You are on page 1of 25

UNIT 6

ADVERTISING
SECTION A: HOW TO ADVERTISE A PRODUCT
TASK SHEET 1:
Put the following words and phrases from the box in its correct place in the passage below:
advertising
magazines
announces
obtained
improved
seeks

comfortable
aware
tastes
describes
mass communication
selling
audiences
messages
customs
things
market
foodproducts
radio
living

clothes
familiar
suggests

ADVERTISING
Advertising is a form of . Advertising to make people of things they
need and to make them want these . It tells what or services are on the and how
they can be .
It new products and new uses and features of ones.
Advertising that we might enjoy nourishing , more attractive
and more homes. In doing all these things, helps us to improve our way of .
It also shapes our , habits and .
Advertising are carried to large by newspapers, , television,
, and other means of .

TASK SHEET 2:
Read again the above paragraph and try to answer the following questions:
1.
2.
3.

Do you agree with this definition of advertising ?


Are there other things you would like to add in order to complete the definition?
What other means of mass communication can you specify?

TASK SHEET 3:
Which of the following claims do you agree with?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Advertising is essential for business, especially for launching new consumer products.
A large reduction of advertising would decrease sales.
Advertising often persuades people to buy things they dont need.
Advertising often persuades people to buy things they dont want.
Advertising lowers the publics taste.
Advertising raises prices.
Advertising does not present a true picture of products.
Advertising has a bad influence on children.

7 august 1983
The International Herald Tribune

Japanese Find Ads More Effective in English


Since 1853, when Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his steam-powered black ships
chugged into what is now called Tokyo Bay, forcing it to open to the outside world, Japan has
earned a well-deserved reputation for absorbing Western ideas and ways on its own terms.
Frequently, the foreign products or fashions are modified or refined, sometimes being
improved and at other times simply being given a distinctively Japanese flavor.
There is probably no example that illustrates this phenomenon so graphically and
amusingly, as the use of English in Japan, particularly in advertising slogans and product names.
Considering the use of this native tongue here, Ivan P. Hall, a long-time student of Japan,
pondered for a while and observed: Well, it is by no means certainly something that you and I
can not easily understand.
English adorns everything from toothpaste (lion between teeth) to big-league baseball
teams (The Swallows).
There is perhaps no clear reason whatsoever for the continuing use of English, mused
Yoshikazu Nakashima, a member of the Toyota Motor Corp.s international staff. But I think its
part of the complex psychology of the Japanese toward things foreign. Many Japanese still have
a complicated inferiority complex about the West.
As a result, from flank to dashboard, Japanese cars sold in the domestic market have
almost nothing but English on them. Esthetically, the English is thought to be more attractive to
the eye, explained Yukihito Eguchi, an official at the Nissan Motor Company.
In Japanese advertising it is the English of the market place that prevails. Good English is
whatever sells. It is not for native English-speakers, linguists or professors, said
Hideo Ishikawa, an executive at Hakuhodo Inc., a leading advertising agency. But it seems to
appeal to the public.
To illustrate, an advertising executive recalled the experience of Kanebo, a cosmetics
company. About a decade ago, in search of an advertising theme, the company chairman decided
he liked the phrased for beautiful human life. On television, it would be spoken in a breathy
voice, and, in print, it would be prominently displayed, in English.
To accomplished English-speakers in the ad agency in Kanebos employ, for beautiful
human life sounded a bit off. The agency tried to dissuade the chairman, but he had his mind
made up. For beautiful human life first appeared on billboards and in magazines in 1972. that
ad campaign is still running successfully.
But the language gap cuts both ways. Toshihiko Yamashita, president of the Matsushita
Electric Industrial Co., was discussing the reverse language problem recently. Matsushita, the
giant consumer electronics concern, would prefer to use one brand name instead of the present
four: Panasonic, Technics, Quasar and National. One obvious solution, it seems, would be to put
the company name on all its products.
But we cant do that, Mr. Yamashita said. After all, no American can even say it
correctly. It is pronounced matsoosh-tah.

