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CHAMELEON

Contents
1

Chameleon

1.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Change of colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.1

Mechanism of color change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.1

Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.2

Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6

Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7

Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8

Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9

Parasites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.11 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Anqingosaurus

2.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Arabian chameleon

3.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Archaius

10

4.1

Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Archaius tigris

11

5.1

Endangered status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

5.2

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

5.3

Habitat and distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

5.4

Behaviour and breeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

5.5

Threats and conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

ii

CONTENTS
5.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Bizarre-nosed chameleon

13

6.1

Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.3

Conservation and threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Black-headed dwarf chameleon

14

7.1

Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.4

Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.5

Behaviour and Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.6

Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Bradypodion

16

8.1

Species list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

8.2

Undescribed species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

8.3

Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

8.4

Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

8.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Brookesia

18

9.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

9.2

Conservation status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

9.3

Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

9.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

9.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

9.6

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

9.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

10 Brookesiinae

20

10.1 Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

10.2 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

10.3 References

20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 Calumma

21

11.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

11.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

11.3 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

11.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

CONTENTS

iii

12 Calumma amber

23

12.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

12.2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

13 Calumma andringitraense

24

13.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

13.2 Conservation and threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

13.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

13.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

14 Calumma boettgeri

25

14.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

14.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

14.3 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

15 Calumma crypticum
15.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 Calumma fallax

26
26
27

16.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

16.2 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

16.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

17 Calumma malthe
17.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 Calumma nasutum
18.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 Calumma tarzan

28
28
29
29
30

19.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

19.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

19.3 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

20 Cape dwarf chameleon

31

20.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

20.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

20.3 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

20.4 Chameleons in captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

20.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

20.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

21 Carpenters chameleon
21.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33
33

iv

CONTENTS

22 Chamaeleo

34

22.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.2 Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.3 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.4 In captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.5 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.6 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

22.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

22.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

22.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

23 Chamaeleo caroliquarti
23.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24 Chamaeleo johnstoni
24.1 References

36
36
37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

24.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

25 Chamaeleo monachus

38

25.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

25.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

26 Chamaeleoninae

39

26.1 Classication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

26.2 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

26.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

26.3.1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

27 Common chameleon

41

27.1 Basic Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

27.2 Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

27.3 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

27.4 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

27.5 Conservation and threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

27.6 Subspecies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

27.7 Trivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

27.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

27.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

28 Crested chameleon

43

28.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

28.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

28.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

28.4 References

43

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

29 Fischers chameleon
29.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 Globe-horned chameleon

44
44
45

30.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

30.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

31 Graceful chameleon

46

31.1 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

31.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

31.3 Behavior

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

31.4 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

31.5 References

46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32 Indian chameleon

47

32.1 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

32.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

32.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

32.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

32.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

33 Jacksons chameleon

49

33.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

33.2 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

33.3 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.4 Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.4.1 Feeding habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.4.2 Life cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.5 In captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

33.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

34 Karoo Dwarf Chameleon

52

34.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

34.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

35 Kinyongia

53

35.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

35.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

36 Kinyongia tavetana
36.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37 Knysna dwarf chameleon

54
54
55

vi

CONTENTS
37.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

37.2 Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

37.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

37.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

38 Magombera chameleon
38.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39 Marshalls pygmy chameleon

56
56
57

39.1 Identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.1.1 Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.1.2 Sympatric species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.1.3 Related species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.1.4 Karyotopic taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.2 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.3 Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

39.4 Natural history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

39.4.1 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

39.5 Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

39.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

40 Mellers chameleon

59

40.1 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

40.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

40.3 Diet and reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

40.4 Captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

40.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

40.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

41 Mlanje Mountain chameleon


41.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42 Mount Mabu chameleon
42.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43 Nadzikambia

61
61
62
62
63

43.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

43.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

44 Namaqua chameleon

64

44.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

44.2 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

44.3 Survival techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

44.4 Interspecic relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

CONTENTS

vii

44.4.1 Prey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

44.4.2 Predators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

44.5 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

44.6 Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

44.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

45 Natal Midlands Dwarf Chameleon

66

45.1 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

45.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

45.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

46 O'Shaughnessys chameleon

67

46.1 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

46.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

46.3 Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

46.4 Conservation and threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

46.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

47 Palleon

68

47.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

47.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

48 Parsons chameleon

69

48.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

48.2 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

48.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

49 Perinet chameleon

71

49.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

49.2 References

71

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50 Peyrieras Reptile Reserve

72

50.1 Species List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

50.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

51 Rhampholeon

74

51.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

51.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

52 Spectral pygmy chameleon

75

52.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

52.2 Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

52.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

53 Rieppeleon

76

viii

CONTENTS
53.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

53.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

54 Rieppeleon brevicaudatus

77

54.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

54.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

55 Rosette-Nosed Chameleon
55.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56 Rough Chameleon

78
78
79

56.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

56.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

57 Senegal chameleon
57.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58 Sharp-nosed Chameleon
58.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59 Short-horned chameleon
59.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60 Side-striped chameleon
60.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61 Spiny-anked chameleon

80
80
81
81
82
82
83
83
84

61.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

61.2 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

61.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

62 Strange-nosed Chameleon
62.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63 Trioceros

85
85
86

63.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

63.2 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

63.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

64 UMlalazi dwarf chameleon

88

64.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

64.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

65 Van Heygens chameleon


65.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89
89

CONTENTS

ix

66 Veiled chameleon

90

66.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.2 Behavior and ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.3 In captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.4 Invasive species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.5 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

66.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

66.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

67 Vences chameleon

92

67.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

67.2 Conservation and threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

67.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

68 West Usambara two-horned chameleon

93

68.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69 Dave the Chameleon

93
94

69.1 Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

69.2 Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

69.3 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

69.3.1 Episode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

69.3.2 Episode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

69.4 Criticisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

69.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

69.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

69.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

70 Gex (series)
70.1 Games

97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

70.2 Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

70.3 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

70.3.1 Events in Gex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

70.3.2 Events in Enter the Gecko

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

70.3.3 Events in Deep Cover Gecko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

70.4 Characters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

70.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

70.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

71 Henrys Amazing Animals

100

71.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


71.2 Cast and major characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

CONTENTS
71.3 Episodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
71.4 Merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
71.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

72 Pascal and Maximus


72.1 Development

103

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

72.1.1 Conception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


72.1.2 Characterization
72.2 Appearances

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

72.2.1 Tangled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


72.2.2 Tangled Ever After . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
72.2.3 Miscellaneous

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

72.3 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


72.3.1 Critical response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
72.3.2 Merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
72.4 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

73 Rango (2011 lm)

110

73.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


73.2 Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
73.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
73.4 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
73.4.1 Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.4.2 Home video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.5.1 Critical response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.5.2 Box oce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.5.3 Smoking controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
73.5.4 Accolades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.6 Video games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.6.1 Console games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.6.2 Online games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.7 Soundtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
73.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
74 African chameleon

115

74.1 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


74.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
74.3 Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
74.4 References
75 Calumma gallus

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
116

CONTENTS

xi

75.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


75.2 Distribution and Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
75.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
76 Cameroon sailn chameleon

117

76.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


76.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
76.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
77 Flap-necked chameleon

118

77.1 Subspecies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


77.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
77.3 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

78 Smooth chameleon

119

78.1 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


78.2 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

79 Trioceros hoehnelii

120

79.1 Identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120


79.2 Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
79.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
80 Furcifer

121

80.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121


80.2 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
80.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
81 Angels chameleon

122

81.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


81.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
81.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
82 Antimena chameleon

123

82.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123


82.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
82.3 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
82.4 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
82.5 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

83 Two-banded chameleon

124

83.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


83.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
83.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

xii

CONTENTS
83.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

84 Belalanda chameleon

125

84.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


84.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
84.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
84.4 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

85 Furcifer bidus

126

85.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


85.2 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
85.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
86 Jewelled chameleon

127

86.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127


86.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
86.3 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
86.4 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
86.5 Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
86.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
87 Furcifer cephalolepis

129

87.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


87.2 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
87.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
88 Labords chameleon

130

88.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


88.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
89 Carpet chameleon

131

89.1 Description and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


89.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
89.2.1 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
89.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
89.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
90 Furcifer oustaleti

132

90.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


90.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
91 Lesser chameleon

133

91.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


92 Furcifer nicosiai

134

CONTENTS

xiii

92.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134


92.2 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
92.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
92.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
93 Furcifer oustaleti

135

93.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


93.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
94 Furcifer pardalis

136

94.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136


94.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
94.3 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
94.4 Behaviour and ecology

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

94.5 Captive care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


94.5.1 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
94.6 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
94.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
94.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
95 Furcifer pardalis

139

95.1 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


95.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
95.3 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
95.4 Behaviour and ecology

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

95.5 Captive care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140


95.5.1 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
95.6 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
95.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
95.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
96 Petters chameleon

142

96.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142


96.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
96.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
96.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
97 Mayotte chameleon

143

97.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


97.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
97.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
97.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
98 Rhinoceros chameleon

144

xiv

CONTENTS
98.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
98.2 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
98.3 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
98.4 Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
98.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

99 Furcifer timoni

145

99.1 Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


99.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
99.3 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
99.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
100Furcifer tuzetae

146

100.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


100.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
100.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
101Furcifer verrucosus

147

101.1Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
101.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
101.3Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
101.4Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
101.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
102Canopy chameleon

148

102.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


102.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
102.3Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
102.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
103Antsingy leaf chameleon

149

103.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
104Brookesia ambreensis

150

104.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


104.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
104.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
105Brookesia bekolosy

151

105.1Description and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151


105.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
105.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
106Brookesia betschi

152

CONTENTS

xv

106.1Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
106.2Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
106.3Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
106.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
107Brookesia bonsi

153

107.1Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
107.2Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
107.3Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
107.4References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

108Brookesia brygooi

154

108.1Conservation status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154


108.2Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.3Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.4Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.5Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.6Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.7Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
108.9Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
109Brookesia condens

156

109.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156


109.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
109.3Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
109.4References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

110Brookesia decaryi

157

110.1Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.2Geographic range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.3Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.4Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.5Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.6Conservation status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.7Common names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
110.8.1 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
111Brookesia exarmata

159

111.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159


111.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
111.3Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

xvi

CONTENTS
111.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

112Brookesia griveaudi

160

112.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160


112.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
112.3Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
112.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
113Brookesia lambertoni

161

113.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


113.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
113.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
114Brookesia lineata

162

114.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162


114.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
114.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
115Brookesia micra

163

115.1Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
115.1.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
115.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
115.3Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
115.4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
116Brookesia minima

165

116.1Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.3Habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.4Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.5Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.6Similar species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.7Photolinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
116.8Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
116.9References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

117Brookesia peyrierasi

167

117.1Similar species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


117.2Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
117.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
118Brookesia stump

168

118.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


118.2Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

CONTENTS

xvii

118.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
119Brookesia therezieni

169

119.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169


119.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
119.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
120Brookesia thieli

170

120.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170


120.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
120.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
121Brookesia valerieae

171

121.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171


121.2Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
121.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
122Brown leaf chameleon

172

122.1Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
122.2Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
122.3Ecology and behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
122.4Threats and conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
122.5References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
122.6External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
123Brookesia ebenaui

174

123.1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
123.2Photolinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
124Mount d'Ambre leaf chameleon

175

124.1Similar species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


124.2Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
124.3References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
125Naturelle leaf chameleon

176

125.1Distribution and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176


125.2History

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

125.3Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
125.4References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

125.5Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


125.5.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
125.5.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
125.5.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Chapter 1

Chameleon
For the so-called American chameleon, see Carolina The American English word chameleon is a simplianole.
ed spelling of Latin chamaelen, a borrowing of
For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation).
the Greek (khamailn),[1] a compound of
(khama) on the ground[2] and (ln)
[3][4]
The Greek word is a calque translating the
Chameleons
or
chamaeleons
(family lion.
Akkadian n qaqqari, literally lion of the ground.
Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. The approximately 180 species
of chameleon come in a range of colours, and many
species have the ability to change colours. Chameleons 1.2 Classication
are distinguished by their zygodactylous feet; their very
long, highly modied, rapidly extrudable tongues; their The Family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subswaying gait; and crests or horns on their distinctively families, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver
shaped heads. Most species, the larger ones in partic- and Bhme in 1986.[5] Since that time, the validity of
ular, also have a prehensile tail. Chameleons eyes are this subfamily designation has been the subject of much
independently mobile, but in aiming at a prey item, debate,[6] although most phylogenetic studies support
they focus forward in coordination, aording the animal the notion that the pygmy chameleons of the subfamstereoscopic vision. Chameleons are adapted for climb- ily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic group.[7][8][9][10]
ing and visual hunting. They are found in warm habitats While some authorities have previously preferred to use
that range from rain forest to desert conditions, various the subfamilial classication on the basis of the abspecies occurring in Africa, Madagascar, southern sence of evidence principal,[6] more recently these auEurope, and across southern Asia as far as Sri Lanka. thorities have abandoned this subfamilial division and
They also have been introduced to Hawaii, California, no longer recognize any subfamilies with the family
and Florida, and often are kept as household pets.
Chamaeleonidae.[11]

1.3 Change of colour

1.1 Etymology

Further information: Animal colouration, Signaling theory


Some chameleon species are able to change their skin
coloration. Dierent chameleon species are able to vary
their colouration and pattern through combinations of
pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown, light blue,
yellow, turquoise, and purple.[12]
Color change in chameleons has functions in social signaling and in reactions to temperature and other conditions, as well as in camouage. The relative importance of these functions varies with the circumstances, as well as the species. Color change signals
a chameleons physiological condition and intentions to
other chameleons.[13][14] Chameleons tend to show darker
colors when angered, or attempting to scare or intimidate
others, while males show lighter, multicolored patterns
when courting females.[15]

Mughal era painting of a Chameleon by Ustad Mansur.

CHAPTER 1. CHAMELEON
chromatophores called iridophores or guanophores;
these contain guanine, appearing blue or white.
3. The deepest layer of chromatophores, called
melanophores, contain the dark pigment melanin,
which controls how much light is reected.

Dispersion of the pigment granules in the chromatophores


sets the intensity of each color. When the pigment is
equally distributed in a chromatophore, the whole cell is
intensively colored. When the pigment is located only in
the center of the cell, the cell appears mainly transparent. Chromatophores can rapidly relocate their particles
of pigment, thereby inuencing the animals color.
This common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) turned black

1.4 Evolution

Namaqua chameleon in threat display, Namib-Naukluft National


Park, turned black and opened its mouth, when an attempt was
made to move it o a busy road.

Some species, such as Smiths dwarf chameleon, adjust


their colors for camouage in accordance with the vision
of the specic predator species (bird or snake) by which Male of long-nosed chameleon (Calumma gallus) at Vohimana
reserve, Madagascar
they are being threatened.[16]
The desert-dwelling Namaqua chameleon also uses color
change as an aid to thermoregulation, becoming black in
the cooler morning to absorb heat more eciently, then
a lighter grey color to reect light during the heat of the
day. It may show both colors at the same time, neatly
separated left from right by the spine.

1.3.1

Mechanism of color change

The oldest known chameleon is Anqingosaurus brevicephalus from the Middle Paleocene (about 58.761.7
mya) of China.[17]
Other chameleon fossils include Chamaeleo caroliquarti
from the Lower Miocene (about 1323 mya) of the Czech
Republic and Germany, and Chamaeleo intermedius from
the Upper Miocene (about 513 mya) of Kenya.[17]

The chameleons are probably far older than that, perhaps


Chameleons have specialized cells, chromatophores, sharing a common ancestor with iguanids and agamids
which contain pigments in their cytoplasm, in three layers more than 100 mya (agamids being more closely related).
below their transparent outer skin:
Since fossils have been found in Africa, Europe and Asia,
chameleons were certainly once more widespread than
1. The chromatophores in the upper layer, called xan- they are today. Although nearly half of all chameleon
thophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red species today are found in Madagascar, this oers no basis for speculation that chameleons might originate from
pigments, respectively.
there.[18] Monophyly of the family is supported by several
2. Below the chromatophores is a second layer of studies.

1.5. DESCRIPTION

3
case of Trioceros jacksonii, or large crests on top of their
heads, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Many species are
sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more
ornamented than the female chameleons.
Typical sizes of species of chameleon commonly kept as
pets are:

Malagasy giant chameleon, Ambalavao, Madagascar

Cape dwarf chameleon in the act of defecation: The typical action by which it avoids fouling its own branch incidentally displays the dierence between the arrangement of its fore and hind
toes.

