrochemicals. which physically isolates the electrical parts from the explosive danger. Intrinsic safety is the No. albeit a slow movement. pharmaceuticals. which limits the electrical and thermal energy to safe levels. and prevention. There is a movement to intrinsic safety. and Zones 1 and 0 for Europe/IEC. How intrinsic safety differs Three basic safety methods protect hazardous environments: containment. 1 safety movement in Europe. But there is a general lack of knowledge in the field about what intrinsic safety is and how it needs to be set up. segregation. segregation and prevention. that’s when you need to sit back and take a look at intrinsic safety.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 80 / 135 If you’re running a plant where 90 percent of it is low-voltage. Div. Intrinsic safety prevents a spark from ever igniting. 1 for North American NEC standards. even food and beverage. which lets the explosion occur but confines it to a given area. there are three basic methods used: explosion containment.

But with corrosion. In a fault condition. but the container will contain the explosion. if an explosion occurs inside it will be contained. Being limited by an intrinsically safe barrier. Intrinsic safety works by eliminating the ignition source. it may create an explosion. particularly since they don’t actually avoid creating an explosion. The housing is designed to contain the explosion. ethylene. the idea is to eliminate one or more of the components of the ignition triangle. Source: Pepperl+Fuchs But explosion-proof systems have their own hazards. but they still all follow a basic ignition triangle. All protection methods eliminate one or more of the triangle components. that spark doesn’t carry enough power to ignite. Engineers need to be more electrically oriented to feel comfortable with intrinsic safety. nicks or cuts to the container. You design the circuit so even if there is gas in the air. Such hazardous compounds as hydrogen. They may believe that if they have an enclosure. Engineers who’ve been around the business for a while often feel more comfortable with explosion-proofing. Intrinsic safety is more electrical. a much larger explosion can occur outside the container. even if there is a fault condition. it won’t have enough energy to ignite. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . which requires fuel. or if screws are not screwed in all the way.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 81 / 135 In short. oxygen and an ignition source. No matter what method is used to reduce the risk of explosion. an intrinsically safe system is one whose energy levels are so low that they cannot generate an arc or spark and therefore cannot cause an explosion. propane or methane will ignite differently. This differs from an explosion-proof system in which the explosion is simply contained within an enclosure so that it doesn’t reach the hazardous materials that might create a combustible mixture in the atmosphere.

You can put two instruments per isolator. While somewhat more expensive. which creates an optical isolation area between the safe area (the control room. it will do just that. sometimes four. That can create potential for energy to not get shunted to ground appropriately. however. A key drawback. For intrinsic safety. They require a very high-integrity earth ground. the zener barrier provides a simple method for keeping energy levels in check. and save money and space. not both. They do. you can buy 50 isolators. Galvanic isolators are also more application-specific because they must be configured for either digital or analog use. they are much easier to install and maintain. A newer alternative is an isolated barrier. Source: Pepperl+Fuchs Another benefit of an isolated barrier. for example. The zener barrier is one device per barrier. for example) and the active area. Zener diode barriers or isolated barriers must be paired with intrinsically safe instruments to create the IS circuit. is that the barrier must be connected to a special IS ground. is density packing.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 82 / 135 IS barriers Even though some engineers find it difficult to trust that a little zener diode barrier will stop an explosion. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . as is possible with zener barriers. and are more error-prone since they can start building up impedance by becoming corrosive. though. It provides galvanic isolation and does not require dedicated grounding. however. typically require a separate power supply. So instead of 100 zener barriers.

It’s as simple as that. When you pick your devices.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 83 / 135 These. concerned that the system is too complicated or expensive. IS barrier and measurement device. an IS system is not that complicated and there is plenty of help available in the industry for setup. that’s actually not the case. There are essentially three devices that plants need to be concerned with for intrinsic safety: a power supply. capacitance.S. You have to do some entity calculation. The conduit for explosion-proof schemes is a considerable cost. Depending on the length of the conduit. Companies who specialize in commercial and industrial property insurance can often help U. because it can improve safety over explosion-proof setups. However. inductance. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . are aspects that scare some folks away. checking voltage. A mistake some people will make is to take an explosion-proof instrument. current. this probably would be a decision point. and call it an IS circuit. It doesn’t work that way. Cost savings Intrinsic safety is worth any additional expense for certified barriers. power… People can find that a little daunting. But while the need for additional hardware such as a safety power supply source leads to perceptions that intrinsic safety is more expensive than explosion-proof schemes. particularly in upstream oil and gas applications. make sure they are compatible with each other based on entity parameters. put a barrier in front of it. along with other system requirements. organizations identify parameters for setting up IS circuits.

This means they don’t take full advantage of all the benefits of intrinsic safety. They’re connecting wiring. intrinsic safety makes a whole lot of sense. With intrinsic safety. pouring seals. People around the world often buy an IS device. they would really see the true benefits of it. couldn’t cause a problem. The other end of it is downtime. slap in the new electronics. you don’t have to use any special field wiring. which required explosion-proof instrumentation. since the energy is limited and not stored. even if you cut them. Setting up the circuit Having the properly rated IS devices is important. bending conduit. you don’t have to shut down the whole process. Or they’re installing a device that’s not IS-certified. trying to eliminate downtime. so it’s just an overall easier system to work with. but it’s just as important to set up your IS circuit properly. but not to intrinsic safety specifications. and its generalpurpose wiring methods. With IS. If they did. those wires do not have to be protected in the same way. and are continuing to use shielded wires unnecessarily. …You can pull out the electronics. Compared to this. but not using the barrier. Although more and more people are realizing the installation costs they can save from intrinsic safety. Take the example of grain refineries. but then locally do something that doesn’t fit. With intrinsic safety. and everything else that was necessary. They’re still using conduits instead of wire trays. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Or they’re buying the IS device. a lot of people still are not reaping the benefits of those savings. and the instrument’s up and running again. the wires.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 84 / 135 In fact. The biggest thing is the cost savings and ease of maintenance because you don’t have special wire or conduits.