TASK SHEET 4: - Comprehension Check


1. Why do you think that Japanese people prefer the use of the English language in advertising
slogans and product names?
2. In general, why do you think that the native tongue has a lower impact on the public?
3. How do you comment on the following statement: Good English is whatever sells. ?
4. What does the reverse language problem refer to?

TASK SHEET 5:
But the language gap cuts both ways = has advantages and disadvantages.
Find the explanations in column B that fit the expressions in the column A.
A
a) a cut above
b) cut corners
c) cut ones losses
d) cut it fine
e) cut back
f) cut-and-dried
g) cut it fine
h) cut it out
i) cut in

B
1. already prepared and settled in advance
2. do something in a less than perfect way in order to save
time or money
3. stop taking part in a failing business before one loses
too much money
4. of higher quality
5. naturally well-suited for some particular activity
6. interrupt
7. stop it
8. reduce in size or amount
9. leave oneself with very little time or money to do what is needed

TASK SHEET 6:
Fill in the blanks with the missing word and translate the sentences:
1. The colour advert targets a dynamic, young, fun-loving public.
2. use half-naked, slim (slender), young girls: it is scandalous.
3. Well-studied greatly contributes to the success of a
recently-launched product.
4. Hideous disfigure the environment of twentieth century society.
5. advertising is an old, yet very fashionable, advertising technique.
6. The market must inform the manufacturer about the clientele
(customers) that is (are) likely to purchase the product.
7. The point must not be confused with the rate of return.
8. How profitable would it be for you if the Spanish market and its
distribution were opened for you?
9. The results of the survey are surprising: the was thought
to be much better-known.
10. A firm selective distribution aimed solely at department store
will be the basis of its success.
11. There will be inserts in several magazines and perhaps a TV
commercial at viewing time(s).
12. magazines are full of tall, slender, twenty-year old models-but
would this short, blue-and-white-striped cotton dress suit my mother?

policy
survey
full-page
glossy
brand
network
peak
break-even
adverts
hoardings
point-of-sale
packaging

SECTION B: ADVERTISING STANDARDS


TASK SHEET 1:
In Great Britain there is an association The Advertising Standards Authority- that concerns itself
with the morality and honesty of adverting.
Read the text of the following advertisement and then answer the questions.

Whether you are a newborn baby or a great-grandparent, you are affected by advertisements throughout
your life. Advertising for baby foods, for instance, toys, cosmetics, jobs, garden tools, hearing aids. And if
the advertising in untruthful or misleading, you need protection.
Which is why we are here. To protect all consumers from unacceptable cinema commercials. (TV and radio
commercials are dealt with by the IBA)

From here to eternity


Anyone can write in to us to complain about any advertisement they find unacceptable.
If, after investigation, we find the advertisement does contravene a rule in the British Code of Advertising
Practice, we instruct the advertiser to amend or withdraw it from the publication.
But thanks to the commitment of the advertising industry, the actual number of offenders who slip through
is very small compared with the millions of advertisements which appear every year.
If you do, however, come across one of those very few offenders, let us know. Whatever your age, from 0
to over 100, we are here to protect you.
The Advertising Standards Authority.
If an advertisement is wrong, we are here to put it right.

a)
b)
c)
d)

What sorts of people are affected by advertisements?


What is the function of The Advertising Standards Authority?
What sort of advertisements does the ASA consider unacceptable?
What should anyone do if he discovers an unacceptable advertisement?

TASK SHEET 2:
Here is an extract from another ASA advertisement, a longer piece of text which explains how
the authority works. We print it here with all the punctuation removed. Re-write it, putting in the
necessary punctuation marks to make logical and sensible sentences:
we encourage the public to help by telling us about any advertisements they think ought not to
have appeared last year over 7,500 people wrote to us what do we do to advertisers who deceive
the public out first step is to ask advertisers who we or the public challenge to back up their
claims with solid evidence if they cannot or refuse to we ask them to amend their advertisements
or withdraw them completely nearly all agree without any further argument in any case we
inform the publishers who will not knowingly accept any advertisement which we have decided
contravenes the code
The ASA provides rules for companies advertising their products in Britain.
Here are some of them:
No
advertisement
should cause
fear or anxiety
without good
reason.