The feet of chameleons are highly adapted to arboreal locomotion, though species such as Chamaeleo namaquensis, that have secondarily adopted a terrestrial habit, have
retained the same foot morphology with little modication. On each foot, the ve clearly distinguished toes are
grouped into two fascicles. The toes in each fascicle are
bound into a attened group of either two or three, giving each foot a tongs-like appearance. On the front feet,
the outer, lateral, group contains two toes, whereas the
inner, medial, group contains three. On the rear feet,
this arrangement is reversed, the medial group containing two toes, and the lateral group three. These specialized feet allow chameleons to grip tightly onto narrow or
rough branches. Furthermore, each toe is equipped with a
sharp claw to aord a grip on surfaces such as bark when
climbing. It is common to refer to the feet of chameleons
as didactyl or zygodactyl, though neither term is fully satisfactory, both being used in describing totally dierent
feet, such as the zygodactyl feet of parrots or didactyl feet
of sloths or ostriches, none of which is signicantly like
chameleon feet. Although zygodactyl is reasonably descriptive of chameleon foot anatomy, their foot structure
does not resemble that of parrots, to which the term was
rst applied. As for didactyly, chameleons visibly have
ve toes on each foot, not two.
Some chameleons have a crest of small spikes extending
along the spine from the proximal part of the tail to the
neck; both the extent and size of the spikes varies between
species and individuals. These spikes help break up the
denitive outline of the chameleon, which aids it when
trying to blend into a background.

1.5.1 Senses
Further information: Chameleon vision
Chameleons have the most distinctive eyes of any reptile. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only
a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through.
Each eye can pivot and focus independently, allowing
the chameleon to observe two dierent objects simultaneously. This gives them a full 360-degree arc of vi1.5 Description
sion around their bodies. Prey is located using monocu[21]
Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, with lar depth perception, not stereopsis. Chameleons have
maximum total lengths varying from 15 mm (0.59 in) very good eyesight for reptiles, letting them see small inin male Brookesia micra (one of the worlds smallest sects from a 510 meter distance.
reptiles) to 68.5 cm (27.0 in) in the male Furcifer Like snakes, chameleons do not have an outer or a middle
oustaleti.[19][20] Many have head or facial ornamentation, ear, so there is neither an ear opening nor an eardrum.
such as nasal protrusions, or horn-like projections in the However, chameleons are not deaf: they can detect sound
Nearly all species of chameleon have prehensile tails, but they
most often grip with the tail when they cannot use all four feet at
once, such as when passing from one twig to another

CHAPTER 1. CHAMELEON

frequencies in the range of 200600 Hz.[22]


Chameleons can see in both visible and ultraviolet
light.[23] Chameleons exposed to ultraviolet light show increased social behavior and activity levels, are more inclined to bask and feed, and are also more likely to reproduce, as it has a positive eect on the pineal gland.

1.5.2

Feeding

over which a tubular muscle, the accelerator muscle,


sits.[24][26][27] The accelerator muscle contracts around
the entoglossal process and is responsible for creating the work to power tongue projection, both directly
and through the loading of collagenous elements located between the entoglossal process and the accelerator
muscle.[24][26][27] The tongue retractor muscle, the hyoglossus, connects the hyoid and accelerator muscle, and
is responsible for drawing the tongue back into the mouth
following tongue projection.[24][26]
Tongue projection occurs at extremely high performance,
reaching the prey in as little as 0.07 seconds,[26][27][28]
having been launched at accelerations exceeding 41 g.[28]
The power with which the tongue is launched, known
to exceed 3000 W kg1 , exceeds that for which muscle
is able to produce, indicating the presence of an elastic
power amplier to power tongue projection.[27] The recoil of elastic elements in the tongue apparatus are thus
responsible for large percentages of the overall tongue
projection performance.

One consequence of the incorporation of an elastic recoil


mechanism to the tongue projection mechanism is relative thermal insensitivity of tongue projection relative
to tongue retraction, which is powered by muscle contraction alone, and is heavily thermally sensitive.[28][29]
While other ectothermic animals become sluggish as
their body temperatures decline, due to a reduction in
the contractile velocity of their muscles, chameleons are
able to project their tongues at high performance even
at low body temperatures.[28][29] The thermal sensitivity of tongue retraction in chameleons, however, is not
a problem, as chameleons have a very eective mechanism of holding onto their prey once the tongue has come
into contact with it, including surface phenomena, such
as wet adhesion and interlocking, and suction.[30] The
thermal insensitivity of tongue projection thus enables
chameleons to feed eectively on cold mornings prior
to being able to behaviorally elevate their body temperChameleons tongue striking at food
atures through thermoregulation, when other sympatric
All chameleons are primarily insectivores that feed by lizards species are still inactive, likely[28]temporarily exballistically projecting their long tongues from their panding their thermal niche as a result.
mouths to capture prey located some distance away.
While the chameleons tongues are typically thought to
be one and a half to two times the length of their bodies (their length excluding the tail), smaller chameleons 1.6 Distribution and habitat
(both smaller species and smaller individuals of the
same species) have recently been found to have pro- Chameleons are primarily found in the mainland of subportionately larger tongue apparatuses than their larger Saharan Africa and on the island of Madagascar, alcounterparts.[24] Thus, smaller chameleons are able to though a few species are also found in northern Africa,
project their tongues greater distances than the larger southern Europe, the Middle East, southern India, Sri
chameleons that are the subject of most studies and Lanka, and several smaller islands in the western Indian
tongue length estimates, and can project their tongues Ocean. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled
and Jacksons chameleons in Hawaii, and isolated pockmore than twice their body length.[25]
The chameleon tongue apparatus consists of highly mod- ets of feral Jacksons chameleons have been reported in
ied hyoid bones, tongue muscles, and collagenous el- California and Florida.
Tongue structure

ements.[26][27][24] The hyoid bone has an elongated, Chameleons inhabit all kinds of tropical and mounparallel-sided projection, called the entoglossal process, tain rain forests, savannas, and sometimes deserts and

1.8. DIET

5
species may only lay two to four eggs, while large veiled
chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) have been known to
lay clutches of 20-200 (vieled chameleons) and 10-40
(panther chameleons) eggs. Clutch sizes can also vary
greatly among the same species. Eggs generally hatch
after four to 12 months, again depending on species.
The eggs of Parsons chameleon (Calumma parsonii), a
species which is rare in captivity, are believed to take
more than 24 months to hatch.[31]

The ovoviviparous species, such as the Jacksons


chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii) have a ve- to sevenmonth gestation period. Each young chameleon is born
within the sticky transparent membrane of its yolk sac.
The mother presses each egg onto a branch, where it
The 30 species of chameleons in the genus Brookesia are tiny, sticks. The membrane bursts and the newly hatched
usually brown-colored and mainly terrestrial.
chameleon frees itself and climbs away to hunt for itself
and hide from predators. The female can have up to 30
[32]
steppes. The typical chameleons from the subfamily live young from one gestation.
Chamaeleoninae are arboreal and usually found in trees or
bushes, although a few (notably the Namaqua chameleon)
are partially or largely terrestrial. Most species from 1.8 Diet
the subfamily Brookesiinae, which includes the genera
Brookesia, Rieppeleon, and Rhampholeon, live low in vegetation or on the ground among leaf litter. Many species Chameleons generally eat insects, but larger species, such
chameleon, may also take other lizards
of chameleons are threatened by extinction. Declining as the common [33]:5
and
young
birds.
The range of diets can be seen from
chameleon numbers are due to pollution and deforestathe
following
examples:
tion.

1.7 Reproduction

The veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus from


Arabia, is insectivorous, but eats leaves when other
sources of water are not available. It can be maintained on a diet of crickets.[34] They can eat as many
as 1550 large crickets a day.
Jacksons chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii) from
Kenya and northern Tanzania eats a wide variety
of small animals including ants, butteries, caterpillars, snails, worms, lizards, geckos, amphibians, and
other chameleons, as well as plant material, such as
leaves, tender shoots, and berries. It can be maintained on a mixed diet including kale, dandelion
leaves, lettuce, bananas, tomatoes, apples, crickets,
and waxworms.[32]

West Usambara two-horned chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) in the Usambara mountains, Tanzania

Chameleons are mostly oviparous, with some being


ovoviviparous.
The oviparous species lay eggs three to six weeks after
copulation. The female will climb down to the ground
and begin digging a hole, from 1030 cm (412 in)
deep depending on the species. The female turns herself
around at the bottom of the hole and deposits her eggs.
Clutch sizes vary greatly with species. Small Brookesia

The common chameleon of Europe, North Africa,


and the Near East, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, mainly
eats wasps and mantises; such arthropods form over
three quarters of its diet.[33]:5 Some experts advise that the common chameleon should not be
fed exclusively on crickets; these should make up
no more than half the diet, with the rest a mixture of waxworms, earthworms, grasshoppers, ies,
and plant materials such as green leaves, oats, and
fruit.[33]:56
Temperature inuences the amount of food eaten.

1.9 Parasites

CHAPTER 1. CHAMELEON

[11] Tilbury, Colin (2014). Overview of the Systematics


of the Chamaeleonidae. In Tolley, Krystal A.; Herrel, Anthony. The Biology of Chameleons. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 151174. ISBN
9780520276055.

Chameleons are parasitized by nematode worms including threadworms (Filarioidea) and roundworms. Threadworms can be transmitted by biting insects such as
ticks and mosquitoes. Roundworms are transmitted [12] Chameleons. National Geographic Explorer (Student
through food contaminated with roundworm eggs; the
Magazine) - Featured Article
larvae burrow through the wall of the intestine into the
[13] Stuart-Fox, D.; Moussalli, A. (2008).
Selection
bloodstream.[35]
Chameleons are subject to several protozoan parasites,
such as Plasmodium which causes malaria, Trypanosoma
which causes sleeping sickness, and Leishmania which
causes leishmaniasis.[36]
Chameleons are subject to parasitism by coccidia,[36] including species of the genera Choleoeimeria, Eimeria, and
Isospora.[37]

1.10 References
[1] , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
[2] , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A GreekEnglish Lexicon, on Perseus
[3] , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A GreekEnglish Lexicon, on Perseus
[4] Dictionary.com entry for chameleon
[5] Klaver, C. & Bhme, W. (1986). Phylogeny and classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner Zoologische
Monographien 22: 164.

for Social Signalling Drives the Evolution of


Chameleon Colour Change.
PLoS Biology 6 (1):
e25. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025. PMC 2214820.
PMID 18232740.

[14] Harris, Tom. How Animal Camouage Works. How


Stu Works. Retrieved 2006-11-13.
[15] Richard D. Bartlett (1995). Chameleons: Everything
about Selection, Care, Nutrition, Diseases, Breeding, and
Behavior. Barrons Educational Series. p. 7. ISBN 9780-8120-9157-1. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
[16] Young, Emma (2008) Chameleons ne-tune camouage
to predators vision. New Scientist
[17] Maisano, Jessie (27 August 2003).
Digimorph.
Chamaeleo calyptratus, Veiled Chameleon. University of
Texas at Austin. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
[18] Tolley, Krystal; Burger, Marius (2007). Chameleons of
Southern Africa. Struik. pp. 2628. ISBN 1-77007-3752.
[19] Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide to
Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar (2nd ed.). Kln:
M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR. ISBN 3-929449-013.

[6] Tilbury, Colin (2010). Chameleons of Africa, An Atlas


including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and
Asia. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira. ISBN 3899734513.

[20] Longbottom, Wil (February 14, 2012). Discovered: The


mini-meleon that is one of the smallest reptiles on the
planet. Daily Mail (London).

[7] Townsend, T.; Larson, A. (2002). Molecular phylogenetics and mitochondrial genomic evolution in
the Chamaeleonidae (Reptilia, Squamata)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 2236.
doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1076. PMID 12182400.

[21] Ott, M.; Schaeel, F.; Kirmse, W. (1998). Binocular vision and accommodation in prey-catching
chamaeleons.
Comparative Physiology A 182 (3):
319330. doi:10.1007/s003590050182.

[8] Raxworthy, C. J.; Forstner, M. R. J.; Nussbaum, R. A.


(2002). Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature 415 (6873): 784787. doi:10.1038/415784a. PMID
11845207.
[9] Townsend, T. M., Tolley, K. A., Glaw, F., Bhme,
W. & Vences, M. (2011). Eastward from Africa:
Palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles islands. Biological Letters 7 (2): 225228.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701.
[10] Tolley, K. A., Townsend, T. M. & Vences, M.; Townsend;
Vences (2013). Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons
suggests African origins and Eocene diversication.
Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B 280 (1759):
20130184. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0184.

[22] Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 31


[23] Chamaeleon News, August 2004
[24] Anderson, C.V.; Sheridan, T.; Deban, S.M. (2012).
Scaling of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons.
Journal of Morphology 273 (11):
12141226.
doi:10.1002/jmor.20053. PMID 22730103.
[25] Anderson, Christopher V. (2009) Rhampholeon spinosus
feeding video. chamaeleonidae.com
[26] Herrel, A., Meyers, J.J., Nishikawa, K.C. & De Vree,
F. (2001). Morphology and histochemistry of the hyolingual apparatus in chameleons. Journal of Morphology 249 (2): 154170. doi:10.1002/jmor.1047. PMID
11466743.

1.12. FURTHER READING

[27] de Groot, J.H. & van Leeuwen, J.L. (2004). Evidence


for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon
tongue. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B
271 (1540): 761770. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2637.
[28] Anderson, C.V. and Deban, S.M. (2010). Ballistic
tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America
107 (12): 54955499. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5495A.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0910778107.
[29] Anderson, C.V. and Deban, S.M. (2012). Thermal
eects on motor control and in vitro muscle dynamics of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons.
Journal of Experimental Biology 215 (24): 43454357.
doi:10.1242/jeb.078881.
[30] Herrel, A., Meyers, J.J., Aerts, P. & Nishikawa,
K.C. (2000). The mechanics of prey prehension in
chameleons. Journal of Experimental Biology 203 (Pt
21): 32553263. PMID 11023845.
[31] Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide
to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 2nd edition.
Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR. ISBN 3929449-01-3.
[32] African Rainforest. Jacksons Chameleon. Toronto Zoo.
Retrieved January 9, 2012.
[33] Dever, Jennifer (December 5, 2007).
Common
Chameleon. Common Chameleon. usfca.edu. Retrieved
January 9, 2012.
[34] Reptiles and Amphibians. Veiled Chameleon. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved January 9,
2012.
[35] Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 110
[36] Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 109
[37] Sloboda, Michal and David Modr (2006). New species
of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from
the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus (Sauria:
Chamaeleonidae), with taxonomic revision of eimerian
coccidia from chameleons. Folia Parasitologica 53 (2):
9197. doi:10.14411/fp.2006.012. PMID 16898122.

1.11 Bibliography
Le Berre, Franois and Bartlett, Richard D. (2009)
The Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational
Series. 3rd Edition. ISBN 0764141422.

1.12 Further reading


Anderson, C.V. & Deban, S.M. (2010): Ballistic
tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Science of the United States of

7
America 107 (12): 54955499. doi:10.1073/pnas.
0910778107
Anderson, C.V. & Deban, S.M. (2012): Thermal
eects on motor control and in vitro muscle dynamics of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons.
Journal of Experimental Biology 215 (24): 43454357. doi:10.1242/jeb.078881
Anderson, C.V., Sheridan, T. & Deban, S.M.
(2012): Scaling of the ballistic tongue apparatus in
chameleons. Journal of Morphology 273: 1214
1226. doi:10.1002/jmor.20053
de Groot, J.H. & van Leeuwen, J.L. (2004): Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the
chameleon tongue. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 761770. doi:10.1098/rspb.
2003.2637
Herrel, A., Meyers, J.J., Nishikawa, K.C. & De
Vree, F. (2001): Morphology and histochemistry of
the hyolingual apparatus in chameleons. Journal of
Morphology 249: 154170.
Linda J. Davison. Chameleons: Their Care and
Breeding. Hancock House Publishers, 1997.
Philippe de Vosjoli. Essential Care of Chameleons.
Advanced Vivarium Systems, 2004.

Chapter 2

Anqingosaurus
Anqingosaurus brevicephalus (also known as Anguingosaurus brevicephalus) is an extinct genus of chameleon
from the Middle Paleocene of Anhui, China.[1]

2.1 References
[1] Martin Jehle. Genera and species of Paleocene reptiles.
Paleocene mammals of the world. Retrieved June 2, 2010.