A device could be painted with a specific oxy paint with a specific thickness in order to not have electrostatic charges on top of it. the cost and downtime to pull everything out and put intrinsic safety in will be prohibitive. Sometimes people will pull out explosion-proof if it’s come to the end of its lifecycle. Even painting a device to company colors can change its properties. Usually you’ll find intrinsic safety in a new application or new installation. Whether or not an IS system makes sense also depends on legacy systems. It could lead to a generation of spark. but that’s rare. If users have an existing explosion-proof system. When you look at hazardous location areas.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Intrinsic Safety: Thinking Outside the Explosion-Proof Box 85 / 135 The point is that users need to be sure they’re using the devices according to specifications. and globally. The key to getting intrinsic safety more embedded in North America is making sure the younger engineers understand its benefits. but then users will repaint to their own colors.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . and it could void the protection. intrinsic safety is the one methodology that can go in the worst of the worst.

there’s a bit more to look for. or a zone environment. division tells you the probability of the hazard being present. and any instrument used there must be incapable of having enough energy to ignite a fuel mixture. Although you might check that your instruments have the proper ratings for your geographic location. But it opens up the opportunity for intrinsic safety instead. There are different but similar IS standards around the world. 1. If you want to run pressure measurement with an analog device at 4-20 mA. Div. Class I. You need to actually get in and look and verify that it has the ratings for the area that they’re going into. it’s not that difficult to pick out integrated safety devices because most follow standards and generally the same specifications. Zone 0 is the most dangerous. so you should be aware of what you’re looking for. the categorization of hazardous areas is done in accordance with NEC article 500. Div. like Class I. 1. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . but not exactly. Zones 0 and 1 line up most directly with Div. Europe operates more according to a three-zone model. In North America. and group tells you the type of hazard. you could make it explosion-proof. vapors or mist continuously or occasionally under normal operating conditions. Class tells you if it’s gas or dust. 1 areas contain dangerous concentrations of flammable gases.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 86 / 135 Many Factors Determine Choices in Intrinsic Safety Devices By Aaron Hand Contributing Writer Automation World These days.

The decision about what type of safety to go with— whether IS.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 87 / 135 continued Many Factors Determine Choices in Intrinsic Safety Devices Many suppliers try to design devices to comply with all the global IS standards. but might not be important to the user. You should also make sure that the instruments you buy are approved by a third party like FM or UL in the U. They have to understand and know what that’s all about. The insurance company that you’re dealing with has probably vetted that decision and supports that decision. or ATEX in Europe.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . This makes it easier for the supplier to create devices that can fit everywhere. explosion-proof or another method—could well be dictated by your insurance provider..S.

but not necessarily cost-effective. Their experiences suggest a number of tips and pitfalls to avoid when considering whether to implement intrinsic safety in an installation. 1. operational areas are now classified Zone 1 and non-incendive instruments can be used. perhaps. Removal of one of the three sides of the fire triangle is always a good idea. Even wireless instruments. which requires intrinsically safe-rated or inherently safe instruments such as pneumatic or wireless. However. if they are not rated intrinsically safe. Evaluate by zone. already well established in Europe. For most chemical and oil and gas plants. Weigh safety alternatives. There is little to no difference in the cost of explosion-proof non-incendive and intrinsically safe instruments. explosion-proof tends to be so heavy-duty and huge that it causes space issues and is more likely to injure the personnel who have to install it. There is also a real possibility that the mount for an explosion-proof device will be homemade and not FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Someday. Both intrinsically-safe and explosion-proof products are going to cost a premium.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 88 / 135 12 Practical Tips for Implementing Intrinsic Safety North American companies are beginning to move toward intrinsically-safe systems. may not be suitable for maintenance in a Zone 0 plant area. 2. but non-incendive devices do not require intrinsic safety barriers. Most process plants are not Zone 0 rated. wireless will solve this dilemma. that use currents and voltages too low to spark an explosion in a hazardous environment—and away from costly explosion-resistant wiring or construction.

It also makes sense to seal conduits to eliminate the migration of hazardous gases. Don't operate equipment in hazardous areas needing intrinsic safety systems. intrinsically safe is recommended over explosion proof. Test the design and the system. No compromise should be tolerated when it comes to safety. As for operator safety. Do it right. which could lead to other injuries. so make sure to supervise the installation very closely. 5. With all systems. make it pass all the assessments and put it as a requirement for the project. The standards clarify the requirements and it is absolutely essential that the standards be followed with zero exceptions. keep control signal voltages below 24Vdc. It simplifies servicing and monitoring. If you are installing intrinsically safe systems. 6. Intrinsic barriers for fieldbus. The most important thing when implementing an intrinsic safety system is to test it. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . proper grounding is very important. 3. Protect controllers.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 12 Practical Tips for Implementing Intrinsic Safety 89 / 135 engineered. Using the right barriers and the proper certified devices at both the field and the systems end should solve the problem. As long as the equipment is durable enough to withstand the application. and be sure that the design is not changed at the execution. Modbus and conventional I/O card loops is a best practice. Limit risk. It will be first page news if something goes wrong. Make sure that what has been done is correct so you can sleep well at night. No human-operated selector or push button should have voltages over 24Vdc. Test everything. 4. it’s very important to protect all automation controllers and module cards.

Inputs and outputs are easily affected by loose connections on intrinsic safety circuits. There are even DCS I/O modules that are IS-certified and do not require a separate IS barrier. this technology does not require any special maintenance attention compared to the traditional North American approach. Troubleshooting issues. Make sure all connections are tight and practice good wiring practices to minimize this issue. During commissioning.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 12 Practical Tips for Implementing Intrinsic Safety 90 / 135 7. After implementation. 10. Less maintenance. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . This is because enough voltage dropped across the field wiring to reduce voltage across transmitters to less than the compliant voltages they needed to operate. Security people may think all the areas need to be explosion proof. A separate IS implementation may not be essential. An intrinsically safe solution is recommended over explosionproof technology if only a limited number of instrument loops are involved. Many PLCs and hardware out there are Class-1 Division-2 compliant. Look at incident statistics and the problems you see to determine where you need intrinsic safety and where not. 9. Voltage drops. so many plants try to avoid it. By refurbishing with low power equipment. it is common to find loops that functioned properly at low currents but stopped operating entirely as the current approached 20 mA. Do not neglect the voltage drop due to resistance of field wiring when designing 4-20 mA loops. Hardware intensive. Intrinsic safety brings along some troubleshooting issues. you can reduce the surveillance rounds and maintenance checks. It really depends on the experience with your equipment or plant. 8. Implementation of intrinsic safety is often very hardware intensive. Any time you decrease your current you allow the possibility that smaller voltage drops will give you bigger issues.