Advertisements
should not make
children feel inferior
or unpopular for not
buying the
advertised product.

Advertisers
should not
unfairly
attack other
business or
their
products.

Advertising should
contain nothing that
is likely to cause
serious or
widespread offence,
particularly on the
grounds of race,
religion or sex.

Advertisements should not imply a


link between smoking and social,
sexual, romantic or business
success.

Advertisements should
not suggest that alcohol
is the main reason for the
success of a party or
event.

TASK SHEET 3:
Get into small groups of three or four and look at the advertisements that you have been given above. Try
to answer the questions below on your own first, then check with your group and discuss your answers.
Be prepared to give the rest of the class a short report on your advert/s.

Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

What is being advertised?


What is the first impact the ad makes on you? Is that deliberate? If so, why?
What is the image being presented? Why?
Does it have a slogan? If so, what implications does it have?
How much information is given about this product? How is it given?
Is there any special language used e.g. vocabulary belonging to a special field, a certain style of
expression? Why was it chosen?
Are there any cultural references? Are they specific to a particular culture?
Who is the targeted customer?
Are there any other special techniques that have been used?
How effective is the ad in your opinion?

TASK SHEET 4:
1. Design Your Own Ad
Stay in your groups. First decide on a simple every-day product you want to advertise. Think carefully
about the purpose and uses of your product, its price and its special features. Decide who the targeted
customer is. What sort of image do you want to give your product?
Now think about designing your ad on a piece of A3 paper. What is the message you want to convey?
Which techniques are you going to use to convey it? Think carefully about the images you want to
portray. Will you use a visual effect or a verbal one, or both? Can you think of a strong slogan? How
much information do you want to present and how will you do it? Is the language you use appropriate to
your overall image and message?
When each group has finished, the ads can be put on the wall and you can judge which ad is the most
effective using the above set of questions again.

2. Promote The Image Of Your Company


Imagine that you are responsible for promoting one of the following:

a new taxi company in your town


a new, up-market health and fitness club
a new brand of jeans, manufactured by a new (and therefore unknown) company
a new, fashionable but inexpensive range of quartz watches
potatoes, to be sold in supermarkets

Decide exactly what your product is, what is special about it and which tools you would use to
promote it. Imagine that you have a generous budget, and are thus able to employ several different
tactics.

The following four standard promotional tools may prove helpful for a successful campaign:
advertising
sales promotion
public relations
personal selling
In order to find out more about them, read the following text and fulfill the task that you have been given:
Insert the following words in the text below:
advertising

maturity

aimed

medium

awareness

tactics

channel

target

loyalty

trial

THE FOUR MAJOR PROMOTIONAL TOOLS


The basic idea behind the marketing concept that you make what you can sell rather than sell what you
make doesnt mean that your product will sell all by itself. Even a good, attractively-priced product that
clearly satisfies a need has to be made known to its (1) customers. During the introduction
and growth stages of the standard product life cycle, the producer (or importer, and so on) has to develop
product or brand (2) ., i.e. inform potential customers (and distributors, dealers and retailers)
about the products existence, its features, its advantages, and so on.
According to the well-known Four Ps formulation of the marketing mix (product, place,
promotion, price), this is clearly a matter of promotion. Since budgets are always limited, marketers
usually have to decide which tools advertising, public relations, sales promotion, or personal selling to
use, and in what proportion.
Public relation (PR) is concerned with maintaining, improving or protecting the image of a
company or product. The most important element of PR is publicity which (as opposed to advertising) is
any mention of a companys product that is not paid for, in any (3) read, viewed or
heard by a companys customers or potential customers, aimed at assisting sales. Many companies
attempt to place stories or information in news media to attract attention to a product or service. Publicity
can have a huge impact on public awareness that could not be achieved by advertising, or at least not
without an enormous cost. A lot of research has shown that people are more likely to read and believe
publicity than advertising.
Sales promotions such as free samples, coupons, price reductions, competitions and so on, are
temporary (4) designed to stimulate either earlier or stronger sales of a product. Free
samples, for example (combined with extensive advertising), may generate the initial (5)
of a new product. But the majority of products available at any given time are of course in the (6)
. stage of the life cycle. This may last many years, until the product begins to be replaced by
new ones and enters the decline stage. During this time, marketers can try out a number of promotional
strategies and tactics. Reduced-price packs in supermarkets, for example, can be used to attract
price-conscious brand-switchers and also to counter a promotion by a competitor. Stores also often reduce
prices of specific items as loss leaders which bring customers into the shop where they will also buy other
goods.
Sales promotions can also be (7) at distributors, dealers and retailers, to
encourage them to stock new items or larger quantities, or to encourage off-season buying, or the stocking
of items related to an existing product. They might equally be designed to strengthen brand (8)..
among retailers, or to gain entry to new markets. Sales promotions can also be aimed at the sales force,
encouraging them to increase their activities in selling a particular product.