Chapter 3

Arabian chameleon
The Arabian chameleon, Chamaeleo arabicus, is a
species of chameleon native to the southern Arabian
Peninsula.[1] During the monsoon season, they turn
green.[2]

3.1 References
[1] Facts about Arabian Chameleon (Chamaeleo arabicus) Encyclopedia of Life
[2] BBC Nature - In pictures: Arabias extraordinary wildlife

Chapter 4

Archaius
The Seychelles Tiger Chameleon, Archaius tigris, is the
only species in the genus Archaius.
Initially placed into Chamaeleo, it was for some time
moved to the genus Calumma by some (Klaver & Bhme,
1986).

4.1 Species
Seychelles Tiger Chameleon, Archaius tigris

4.2 References
Townsend, T.M., Tolley, K.A., Glaw, F., Bhme,
W. & Vences, M. (2011): Eastward from Africa:
palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the
Seychelles islands. Biol. Lett.' 7(2): 225228.
http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

10

Chapter 5

Archaius tigris
The Seychelles Tiger Chameleon, Archaius tigris, is the
only species in the resurrected genus Archaius, which
has been established in 1865. Initially placed into
Chamaeleo, it was for some time moved to the genus
Calumma by some (Klaver & Bhme, 1986). It is an
endangered species of chameleon, found only on the
Seychelles islands of Mah, Silhouette and Praslin.

5.4 Behaviour and breeding

5.1 Endangered status

Reproduction on the island of Mah is associated with introduced pineapple plants, in which the tiger chameleon
lays its eggs. These plants are not used on Silhouette or
Praslin, and the natural nesting sites remain unknown, although the endemic Pandanus and palms are thought to
be used.[1] In captivity, clutches contain between ve and
twelve eggs.[3]

It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List[1] as well


as on Appendix II of CITES (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora),[2] with its distribution limited to 45 km. A 2006
survey estimated the remaining global population to be
just under 2,000 individuals.

After a short warming up phase in the morning, this


chameleon goes in search of insects and other small animals on which to feed.[3] Like all chameleons, this species
hunts by ring its elongated sticky tongue at prey with
incredible speed. The tongue is tipped in a deadly suction pad capable of ensnaring prey that an ordinary reptile
would never hope to hold.[3][5]

5.5 Threats and conservation


5.2 Description
With a length of just 16 centimetres, this species is relatively small for a chameleon.[3][4] Body colour varies
from inconspicuous light-grey to a bold yellow-orange,
or even green or dark brown, usually with scattered black
spots and a pale grey chin and throat.[3] One of the tiger
chameleons most distinctive features, however, is the
pointed projection on its chin, which can be up to 3 millimetres long and sits amongst a comb of smaller, spiky
outgrowths that border the underside of the chin.[3][4]

5.3 Habitat and distribution

As an island endemic with a restricted range of just three


small islands, and a population thought to number only
2,000 individuals, the tiger chameleon is particularly vulnerable to changes within its habitat.[6] On the islands of
Mah and Praslin in particular it is threatened by habitat degradation caused by introduced alien plants, such as
cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).[1][6]
The chameleon and its habitat are protected within the
Morne Seychelles (Mah) and Praslin National Parks.[1]
Alien plant control on Praslin[6] and habitat restoration
programmes on Silhouette are being undertaken to help
contain threats to this species.[7] The main population
occurs on Silhouette, where it has been suggested that
forested areas containing populations should be given
legal protection by being included in a new protected
area.[1]

The tiger chameleon is endemic to the Seychelles, occurring only on the islands of Mah, Silhouette and Praslin.[1] 5.6 References
Being an arboreal species, it is found in primary tropical forest, secondary forest where there is high plant di- This article incorporates text from the ARKive factversity, and upland rural gardens, from sea level to 550 le Archaius tigris under the Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the
metres.[1]
11

12
GFDL.
[1] IUCN Red List (July, 2006)". IUCN Red List (July,
2006).
[2] CITES (July, 2006)".
[3] Terra Inspira (September, 2006)".
[4] Calumma Arten (September, 2006)".
[5] Lasher, A. (July 2001). Chameleons disclose talent for
weightlifting: hunting other lizards: changing color in 10
seconds is not their only trick.. The Cold Blooded News
28.
[6] Seychelles Islands Foundation (December, 2008)".
[7] The Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles (December,
2008)".

Townsend, T.M., Tolley, K.A., Glaw, F., Bhme,


W. & Vences, M. (2011): Eastward from Africa:
palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the
Seychelles islands. Biol. Lett.' 7(2): 225228.
http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

5.7 External links


Research and conservation of Seychelles reptiles and
amphibians
Archaius tigris media at ARKive

CHAPTER 5. ARCHAIUS TIGRIS

Chapter 6

Bizarre-nosed chameleon
Not to be confused with the Strange-nosed chameleon
of central Africa
The bizarre-nosed chameleon (Calumma hafahafa) is a
species of chameleon endemic to Madagascar. Its scientic name was named after the Malagasy word hafahafa,
which means bizarre or strange (a reference to the
species unusually upturned rostral appendages).[2]

6.1 Distribution and habitat


Although the true extent of the bizarre-nosed
chameleons range is not known, it is estimated to
less than 100 square kilometers. Specimens have been
taken from several locations in northeastern Madagascar,
all at relatively high altitude. It appears the species lives
only in montane humid forests.[1]

6.2 Description
The primary distinguishing characteristic of the bizarrenosed chameleon is the single large rostral (nose) appendage appearing on the males. Otherwise it is quite
similar to Calumma malthe and Calumma peltieriorum.
It has around 18 gular spines as well.[2]

6.3 Conservation and threats


Mostly due to its extremely small range and ongoing
habitat loss, the bizarre-nosed chameleon is ranked as
critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Its population is probably declining, and conservation action is necessary to prevent
extinction.[1]

6.4 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Ra-

13

bibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,


Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.,
Raxworthy, C.J., Robsomanitrandrasana, E. & Vences,
M. 2011. Calumma hafahafa. In: IUCN 2014. IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.
iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 June 2014.
[2] Calumma hafahafa. The Reptile Database

Chapter 7

Black-headed dwarf chameleon


The black-headed dwarf chameleon (Bradypo- 7.4 Habitat
dion melanocephalum) is a lizard of the family
Chamaeleonidae endemic to KwaZulu-Natal, South Thickets of nely branched shrubs, tall herbaceous plants,
Africa. It is also known as the KwaZulu dwarf and tall grasses in undisturbed grasslands seem to be
chamaeleon.
favoured. The wild date palm Phoenix reclinata is also
a favoured microhabitat.[5]

7.5 Behaviour and Biology

7.1 Distribution
This chameleon is found in the coastal areas (mostly
around Durban) and parts of the Midlands of southern
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

7.2 Taxonomy
The current species may consist of several separate
species. At least three regional variants are found; one
in Karkloof and Gilboa Forests, one in Weza Forest, and
one in the area around Ixopo and Donnybrook.[2]
B. melanocephalum and the Natal Midlands dwarf Catching a grasshopper
chameleon (B. thamnobates) may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, but juveniles of both
species were raised under identical conditions and developed into what was phenotypically expected of their original populations, indicating they are separate species.[3]

7.3 Description
This species is generally brownish in colour, but like
other chamaeleons, can change colour and pattern to
camouage itself in its surroundings. It has been observed
ranging in colour from dark brown, through light brown,
olive green, to a pale creamy colour at night. The head
is sometimes a darker colour than the rest of the body,
but not black. The common name, black-headed dwarf
chamaeleon, stems from the rst specimen studied where
the head had turned black in the preservation process.[4]

Threat display to a human nger

This reptile feeds on small insects such as ies and


grasshoppers, which it captures in typical chamaeleon
fashion with a long tongue.

14

7.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

15

It gives birth to live young in summer.[6]


Predators of this animal include the spotted bush snake
Philothamnus semivariegatus, brown-hooded kingsher
Halcyon albiventris, and domestic cats.
When threatened, it may open its mouth to reveal the
bright yellow-orange interior in an attempt to scare the
threat away.

7.6 Threats
The black-headed dwarf chameleon is vulnerable because
of its limited distribution. It is found in a number of
small nature reserves within its range, but outside of these
areas, it is threatened by habitat destruction, mostly for
housing and industrial development. Roads are also a
threat in dividing habitats; these animals are not adapted
to open areas and move very slowly, making them soft
targets for predators and vehicles on open roads. It is
sometimes taken as a pet, but this is illegal; no indigenous
South African animal may be kept in captivity without a
permit.

7.7 References
[1] "Bradypodion melanocephalum". Integrated Taxonomic
Information System.
[2] Tolley, K. and Burger, M. (2007). Chameleons of Southern Africa. pp 66.
[3] Miller, A.K. & Alexander, G.J. (2009). Do Dwarf
Chameleons (Bradypodion) Show Developmental Plasticity? Zoological Society of Southern Africa.
[4] Tolley, K. and Burger, M. (2007). Chameleons of Southern Africa. pp 65.
[5] Purves, M. (2009)
[6] Bill Branch (1988). Bill Branchs Field Guide to the Snakes
and other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers.

7.8 External links


Search for Distribution
melanocephalum

of

Bradypodion

Chapter 8

Bradypodion
Bradypodion (meaning slow-footed) is one of six
genera of chameleons within the true or typical
chameleons (Family Chamaeleonidae). They are native
to southern Africa, and are sometimes collectively called
South African dwarf chameleons. Some other small
chameleons from eastern and central Africa are occasionally placed herein, but this is probably in error and not
followed here. See also Systematics below and Kinyongia
and Nadzikambia.

8.2 Undescribed species


Bradypodion sp. (barbatulum)
Bradypodion sp. (Baviaans)
Emerald dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion sp. (Emerald)
Bradypodion sp. (Groendal)
Bradypodion sp. (Grootvadersbosch)

8.1 Species list

Bradypodion sp. (Jagersbos)

Swartberg dwarf chameleon, B. atromontanum


uMlalazi dwarf chameleon, B. caeruleogula

8.3 Systematics

Transkei dwarf chameleon, B. caer

Delimitation of Bradypodion has been controversial for


some time. Most species seem readily distinguishable by morphological characteristics, but for some time
Drakensberg dwarf chameleon, B. dracomontanum
the genus was used as a wastebin taxon for smaller
Robertson dwarf chameleon, B. gutturale (may be chameleons from sub-Saharan Africa with plesiomorphic
hemipenises.[1] Alternatively, many of the present species
several species)
were reduced to subspecies status.[2] This has since been
Karoo dwarf chameleon, B. karrooicum
refuted,[3] but several more species seem recognizable
judging from morphological[4] and mitochondrial 16S
Kentani dwarf chameleon, B. kentanicum
rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequence
Black-headed
dwarf
chameleon,
B. data.[5]
melanocephalum
The phylogeny and biogeography of this group is quite

Knysna dwarf chameleon, B. damaranum

Zululand dwarf chameleon, B. nemorale (probably consistently resolved. The Cape dwarf chameleon and the
Knysa dwarf chameleon (and possibly one new species
several species)
close to it) are basal lineages with unclear relationships;
Ngome dwarf chameleon, B. ngomeense
they seem a bit closer to each other than to any other
species, but altogether are quite distant. They occur
Namaqua dwarf chameleon, B. occidentale
in isolated ranges in coastal Western Cape and western Eastern Cape provinces. Inhabiting a wide range of
Cape dwarf chameleon, B. pumilum
habitats, they are (for the genus) large, and have brilliant,
Setaros dwarf chameleon, B. setaroi
predominantly green coloration and long tails - just as in
many Chamaeleo. These characters are plesiomorphic,
Smiths dwarf chameleon, B. taeniabronchum
retained from the genus ancestor.[5]
Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon, B. thamnobates
The remaining species form a well-supported clade,
Transvaal dwarf chameleon, B. transvaalense
Southern dwarf chameleon, B. ventrale

which in turn can be divided into smaller groups.


One consists of forms that radiated on the seawards
slopes of the Drakensberg Mountains: the southern
16

8.4. FOOTNOTES
Drakensberg dwarf chameleon, the northern Transvaal
dwarf chameleon, and what appears to be undescribed
species from the Ngome Forest on the southeastern
slopes. These are also plesiomorphic in habitus and
habits.[5]
Another group of taxa occurs from easternmost Eastern Cape to central KwaZulu-Natal provinces, between
Gilboa Forest and the Tugela River. These inhabit a
wide range of habitat and contain the plesiomorphic Natal
Midlands dwarf chameleon from the namesake region,
the small black-headed dwarf chameleon which inhabits
fynbos and other low forest on slopes of mainly coastal
KwaZulu-Natal, and another probable new species from
the Gilboa Forest area. These appear to be a quite recent
radiation from a single ancestor, and the group requires
more research as regards species limits, and geographical
demilitation from the Drakensberg dwarf chameleon.[5]
Several largish but short-tailed and cryptic taxa inhabit
more arid habitats such as karoo. The Karroo and
southern dwarf chameleons seem to have considerable
gene ow range from Northern Cape to coastal Eastern
Cape provinces. The small and nearly extinct Smiths
dwarf chameleon is close to these; it occurs on the
escarpment inland from Jereys Bay. Less closely related is the Robertson dwarf chameleon, another aridland
species which is found in Western Cape province inland
from the range of the Cape dwarf chameleon and may be
a cryptic species complex, and an undescribed population
from the Swartberg Mountains.[6] The last species with
aridland apomorphies, the Namaqua dwarf chameleon,
is quite distant to the others; it occurs in coastal regions
from north of the Cape species through Namaqualand.
This is probably still a part of a single radiation which
brought about all the aridland taxa, and eventually Smiths
dwarf chameleon.[5]
The remaining species are all small inhabitants of
forested slopes and fynbos, such as the black-headed and
Smiths dwarf chameleons. However, as already indicated by the distinctness of these two, their morphologies seem to be a convergent adaptation. The Kentani
and Transkei dwarf chameleons from the east coasts
of Eastern Cape may or may not be each others closest relatives. Setaros dwarf chameleon from northeastern coastal KwaZulu-Natal is not close to these. The
Zululand dwarf chameleon from western uThungulu apparently consists of two or more species, one that may
be closer to the preceding, and one that might be an
early oshoot of the ancestral Drakensberg stock, and
which are distinguishable by morphological and mtDNA
characteristics.[7]
In conclusion, of the three basic morphotypes found in
this genus, one (bright, long-tailed, large) is plesiomorphic, another (large, short-tailed, drab) apparently only
evolved once, and the third (the small, slope-inhabiting
forms) are convergent in morphology. The ancestors of
Bradypodion thus were mid-sized chameleons with vivid

17
color, which settled the Cape region from roughly northnorthwestwards. Due to climate change with uctuating
aridity, the basal lineages inhabiting humid fynbos in the
southwest became isolated from each other and from the
animals living around the border region between Northern and Eastern Cape and Free State, and Lesotho. The
aridland habitat uctuates in extent during climate shifts,
and mountainous habitat becomes fragmented or consolidates accordingly. Consequently, the Drakensberg, the B.
thamnobates-B. melanocephalum, and the aridland group,
as well as several coastal lineages, diverged and evolved
to their present-day ranges and diversity.[5]

8.4 Footnotes
[1] Klaver & Bhme (1986), Branch (1998)
[2] Klaver & Bhme (1997)
[3] Branch (1998), Tolley et al. (2004)
[4] Raw (2001)
[5] Tolley et al. (2004)
[6] Branch (1998): plate 1, Tolley et al. (2004)
[7] Raw (2001), Tolley et al. (2004)

8.5 References
Branch, W.R. (1998): Field Guide to Snakes and
Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers
Ltd, Cape Town (revised edition).
Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1986): Phylogeny and
classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with
special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner
Zoologische Monographien 22: 164.
Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1997): Liste
der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich 112: i-xiv,
1-85.
Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R.; Branch,
William R. & Matthee, Conrad A. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons,
Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext

Chapter 9

Brookesia
Not to be confused with Brooksia, a genus of fungi,
or Brookea, a genus of owering plants in family
Plantaginaceae
Brookesia is a genus of chameleons endemic to
Madagascar, that range from small to very small in
size, and are known collectively as leaf chameleons
(though this name also commonly is used for species
in the genera Rieppeleon and Rhampholeon). Brookesia includes species considered to be the worlds smallest
chameleons which are also among the smallest reptiles. Brookesia desperata with two recently laid eggs.
Members of the genus Brookesia are largely brown and
most are essentially terrestrial. A signicant percentage
of the species in the genus were only identied to science
Brookesia antakarana Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995
within the last three decades, and a number of species
Brookesia bekolosy Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995
that still have not received a scientic name are known to
exist. Most inhabit very small ranges in areas that are dif Brookesia betschi Brygoo, Blanc & Domergue, 1974
cult to access, and due to their small size and secretive
Blancs leaf chameleon
nature, they have been relatively poorly studied compared
to their larger relatives.
Brookesia bonsi Ramanantsoa, 1980
Brookesia brunoi Crottini et al., 2012

9.1 Etymology

Brookesia brygooi Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995 leaf


chameleon or Brygoos chameleon

The generic name, Brookesia, is in honor of British


naturalist Joshua Brookes.[1]

Brookesia condens Glaw et al., 2012[3]


Brookesia decaryi, Angel, 1939 spiny leaf
chameleon

9.2 Conservation status

Brookesia dentata Mocquard, 1900

Most Brookesia are on CITES Appendix II, the only exception being B. perarmata on Appendix I (a species also
listed as endangered by IUCN). Consequently, a special
permit is required to import any of the below species from
their native Madagascar, and typically no permit is issued
for B. perarmata.