Alternative approaches. Whether a safety system is operating properly needs to be verified before starting up process equipment. 12.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued 12 Practical Tips for Implementing Intrinsic Safety 91 / 135 11. It should also be tested independently. but signals from process control loops can never be used for safety tasks. it’s essential to prepare the safety system using a preliminary testing procedure that places the process equipment out of service. Prior to designing a safety system. Preliminary testing. This is especially important for boiler BMS. without using engineering station simulation tools. The intent is to minimize the need to implement an SIS system or to minimize SIS loops.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Early in a safety project. Signals from safety instrumentation may be used for process control tasks. Root valves for control and safety transmitter impulse lines need to be separate. develop a comprehensive P&ID followed with a HAZOP review to assess risk and identify safety issues. This will allow you to investigate alternative ways to minimize risk. such as process modifications or changes in the type of process equipment. Focus safety efforts on protecting the areas of the process most critical to the continuity of production.

as it applies to those industries that base their safety systems upon instrumentation. whatever it may be. A new way of approaching safety Understanding IEC 61511 means that you must know a thing or two about IEC 61508 — a functional safety standard that provides the framework for building industry-specific functional standards. The goal of safety-system design in IEC 61511 is for the process. That’s why international standards groups play such a significant role.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 92 / 135 Safety: The Lifecycle Approach By James R. Koelsch Contributing Writer Automation World —and— Dave Woll Vice President ARC Advisory Group —and— David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World Production safety is generally thought of as a series of steps necessary to ensure safe interaction with industrial equipment. as they set the guidelines for all of industry to follow. The uniform procedures built on these disciplines are contingent upon appropriate experts within a company contributing to projects. For the process industries. to go to a safe state whenever a process parameter exceeds preset limits. The process of identifying. IEC 61511 was created from the guidelines established by IEC 61508. agreeing upon and delineating those steps is where things tend to get complicated. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . the standard also makes it easy for outside auditors and governmental agencies to follow the process. The key point to understand about IEC 61508 is that it is designed to establish an engineering discipline that will generate safer designs and build safer processes. In addition. IEC 61511 is probably the most widely used safety standard.

or performance-based. maintenance and ongoing functions. such as IEC 61511. IEC 61508 and its offshoots actually do—from project conception to maintenance to decommissioning. realization. departed from this approach by being more functional. the standards specify safety lifecycle activities that need to be followed over the entire life of a production system. A principal aspect of this new approach to safety standards is that it leverages two fundamental principles: safety lifecycles and probabilistic failure analysis. implement and maintain safety systems to achieve overall safety in a documented and verified manner. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . IEC 61508 and its derivative standards. Safety lifecycle management provides a method or procedure that enables companies to specify. because its underlying philosophy is new for safety standards. Older. more conventional safety standards. In essence. stipulated specific rules and specifications for making processes safe. These are segmented into four phases: analysis.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Safety: The Lifecycle Approach 93 / 135 IEC 61508 can seem confusing at first. Four phases of the safety lifecycle The IEC 61511 standard promulgated by the International Electrotechnical Commission specifies twelve steps in the safety lifecycle. Unlike previous standards that claimed to cover the entire lifecycle of a project. design.

installation and testing of safety systems. • Specify requirements for safety system: If tolerable risk is still out of limit. development and installation of other effective risk reduction methods. Specific activities include: • Perform hazard and risk analysis: Determine hazards and hazardous events. then specify the requirements for each safety system and their safety integrity levels. the sequence of events leading to hazardous condition. • Allocate safety functions to protection layers: Check the available layers of protection. Safety Lifecycle II: Realization Phase The realization phase not only includes design. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . the requirements of risk reduction and the safety functions required. identification and specification of safety functions required for the safe operation of a manufacturing process. Allocate safety functions to protection layers and safety systems. Specific activities include: • Design and engineer a safety system: Design system to meet the safety requirements. the associated process risks. but also the design.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Safety: The Lifecycle Approach 94 / 135 Safety Lifecycle I: Analysis Phase The analysis phase includes the initial planning.

• Decommissioning: Conduct review and obtain required authorization before decommissioning a safety system. enhancements and adaptations to the safety system to ensure that the safety requirements are maintained. • Modify and update: Make corrections. Specific activities include: • Operate and maintain: Ensure that the safety system functions are maintained during operation and maintenance. Safety Lifecycle III: Maintenance Phase The maintenance phase begins at the startup of a process and continues until the safety system is decommissioned or redeployed. Ensure that the required safety functions remain operational during decommissioning. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • Install. commission and validate the safety protections: Install and validate that the safety system meets the all safety requirements to the required safety integrity levels.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Safety: The Lifecycle Approach 95 / 135 • Design and develop other means of risk reduction: Means of protection other than programmable safety systems include mechanical systems. process control systems and manual systems.

rather than system development. but guide management toward decisions and offer advice. management must define which requirements are applicable in each case. planning and structuring the safety lifecycle. Not all safety lifecycle phases will be relevant to every application.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . However. • Plan and structure safety lifecycle: Define safety lifecycle in terms of inputs. Specific activities include: • Manage functional safety. Examples include managing functional safety. and performing periodic safety system verification and safety audits over the whole lifecycle. Bottom line: requirements definition Readers should note that the standards define requirements for safety management. and safety audit: Identify the management activities that are required to ensure that the functional safety objectives are met. The standards do not prescribe exactly what should be done in any particular case. like all models. the safety lifecycle is an approximation. analysis and/or testing that the required outputs satisfy the defined requirements for each phase of the safety lifecycle. while Phase IV runs concurrently with the other phases. Activities for Phases I to III are typically carried out consecutively.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Safety: The Lifecycle Approach 96 / 135 Safety Lifecycle IV: Ongoing Functions Certain functions are ongoing. • Verify safety system: Demonstrate by review. safety assessment. outputs and verification activities.

97 / 136 SECTION FIVE Communication Trends .

maintenance personnel can get a steady stream of data from that equipment about the state of its condition. Or maybe the cable would be running in a hazardous zone. temperature. as well as different types of applications. and flow. Rapid Pace of Wireless Adoption Currently (2011) and in the future (2015) what percent of your field devices do/will communicate using wireless technology? <5% 10% 15% 20% >30% 26 19 18 2015 2011 0% Source: WINA 14 9 22 64 13 6 7 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% According to the most recent survey from WINA (Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance). a refinery or water treatment facility. rather than from pure technological capabilities. wireless secured a foothold in the process industries over the past two decades. This shift is coming from a user-needs perspective. It was simply a tool to deliver communications in places where you simply couldn’t run cable for a variety of reasons. is incremental process measurements — the classic measurements of level. The other use of wireless technology. It’s not difficult to think of many different places in. say. Through these types of applications. Maybe it was too expensive. the biggest use of wireless technology today is for asset management and condition monitoring. coming in a close second. Through the use of wireless sensors that can be positioned nearly anywhere on a piece of equipment.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 98 / 135 Wireless Trends By David Greenfield The history of wireless networking in industry has largely been that of cable replacement. pressure. where it makes sense to get incremental temperature readings from segments of the process where FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World Now we are beginning to see a shift in the types of wireless technologies used.