Personal selling is the most expensive promotional tool and is generally only used sparingly, e.g.
as a complement to (9) As well as prospecting for customers, spreading information about a
companys products and services, selling these products and services and assisting customers with
possible technical problems, salespeople have another important function. Since they are often the only
person from a company that customers see, they are an extremely important (10) of
information. It has been calculated that the majority of new product ideas come from customers via sales
representatives.

SECTION C: LETTERS: NOTIFICATIONS AND ORDERS


a) HOW TO PLACE A NOTIFICATION

Businesses introduce new products to potential buyers, members of various media


(e.g., trade journals) and the public at large.
Usually, a variety of messages is prepared, from advertisements to news releases to letters
to formal announcements.
The letter may be a transmittal letter that accompanies a product sample or other
descriptive literature. Or it may serve all purposes by itself.

Sample letter:
Dear Mr. Stanton,
We are pleased to introduce a complete new series of aerobic exercise equipment ready
for distribution to quality outlets such as yours.
You will be amazed at the durability of our new lightweight rowers, treadmills, and crosscountry skiers. However, we believe that you and your customers will be equally surprised
at the low prices that accompany the new series. Three fliers, with price list and order
form are enclosed describing these remarkable values.
If we can provide further details, please let us know. Were looking forward to hearing
from you and will welcome your comments and suggestions.

b) HOW TO PLACE AN ORDER

Your company may use standard purchase-order forms for outside orders or requisition
forms for requesting supplies from an in-house purchasing department.
But you can also order supplies by letter or memo. Accuracy is essential in identifying
the material you want.
Specify all facts, including catalog or order number, price, quantity,
delivery date required, and so on.
If youre revising an earlier order, clearly explain any changes you want.
When you are acknowledging an order by letter original or form letter include a
note of thanks to the customer.

Order confirmed.

Although organizations routinely fill orders without confirming them, some orders are
confirmed, for example, orders that will be delayed or that pertain to goods that must be
back ordered.
An acknowledgement of a telephone order should restate the facts description, price and
handling charges, delivery date and so on to avoid any misunderstandings later:
details of telephone conversations may soon be forgotten.

Sample letter:

Dear Mr. Richardson,


Thank you for your April 25 order for one (1) #667-Y420, 4-shelf, 42 x 31 x 12, 60 lb,
wood-look bookcase, for $69.99 plus $9 shipping and handling.
The bookcase will be shipped by truck from our factory in Atlanta in four to six weeks. It will be
charged to your Visa card no. 254-658-632-465 as you requested.
We appreciate your order very much and hope we can be of service again.
Sincerely,