Brookesia desperata Glaw et al., 2012[3]


Brookesia ebenaui (Boettger, 1880) northern leaf
chameleon
Brookesia exarmata Schimmenti & Jesu, 1996
Brookesia griveaudi Brygoo, Blanc & Domergue, 1974

9.3 Species

Brookesia karchei Brygoo, Blanc & Domergue, 1970


naturelle leaf chameleon

The 30 currently recognized species in the genus are:[2]

Brookesia lambertoni Brygoo & Domergue, 1970


Fito leaf chameleon

Brookesia ambreensis Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995


Amber Mountain pygmy leaf chameleon
18

Brookesia lineata Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995

9.6. FURTHER READING


Brookesia micra Glaw et al., 2012[3]
Brookesia minima Boettger, 1893 minute leaf
chameleon
Brookesia perarmata (Angel, 1933) Antsingy leaf
chameleon

19

9.6 Further reading


Gray JE. 1864. Revision of the Genera and Species
of Chamleonid, with the Description of some
New Species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864:
465-477 + Plates XXXI & XXXII. (Brookesia, new
genus, pp. 476-477).

Brookesia peyrierasi Brygoo & Domergue, 1974


Peyrieras leaf chameleon
Brookesia ramanantsoai Brygoo & Domergue, 1975
Ramanantsoas minute leaf chameleon
Brookesia stump Boettger, 1894 plated leaf
chameleon
Brookesia superciliaris (Kuhl, 1820) brown leaf
chameleon
Brookesia therezieni Brygoo & Domergue, 1970 Perinet leaf chameleon
Brookesia thieli Brygoo & Domergue, 1969 Domergues leaf chameleon
Brookesia tristis Glaw et al., 2012[3]
Brookesia tuberculata Mocquard, 1894
Brookesia vadoni Brygoo & Domergue, 1968 Iaraka
River leaf chameleon
Brookesia valerieae Raxworthy, 1991 Raxworthys
leaf chameleon
Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates
that the species was originally described in a genus other
than Brookesia.

9.4 See also


Island dwarsm

9.5 References
[1] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Genus Brookesia, p. 40).
[2] The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org
[3] Glaw, F.; Khler, J. R.; Townsend, T. M.; Vences,
M. (2012). Salamin, Nicolas, ed. Rivaling the
Worlds Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized
and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons
(Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7
(2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314. PMC
3279364. PMID 22348069.

9.7 External links


Genus Brookesia at The Reptile Database.
CITES: Appendices I, II and III. Accessed 23-012009.
Glaw, F., & Vences, M. (2007). A Field Guide to the
Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 3d edition.
Cologne, Germany: Vences & Glaw Verlag. 496 pp.
ISBN 978-3-929449-03-7.

Chapter 10

Brookesiinae
The Family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver
and Bhme in 1986.[1] The Brookesiinae are small, often brown in colour, and occur in central Africa and
Madagascar. They have terrestrial habits, or may be
found in the lower levels of shrubs. Since its erection in 1986, however, the validity of this subfamily
designation has been the subject of much debate,[2] although most phylogenetic studies support the notion that
the pygmy chameleons of the subfamily Brookesiinae
are not a monophyletic group.[3][4][5][6] While some authorities have previously preferred to use the subfamilial classication on the basis of the absence of evidence
principal,[2] more recently these authorities have abandoned this subfamilial division and no longer recognize
any subfamilies with the family Chamaeleonidae.[7] Thus,
the subfamily Brookesiinae is currently regarded as invalid.

[3] Townsend, T. & Larson, A. (2002).


Molecular phylogenetics and mitochondrial genomic evolution in the Chamaeleonidae (Reptilia, Squamata)".
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 2236.
doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1076.
[4] Raxworthy, C. J., Forstner, M. R. J. & Nussbaum, R. A.
(2002). Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature 415: 784787. doi:10.1038/415784a.
[5] Townsend, T. M., Tolley, K. A., Glaw, F., Bhme,
W. & Vences, M. (2011). Eastward from Africa:
Palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles islands.
Biological Letters 7: 225228.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701.
[6] Tolley, K. A., Townsend, T. M. & Vences, M.
(2013). Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversication. Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B 280: 20130184.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0184.
[7] Tilbury, Colin (2014). Overview of the Systematics
of the Chamaeleonidae. In Tolley, Krystal A.; Herrel, Anthony. The Biology of Chameleons. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 151174. ISBN
9780520276055.

10.1 Classication
The four genera previously included in the subfamily are:
Subfamily Brookesiinae

10.3 References

Genus Brookesia

ITIS

Genus Palleon
Genus Rhampholeon
Genus Rieppeleon

10.2 Footnotes
[1] Klaver, C. & Bhme, W. (1986). Phylogeny and classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner Zoologische
Monographien 22: 164.
[2] Tilbury, Colin (2010). Chameleons of Africa, An Atlas
including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle East
and Asia. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira.

20

Chapter 11

Calumma
Calumma is a genus of chameleons. Most species in
the genus Calumma are endemic to Madagascar, while
Calumma tigris (of uncertain classication) is endemic to
the Seychelles.

Calumma guillaumeti (Brygoo, Blanc & Domergue,


1974)

Calumma hafahafa Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006


bizarre-nosed chameleon
Calumma hilleniusi (Brygoo, C. Blanc & Domergue,

11.1 Species

1973)

Calumma jejy Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006

The following 32 species are recognized as being valid:[2]


Calumma amber Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006

Calumma malthe (Gnther, 1879) yellow-green


chameleon

Calumma ambreense (Ramanantsoa, 1974)

Calumma marojezense (Brygoo, C. Blanc & Domergue,


1970)

Calumma andringitraense (Brygoo, C. Blanc &


Domergue, 1972)

Calumma boettgeri (Boulenger, 1888) Boettgers


chameleon
Calumma brevicorne (Gnther, 1879) short-horned
chameleon
Calumma capuroni (Brygoo, C. Blanc & Domergue,
1972) Madagascar chameleon
Calumma crypticum Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006
blue-legged chameleon
Calumma cucullatum (Gray, 1831) hooded
chameleon

Calumma nasutum (A.M.C. Dumril & Bibron, 1836)


big-nosed chameleon
Calumma oshaughnessyi (Gnther,
O'Shaughnessys chameleon

1881)

Calumma parsonii (Cuvier, 1824) Parsons


chameleon
Calumma peltierorum Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006
Calumma peyrierasi (Brygoo, C. Blanc & Domergue,
1974) - Brygoos chameleon
Calumma tarzan Gehring et al., 2010

Calumma fallax (Mocquard, 1900) deceptive


chameleon

Calumma tsaratananense (Brygoo & Domergue, 1967)


Tsaratanana chameleon

Calumma furcifer (Vaillant & Grandidier, 1880)


forked chameleon

Calumma tsycorne Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 2006

Calumma gallus (Gnther, 1877) blade chameleon


Calumma gastrotaenia (Boulenger, 1888) - Perinet
chameleon
Calumma glawi Bhme, 1997 Glaws chameleon
Calumma globifer (Gnther, 1879) globe-horned
chameleon or at-casqued chameleon
Calumma guibei (Hillenius,
chameleon

1959)

Calumma tigris - uncertain classication


Calumma vatosoa Andreone et al., 2001
Calumma vencesi Andreone et al., 2001 Vences
chameleon
Calumma vohibola Gehring et al., 2011

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates


Guibes that the species was originally described in a genus other
than Calumma.
21

22

11.2 References
[1] Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). www.
itis.gov.
[2] The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.

11.3 Further reading


Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide
to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR.
ISBN 3-929449-01-3.
Gray JE. 1865. Revision of the Genera and Species
of Chamleonid, with the Descriptions of some
New Species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 465479. (Calumma, new genus, p. 476).

11.4 External links


Anderson, C.V. (2006). Captive Chameleon Populations. Accessed 23-01-2009 [dead link]

CHAPTER 11. CALUMMA

Chapter 12

Calumma amber
Calumma amber, commonly known as the Amber
Mountain chameleon, is a species of chameleon
endemic to Antsiranana Province, Madagascar.[1][2][3][4]

12.1 References
[1] "Calumma amber". reptile-database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[2] "Calumma amber Raxworthy and Nussbaum, 2006.
www.itis.gov. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[3] "Calumma amber". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 19
August 2013.
[4] "Calumma amber". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 19
August 2013.

12.2 Further reading


Raxworthy CJ, Nussbaum RA. 2006. Six New
Species of Occipital-lobed Calumma Chameleons
(Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from Madagascar,
with a New Description of Calumma brevicorne.
Copeia 2006 (4): 711-734. (Calumma amber, new
species).

23

Chapter 13

Calumma andringitraense
Calumma andringitraense is a species of chameleon
endemic to Madagascar. It was originally considered a subspecies of Calumma gastrotaenia, the Perinet
chameleon.[1]

13.1 Distribution and habitat


Calumma andringitraense has a geographic range of
only 1,220 square kilometers (471 square miles) in
southwestern Madagascar.
It is known to inhabit
Andohahela National Park, Andringitra National Park,
and Kalambatritra Reserve; this fragmented distribution
may be a result of the species narrow preferences of habitat. For the most part, it is restricted to intact, relatively
high-altitude humid forests.[2]

13.2 Conservation and threats


Due to its small and fragmented range and ongoing habitat loss, Calumma andringitraense is listed as endangered
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Perhaps as a result of its limited population and other factors, illegal trade in it is virtually nonexistent. The population of the species is decreasing.[2]

13.3 References
[1] Calumma andringitraense | The Reptile Database
[2] Calumma andringitraense

13.4 Further reading


Bhme W. 1997. "Eine neue Chamleonart aus
der Calumma gastrotaenia - Verwandschaft OstMadagaskars." Herpetofauna 19 (107): 5-10. (in
German).
Brygoo E-R, Blanc CP, Domergue CA. 1972.
"Notes sur les Chameleo de Madagascar. X. Deux
24

nouveaux Camlons des hauts sommets de Madagascar: C. capuroni n. sp. et C. gastrotaenia andringitraensis n. subsp. Bulletin du Musum d'histoire
naturelle, Paris, Series 3, 56 (42): 601 613. (in
French).
Glaw F, Vences M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the
Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, Second
edition. Cologne, Germany: Vences & Glaw
Verlags/Serpents Tale. 480 pp. ISBN 9783929449013. (in English).
Lutzmann N, Lutzmann H. 2004. "Das grammatikalische Geschlecht der Gattung Calumma
(Chamaeleonidae) und die ntigen Annpassungen
einiger Art- und Unterartbezeichnungen." Reptilia
(Mnster) 9 (48): 4-5. (in German).

Chapter 14

Calumma boettgeri
Calumma boettgeri, commonly known as Boettgers
chameleon[1] or the blue-nosed chameleon, is a
chameleon species endemic to northern Madagascar, and
common in the forests of Nosy Be.[3]

14.1 Etymology
The specic name, boettgeri, is in honor of German
herpetologist Oskar Boettger.[1]

14.2 References
[1] Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael. 2011.
The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-14214-0135-5. (Calumma boettgeri, p. 29).
[2] The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
[3] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

14.3 Further reading


Boulenger GA. 1888. Descriptions of two new
Chamleons from Nossi B, Madagascar. Ann.
Mag. Nat. Hist., Series 6, 1: 22-23 + Plate II.
("Chamleon Bttgeri ", new species, p. 23 + Plate
II, gure 3).
Glaw F, Vences M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, Second edition. Cologne, Germany: Vences & Glaw Verlag/Serpents Tale. 480 pp. ISBN 978-3929449013.
Klaver C, Bhme W. 1986. Phylogeny and Classication of the Chamaeleonodae (Sauria), with special
reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonn. zool.
Monogr. 22: 1-64. (Calumma boettgeri, new combination).

25

Chapter 15

Calumma crypticum
Calumma amber (Cryptic Chameleon) is a species of
chameleon found in Madagascar.[1][2][3]

15.1 References
[1] Calumma crypticum (Cryptic Chameleon)".
iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 19 August 2013.

www.

[2] Calumma crypticum RAXWORTHY & NUSSBAUM,


2006. reptile-database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[3] Calumma crypticum.
trieved 19 August 2013.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Re-

26

Chapter 16

Calumma fallax
Calumma fallax (deceptive chameleon) is a species of
chameleon endemic to eastern Madagascar, where its
type locality is the Ikongo forest. It was rst described
by Mocquard in 1900 as Chamaeleon fallax, and it was
rst described as Calumma fallax in 1986. It is a member of the Chamaeleoninae nominotypical subfamily of
chameleons, and is believed to be found over an area of
2,057 km2 (794 sq mi), although the population is unknown.

16.1 Distribution and habitat


Calumma fallax is endemic to eastern Madagascar, and
has a type locality of the Ikongo forest, Madagascar.[1]
It can be found at a mid-altitude over an area of about
2,057 km2 (794 sq mi), although this is not conrmed.[2]
The International Union for Conservation of Nature have
classed this species as Data Decient, as not enough information on this species is available to correctly classify
it.[3] The population of this species is unknown and no
population trend is known. It is found in an area where
the habitat is aected by the slash-and-burn agricultural
method, bushres, and logging. Calumma fallax is used
in the pet industry and is sometimes domesticated.[3]

16.2 Taxonomy
It was rst described in 1900: 345 by Mocquard as
Chamaeleon fallax, and by Werner 11 years later under
the same name. In 1986, Klaver and Bhme described
it as the Calumma fallax. Glaw and Vences described
it as this in 1994: 248, and Necas described it in 1999:
278.[1] According to the ITIS, the taxonomic status of this
species of chameleon is valid.[4]

16.3 References
[1] Calumma
fallax
|
The
Reptile
Database.
Reptile-database.reptarium.cz.
doi:10.1080/21564574.2011.628412.
Retrieved
2012-12-01.

27

[2] Calumma fallax - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.


Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
[3] Calumma fallax. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-1201.
[4] ITIS Standard Report Page: Calumma fallax. Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-12-01.

Chapter 17

Calumma malthe
Calumma malthe is a species of chameleon found in
Madagascar.[1][2][3]

17.1 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Calumma malthe".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
[2] Calumma malthe (GNTHER, 1879)".
reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[3] Calumma malthe. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved
19 August 2013.

28

Chapter 18

Calumma nasutum
Calumma nasutum (Nose-horned Chameleon) is a
species of chameleon found in Madagascar.[1][2]

Calumma nasutum.

Calumma nasutum in Ranomafana National Park.

18.1 References
[1] Calumma nasutum (Nose-horned Chameleon)". www.
iucnredlist.org/. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[2] Calumma nasutum (DUMRIL & BIBRON, 1836)".
/reptile-database.reptarium.cz.
Retrieved 19 August
2013.

29

Chapter 19

Calumma tarzan
Calumma tarzan is a species of chameleon. Calumma
tarzan is endemic to the Alaotra-Mangoro region in
Madagascar.[1][2][3][4]

19.1 Etymology
The specic name, tarzan, is in honor of Tarzan, the ctional jungle dweller created by Edgar Rice Burroughs.[5]

19.2 References
[1] "Calumma tarzan GEHRING, PABIJAN, RATSOAVINA, KHLER, VENCES & GLAW, 2010. Reptile
Database. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
[2] "Calumma tarzan". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 18
August 2013.
[3] Tarzan Chameleon Found in Tarzan Forest, Near
Tarzanville. National Geographic. Retrieved 18 August
2013.
[4] "Calumma tarzan". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 19
August 2013.
[5] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Calumma tarzan, pp. 260-261).