December 2011 Access Full Presentation Click here to access the full presentation made by WINA Chairman Steven Toteda at The Automation Conference. 44% Voice. perhaps. When you literally start to put hundreds and thousands of devices out in the facility or a refinery. The third most prevalent trend for wireless technology is supporting mobile operators. continued Incremental Process Measurements Mobile Operator / HMI Control Wireless sensors are. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . there are huge overall Asset Management / Condition Monitoring 58% efficiency numbers involved in the end result. that's when you begin to see real cap-ex savings versus hard wiring. Data Asset Tracking 57% 30% 26% 13% Source: WINA Annual Survey of End Users . using temperature sensors positioned directly on the roller can produce a small percentage of improvement in the surface finish of sheet steel by precisely achieving the proper manifold temperature. For example. when examined from the aspect of a large process. And this has already been documented. like a refinery. especially when you think about the potential benefit of establishing pervasive sensor networks. And it’s easy to see why: Removing the step of having to connect via an Ethernet jack as measurements are taken at each stop is a big improvement in process. the biggest area for substantial capital expenditure savings in the process industries.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 99 / 135 you have not been able to collect that data before. Of course. But if you could easily put a wireless sensor in that part of the plant and do that very cost effectively. Such small Top Industry Applications For Wireless steps can certainly help you improve your efficiency and. Video. that’s effective incremental process measurement.000-yard trench and stop part of the plant for a couple of weeks while you did Wireless Trends that. this small improvement in quality translates into millions of dollars in savings over the course of the process run. this wouldn’t make sense if you had to dig a 1.

CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK Complete Automation Solutions for the Process Industry 100 / 135 continued Wireless Trends Pilot Valves Process Valves Following mobile in the fourth and fifth spots are voice/video data communications and asset tracking. In industries like mining. however.com/us FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . These types of wireless applications have been around for years and continue to be deployed due to their successful track record. 13 percent of survey respondents considered control to be their “top application” of wireless. But this result indicates that people across industry are beginning to experiment with closed-loop control using wireless. What is surprising is the application that came in at number six in the 2012 WINA survey — control.  Control Cabinets Global manufacturer of process control and factory automation solutions For more information: Call: 1-800-463-3786 www. wireless pump control has been around for years. This is surprising because wireless control had never even ranked in the survey prior to this year. so it’s not surprising to see them among the top trends. because there is no other way to really do it.festo. Now.

 ireless limit switch networks are commonly used to prevent the •W overflow of liquid storage tanks. The wireless limit switch then sends a signal to the pump controller to start pumping out the tank to lower the level. you may be suspicious about the viability of wireless sensor networks. “In these applications. following are a few examples of wireless sensor deployments that have become so common that they could be considered textbook application examples. “We're doing a lot of work in Mexico now to monitor and maintain oil pipelines. the switch then sends a signal to the controller to turn off the pump. vice president and general manager of the wireless business unit at Cooper Industries and chairman of the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA).” he says. there is a hierarchy of networking tools with sensor networks being used with instrumentation on the pipeline itself to capture data and transmit it back to the FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . according to Steve Toteda. When the fluid level drops to a safe level.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 101 / 135 Wireless Sensor Applications By David Greenfield Director of Content/Editor-in-Chief Automation World If you’re working in a facility without a great deal—or any—wireless sensors in place. To help illustrate how ubiquitous wireless sensors have become across industry. • T he safety and security of oil pipelines is largely handled by wireless sensor networks. Their operation is simple: As the tank fills up. the fluid level forces a change in the position of the limit switch.

and connect them to the company’s control systems for 24/7/365 monitoring. you’re effectively able to monitor hundreds of kilometers of pipelines. such as incubators and cryofreezers.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . but there are currently nearly 2. As you do this with several segments.000 pieces of equipment equipped with wireless sensors on the company’s R&D campus. it was difficult to wire them.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Wireless Sensor Applications 102 / 135 control system via high-speed backhaul. which covers an area of about 1. • A major pharmaceutical manufacturer recently decided to instrument all of its R&D equipment.5km. as they need to be moved around. Because much of this equipment has casters. wireless and cellular—has really brought wireless to the forefront because you’re mixing multiple technologies to monitor pipelines in 20-30 kilometer segments. This combination of technologies—wired. This project is still ongoing.

WirelessHART and ISA 100. In many ways.11a and WirelessHART implement IEEE 802. a third standard. Complicating the issue for end users is the fact that these two standards don’t work together.11a are alike. WIA-PA. Both can eliminate a lot of PLC I/O hardware.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 103 / 135 Wireless Protocols for the Process Industries By Renee Robbins Bassett Managing Editor Automation World Two similar wireless protocols—WirelessHART. wiring and associated schematics. Most process facilities use a mix of wired networks along with their diverse array of instrumentation. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Unlike with wired instrumentation. if you want to mix brands of wireless field devices to get an optimum mix of measurements. They are designed to serve the same market in the same way.isa. exists in China and further complicates the task for those with Asian operations.hartcomm.11a. At an application level. In addition. promulgated by the HART Communication Foundation (www. Both ISA 100. they perform the same function and have the same benefits. You have to have two separate host systems to talk to two different types of field devices. promulgated by the International Society of Automation (www.15. but the inability to integrate the two main wireless standards makes that difficult in the wireless realm. And they have to come from different vendors. you can’t.4 radio hardware.org) and ISA 100.org)—are competing for dominance as the enabler of smart instrumentation in Europe and North America. Both protocols use DDL and Device Description files.