TASK SHEET 1:
Put one suitable word in each gap:
LETTER 1
Re. Order Form Number LT/493-567/S
We ____________ you for your _______________ order, and have __________ in _________
the 23/2% additional_____________________.
With ________________ to ______________ by March 16, we will ________ our __________
to ______________ this date, but ___________ to demand, it is possible the cases could
be _________ by up to one week. We ________________ this will be __________ to you.
Yours _____________ ,
LETTER 2
Re. Your Order Number LW/221-465/S
We thank you for ______________ above-mentioned _____________ , but ___________
to _______ than owing to delivery restrictions, we no _________ stock Meredith _____ .
We do, __________ , have a very ___________ line _________ lightweight suitcases,
manufactured by Executive, which are ____________ more durable and only __________
more expensive. The price to you ___________ be $16.75 excluding V.A.T., as __________
to $15.55, and delivery is guaranteed ______________ ten days.
Perhaps you _____________ call this office you __________ like our area representative
to ________________ the new ____________ .

TASK SHEET 2:
Translate the following letters in English:
Aviz de anuntare a vizitei unui reprezentant
Stimata Doamna, Stimate Domn,
Va anuntam ca reprezentantul nostru, domnul, va avea placerea de a va vizita spre
sfarsitul saptamanii.
Dansul va va prezenta esantioanele noutatilor noastre cele mai avantajoase. Va atragem
atentia asupra articolelor din lana pura pentru taioare; noile imprimeuri sunt conform modei din
aceasta iarna, ramanand insa clasice.
Speram ca veti examina cu atentie esantioanele si suntem siguri ca va vor convinge de
calitatea si originalitatea tesaturilor noastre.
Dorim sa va multumim pentru increderea dumneavoastra si va rugam sa primiti
asigurarea intregii noastre stime.
Comanda
Baileys Bookstore
Hemel Hempstead
Herts HP2 4RG
Anglia

Paris, 8 septembrie 2001

Stimate Domn,
Am dori sa comandam cate douazeci de exemplare din fiecare dintre cartile urmatoare:
Case Studies in International Management de Christopher Sawyer-Laucanno si Case Studies
in International Business de Christine Uber Grosse si Robert E. Grosse.
Va rugam sa ne trimiteti aceste carti inainte de sfarsitul vacantei, fixat la 5 octombrie. Daca nu
dispuneti de un numar sufficient de exemplare din unul dintre aceste titluri, va rugam sa ne
instiintati chiar a doua zi dupa ce primiti scrisoarea, pentru a avea timp sa gasim aceste carti la
un alt furnizor inainte de inceperea cursurilor.
Va multumim anticipat pentru cooperare si va rugam sa primiti expresia intregii noastre stime.
Rosemary Atkinson
Catedra de Engleza

GRAMMAR SECTION: EMPHASIS


Means of expressing it:
1. Passive constructions: change the way information is given in a sentence, putting more

emphasis on what comes first.


e.g. The escaped prisoner was arrested two days later.
All roads to the south have been blocked by snow.
2. Word inversion: change the normal position of a word in the sentence so that a

e.g.

prepositional phrase is emphasized before the verb. This also involves putting the verb
before the subject.
Up into the air went the kite!
Suddenly down came the rain!
3. Cleft sentences: English has a grammatical mechanism for focusing on words we wish to

emphasize: we begin the sentence with It and point to the words:


e.g. It was John who solved the problem!
Its your help I need, not your sympathy!
It was because I felt ill that I left.
We can also emphasize words by using a noun clause introduced by what or all:
e.g. What I hate is rainy weather.
What you need is a holiday.
All I need is another $50.
4. Adding words for emphasis:
a) Own : intensifies possessive adjectives
e.g. This is my own idea.
b) Very and indeed: intensifies adjectives
e.g. It was very cold indeed.
c) auxiliary do: emphasize the verb (also used in polite forms)
e.g. I do like you. You are a nice person.
Do sit down!
d) The definite article: emphasize uniqueness
e.g. Surely you are not the Elizabeth Taylor, are you?
e) relative pronouns ending in ever: add an air of disbelief to the pseudo-question
e.g. Whoever told you that !
f) adverbs and adjectives: actually, by no means, even, sheer,
utter, absolutely, quite
e.g. You are absolutely wonderful!
Your story is utter nonsense!
It is by no means certain that the game will take place.
What youre telling me makes things even worse.
g) emphasizing negatives: not + at all, in the least, really
no, none + at all, whatsoever
e.g. There were none left at all.
It was not at all cold.