19.3 Further reading


Gehring P-S, Pabijan M, Ratsoavina FM, Khler J,
Vences M, Glaw F. 2010. A Tarzan yell for conservation: a new chameleon, Calumma tarzan sp. n.,
proposed as a agship species for the creation of new
nature reserves in Madagascar. Salamandra 46 (3):
167-179.

30

Chapter 20

Cape dwarf chameleon


The Cape dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion pumilum),
is a chameleon native to the South African province of
the Western Cape, where it is restricted to the region
around Cape Town. As with most chameleons, its tongue
is twice the length of its body and it can be shot out of
its mouth using a special muscle in the jaw. This gives
the chameleon the ability to catch insects some distance
away.

ovoviviparous, but examination in controlled captivity


has shown the very soft egg-like membrane around the
young is discarded immediately on birth. The young
resemble miniature versions of the adults, with muted
colours, and typically reach no more than 2 cm in length
at birth. Adults can vary quite signicantly in colour variety, saturation and pattern, some appearing much more
vibrant than others. The tail is prehensile, and the feet
are well evolved to grasping twigs, with minute claws on
the end which improve grip.

20.1 Taxonomy

Normally very slow moving, chameleons have a characteristic shake which may let them look more like leaves to
prey and predators. When provoked, they can speed up
to several centimetres a second. When further provoked,
they will inate themselves, hiss, change colour dramatically and bite. They do not have sharp teeth, so their bites
rarely inict more than a slight pinch.

In the past, most South African dwarf chameleons were


considered to be a subspecies of the Cape species [1] This
is now known to be wrong, however; B. pumilum does not
appear to have any particularly close living relatives. Like
the Knysna dwarf chameleon, it seems to be a basal oshoot of the ancestral stock which gave rise to all Bradypodion species.[2]

20.2 Description

20.3 Distribution
The Cape Dwarf chameleon is restricted to the area
around Cape Town, the Boland, and the mountainous
coastline as far as Agulhas. Here it is found in a
range of habitats and vegetation types, from Fynbos and
Renosterveld, to indigenous Afrotemperate forest and
even suburban gardens.
This adaptable little species has also diversied into different forms and colours, depending on their habitat.

20.4 Chameleons in captivity


While it is not normally legal to keep these chameleons,
it is possible to obtain special permission from the South
African government to do so. These chameleons are better admired than handled. However, taming is possiA Cape dwarf chameleon, drinking water from a rose leaf in a ble through a very gentle and consistent (almost daily)
Cape Town garden
contact, allowing trust to be built up. This is typically
achieved through careful and slow hand-based feeding of
The Cape dwarf chameleon is known to grow over 15 ies, small spiders, grasshoppers, etc. In cold weather, a
cm (5.9 in) in length, including the tail, with males sensitively handled B. pumilum commonly becomes eager
and females reaching similar adult sizes. They are to perch on a human hand for the warmth. To maintain
31

32

CHAPTER 20. CAPE DWARF CHAMELEON


Search for Distribution of Bradypodion pumilum

Juvenile Cape dwarf chameleon

them out of their natural environment requires advanced


skills and is a demanding project; they require the right
amount and type of ultraviolet exposure and large supplies of specic types of live food that are not easy to supply. In most urban environments, the amount of naturally
occurring suitable insect food is insucient. They should
remain outdoors where they are able to regulate their own
body temperatures using sunlight (like most reptiles, they
die if deprived of, or overexposed to the sun). Cat owners
should be aware that domestic cats are introduced predators, and will usually kill all chameleons in the immediate
area. Consequently, one should not bring chameleons into
a garden which is frequented by cats. It also is important
to be cautious of the activity of shrikes, in particular the
Southern Fiscal, which, if they get into the chameleonhunting habit, will rapidly strip a garden.

20.5 References
Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1997): Liste
der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich 112: i-xiv,
1-85.
Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R.; Branch,
William R. & Matthee, Conrad A. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons,
Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext
[1] (e.g. Klaver & Bhme 1997)
[2] (Tolley et al. 2004)

20.6 External links


Bradypodion pumilum at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database

Chapter 21

Carpenters chameleon
Carpenters chameleon, Kinyongia carpenteri, is a
species of chameleons with a distribution limited to the
mountain highlands on the border between Uganda and
the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[1] The species
name honors the type specimens collector, Dr. G.
D. Hale Carpenter.[2] Originally named in the genus
Chamaeleo, the species was moved into the genus
Bradypodion prior to its current classication.[3][4][5]
With the move into the genus Kinyongia, the masculine
ending to the specic epithet of this species and others
in the genus need to be modied to match the feminine
genus name.[6][7]

21.1 References
[1] Parker, H. W. 1929. A new Chamaeleon from Mt.
Ruwenzori. Annals and Magazine of Natural History
10(3): 280-281.
[2] H. W. Parker. 1929. A new Chameleon from Mt. Ruwenzori. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 10(3): 280281.
[3] Klaver, C. J. J., & W. Bhme. 1986. Phylogeny and
classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special
reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner Zoologische
Monographien 22: 1-64.
[4] Necas, P. 1999. ChameleonsNatures Hidden Jewels.
Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira. 348 pp. ISBN 3-93061204-6 (Europe) ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada).
[5] Tolley, K. A., C. R. Tilbury, W. R. Branch, & C.
A. Matthee.
2004.
Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata:
Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354-365, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/
article/pii/S1055790303002112.
[6] Tilbury, C. R., K. A. Tolley, & W. R. Branch. 2006. A review of the systematics of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria:
Chamaeleonidae), with the description of two new genera. Zootaxa 1363: 23-38 -- see correction by Tolley et
al. 2007.
[7] Tolley, K. A., C. R. Tilbury, & W. R. Branch. 2007. Corrections to species names recently placed in Kinyongia and
Nadzikambia (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 1426:
68.

33

Chapter 22

Chamaeleo
22.4 In captivity
With few exceptions, the chameleons most commonly
seen in captivity are all members of Chamaeleo, notably
the common, Senegal and veiled chameleons, but even
they require special care.

22.5 Taxonomy
Chamaeleo is the
Chamaeleonidae.

type

genus

of

the

family

All other genera of the subfamily Chamaeleoninae (Bradypodion, Calumma, Furcifer, Kinyongia,
Nadzikambia and Trioceros) have at some point been
Chamaeleo is a genus of chameleons found primarily in included in the genus Chamaeleo, but are now regarded
the mainland of sub-saharan Africa, but a few species as separate by virtually all authorities.
are also present in northern Africa, southern Europe and
southern Asia east to India and Sri Lanka.
Chamaeleo dilepis, ap-necked chameleon

22.6 Species
22.1 Description

14 species are recognized as being valid, and subspecies


are recognized for some species.[2]

They are slow moving with independently movable eyes,


the ability to change skin colouration, long tongue,
prehensile tail, and special leg adaptations for grasping
vegetation. Males are generally larger and more colorful
than females. Almost all species have a maximum snoutvent length (SVL) between 15 and 40 centimetres (5.9
and 15.7 in).

22.2 Behavior

Chamaeleo africanus Laurenti, 1768 African


chameleon
Chamaeleo anchietae Bocage, 1872 Angola doublescaled chameleon
Chamaeleo arabicus Matschie, 1893 Arabian
chameleon
Chamaeleo calcaricarens Bhme, 1985 Awash
spurless chameleon

The vast majority are arboreal and typically found in


trees or bushes, but a few species (notably the Namaqua
Chameleon) are partially or largely terrestrial.

Chamaeleo calyptratus A.M.C. Dumril & A.H.A.


Dumril, 1851 veiled chameleon

22.3 Reproduction

Chamaeleo calyptratus calyptratus A.M.C.


Dumril & A.H.A. Dumril, 1851 veiled
chameleon

The genus includes only oviparous species.

Chamaeleo calyptratus calcarifer W. Peters,


1871 short-casqued chameleon
34

22.7. REFERENCES

35

Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Linnaeus, 1758) common


chameleon
Chamaeleo chamaeleon chamaeleon (Linnaeus,
1758) European common chameleon
Chamaeleo chamaeleon musae Steindachner,
1900 Sinai Peninsula common chameleon
Chamaeleo chamaeleon orientalis Parker, 1938
Arabian common chameleon
Chamaeleo chamaeleon rectricrista Boettger,
1880 Middle East common chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis Leach, 1819 ap-necked
chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis Leach, 1819 apnecked chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis Loveridge, 1942 Idjwi Island ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis isabellinus Gnther, 1893 Isabelline ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis martensi Mertens, 1964
Pemba Island ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii Gray, 1865 Peters
ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis Bocage, 1866
- Quilo River ap-necked chameleon or
Bocages chameleon
Chamaeleo dilepis roperi Boulenger, 1890
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii Boettger, 1893
Ruspolis ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo gracilis Hallowell, 1844 graceful
chameleon
Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell, 1844
graceful chameleon
Chamaeleo gracilis etiennei K.P. Schmidt, 1919
Etiennes slender chameleon
Chamaeleo laevigatus Gray,
chameleon

1863

smooth

Chamaeleo monachus Gray, 1865 Socotran


chameleon
Chamaeleo namaquensis A. Smith, 1831 Namaqua
chameleon
Chamaeleo necasi Ullenbruch, P. Krause & Bhme,
2007 Neas ap-necked chameleon
Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin, 1802 Senegal
chameleon
Chamaeleo zeylanicus Laurenti, 1768 Indian
chameleon
Nota bene: A binomial authority or trinomial authority in
parentheses indicates that the species or subspecies was
originally described in a genus other than Chamaeleo.

22.7 References
[1] ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). www.
itis.gov.
[2] The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.

22.8 Further reading


Branch, Bill. 2004. Field Guide to Snakes and
Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Third Revised
edition, Second impression. Sanibel Island, Florida:
Ralph Curtis Books. 399 pp. ISBN 0-88359-042-5.
(Genus Chamaeleo, p. 227).
Laurenti JN. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens
synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis
circa venena et antidota reptilium austriacorum. Vienna: Joan. Thom. Nob. de Trattnern. 214 pp.
+ Plates I-V. (Chamaeleo, new genus, p. 45). (in
Latin).
Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field
Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic
Press. ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

22.9 External links


http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

Chapter 23

Chamaeleo caroliquarti
Chamaeleo caroliquarti is an extinct species of
chameleon from the Lower Miocene found in Central
Europe. With fossil evidence at about 26 million years
old, it is the oldest known chameleon.[1]

23.1 References
[1] Moody, S. & Rocek Z. (1980). Chamaeleo caroliquarti
(Chamaeleonidae, Sauria): a new species from the Lower
Miocene of Central Europe. Vestnik Ustfedniho ustavu
geologickeho 55 (2): 8592.

36

Chapter 24

Chamaeleo johnstoni
Chamaeleo johnstoni (common names Johnstons
Chameleon or Ruwenzori Three-Horned Chameleon)
is an African chameleon belonging to the chameleon family (Chamaeleonidae).

24.1 References
24.2 External links

37

Chapter 25

Chamaeleo monachus
The Socotran chameleon, Chamaeleo monachus, is a
species of chameleon endemic to the island of Socotra.[1]
When alarmed, it makes a hissing noise, and depending on its mood, it may change color.[1] It is endangered
by overgrazing, and is listed as Near Threatened by the
IUCN Red List.[2] The Socotran chameleon lives in dense
shrubland, along wadis, and sometimes in palm plantations.

25.1 Taxonomy
Chamaeleo monachus was rst scientically described by
John Edward Gray around 1865; however, he incorrectly
identied Madagascar as the type locality. It was not until 1880, when Isaac Bayley Balfour led the rst scientic expedition on Socotra, was the correct locality of the
species identied.[3]

25.2 References
[1] Socotra Project
[2] IUCN Red List
[3] Biodiversity Journal

38

Chapter 26

Chamaeleoninae
The Chamaeleoninae are the nominotypical subfamily
of chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae). The Family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver and
Bhme in 1986.[1] Since its erection in 1986, however,
the validity of this subfamily designation has been the
subject of much debate,[2] although most phylogenetic
studies support the notion that the pygmy chameleons
of the subfamily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic
group.[3][4][5][6] While some authorities have previously
preferred to use the subfamilial classication on the basis of the absence of evidence principal,[2] more recently
these authorities have abandoned this subfamilial division
and no longer recognize any subfamilies with the family
Chamaeleonidae.[7] Thus, the subfamily Chamaeleoninae is currently regarded as invalid.

26.2 Footnotes
[1] Klaver C, Bhme W. (1986). Phylogeny and classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner Zoologische
Monographien 22: 164.
[2] Tilbury, Colin (2010). Chameleons of Africa, An Atlas
including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and
Asia. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira.
[3] Townsend T, Larson A. (2002).
Molecular phylogenetics and mitochondrial genomic evolution
in the Chamaeleonidae (Reptilia,
Squamata)".
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 2236.
doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1076.
[4] Raxworthy CJ, Forstner MRJ, Nussbaum RA. (2002).
Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature 415:
784787. doi:10.1038/415784a.

26.1 Classication

[5] Townsend TM, Tolley KA, Glaw F, Bhme W, Vences M.


(2011). Eastward from Africa: Palaeocurrent-mediated
chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles islands. Biological
Letters 7: 225228. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701.

The eight previously recognised genera in the subfamily


are:

[6] Tolley KA, Townsend TM, Vences M. (2013).


Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests
African origins and Eocene diversication.
Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B 280: 20130184.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0184.

Genus Archaius
Genus Bradypodion
Genus Calumma

[7] Tilbury, Colin (2014). Overview of the Systematics


of the Chamaeleonidae. In Tolley, Krystal A.; Herrel, Anthony. The Biology of Chameleons. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 151174. ISBN
9780520276055.

Genus Chamaeleo
Genus Furcifer
Genus Kinyongia
Genus Nadzikambia
Genus Trioceros

26.3 References

Trioceros was previously considered to be a subgenus of


Chamaeleo, until Tilbury & Tolley (2009) raised it to full
genus. Since then, two new species have been described
in the genus Trioceros, by Krause & Bhme (2010), and
Stipala et al. (2011). These two new species have not
been published in combination with the generic name
Chamaeleo, which poses a problem for the citation of
these names in Wikipedia, unless Trioceros is treated as
a full genus, following Tilbury & Tolley (2009).
39

Krause P, Bhme W. 2010. A new chameleon


of the Trioceros bitaeniatus complex from Mt.
Hanang, Tanzania, East Africa (Squamata:
Chamaeleonidae). Bonn zoological Bulletin 57 (1):
19-29. ISSN: 2190-7307 PDF
Stipala J et al. 2011. A new species of chameleon
(Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from the highlands of
northwest Kenya. Zootaxa, 3002: 116. Preview

40

CHAPTER 26. CHAMAELEONINAE

Tilbury CR, Tolley KA. 2009. A re-appraisal of the


systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa, 2079: 57-68.
Abstract & excerpt

26.3.1
ITIS

External links

Chapter 27

Common chameleon
The common chameleon or Mediterranean chameleon 27.3 Reproduction
(Chamaeleo chamaeleon) is the only species of
Chamaleonidae native to Europe.
The common chameleon is sexually mature within one
year and the females produce one clutch of eggs per year.
Larger females produce more eggs and are more attractive to males who will ght over a female. The mating
season for the common chameleon is from mid-July to
27.1 Basic Information
mid-September. The animals descend to lowers levels of
vegetation or to the ground to search for a mate. The eggs
The common chamaeleon like others of its family enjoys
are laid in the soil and take from 1012 months to incuan arboreal habitat, scrambling about in trees and bushes
bate. Adult animals, especially males will eat young that
with feet that have four toes, two on each side for graspthey encounter[2]
ing branches. It also uses its prehensile tail to maintain
balance and stability. Movement is usually leisurely, often with a slight swaying motion to avoid detection by
predators. The animal can move more rapidly when in- 27.4 Distribution
volved in a territorial dispute. They are usually solitary animals which maintain a territory and only toler- In Europe, it is found in Greece (Aegean Islands, Crete,
ate members of the opposite sex during the mating sea- Chios, Samos), Malta, southern Portugal, southern Spain,
son. Average length of the common chameleon is from and Cyprus. It was reportedly introduced to the island of
20 to 40 cm, with females often being substantially larger Sicily, Italy, but its presence was never conrmed and a
than males. The colour of the common chameleon is small, probably introduced, population is reported to be
variable, between yellow/brown through green to a dark present in Apulia in southwestern Italy. In North Africa
brown. Whatever the background colour is the com- and the Middle East, it occurs in Morocco, Algeria,
mon chameleon will have two light coloured lines along Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Western
its side. It has a small beard of scales and some small Sahara, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and
hard scales on the top of its back. Many assume the Iran. The species is now only found in Greece on the
color changes undergone by the chameleon are a result island of Samos, and has disappeared from the other isof its attempting to camouage itself, when in reality the lands in recent years. Conservation eorts on Samos are
chameleon changes its color as a response to light and being led by the institute of Marine Biology Archipelagos
temperature stimuli and as an expression of its emotions to preserve the remaining populations, but the species is
(like chameleon body language). Often when caught for not currently evaluated under the IUCN redlist.
analysis, the chameleon may turn a dark color, Their colors are also important for interspecies communication,
especially during the mating season.[2]

27.5 Conservation and threats

27.2 Diet
The Common Chamaeleon is insectivorous, capturing insects by stealth and the rapid extension of its long tongue
which has a terminal pad which grasps and adheres to the
prey. Adults are known to eat young chameleons and have
been observed to eat fruit.[2]

The primary threats to the common chameleon are habitat loss by human intervention and capture for the pet
trade (both illegal and legal, depending on the country).
Many die of stress or depression upon capture before
they make it to the intended destination; capture from
the wild is often the most damaging threat to the species.
The species is also extremely territorial, and habitat loss
has caused strain in nding suitable nesting environments
since adult males have been known to attack and eat

41

42
young that intrude on their domains.