11a highly flexible.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Wireless Protocols for the Process Industries 104 / 135 The principal difference between the two protocols is in the specification of the protocols’ application layer. WirelessHART. Both sides believe their approach is “right” and others should come over to their way of thinking. Modbus. meaning that data communication on the network is well-defined and understood. for example. HART or other protocols. Though the two protocols are similar.11a can be transferred using Foundation Fieldbus. and product certification processes have been established.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Marketing programs designed to win over additional customers and vendor partners are in high gear. investments have been made. specifies HART as the application layer while ISA100. This means that data in the application layer of ISA100. the customer must decide which protocol to use. The two protocols have been developed into products for sale.11a leaves that layer undefined. the obstacles preventing a convergence seem to be more commercial than technical. WirelessHART’s decision to specify only HART in the application layer was done to deliver simplicity via use of a single data communication specification through the network. While this makes ISA100. vendors and early adopters are lined up on either side. Profibus. Considering the potential for integrated use of the two wireless protocols.

It will give you freedom to work in the plant. 2. Here are some high-level views about applying wireless technology in industrial plants: 1.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 105 / 135 Nine Strategic Considerations for Using Wireless Technology Companies are turning to wireless communications to minimize man hours spent walking plants or pipelines. then consider going wireless as your first option. The best approach is to implement wireless to get your information in remote places. particularly in hazardous or remote areas. to operate your devices near the equipment in the plant and to get the information flowing throughout all the teams in the plant. If nothing critical is at risk in those seconds. Reliability is the single most important issue to consider when installing wireless communications. Work around issues. but keep in mind what may be at risk if the wireless fails for a couple of seconds. experts are divided other whether wireless is ready for critical control. the power consumption and health monitoring of the batteries is still a concern. If wireless doesn't function well in your plant. use fiber optics to ensure communications. Most devices on wireless use internal batteries. Even though the instruments themselves are quite evolved in terms of diagnostics. Wireless communications can fail sometimes (more often than with a fiber optic connection). Currently. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Consider reliability.

so it may not be useful for auto-tuning circuits. The network was configured to allow access to every single facility from any point within the system. Pros and cons. For example. extremely cheap and reliable. especially in situations where long cabling distances would be required. Another consideration should be that only a very careful selection of IPs and subnets make the network dependable and fail-free. This approach allows extremely fast response to emergencies and enables accurate diagnostics without having to move personnel. Most project budgets still won’t accommodate a wireless communication system for instrumentation. Until then. Wireless has both positive and negative aspects in its implementation.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Nine Strategic Considerations for Using Wireless Technology 106 / 135 3. On the other hand. It will take some time for end-users to realize the extra maintenance costs they are paying for a failure to implement a wireless system to more easily access information from equipment in remote or hazardous locations. it can be cost effective in minimizing wiring and being able to monitor plant conditions remotely. 4. Budget for wireless. wireless signals can be compromised by EMF interference. and is even used to implement PID loops. The technology has proven to be safe. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Linking Up in Cordoba The City of Cordoba (1.5 million inhabitants) uses a very wide area Wi-Fi network to link two fresh water processing stations and 12 pumping stations. a lot of manpower resources will continue to be used because of the large initial investment required to install wireless technology. Tip: Choosing a reliable and solid data link between stations is mandatory.

make sure you select wireless instruments with the proper standard. Look beyond the control room. Develop a strategy on names and IPs at an early stage. If you’re working in hazardous areas. It may be simple to implement wireless communication in one new project or modification. Prepare for obsolescence. Suggested strategies. This field is relatively new and moving fast. 8. Replacement parts may not be supported in as little as two years after purchase. Follow supplier recommendations for installation and use as close as possible. 7. Specialists may be needed. Make sure there's good documentation of the system architecture and that someone is designated to maintain a comprehensive database of IP. They can help prepare a site study to determine where repeaters should be located and optimal antenna layouts. but if you need to connect more equipment you may need a wireless networking specialist to help you configure communication for the extra equipment. such as essential asset monitoring. Consider environment obstacles.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . 6. pressure and other instruments.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Nine Strategic Considerations for Using Wireless Technology 107 / 135 5. If possible. 9. Use a wireless sensor network as a second layer of automation in applications beyond the P&ID for data that goes beyond the control room. use the same technology supplier for temperature. Enlisting the services of an RF communications company could save money in the long run. Determine what potential obstacles will degrade signal performance and how to overcome those obstacles. energy conservation measures and HS&E improvements.

Where wireless pays. 3. Radio proven. at least in the vicinity of the process. capturing information through wireless technology makes sense. Consider it for shutdown valves. make sure the fail position is specified to minimize loss. which require seconds in action time to prevent a plant blow-out. Radio has a proven track record. There also needs to be an alarm in place for a radio failure. Here are some practical tips and pitfalls to avoid when implementing wireless in your facility: 1. Having personnel who can move around the plant can often improve the OEE of the critical equipment and increase plant reliability. Response time critical.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 108 / 135 Five Practical Tips for Implementing Wireless Wireless technologies have both advantages and disadvantages in industrial applications. however. if the area is unapproachable or hazardous to enter. 2. Make sure the PLC has open communications and a rack for I/O. Just in case of instrument air failure. Wireless communication can be useful in certain plant applications. However. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .

Crosstalk will be difficult to troubleshoot and cause many issues. Configuration requires two steps.  By configuring instead of programming process control tasks. define the devices that make up the physical system and define specific tasks. Select a higher bandwidth for communication. S88 Builder speeds project development by up to 90%. heating. Determine exactly what range your wireless signals are running at. S88 Builder is the first process control system that is configured rather than programmed. more accurate and faster than programming. Configuration is easier.com CustomerSupport@ecssolutions. such as mixing. Start Configuring 5. conducting an RF spectrum analysis will save you quite a bit of heartburn. Avoid crosstalk. flow control. that the devices team up to accomplish.. Is your spectrum clogged? If you’re considering wireless.S88Builder. S88 Builder lowers the total cost of ownership for a process control system by: Five Practical Tips for Implementing Wireless Learn More About the Many Cost-Saving Benefits offered by S88 Builder www. It is not useful to use wireless communications if the spectrum is clogged with other signals or even HF noise or harmonics that will interfere with the signal quality. etc. • Lowering initial development costs • Reducing time-to-market for new products • Reducing waste and downtime 4.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 109 / 135 continued Stop Programming Process Tasks.com (800) 471-3273 CONTROL AND INFORMATION SOLUTIONS FOR INDUSTRY FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .

Safety should also not be delayed.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 110 / 135 Wireless Is Evolving Wireless instrumentation is with us and there is no going back. Be ready when it happens. It will continue to evolve and will eventually be good enough to integrate directly into control systems. eye wash and safety shower monitoring. But there are applications for wireless that do not need to wait for DCS integration. safety valve. The fact that there are two commercial standards is a stumbling block. such as steam trap. meaning that they cannot currently be used as a process variable or control element inside a control loop. The most obvious problem is that the wireless network supported by your favorite instrumentation supplier may not be integrated with the DCS that is your company's favorite. That is expected to change in the next few years. Neither of the current wireless solutions can be directly integrated into either a DCS or a Foundation Fieldbus control system. but strides are being taken to integrate both wireless standards into control systems.

these specifications help users run many pieces of equipment at very high speeds.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 111 / 135 Standards Help Ethernet Networks Stay in Sync By Terry Costlow Contributing Writer Automation World When networked equipment in complex systems needs to perform tasks in perfect harmony. The result is the ability to synchronize clocks in distributed devices and switches to within hundreds of Source: Moxa FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . The transparent clock supported in IEEE 1588 Version 2 augments the boundary clock used in the first version and is better able to deal with a very large network topology. and power plants. Its asynchronous characteristics make it difficult to ensure orderly delivery of packets in real time. test and measurement. The two specifications share many traits. Ethernet needs a little help. CIP Sync incorporates the IEEE 1588 services that measure network transmission latencies and corrects for infrastructure delays. In high-performance fields like robotic control. so many users are adding IEEE 1588 and ODVA’s CIP Sync to synchronize all operations.

FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . For example.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Standards Help Ethernet Networks Stay in Sync 112 / 135 nanoseconds of accuracy. some must be used carefully or ignored. With IEEE 1588 and CIP Sync. and timing accuracies must be in the submicrosecond range. It is essential that when a control signal is sent to a control device. particularly when signals travel long distances.” IEEE 1588 has seen growing usage in recent years. It comes into play when extreme precision is a paramount requirement. multicasting could create synchronization issues. When all the devices in a control system share a synchronized. the system needs to know in real time when the device will actuate. real-time control can be accomplished by including time as a part of the motion information. such as an intelligent automation device. IEEE 1588 gives Ethernet a more synchronous nature. Though many facets of Ethernet communications will remain the same when IEEE 1588 is used. Usage has also soared since the completion of Precision Time Protocol (PTP) Version 2 in 2008. common understanding of system time. That’s partially because equipment speeds and end-user demands continue to rise. This ability to transmit signals with known delivery times is extremely important in a broad range of applications. PTPv2 is a method that provides the high degree of accuracy for systems that require strict synchronization in their operations. packet delivery times can go into the nanosecond range.

www.com). Several Ethernet alternatives provide real-time capabilities.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . but inserts its own delay so that the end slave devices downstream can take that into account in doing their calculations. there are fewer limitations. “You don’t want a signal from the grand master clock going to something that’s a football field away.” says Jeff Smith from American Axle & Manufacturing (AAM. but most require some special hardware or mandate that all real-time equipment use the same software.” Expanding the distances for synchronized systems was one of the focal points during the development of IEEE 1588 Version 2. This is necessary when dealing with a very large network topology.aam. For applications such as motion control where timing is key. One of its mainstays is a transparent clock. The benefit of a standard is that disparate systems can now use the same protocol. but for controls.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Standards Help Ethernet Networks Stay in Sync 113 / 135 “Multicasting is great in information technology. A transparent clock does not have its own clock. not so much. With standards. opening opportunities for multi-vendor designs and solutions. 1588 allows nodes to be kept on the same time down to the submicrosecond range. It augments the boundary clock used in the initial version of the standard.

114 / 136 SECTION SIX Energy & the Environment .

Identify the low-hanging fruit Considering that the average ROI time on energy savings investments is five years. such as a system integrator or a vendor.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 115 / 135 How to Conduct an Energy Audit By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World Whether your plant is processing food or chemicals. Before beginning your energy audit process. They’ve typically been involved in many similar projects and will know what to look for. though there are many energy saving steps that result in short-term payback. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . They also bring a different perspective to the task than a maintenance person. Where are you using energy? There’s no better way to start the audit process than by walking the floor and identifying where and how the facility is using energy. the greater the probability that the energy savings potential—and your return on investment from corrective actions—will be significant. should be the core focus of an energy audit. electricity or steam (a group of power sources often referred to as WAGES). who has different priorities. It often helps to have an outsider’s eyes. the process used to audit your energy usage and find ways to use or waste less of it is much the same. on this walkthrough. it is important to realize that. Any equipment powered by water. gas. it helps to get some early wins from the audit process that can be achieved with minimal investment. It’s not just about electricity. the average payback time for investments to increase energy efficiency is five years. The older the facility and its equipment. wastewater or steel. air.

for example. Go beyond direct asset-related energy use and ask questions like: Is there lighting that’s on when no one is working in a room? Where are the large motor loads. and how and when are they being operated? Are start times being staggered to avoid electrical peak power demand surcharges? Is the plant subjected to extreme seasonal temperature fluctuations between summer and winter? Understand your electric utility contract It’s essential to get a working knowledge of the electric utility contract and the billing history for the facility to understand how you’re being billed and what penalties are being charged for over-consumption. with none of the gradients that drives can provide to match energy consumption to different operating conditions. Are there improperly working natural gas regulators? Does the plant have programmable thermostats? How energy-efficient are the lighting fixtures? Do infrared scans detect any hot spots on the electrical equipment? Also consider the energy-efficiency value to be found in straightforward upgrades of existing equipment. have variable frequency drives been installed on motors serving high-energy-consuming equipment. tend to have motors that run either slow or fast. Different utilities use different ways to calculate rates and to penalize high consumption. such as cooling towers? Older cooling towers.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Conduct an Energy Audit 116 / 135 Look for steam or compressed air leaks. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . For example. Determining which of the WAGES energy types are used most in your facility is important for prioritizing corrective actions. Different industries use different types of energy more than others.

It should also define a program of preventive maintenance to maintain energy-efficient production processes and allow you to continue to innovate in the future. Most older plants are poorly metered. The pre-plan should identify where meters are to be located to divide and measure energy use among different processes. are the largest consumers of electrical energy and also incur the most frequent energy spikes because of their use of arc furnaces. The information gathered from these sub-meters can then be used to justify capital expenditures and enable you to develop a longer-term plan based on where the best savings are for the least amount of investment. If the only meter in the facility is the one measuring the main utility feed. draw up a pre-plan to address the obvious areas of waste and identify the processes that consume the most energy. on the other hand.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Conduct an Energy Audit 117 / 135 Steel plants. make greater use of compressed air and steam. Most importantly. The chemical and refining industries. make sure this plan focuses on the processes used to create the products that contribute the most to the company’s productivity and profitability. then it will be impossible to determine which machines or processes are contributing the most to your utility bill. for example. Draft a pre-plan Once you have the initial findings from the walkthrough. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .

• Install the most energy-efficient light bulbs and other lighting fixtures.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Conduct an Energy Audit 118 / 135 Corrective actions Companies are taking many corrective steps to increase their energy efficiency. • Apply automatic lighting controls that turn off lights when rooms are unoccupied. • Update capacitor banks to maintain correct power factors when new equipment is installed. • Take advantage of the software controlling motors to regulate equipment startup times and prevent unscheduled starts. • Install Ethernet-based power management systems. • Eliminate leaks in compressed air and steam systems. Among the most common: • Install variable speed drives to match power output with process requirements. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • Use programmable thermostats to match temperatures within the plant to operating requirements. These create an open database of the information collected from your processes that can be used to write custom reports and new applications to address the unique requirements of your facility.

Justifying that kind of investment. There are also more significant capital investments that can be made depending on conditions at your facility. Investment in piping and heat exchange equipment can allow energy to be passed from one process stream to another. Another possibility is heat recovery.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued How to Conduct an Energy Audit 119 / 135 • Make preventive maintenance a priority for maintenance staff by incorporating it into their job descriptions or creating reward programs for meeting PM objectives. • Changing our attitudes about energy consumption can change our behaviors and lead to energy savings. reducing the load on utility sources such as steam and cooling water. an energy audit is the first step toward achieving your energy-efficiency goals. requires an analysis of the predictability of rates going forward. No matter the savings potential at your facility. How much you can expect to reduce your energy costs will vary from industry to industry and plant to plant. Further efficiency can be captured with a co-generation system to produce steam as well as electricity.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . With electricity rates high and natural gas rates currently low. however. or even tri-generation if your processes require hot water. it may make sense to invest in gas-powered turbines.

found that industry leaders seeking to reduce energy consumption at their facilities viewed energy management as strategic to their business success. according to the study. information collection and consumption monitoring. • Establishing metrics to quantify the benefits of energy management programs. Peak demand charges can account for as much as 60 percent of a company’s energy bills.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 120 / 135 Energy Management Best Practices By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World The path to achieving energy efficiency is shaped as much by attitudes and organizational skills as by the physical aspects of reducing energy demands. Among the best practices adopted by industry leaders in reducing energy consumption and costs. But its goals can never be achieved without the automation technologies that make it possible to mine information and control the operation of machines. • Taking energy costs into account when scheduling production. The primary tools they applied in their endeavors included advanced visualization. the greater the energy savings. The faster changes can be made to equipment operations. are: • Making energy usage data available to decision-makers in real time. A 2009 study by the Aberdeen Group. the activity can’t be valued. a research and consulting firm. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . If you don’t measure it.

Here’s a go-to short list to kick off your initiative: • Analyze energy utility contracts and penalties. Understand consumption From a practical perspective. • Conduct an audit of all equipment and their energy sources—water. If you can’t see it.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Energy Management Best Practices 121 / 135 • Tying operational metrics to financial metrics. electricity and steam (WAGES). any energy management initiative must start by gaining an understanding of consumption patterns and cost sources from production processes and facilities. you can’t measure it or change it. • Establish a consumption baseline. • Acquire and analyze energy consumption and cost data. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . • Investing in technology to automate how energy data is collected and monitored. and • Identify potential savings. It’s essential to understand how the costs of energy for production and facilities affect the company’s bottom line. even small improvements can have a dramatic impact on the bottom line. gas. air. Since energy can constitute as much as 25 percent of a manufacturer’s operating costs.

Consider automated solutions The bulleted list below highlights the predominant users of energy in an industrial facility for which automated solutions exist. Here’s an outline to follow as you establish your priorities and ensuing goals: • Fix the basics. and • Develop a phased corrective plan. • Focus on processes and assets that are high consumers of energy. cooling towers or pumps and •M fans in HVAC systems. Adding variable speed drives will better match energy use to operational requirements. lack of energy-efficient lighting and utility penalties for peak demand and reactive power. A next step can include installing sub-meters to identify which production activities contribute the most to your energy bills. as well as waste. motors are the biggest sources of industrial energy usage.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Energy Management Best Practices 122 / 135 Prioritize opportunities By first attacking the low-hanging fruit. you’ll gain some early wins at minimal cost.  otors. such as leaks in compressed air and steam systems. Whether they power production equipment. • Decide where and what to meter. prioritization means that you must first establish goals. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Ultimately. and then phase in a planned program of corrective actions.

Drives. automated air dampers and programmable thermostats can help limit energy usage correlated to operational needs. • E nergy management. meter energy use. Programmable lighting controls turn off lights when rooms or production areas are not in use. • P ower quality. Utility incentives for demand response programs can be substantial. If your plant is experiencing unexplained power outages and motor failures. • L ighting accounts for as much as 35 percent of energy bills. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . Using software to track power quality. • H VAC systems. Install energy-efficient bulbs and lighting fixtures. or paying penalties for reactive power. and control remote monitoring systems will help you access energy information in an organized fashion that speeds decision-making and lets you know where to take corrective action. Automated controls ensure essential loads keep working while minimizing costs. low power factor and harmonics may be the cause. Match illumination levels to task needs.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Energy Management Best Practices 123 / 135 • L oads. Upgrade capacitor banks or electrical equipment where necessary and install corrective filters to extend equipment life. Staggered start-times and software to prevent unscheduled equipment starts will help avoid peak demand penalties.

• Update plans and priorities based on what you learn from measurements. • Measure and report all savings. The core takeaway of these tips is to realize that having a greater awareness of the cost of energy is the first step in changing attitudes about energy consumption and related behaviors in your facility.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . keep the following in mind: • Always compare actual consumption to baseline.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Energy Management Best Practices 124 / 135 Measure ROI Energy management is not a one-time event. Periodically measuring the progress achieved in reducing energy consumption and associated costs savings will build support for continuing improvements. To achieve sustained savings requires a proactive program of measurement. • Incorporate preventive maintenance as part of the process to reduce downtime and increase savings potential. Following the best practices described above that have been developed and implemented by other processing companies can favorably impact your company’s bottom line. As you go about measuring your progress. monitoring and preventive maintenance to make sure that equipment and systems are working in optimal fashion.