5. Repetition of words
a) time phrases: day after day, time and time again, over and over again,
day in, day out
e.g. I tried to call you time and time again but you didnt answer.
b) the main verb
e.g. I tried and tried to see you, but it was no use.
c) nouns (if the noun is qualified by a possessive, it is possible to omit the first noun
and use a possessive pronoun)
e.g. Their marriage was a successful marriage.
Theirs was a successful marriage.

EXERCISES:
EXERCISE 1:
Skim through the text in Section A ( Japanese Find Ads More Effective In English) and
find examples of emphasis.

EXERCISE 2:
Make these sentences more emphatic by using What or The thing
Example:
This rooms got big windows, and I like that.
What I like about this room is that its got big windows.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I was always short of money at university, and I didnt like that.


You need a good nights sleep.
I enjoy a cold shower in the morning.
Her knowledge of African history impressed everybody.
He always tells the truth, and I admire that about him.
Ants always seem to know exactly where theyre going that fascinates me.
You dont seem to realize that I work an 18-hour day.

EXERCISE 3:
Rewrite these sentences using the passive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

They hold elections every four years.


Customs officials seized ten kilos of cocaine.
We are considering your application.
I discovered that someone was bugging my phone.
Someone has already thought of that idea.
They gave him a gold watch as a retirement present.
Lets wait someone might offer us a lift.
Do we have to pay for the seats in advance?
They should never have allowed the plan to go ahead.
She doesnt mind people asking her awkward questions.
Im not used to people staring at me.

EXERCISE 4:
Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so that the meaning
stays the same:
1. The bad weather continued for days.

AFTER

2. I cant stand getting up early.

WHAT

3. The car doesnt need anything else except new tyres.

ALL

4. I felt extremely tired.

INDEED

5. Thats exactly the same book Im reading!

VERY

6. Please stay longer.

DO

7. I had spent all my money.

WHATSOEVER

8. I dont know who is going to pay for the damage.

WHO

9. I really cant stand lukewarm food.

WHAT

10. Every day, its the same old routine in my job.

DAY IN

11. Her car was the last car we expected to be stolen.

HERS

12. The parcel finally arrived on Wednesday.

IT

13. The accident was caused because someone was very careless.

SHEER

14. I like cheese best for breakfast.

WHAT

15. I seem to want to do nothing but sleep.

ALL

16. It did nothing but rain for days.

AFTER

17. I cant make any sense of this!

UTTER

18. What on Earth are you doing here at this time?

WHATEVER

19. Actually, you are not right alt all.

QUITE

20. Its very important for me to know the answer.

SIMPLY

BASIC VOCABULARY
(lead) to be in the lead = a ocupa primul loc
advert (to) = reclam
advertising = publicitate
advertising campaing = campanie publicitar
brand = marc
brand image = imagine de marca
brand leader = cap de serie
brand name = nume de marc
canvasser = prospector de piata
commercial = reclam, spot publicitar
commission (to) = a comanda
consultancy = consultana
consumer = consumator
consumer hotline
display stand = stand de prezentare
effectiveness = eficacitate
efficiency = eficien
follow-up = urmarire
gift voucher = bon de cumparaturi
hoarding = panou publicitar
launch = a lansa
leaflet = pliant
logo = sigla
nationwide campaign = campanie la scara nationala
offer = ofert
on display = expus
outlet = debuseu
peak viewing time = ora de maxima audienta
PR man = atasat de presa
R&D = Research & Development
sample = mostra
slogan = slogan
target = tinta
to commission a survey = a comanda un studiu
to expand = a mri, a extinde
trade fair = targ comercial
trial offer = proba, incercare gratuita
viewer = telespectator