27.6 Subspecies
Four subspecies are identied:
C. c. chamaeleon
C. c. musae
C. c. orientalis
C. c. rectricrista

27.7 Trivia
It was once cited by Marlin Perkins (creator/host of TVs
original Wild Kingdom) that it was once erroneously
believed that chameleons could only mimic solid colors,
giving rise to the now-obscure expression: Crazier than
a chameleon on a chequered tablecloth.

27.8 References
[1] Vogrin, M., Corti, C., Prez Mellado, V., S-Sousa, P.,
Cheylan, M., Pleguezuelos, J., Baha El Din, S. & Al Johany, A.M.H. 2012. Chamaeleo chamaeleon. In: IUCN
2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 October 2012.
[2] Mediterranean Chamaeleon. Arkive. Retrieved 9 Aug
2013.

27.9 External links


Chamaeleo chamaeleon at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database

CHAPTER 27. COMMON CHAMELEON

Chapter 28

Crested chameleon
The crested chameleon,[1] Trioceros cristatus, is a
species of chameleon endemic to Africa. The species was
rst described by Samuel Stutchbury in 1837 and is one
of the most recognisable species of chameleon.

28.4 References
[1] Trioceros cristatus | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
[2] Facts about Crested Chameleon (Trioceros cristatus) Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org.
2012-10-23. Retrieved 2012-11-13.

28.1 Distribution and habitat


The crested chameleon can be found in Bioko, the
Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of
Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, the
Gabonese Republic, the Federal Republic of Nigeria,
the Republic of Ghana and the Rpublique Togolaise
(Republic Togo). It has a geological type locality of the
Gabonese Republic.[1] It is found at an altitude between
10 and 900 metres (33 and 2,953 feet) above mean sea
level, and over an area of 1,000,000 square kilometres
(390,000 square miles).[2] The IUCN (IUCN) have
classed Trioceros cristatus as Least Concern.[3]

28.2 Description
The female is larger than the male. The total length of a
female is 28 cm (11 in), and the total for a male is 25 cm
(9.8 in). Females lay between 11 and 14 eggs, although a
clutch of 37 was once found.[4]

28.3 Taxonomy
The crested chameleon was rst described by Stutchbury
in 1837. In 1865, Gray described it as the Pterosaurus
cristatus. Werner described it as the Chamaeleon cristatus
in 1911, and Mertens described it in 1966 as Chamaeleo
cristatus. Klaver and Bhme described it as Chamaeleo
(Trioceros) cristatus in 1986, and Necas described it under the same name in 1999. The species was most recently described by Tilbury and Tolley in 2009 as Trioceros cristatus.[1]
43

[3] Trioceros cristatus (Crested Chameleon)".


nredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-13.

Iuc-

[4] Crested chameleon videos, photos and facts - Trioceros


cristatus. ARKive. 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2012-11-13.

Chapter 29

Fischers chameleon
The Fischers chameleon (Kinyongia scheri) is a
species of chameleon native to the Nguru and Nguu
mountains of Tanzania. A number of other species (K.
matschiei, K. multituberculata, K. tavetana, K. uluguruensis and K. vosseleri) have been mistakenly called by
this species name or classied as subspecies but recent
study has shown that these other species are actually their
own distinct, dierent species. In fact, the true Fischers
chameleon is rare.

29.1 References
Mariaux, J., N. Lutzmann, and J. Stipala (2008).
The two horned chameleons of East Africa. Zool.
J. Linn. Soc. 152: 367-391.
Lutzmann, N. Revisions of the Genus Bradypodion.
chameleonnews.com

44

Chapter 30

Globe-horned chameleon
The globe-horned chameleon or at-casqued
chameleon (Calumma globifer) is a large species
of chameleon endemic to isolated pockets of humid
primary forest in eastern and south eastern Madagascar.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II, meaning trade in this
species is regulated.

30.1 Description
Colour variations include red-brown, yellow, black,
white, and green.

30.2 References
ARKive.com. Accessed 26-10-2012

45

Chapter 31

Graceful chameleon
The Graceful chameleon, Chamaeleo gracilis is a
species of chameleon native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is
commonly around a foot long. Because of its abundance,
it is heavily exploited by the pet trade.[1]

31.1 Range
The Graceful chameleon inhabits much of sub-Saharan
Africa, from Senegal in the west to Angola in the south
and Ethiopia in the east. It mostly lives in forests, though
it tolerates bushy areas near plantations and savanna.[1]

31.2 Description
It is often green, yellow, or brown, with a green stripe on
its side.[1] Although it is usually a foot long, it can grow
up to 15 inches in length.[2]

31.3 Behavior
The Graceful chameleon is diurnal; it hunts for prey
during the morning and evening, while it rests in the
shade during the hottest part of the day. Males are very
territorial, and often threaten each other with colorful
displays.[1] It eats insects,[2] and can live up to 10 years in
captivity.[3]

31.4 Reproduction
It breeds twice per year, once in the dry season and again
at the end of the wet season.[1] 20 to 50 eggs are laid per
clutch.[1][2]

31.5 References
[1] Graceful chameleon videos, photos and facts - Chamaeleo
gracilis - ARKive

46

[2] Graceful Chameleon, Chamaeleo gracilis Chameleon


Facts and Images
[3] Ha Ha Reptiles: Graceful Chameleon

Chapter 32

Indian chameleon
The Indian chameleon, Chamaeleo zeylanicus is a
species of chameleon found in Sri Lanka, India, and
other parts of South Asia. Like other chameleons, this
species has a long tongue, feet that are shaped into bid claspers, a prehensile tail, independent eye movement,
and the ability to change skin colour. They move slowly
with a bobbing or swaying movement and are usually arboreal. Strangely, they do not choose the background
colour and may not even be able to perceive colour differences. They are usually in shades of green or brown
or with bands. They can change colour rapidly and the
primary purpose of colour change is for communication
with other chameleons and for controlling body temperature by changing to dark colours to absorb heat.[1][2]

end of the parietal crest, is present; an indication of a dermal occipital lobe is found on each side, not reaching the
parietal crest. No enlarged tubercles occur on the body;
a feebly serrated dorsal crest is present; a series of conical tubercles form a very distinct crest along the throat
and belly. Males have a tarsal process or spur, the tail is
longer than head and body. The gular-ventral crest and
the commissure of the mouth are white.[3]
From snout to vent, it is up to 7 in long, with a prehensile
tail of 8 in.

32.3 Notes
[1] Walton, B. M. and A. F. Bennett. 1993. Temperaturedependent Color Change in Kenyan Chameleons. Physiological Zoology 66(2):270-287

32.1 Distribution
They are found in India, south of the Ganges River. Type
locality: Sri Lanka, restricted by Mertens in 1969.

[2] Durve, V. S and H. S. Sharma. 1975. Some observations


on color changes of the Indian chameleon. J. Bombay Nat.
Hist. Soc. 72:107-112.

32.2 Description

[3] Boulenger, G. A. 1890 Fauna of British India. Reptilia


and Batrachia.

The head has a bony casque, ornamented with crests or


tubercles. A separation between the eyes, the interorbital
septum, is present. Its dentition is acrodont; the teeth are
compressed, triangular, and more or less distinctly tricuspid. The palate is toothless. The eyes are large, covered
by a thick, granular lids pierced with a small central opening for the pupil. No tympanum or external ear is present.
The body is compressed, and the neck is very short. The
vertebrae are procoelian; abdominal ribs are present. The
limbs are long, raising the body. The digits are arranged
in bundles of two and three; in the hand, the inner bundle
is formed of three, the outer of two digits; it is the reverse
in the foot. The tail is prehensile. The head and body are
covered with granules or tubercles.

32.4 References

The casque is much elevated posteriorly, with a strong


curved parietal crest; the distance between the commissure of the mouth and the extremity of the casque equals
or nearly equals the distance between the end of the snout
and the hinder extremity of the mandible; no rostral appendages occur; a strong lateral crest, not reaching the
47

Barry, A.T. 1936 The Common Chamaeleon


(Chamaeleon zeylanicus) in Gujarat J. Bombay Nat.
Hist. Soc. 38: 201-202
Gray,J. E. 1865 Revision of the genera and species
of Chamaeleonidae, with the description of some
new species. Proc. zool. Soc. London, 1864: 465479.
Laurenti, J. N. 1768 Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan.
Thomae, 217 pp.
Singh, L. A. K. (1979): To change is chameleon.
Science Reporter, 16 (1) : 59-61.

48
Singh, L. A. K., Acharjyo, L. N., Bustard, H. R.
(1984) : Observation on the reproductive biology of
the Indian chameleon, Chamaeleo zeylanicus (Laurenti). J.Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 81(1) : 86-92.
Singh, L. A. K. (1986): The Indian chameleon,
Chamaeleo zeylanicus (Laurenti) in Satkoshia
Gorge Sanctuary, Orissa : Notes on availability,
growth and biometrics. J.Bombay nat.Hist. Soc.,
83(1), 111-119.

32.5 External links


Chamaeleo zeylanicus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database
Sri Lankan Reptiles @ The University of Peradeniya
Department of Zoology

CHAPTER 32. INDIAN CHAMELEON

Chapter 33

Jacksons chameleon
Jacksons chameleon or Jacksons three-horned
chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii) is a species of
chameleon (family Chamaeleonidae) native to East
Africa, but also introduced to Hawaii and Florida.[2][3]

33.1 Taxonomy
Jacksons chameleon was rst described by BelgianBritish zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1896.[1]
Its generic name (trioceros) is derived from the Greek
- (tri-) meaning three and (kras) meaning
horns.[4] This is in reference to the three horns found
on the heads of males. Its specic name is a Latinized
form of English explorer and ornithologist Frederick John
Jackson's last name, who was serving as the rst Governor
of Kenya at the time.[5] The English word chameleon
(also chamaeleon) derives from Latin chamaele, a borrowing of the Ancient Greek (khamailn), a
compound of (khama) on the ground and
(ln) lion. The Greek word is a calque translating the
Akkadian n qaqqari, ground lion.[6]
The three subspecies, including the nominate, are:
Wild T. j. xantholophus from Hilo, Hawaii

T. j. jacksonii Boulanger, 1896: Jacksons chameleon


T. j. merumontanus Rand, 1958: dwarf Jacksons
chameleon
T. j. xantholophus Eason, Ferguson & Hebrard, 1988:
yellow-crested Jacksons chameleon

33.2 Distribution
Jacksons chameleons are native to woodlands and forests
at altitudes of 1,600 to 2,440 m (5,250 to 8,010 ft) in
south-central Kenya and northern Tanzania.[2][7] In these
areas, the rainfall is seasonal but exceeds 127 cm (50 in)
per year, day temperatures are typically 1627 C (6181
F) and night temperatures are typically 418 C (3964
F).[7] In Tanzania, it is only known from Mount Meru
in the Arusha Region, which is the home of the relatively small endemic subspecies T. j. merumontanus.[2]

Jacksons chameleon is more widespread in Kenya, where


even found in wooded areas of some Nairobi suburbs.[2]
The subspecies T. j. xantholophus (native to the Mount
Kenya region) was introduced to Hawaii in 1972 and has
since established populations on all main islands and became invasive species there.[8][9][10][11] This subspecies
has also been introduced to Florida.[3] In Hawaii, they
are mainly found at altitudes of 100 to 1,000 m (330 to
3,280 ft) in wet, shady places.[3] Historically this population was the primary source of Jacksons chameleons for
the exotic pet trade in the United States, but exports from
Hawaii are now illegal.[3] This has been done to prevent
opportunists from willfully establishing further feral animal populations to capture and sell them.

49

50

CHAPTER 33. JACKSONS CHAMELEON


ous threat especially to endemic species, such as critically
endangered O'ahu tree snails (genus Achatinella).[9][10]

33.4.2 Life cycle

A Jacksons chameleon at the Wellington Zoo

33.3 Description
They are sometimes called three-horned chameleons because males possess three brown horns: one on the nose
(the rostral horn) and one above each superior orbital
ridge above the eyes (preocular horns), somewhat reminiscent of the ceratopsid dinosaur genus Triceratops. The
females generally have no horns, or traces of the rostral
horn (in the subspecies T. j. jacksonii and T. j. merumontanus). The coloring is usually bright green, with some
individual animals having traces of blue and yellow, but
like all chameleons, they change color quickly depending
on mood, health, and temperature.
These are small to medium-sized chameleons. Adult
males reach up to 38 cm (15 in) and females up to 25
cm (10 in), but more typical lengths are 15 to 25 cm (6
to 10 in).[2] They have a saw-tooth shaped dorsal ridge
and no gullar crest. They attain sexual maturity after ve
months. The lifespan is variable, with males generally
living longer than females.

33.4 Ecology
33.4.1

Feeding habits

Jacksons chameleons live primarily on a diet of small


insects. It prey on insects, centipedes, isopods, millipedes, spiders, lizards, small birds, and snails in its native
habitat.[9]
There is a threat of devastating impact of introduced
invasive Jacksons chameleons to native ecosystems in
Hawaii.[9] There were found mainly insect in their stomachs: planthoppers Oliarus, grasshoppers Banza, casebearing caterpillars Hyposmocoma, beetles Oodemas,
dragonies Pantala[9] and others.[11] Holland et al.
(2010)[9] proved that they also prey on snails in Hawaii.[9]
Their prey include land snails Achatinella, Auriculella,
Lamellidea, Philonesia,[9] Oxychilus alliarius.[11] They
are swallowing whole snails (including shells).[9] Jacksons chameleons introduced to Hawaii are substantial
threat to native biodiversity of invertebrates[11] and seri-

They are less territorial than most species of chameleons.


Males will generally assert dominance over each other
through color displays and posturing in an attempt to secure mating rights, but usually not to the point of physical ghts. Most chameleons are oviparous, but Jacksons
chameleon gives birth to live ospring; eight to thirty live
young are born after a ve- to six-month gestation. The
subspecies T. j. merumontanus gives birth to ve to ten
live young.

33.5 In captivity
In captivity, Jacksons chameleons require high humidity,
and are in general very needy of colder temperatures during the night. Too much heat, or excessive humidity, can
cause eye infections and upper respiratory infections in
these animals. In captivity, the Jacksons chameleon can
be expected to live between ve and ten years.[12]

33.6 References
[1] Boulenger, George Albert (1896). Description of a new
chameleon from Uganda. Annual Natural History 6 (17).
p. 376.
[2] Spawls, Howell, Drewes, and Ashe (2002). A Field Guide
to the Reptiles and Amphibian of East Africa, pp. 227-228.
ISBN 0-12-656470-1
[3] Global Invasive Species Database (2010). Chamaeleo
jacksonii (reptile). Retrieved 16 November 2014.
[4] Liddell, H.G., and R. Scott (1980). Greek-English Lexicon, Abridged Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford,
UK. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
[5] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The
Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
3. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.
[6] Dictionary.com entry for chameleon
[7] Waring, G.H. (1996) Preliminary Study of the Behavior
and Ecologu of Jacksons Chameleon of Maui, Hawaii.
Southern Illinois University. Retrieved 11 November
2014.
[8] Jacksons chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii)". Hawaii
Biodiversity Information Network. Retrieved 2013-0919.
[9] Holland B. S., Montgomery S. L. & Costello V. (2010).
A reptilian smoking gun: rst record of invasive Jacksons chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii) predation on native Hawaiian species. Biodiversity and Conservation
19(5): 1437-1441. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9773-5.