Offering energy capacity back to the grid on request in exchange for incentives. Minimizing energy draw during idle process conditions. which triggers higher utility rates or penalties. Minimizing costs by shifting demand to lower-cost time periods. Detection and analysis of process changes that cause consumption to exceed forecast. 2. 5.  FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS .CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 125 / 135 Five Ways to Manage Energy Costs Reducing energy costs from production processes requires managing the five most important factors that determine both utility charges and total energy consumption: 1. Peak demand management. 4. Minimizing peak demand. 3. Energy event management. Idle state management. Scheduled demand management. Demand/response management.

iron and steel. paper.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 126 / 135 Managing Emissions with Automation By Jeanne Schweder Contributing Editor Automation World Industries where emissions control is critical include electric utilities. food. the pending Casper regulations and proposed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits on greenhouse gases are driving the development of improved emissions control technologies. On the horizon are new regulations designed to limit mercury emissions in flue gas. as well as airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NOx and SOx reduction The U. But emission control concerns are not limited to these industries. mining. Casper regulations will further reduce NOx and SOx emissions limits in the Northeast and in certain Midwestern states such as Texas and Illinois. More stringent controls on particulates will also require new investments in emissions technologies.S. Clean Air Act. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . including trash burners and industrial boilers. These rules will also apply to industrial facilities. even if they only generate process steam. Systems to control and reduce emissions are required for any industrial process that produces sulphur and nitrogen dioxides (popularly referred to as SOx and NOx). green initiatives by corporations also emphasize emission reductions. metals and cement. oil and gas. chemical processing. In addition to these government measures. the major causes of acid rain. the Clean Water Act.

• Distributed control systems manage the complex processes involved in balancing boilers. or SNCR. • The most successful NOx reduction technology—at 90 percent—has been selective catalytic reduction. A by-product of the scrubber process is calcium sulphate. which is viable only for large coal-fired plants.CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK continued Managing Emissions with Automation 127 / 135 The list that follows touches upon the primary emission reduction methods used in industry: • Optimized process control is central to reducing NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. or SCR. This capital-intensive technology. FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT RETURN TO CONTENTS . which is then used to make wallboard. further reducing NOx emissions by up to 20 percent. • Scrubbers. operators can decrease the amount of raw materials and energy used while reducing waste. using either dry or wet processes. Oxygen is injected into the boiler to improve combustion and prevent pockets of NOx from being created. injecting air and adjusting dampers to optimize combustion. measure emissions and control heat levels within the boiler to prevent the build-up of slag. monitor pH levels and spray lime or apply a slurry of limestone to remove 95 percent or more of sulphur dioxide. injects urea or ammonia into the boilers. more complete burn. involves very large reactors and again injects ammonia into the flow. enabling operators to fine-tune the process. By tightening process controls. A secondary technology. Automated systems measure NOx levels before and after the reduction process. use automated systems that regulate water flows. selective non-catalytic reduction. New low-NOx burners have also been introduced that allow a cooler.

CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK
continued

Managing Emissions
with Automation

128 / 135

• At the stack, the air from the process is passed over a rack of sensors that measure
oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide levels, as well as sulphur dioxide,
sulphur trioxide and nitrogen oxide content.

• Most air pollution control devices (APCDs) come as pre-built OEM packages that

include PLC-based automation systems that tend to operate independently of the
central DCS system. As new regulations drive greater investment in these APCDs, these
systems will need to work together in a more holistic fashion. Achieving this goal will
likely require additional automation integration.

Alternative fuel strategies
Although coal has traditionally made up 50 percent of the fuel source for American electric
utility plants, many operators have begun building natural gas-fired plants that do not
produce nitrogen or sulphur dioxide. Others are using flexible fuel processes, replacing up
to 25 percent of their coal fuel with natural gas. Still others are blending coal from different
regions, mixing high-sulphur but lower cost Appalachian coal with low-sulphur but higher
cost Western coal to reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide their processes have to remove.
Each of these alternative fuel strategies, however, can complicate process control and require
additional steps and systems to optimize combustion and reduce emissions. Blending highand low-sulphur coal, for example, can create a slag layer in boilers that requires installing a
soot-blowing system to break up and remove it. 

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129 / 135

ECS Solutions, Inc.

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| Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE  WEB: www.ecssolutions.com

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Watch as S88 Builder
goes through its paces.

awgo.to/ecs4

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ECS Solutions, Inc.

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Over 30 Years of Industry
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130 / 135

KEY COMPANY CONTACT
ECS Solutions, Inc.
PHONE: (812) 479-5170 | Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE
LOCATION: Evansville, IN • EMAIL: Info@ecssolutions.com

 ADDRESS: 2616 Kotter Avenue, Evansville, Indiana 47715

| Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE  WEB: www.ecssolutions.com

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Festo has continuously elevated the state of manufacturing with innovations and process control solutions that deliver higher performing. Custom Automation Solutions Save 30% on Cabinet Installations Our broad range of products and services span the full needs of the automation industry including control cabinet design and energy reduction solutions. At the control level. Control cabinets  PHONE: (800) 99 FESTO  WEB: www. engineering and fabrication services of control cabinets tailored to the facility specifications. valve terminals. Festo offers design.to/152 PROCESS AUTOMATION PRODUCT OVERVIEW awgo. With over 40 years of innovation in the United States and over 80 years globally.festo. Festo is uniquely positioned to support your most complex automation requirements. with more than 55 national headquarters serving over 180 countries. sensors and positioners. COMPANY: FESTO FAX: (800) 96 FESTO Process Automation Product Offerings Festo provides complete process automation solutions with a range of automated process valves.to/153 CONTROL CABINET SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRY awgo. more profitable automated manufacturing and processing equipment. I/O systems and HMIs which integrate seamlessly with leading DCS and controllers. With a comprehensive range of products. Festo manufactures pneumatic pilot valves. diaphragm valves.to/154 RETURN TO CONTENTS .CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLAYBOOK 131 / 135 Festo VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Complete Automation Partner for the Process Industry Festo is a leading global manufacturer of process automation and control solutions for both process and factory automation applications. engineering competencies and strong design experience.com/us FORWARD PLAYBOOK ADD COMMENT WEB RESOURCES FESTO CORPORATE OVERVIEW awgo.

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