FURTHER READINDS:
THE HISTORY OF ADVERTISING
The origins of advertising antedate the Christian era by many centuries. One of the first known
methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall
of a building. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancient
Rome and Pompeii. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and
one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern situated in
another town.
In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of
advertising, the use of so-called town criers. The criers were citizens who read public notices
aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares. Later they
became familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlements. The town criers were
forerunners of the modern announcer, who delivers radio and television commercials.
Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printed advertising made little
headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press in Europe about 1440. The
trademark, a two- or three-dimensional insignia symbolizing a company or industry, dates from
about the 16th century, when trades people and guild members posted characteristic symbols
outside their shops. Among the best-known trademarks surviving from early modern times are
the striped pole of the barber and the three-ball sign of the pawnbroker.
In terms of both volume and technique, advertising made its greatest advances in the U.S. In the
early stages of American advertising nationwide promotion was impractical because the nation
itself was underdeveloped and lacked transcontinental transportation, distribution, and
communications systems. Eventually, however, certain types of manufacturers conceived the
idea of bypassing wholesalers and retailers and reaching the consumer through direct advertising,
mainly by means of catalogs. The pioneers in this field were seed companies and book and
pamphlet publishers. Mail-order houses appeared on the scene as early as the 1870s. To the
present day they have continued to expand their businesses through direct-mail catalog and flyer
advertising, although some of the biggest houses sell also through retail outlets.
Patent medicine companies loomed large in newspaper and magazine advertising starting in the
late 1870s. They found a ready market because doctors and reliable pharmacists were scarce
outside the populated areas, and the frontier settlers and farmers had to do much of their own
doctoring. The patent medicine bottlers made a gross profit of from 80 to 90 percent and could
therefore well afford to spend money publicizing their remedies.
Railroads and steamship lines also were among the early users of advertising in the U.S., not
only to praise the luxury and comfort of their modes of travel but also to publish their schedules
and rates.

Late in the 19th century many American firms began to market packaged goods under brand
names. This development initiated a new era in the history of advertising. Previously, such
everyday household products as sugar, soap, rice, molasses, butter, milk, lard, beans, candy,
candles, and pickles had been sold in neighborhood stores from large bulk containers. As a result,
consumers had seldom been aware of, or influenced by, brand names.
The soapmakers were early advertisers of packaged and branded products. The first household
name soap brands, which date from about 1880, include Ivory, Pears', Sapolio, Colgate, Kirk's
American Family, and Packer's. Soon afterward such brands as Royal Baking Powder, Quaker
Oats, Baker's Chocolate, Hire's Root Beer, Regal Shoes, and Waterman's Pens were nationally
advertised. Shortly after the turn of the century Americans began to be aware of such brand
names as Bon Ami, Wrigley, and Coca-Cola.
After World War I advertising developed into a business so big that it became almost a trademark
of America itself in the eyes of the world. This expansion was stimulated by many technical
improvements, and the expanding American industry inspired innovations and improved
techniques that benefited other facets of business in the nation.
The increased use of electricity led to the illuminated outdoor poster; photoengraving and other
modern printing inventions helped both the editorial and advertising departments of printed
journals. Advertising was used increasingly by public-relations specialists as an important means
of communication. The advent of radio in the 1920s stimulated a whole new technique of selling
by voice.
During World War II the American advertising industry founded the War Advertising Council, a
nonprofit public-service organization that employed the resources of modern advertising to
strengthen the American war effort. After the war the organization continued, as The Advertising
Council, to function in the public interest. It has conducted, for example, nationwide drives to
increase the sale of U.S. savings bonds, prevent forest fires and traffic accidents, promote
religion, and encourage aid to higher education. Print and broadcast media contribute millions of
dollars worth of advertising time and space to such projects every year. Many advertising
agencies contribute their creative services to all the council campaigns.
The most significant postwar development was television, a medium that forced the advertising
industry to better its techniques of selling by the use of visual devices as well as by voice. Of
concern in the 1980s was the proliferation of videocassette recorders (VCRs) in American
homes. The use of VCRs was felt to be a threat to advertisers because some viewers edit out
commercials when recording or speed past them when viewing a taped show.