33.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

51

[10] Chiaverano L. M. & Holland B. S. (2014). Impact of an invasive predatory lizard on the endangered
Hawaiian tree snail Achatinella mustelina: a threat assessment. Endangered Species Research 24: 115-123,
doi:10.3354/esr00589.
[11] Kraus F. & Preston D. (2012). Diet of the invasive lizard
Chamaeleo jacksonii' (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) at a
wetforest site in Hawaii. Pacic Science 66: 397-404.
PDF.
[12] Exotic Pets section of About.com

33.7 External links


Chamaeleo jacksonii at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database
Jacksons Chameleon
Caresheets.net

Care

Information

at

Chamaeleo jacksonii information from HEAR


Preliminary study of the behavior and ecology of
Jacksons chameleons of Maui, Hawaii (Dr. George
H. Waring, Dept. of Zoology, Southern Illinois University)

Chapter 34

Karoo Dwarf Chameleon


The Karoo dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion karrooicum) is a chameleon native to South Africa. It is about
14 cm (6 in) long, mostly colored grey and brown, sometimes olive. The thin skin around the throat is yellow, and
it has conical scales along the spine.
It inhabits rather dry habitat on the border between the
Great and Little Karoo of eastern Northern Cape and
western Free State provinces, South Africa.
This animal is occasionally considered a subspecies of the
Cape dwarf chameleon (e.g. Klaver & Bhme 1997), but
among the South African dwarf chameleons, these two
are by no means closely related. Rather, the Karoo dwarf
chameleon belongs to a group of mostly short-tailed drab
Bradypodion species which mostly inhabit semiarid to
arid habitats. Its closest living relatives among these appear to be the peculiar and nearly extinct Smiths dwarf
chameleon from mountainous habitat, and especially the
southern dwarf chameleon. The Karoo dwarf chameleon
may actually be a subspecies of the latter; there appears
to be signicant gene ow between the two.[1]

34.1 References
[1] Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R.; Branch, William
R. & Matthee, Conrad A. (2004): Phylogenetics of
the southern African dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion
(Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365. doi:10.1016/S10557903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext

Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1997): Liste


der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich 112: i-xiv,
1-85.

34.2 External links


Search for Distribution of Bradypodion karrooicum

52

Chapter 35

Kinyongia
Kinyongia (derived from the species name in Kiswahili
language)[1] is a chameleon genus recently established for
several plesiomorphic species found in forest and woodland in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and far eastern DR Congo. All except K. adolfriderici and K. tavetana are restricted to highlands and many have very small
distributions. In most, at least the males have horns
or knobs on their noses. They were erroneously placed
into Bradypodion for some time[2][3] It has recently been
pointed out that the ending to the specic epithet in several of the below listed species should be modied to
match the feminine genus name.[4]

35.2 References

35.1 Species

[1] Some Important Changes in the Systematics of Bradypodion. Kinyongia is derived from the species name in
Kiswahili language. Chameleons Online E-Zine. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
[2] Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1986): Phylogeny and classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner Zoologische
Monographien 22: 164.
[3] Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch, William
R. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf
chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext
[4] Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch, William
R. (2007): Corrections to species names recently placed in
Kinyongia and Nadzikambia (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae).
Zootaxa 1426: 68.

Ituri chameleon, K. adolfriderici


Mount Nyiro bearded chameleon, K. asheorum
Boehmes chameleon, K. boehmei
Carpenters chameleon, K. carpenteri

Necas, P., R. Sindaco, K. Ludk, J. Kopen,


P. K. Malonza, D. Modr (2009): Kinyongia
asheorum sp. n., a new montane chameleon
from the Nyiro Range, northern Kenya (Squamata:
Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa: 41-50.

Mt. Kenya hornless chameleon, K. excubitor


Lendu chameleon, K. gyrolepis
Fischers chameleon, K. scheri
Magombera chameleon, K. magomberae
Giant monkey-tailed east Usambara two-horned
chameleon, K. matschiei
West Usambara two-horned chameleon, K. multituberculata
Sharp-nosed chameleon, K. oxyrhina
Dwarf two-horned chameleon, K. tavetana
Usambara soft-horned chameleon, K. tenuis
Uluguru two-horned chameleon, K. uluguruensis
Hanang hornless chameleon, K. uthmoelleri
Van Heygens chameleon, K. vanheygeni
East Usambara two-horned chameleon, K. vosseleri
Strange-nosed chameleon, K. xenorhina
53

Chapter 36

Kinyongia tavetana
Kinyongia tavetana (common names: Kilimanjaro
two-horned chameleon, Dwarf Fischers chameleon)
is a chameleon in the genus Kinyongia. It is native to
Kenya and Tanzania. Its type locality is Mount Kilimanjaro.[1] The species length averages 9.5 inches, and it
is usually brown, green and grey. Males have two saw
blade attened false horns on the males, while the females lack these distinctive feature.

36.1 References
[1] Kinyongia tavetana at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database.
Accessed 6 April 2014.

54

Chapter 37

Knysna dwarf chameleon

Male Knysna dwarf chameleon, submissive coloration


Knysna dwarf chameleon in a human hand

of domestic cats have caused the species to vanish from


The Knysna dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion dama- large areas.[3]
ranum) is a species of dwarf chameleon in the
Bradypodion (slow footed) genus that is endemic to
South Africa. It is a forest dweller, found only in a
37.3 References
limited range in the afromontane forests near Knysna,
South Africa, and in certain other areas. As with most
chameleons, its tongue is twice the length of its body and [1] (e.g. Klaver & Bhme 1997)
it can be shot out of its mouth using a special muscle in the [2] (Tolley et al. 2004)
jaw. This gives the chameleon the ability to catch insects
[3] Pdf. list of CITES-protected Endangered Species.
some distance away.
Tolley K. and Burger M. 2007. Chameleons of
Southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town

37.1 Taxonomy

Tolley, K.A. et al. 2006. Biogeographic patterns


and phylogeography of dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) in an African biodiversity hotspot. Molecular Ecology 15:781-793.

In the past, most South African dwarf chameleons were


considered to be a subspecies of one Cape Bradypodion
species [1] This is now known to be wrong, however; B.
damaranum does not appear to have any particularly close
living relatives. Like the Cape dwarf chameleon, it seems
to be a basal oshoot of the ancestral stock which gave
rise to all Bradypodion chameleon species.[2]

Adcham prole
The Dwarf Chameleon Project at Wildcli Nature
Reserve

37.4 External links

37.2 Habitat
The normal habitat of Bradypodion damaranum is dense,
wet montane forest.
This chameleon also readily adapts to living in gardens.
However, the use of hedge trimmers and the introduction

55

Search for Distribution of Bradypodion damaranum


Bradypodion damaranum at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database

Chapter 38

Magombera chameleon
Kinyongia magomberae, commonly known as the
Magombera chameleon, is a species of chameleon. The
holotype of this species was discovered inside the jaws of
a twig snake in the Magombera Forest of Tanzania by Andrew Marshall of the University of York. The snake was
startled by Marshall and dropped the chameleon, which
was examined and discovered to be a new species.[1] Although this particular specimen did not survive, another
one was found which did survive.[2]

38.1 References
[1] [Menegon, M., Tolley, K., Jones, T., Rovero, F., Marshall, A.R., Tilbury, C.R. (2009) A new species of
chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from
the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Herpetology
58(2) 59-70.]
[2] From the mouths of snakes, Nature, November 24, 2009

56

Chapter 39

Marshalls pygmy chameleon


Marshalls pygmy chameleon (Rhampholeon mar- 39.1.3 Related species
shalli), also called Marshalls leaf chameleon or Marshalls dwarf chameleon, is a species of chameleon
Rhampholeon gorongosae (Broadley 1971), once
found in the forests of Zimbabwe and Mozambique in
considered a subspecies has been raised to species, is
Africa. It grows from 3.5 to 7.5 cm (1.25 to 3 in) and
found in similar habitats on the Mt Gorongosa Masfeeds on insects. When standing still, it resembles a leaf
sif in adjacent Mozambique. It was discovered by
on a branch.
the ornithologist Stuart Irwin.
Rhampholeon platyceps is found in similar habitats
on the Mt Mulanje in adjacent Malawi.

39.1 Identication
Marshalls leaf chameleon is unmistakable. It is the
only such tiny chameleon in its range (sympatric with
Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis, the ap-necked chameleon
to a degree). This is a tiny species of 3.2-7.5 cm (females
being slightly larger). Isolated populations have distinct
size variations; for example, those found just to the north
of Mutare appear to be larger than those just to the south
(separated by deep valleys). It has a dorsoventrally attened head and body with prominent ribs and apparent venation, giving it the appearance of a leaf. Its colour variations are from deep brown to yellowish green according
to the camouage required for the situation. Males are
usually more brightly coloured.

39.1.4 Karyotopic taxonomy


Wright 1973 conrms the number and form of the chromosomes from specimens provided by Broadley put R.
marshalli in the genus Rhampholeon with Rhampholeon
spectrum, the type species for the genus having 36 pairs
of chromosomes like the other members of this genus.

39.2 Distribution
This species is found largely in the Eastern Highlands
of Zimbabwe and the adjacent upland forest of Mozambique.

39.1.1

Sexing

Males, being slightly smaller, having a distinct penial


swelling at the base of the tail, and a greener throat with 39.3 Habitat
a row of dening white or yellow tubercle spots, are relatively easy to distinguish from females.[2]
The patches of relict montane forest found in the Nyanga,
Bvumba, Himalaya and Chimanimani Mountains are the
primary habitats. They can be found in the cool, damp
interior of the forest, mostly in the undercanopy and on
39.1.2 Sympatric species
the forest margins. These forest patches are surrounded
by vast expanses of montane grassland, but are often so
Little habitat overlap occurs as that of C. dilepsis ap- far apart as to be isolated from one another, but forest
proaches the range of Marshalls leaf chameleon. C. along the numerous mountain streams may link these very
dilepis is rare, found in low, probably transitory popula- limited habitats. Marked specimens surveyed over a long
tion densities at the altitudes inhabited by R. marshalli, time appeared not to travel far at all, usually less than 15
preferring the sunnier grasslands and forest margins.
m.[3]
57

58

CHAPTER 39. MARSHALLS PYGMY CHAMELEON

39.4 Natural history

Broadley & Blake, 1978. A preliminary report on


a eld survey of Marshalls Dwarf Chameleon Rhod
Sci News 5, 10 pp 310314

Rhampholeon marshalli seems to inhabit the subcanopy


and leaf litter of the relict cloud forests. Major canopy
trees include Syzygium and Ficus. These forest are rich
in fern and liana species. Forest margins have prickly
species of Ilex and Rubus briars. How far up the canopy
these creatures ascend is not known, but they tend to be
found in the leaf litter or low shrubs. The winters in these
(evergreen) forests are sharp and very cool; a period of
brumation seems likely to occur for these tiny lizards.
They eat insects, though these forests seem to be fairly
depleted now.

Broadley & Blake, 1979. A eld study of Rhampholeon marshalli on Vumba Mountain, Rhodesia
(Sauria : Chamaeleonidae). Arnoldia 34, (8) pp 1
7
Wright & Broadley, 1973. Chromosome and the
status of Rhampholeon marshalli Boulenger . Bulletin of Sthrn Calif. Acad Sciences 72 (3) pp 164
165
Longmanns animal encyclopedia - Pg. 422

39.4.1

Reproduction

In the rains (November to March), Marshalls leaf


chameleon lays a small clutch of embryonated eggs that
hatch quickly. Humphreys[4] photographed a gravid female excavating a hole in the forest soil and laying a
clutch. One egg was exhumed and found to contain a
fully developed embryo. After 35 days, the eggs hatched
and the tiny juveniles dispersed. Juveniles are relatively
large at 2225 mm long.[2]

39.5 Conservation
Like other small mountain chameleons, this species appears to have population spikes and collapses. Their
ranges do not appear to be threatened and much of
their habitat is safe in Zimbabwe in the Nyanga National Park (where introduced tree species of wattle and
pine are being eradicated to allow natural forest to reemerge), Stapleford Forest Reserve, Bunga National Park
and Botanical Garden, the Chimanimani National Park,
and the Chirinda Forest Reserve. However, the tiny relic
cloud forest patches are under constant threat from excessive collection of rewood and clearance for coee,
tea and protea plantations. Also, the corridors that once
connected populations have indubitably diminished.

39.6 References
[1] Mariaux, J. (2010). "Rhampholeon marshalli". IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International
Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 August
2012.
[2] Broadley & Blake, 1971. A review of Rhampholeon marshalli Boulenger with the description of a new subspecies
from Mozambique. Arnoldia 10 (5) pp 1-5
[3] Broadley & Blake 1973.
[4] Humphreys Clive, 1990. Observations of Nest Excavation, Egg-laying and Incubation Period of Marshalls
Dwarf Chameleon Zim Sci News 24, 1/3 pp3-4

Chapter 40

Mellers chameleon
Trioceros melleri, with the common names Mellers
Chameleon and Giant One-horned Chameleon is the
largest species of chameleon from the African mainland (i.e. the largest of the chameleons not native to
Madagascar).[2][3][4] Mellers Chameleon gets its common name from a Dr. Meller who is mentioned by biologist and taxon authority John Gray in the section about
the habitat of the species in his 1865 description.[1]

40.1 Range
T. melleri is relatively common in the bushy savannahs
and interior mountains of East Africa and may be found
in Malawi, northern Mozambique, and Tanzania.[3][4][5]

40.2 Description
The largest of the chameleons from the African mainland,
large male T. melleri typically reach 24 inches (61 cm)
in length, but exceptionally large specimens have reputedly reached over 30 inches (76 cm) in length and have
Trioceros melleri
weighed 21 oz (600 g).[2][3][4]
Females are generally smaller than males,[6] and have less
developed dorsal and medial crests. The head of this
species is relatively small in relation to the rest of its body black. The basic coloration of the creature is a deep forest
and has a more elongated shape in comparison to other green with white stripes, but like many chameleons it can
chameleons in its genus.[3]
change its color depending on various circumstances. If
T. melleri is stout-bodied and has a relatively stubby tail being fed or handled they might display black and white
one third the length of its body. A low, scalloped crest dots. When basking in the sun, the side of their body
or black, while
extends from just behind the casque of the head through towards the sunlight can turn dark green[2][3]
the
rest
of
the
animal
stays
much
lighter.
the proximal half of the tail, and a sharp medial crest
Mellers Chameleon has color patterns associated with
stress. Mild excitement or stress is indicated by dark
spotting overlaying the reptiles normal color. These dark
green spots turn to black mottling as the chameleon gets
more upset. Severe stress turns the chameleon rst charcoal gray, followed by pure white adorned with yellow
stripes. A sick Mellers Chameleon may be mottled with
brown, gray, pink, or white. A gravid animal is black,
[2]
Spots and broad vertical bands on the chameleons anks cream, and gray colored and will be bulging with eggs.
range in color from brown, dark green, yellow or even With great care, Melleri are one of the few species that
runs from the lizards eyes to the tip of its snout, which
bears a single small horn. This chameleon bears greatly
enlarged occipital lobes.[3][4] It has heterogeneous scales
which vary shape and size to various parts of its body and
large, granular scales distributed homogeneously on the
trunk and limbs. There are longitudinal rows of large,
granular scales in the chameleons gular region, one of its
most distinctive characteristics.[3]

59

60
can be housed in groups. This doesn't always work as
some individuals will not get along. Constant observation is required to ensure the animals safety. Their long
tongues can reach prey up to 20 inches (51 cm) away.

40.3 Diet and reproduction


Like most chameleons, Mellers are strict carnivores
eating insects, smaller lizards, spiders, worms, and
caterpillars.[4] Large specimens have been known to eat
small birds.[4][5]
Females annually produce a single clutch of up to 80
eggs.[7] Newborn Mellers Chameleons are about 4 inches
(10 cm) in length and must be fed Drosophilidae and
tiny crickets for the rst three weeks of their lives.[2] Afterwards, they accept house ies and larger insect prey
including crickets, locusts, silkworms, and cockroaches.
They may live as long as twelve years.[3][4]

CHAPTER 40. MELLERS CHAMELEON

40.6 References
[1] Gray, J.E. (1865). Revision of the genera and species of
Chamaeleonidae, with the description of some new species.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 15: 340-354
[2] Common Name: Mellers Chameleon. LLL Reptile.
Retrieved 2008-08-19.
[3] Pollak, E. (6/18/203). Chamaeleo (Trioceros) melleri
Prole. AdCham.com. Retrieved 2008-08-20. Check
date values in: |date= (help)
[4] Mellers Chameleon Printable Page from National Geographic Animals. National Geographic. Retrieved 200808-19.
[5] Griths, Clare; Bell, Brian (2003). Insight Guide East
African Wildlife (Insight Guides East African Wildlife) (3
ed.). Insight Guides. ISBN 978-981-234-942-2.
[6] Halliday, Tim; Adler, Kraig (2002). Firey Encyclopedia
of Reptiles and Amphibians. Firey Books. ISBN 978-155297-613-5.
[7] Cogger, Harold; Zweifel, Richard (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0-8317-2786-1.

40.4 Captivity
T. melleri specimens vary from timid to moderately aggressive towards humans, with some specimens being reported as friendly.[8] Wild caught specimens of T. melleri have fared poorly in captivity, often imported with
heavy parasite loads, they have a high mortality rate.[9]
The species has been successfully bred in captivity as long
as specic requirements are met and are recommended
for advanced hobbyists.[3][4][8]
As they are large lizards, a large enclosure is
recommended.[3] One breeder recommends placing
the chameleons cage above human eye level so that it
can feel elevated in its environment.[2][3]
High day time temperatures (80-85F or 27-29C) are
needed for the reptile's enclosure.[3] Simulating the natural temperature changes of the creatures native environment, a night time temperature of the low 60s Fahrenheit (~16C) is recommended as well.[3] They need considerable hydration and various dietary supplements are
recommended.[2][3]

40.5 External links


Chamaeleo melleri at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database
Prole at the Reptile Database
ITIS Standard Report Chamaeleo melleri

[8] LeBerre, J (2000). The Chameleon Handbook (1 ed.).


Barrons Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-1242-3.
[9] Ackerman, Lowell (1997). Biology of Reptiles Vol. 1 (Biology Husbandry and Health Care of Reptiles) 1. TFH
Publications. ISBN 978-0-7938-0501-3.

Chapter 41

Mlanje Mountain chameleon


The Mlanje Mountain chameleon, Nadzikambia mlanjensis, is one of two species in the genus
Nadzikambia (derived from the species name in
Chichewa). It is a plesiomorphic, small chameleon from
the Ruo Gorge forest on Mount Mulanje in Malawi.
Initially placed into Chamaeleo, it was for some
time moved to the South African dwarf chameleons
(Bradypodion) by some (Klaver & Bhme, 1986). This
was criticized because plesiomorphies cannot be used to
dene clades, and eventually turned out to be in error.[1]

41.1 References
[1] Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch, William
R. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf
chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext

Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1986): Phylogeny and


classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with
special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner
Zoologische Monographien 22: 164.
Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch,
William R. (2007): Corrections to species names recently placed in Kinyongia and Nadzikambia (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 1426: 68.
http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

61

Chapter 42

Mount Mabu chameleon


The Mount Mabu chameleon, Nadzikambia baylissi,
is one of two species in the genus Nadzikambia (derived from the species name in Chichewa). It is a small
chameleon from Mount Mabu in Mozambique.

42.1 References
Branch, W.R. & Tolley, K.A. (2010): A new
species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae:
Nadzikambia) from Mount Mabu, central Mozambique. Afr. J. Herpetol. 59(2): 157172.
http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

62

Chapter 43

Nadzikambia
Currently, two species are placed in the recently established genus Nadzikambia (derived from the species
name in Chichewa). They are plesiomorphic, small
chameleons from the Ruo Gorge forest on Mount Mulanje in Malawi and Mount Mabu in Mozambique.
Initially placed into Chamaeleo, it was for some time
moved to the South African dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) by some (Klaver & Bhme, 1986). This was criticized because plesiomorphies cannot be used to dene
clades, and eventually turned out to be in error.[1]

43.1 Species
Mount Mabu chameleon, Nadzikambia baylissi
Mlanje Mountain chameleon, Nadzikambia mlanjensis

43.2 References
[1] Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch, William
R. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf
chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext

Klaver, C.J.J. & Bhme, W. (1986): Phylogeny and


classication of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with
special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner
Zoologische Monographien 22: 164.
Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R. & Branch,
William R. (2007): Corrections to species names recently placed in Kinyongia and Nadzikambia (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 1426: 68.

63

Chapter 44

Namaqua chameleon
The Namaqua chameleon (Chamaeleo namaquensis) is edge of its range, in eastern Namibia, it overlaps with the
a ground living lizard found in the western desert regions natural range of its relative, the ap-necked chameleon.
of Namibia, South Africa and southern Angola.[2]
Within its natural range, it inhabits arid and semi-arid
areas, such as Karoo shrubland, sandy desert and gravel
plains. It is terrestrial, and is usually seen walking along
the ground.[1]

44.3 Survival techniques


The Namaqua chameleon has evolved several adaptations
to cope with desert conditions; they excrete salt from
nasal glands to conserve water, and dig holes to aid in
thermoregulation. They also use their ability to change
colour to aid in controlling temperature, becoming black
in the cooler morning to absorb heat more eciently, then
a lighter grey color to reect light during the heat of the
day - or showing both colours at the same time, neatly
separated left from right by the spine.[4]

Threat display, Namib-Naukluft National Park

44.1 Description
Chamaeleo namaquensis is one of the largest chameleon
species in southern Africa, and reaches up to 25 cm
in length. Its tail is far shorter than its body and than
those of other arboreal species of chameleon. This is
an adaptation to its primarily terrestrial habitat. It has
large dorsal spines and a prominent, pointed casque on
the back of its head, however it lacks the neck ap of
other Chamaeleo species.[3] Although capable of changing colour, this chameleon is usually some shade of grey
or brown with several lighter patches on the ank, dark
patches below the dorsal ridge and yellow or red striping
on the throat.[4]

44.4 Interspecic relationships


44.4.1 Prey
Unlike the arboreal chameleons of the genus Chamaeleo,
its tail is not prehensile, but otherwise it still hunts in the
same way, slowly stalking its prey and catching it with its
long tongue. Namaqua chameleons feed on insects (particularly beetles and crickets), lizards, including young
chameleons of their own species, small snakes, and even
scorpions, hunting them in both sandy dunes and rocky
areas.[4]

44.2 Distribution
44.4.2 Predators
This chameleon species occurs naturally throughout the
arid western part of southern Africa, and is particularly
common in the Namib Desert. It is recorded as far south
as Sutherland, in the Western Cape, South Africa, and
as far north as southern Angola. In the furthest eastern

In turn, Namaqua chameleons are preyed upon by jackals,


hawks, and eagles.[4] Similar to other chameleon species,
in areas near human habitation, it falls victim to introduced predators such as domestic cats and dogs.

64

44.7. REFERENCES

Namaqua chameleon in the Namib Desert

44.5 Reproduction
Adult females lay up to three clutches of eggs a year, each
numbering up to about twenty eggs, burying them in the
sand. These take about one hundred days to hatch and
the young chameleons are able to reproduce at about six
months of age.[4]

44.6 Conservation
Namaqua chameleons are listed as CITES II. In 2012, the
lming of the Mad Max sequel Fury Road caused significant damage to Namaqua chameleon habitat in Dorob
National Park and Namib-Naukluft National Park.[5]

44.7 References
[1] Carpenter, A.I. (2013). "Chamaeleo namaquensis".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
[2] Branch, B. (1988). A Field Guide to the Snakes and other
Reptiles of Southern Africa. ISBN 0-86977-641-X.
[3] Descriptions and articles about the Namaqua Chameleon
(Chamaeleo namaquensis) - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life.
[4] Namaqua chameleon. ARKive. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
[5] Krystal A. Tolley; Michele Menegon (2013-04-11). Mad
Max sequel runs over sensitive desert ecosystem in
Namibia. Mongabay.com. Retrieved 2015-01-19.

65

Chapter 45

Natal Midlands Dwarf Chameleon


The Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion
thamnobates), also known under the longer common
name of KwaZulu-Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon,
is a chameleon native to woodland habitat in the Midlands
area of the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Its
specic name thamnobates means bush-walker.[1][2]

45.1 Footnotes
[1] Durban Museum Novitates. Durban Museum. 1975. p.
157. The name thamnobates is derived from the Greek
thamnos, a bush or shrub, and bates, to move about, and
refers to the preferred habitat of the new species.

Its length is 7.6 centimetres (3.0 in), and it has bulbous


scales of varying colors scattered around the body. The
head crest is yellow, with white skin on its throat. Males
have a short orange stripe around the middle of their bodies and red-spotted eyelids, whereas females are brown
with smaller helmet-like protrusions.
This is a very close relative of the black-headed dwarf
chameleon (B. melanocephalum), which looks very different due to adaptation to low forest and fynbos on
the slopes and clis seawards from the B. thamnobates
range. B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be
phenotypically plastic populations of the same species,
but juveniles of both species were raised under identical
conditions and developed into what was phenotypically
expected of their original populations, indicating they are
separate species.[3]

[2] : 'bush', 'shrub'; . Liddell, Henry George;


Scott, Robert; A GreekEnglish Lexicon at the Perseus
Project: one that treads or covers.
[3] Miller, A.K. & Alexander, G.J. (2009). Do Dwarf
Chameleons (Bradypodion) Show Developmental Plasticity? Zoological Society of Southern Africa.
[4] Tolley et al. (2004)
[5] WCMC (1996)
[6] da Nbrega Alves et al. (2008)

45.2 References
da Nbrega Alves, Rmulo Romeu; da Silva Vieira;
Washington Luiz & Gomes Santana, Gindomar
(2008): Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine:
conservation implications. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(8): 20372049. doi:10.1007/s10531-0079305-0 (HTML abstract, PDF rst page)

An undescribed dwarf chameleon population from


Gilboa and Karkloof Forests in KwaZulu-Natal seems
closely related to both B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates. It appears as if they radiated quite recently
from a common ancestor, which probably was much like
the Midlands form in appearance (as this is the most
plesiomorphic of them). Indeed, ongoing gene ow or incomplete lineage sorting is indicated between these populations. Thus it is not certain whether they constitute
one, three, or even more species, and more research is
required.[4]
The range of the Midlands and Gilboa Forest populations and that of the Drakensberg dwarf chameleon
(B. dracomontanum) require delimitation, as they appear
to touch in eastern Lesotho and adjacent South Africa.
The Drakensberg species is not closely related to the
KwaZulu-Natal group, however, and no signicant gene
ow between them seems to occur.[4]
The Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon is classied as a
Near Threatened species by the IUCN.[5] It is used in local folk medicine.[6]

Tolley, Krystal A.; Tilbury, Colin R.; Branch,


William R. & Matthee, Conrad A. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons,
Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354365.
doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00211-2 PDF fulltext
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)
(1996). Bradypodion thamnobates. 2006. IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.
iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.

45.3 External links

66

Search for Distribution of Bradypodion thamnobates

Chapter 46

O'Shaughnessys chameleon
O'Shaughnessys chameleon (Calumma oshaughnessyi
) is a species of chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It
was named after the British poet and herpetologist Arthur
O'Shaughnessy.[1][2]

46.1 Distribution

of Nature. Although reports of illegal trade in the species


do exist, its primary threat is habitat loss, such as logging
and deforestation. While signicant populations do exist in protected areas, further loss of inhabitable terrain
could fragment and isolate these communities.[3]

46.5 References

O'Shaughnessys chameleon has a range of about 18,000


square kilometers throughout the southeastern portion of
the central highlands of Madagascar. Its distribution extends from Tsinjoarivo, Ambatolampy in the north to
Andohahela National Park in the south. The species is
highly dependent on intact, humid forest as its habitat, living in lower densities on selectively logged territories.[3]

46.2 Description
O'Shaughnessys chameleon, being closely related to
Parsons chameleon, is similar in shape and color but
slightly smaller.[4] Albert Gnther, the rst to scientically describe the species, stated that the type specimen
is a male measuring 15.5 inches (39.4 cm) in total length,
including its tail which is 9 inches (22.9 cm) long. It is
mostly brownish gray, with a darker throat and jaw.[5] Although lacking horns, males of the species have a short,
bony structure on their snouts that females lack.[6]

46.3 Behavior
During a 1997 study, researchers discovered that adult
O'Shaughnessys chameleons are most active in the morning and the evening.[3]

46.4 Conservation and threats


Although in some places common, O'Shaughnessys
chameleon is severely threatened. Its populations are
declining and fragmented, and the species is ranked as
vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation
67

[1] Calumma oshaughnessyi | The Reptile Database


[2] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Calumma oshaughnessyi, p. 197).
[3] Calumma oshaughnessyi (O'Shaughnessys Chameleon) at
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
[4] Mattison, Chris; Garbutt, Nick (2012). Chameleons.
United States: Firey Books Inc. p. 96. ISBN 978-177085-121-4.
[5] Gnther A. 1881. Seventh Contribution to the Knowledge
of the Fauna of Madagascar. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Fifth
Series, 7: 357-360. ("Chamleon O'Shaughnessii ", new
species, p. 358). (at Biodiversity Heritage Library).
[6] Mattison, Chris; Garbutt, Nick (2012). Chameleons.
United States: Firey Books Inc. p. 28. ISBN 978-177085-121-4.

Chapter 47

Palleon
Palleon is a genus of small chameleons erected in
2013 for a small clade formerly assigned to the genus
Brookesia.[1] The species of Palleon are endemic to
Madagascar.

47.1 Species
Palleon lolontany
Palleon nasus, elongate leaf chameleon
Palleon nasus nasus
Palleon nasus pauliani

47.2 References
[1] Glaw, F., Hawlitschek, O. & Ruthensteiner, B. (2013).
A new genus name for an ancient Malagasy chameleon
clade and a PDF-embedded 3D model of its skeleton.
Salamandra 49: 237238.

68

Chapter 48

Parsons chameleon
The Parsons chameleon (Calumma parsonii) is a large
species of chameleon that is endemic to isolated pockets of humid primary forest in eastern and northern
Madagascar. It is listed on CITES Appendix II, meaning
that trade in this species is regulated. As with the majority of chameleon species from Madagascar, it is illegal to
export Parsons chameleons from their native country.

48.1 Description

ported as the largest, or second largest after the Malagasy


Giant Chameleon), males have ridges running from above
the eyes to the nose forming two warty horns. There are
two recognized subspecies: The widespread Calumma p.
parsonii reaches up to 68 cm (27 in) in length (about
the size of a cat) and has no dorsal crest. Calumma
p. cristifer from near Andasibe reaches 47 cm (18 in)
and has a small dorsal crest. Several colour variants are
known within the range typically included in the nominate
subspecies, but it is unclear if they are best considered
morphs or dierent subspecies (at present, most consider
them morphs). This includes orange eye aka whitelipped (generally consider typical of the nominate subspecies) where the male is relatively small and mainly
green or turquoise but with yellow or orange eyelids, yellow lip where the male is somewhat larger and mainly
green or turquoise, but with a yellow edge to the mouth,
yellow giant where the male is very large and overall
yellowish (strongly marked with dusky when stressed),
and green giant where the male is overall green. Males
of C. p. cristifer are overall green or turquoise. Females
of all are smaller than the males and overall greenish, yellowish or brownish (often with an orange tinge).

48.2 Reproduction

Specimen

In captivity, females lay up to 50 eggs per clutch which


can take two years to hatch. The females reproductive cycle allows for only egg laying once every two years (unveried). When the hatchlings are independent once having
dug themselves out of their underground nest the female
had dug and deposited her eggs in. Once laid and reburied
the parental obligations are concluded.

48.3 References

Parsons Chameleon eating at Peyrieras Reptile Reserve

Among the largest chameleons in the world (variously re69

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Calumma parsonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version

70

CHAPTER 48. PARSONS CHAMELEON

2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.


Retrieved 4 September 2014.

Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide


to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR.
ISBN 3-929449-01-3.
Parsons chameleon. ARKive.com. Accessed 2301-2009
Calumma parsonii parsonii. adcham.com. Accessed
23-01-2009
Anderson, C. V. (2006). Captive Chameleon Populations. Accessed 23-01-2009

Chapter 49

Perinet chameleon
The Perinet chameleon (Calumma gastrotaenia), also
known as the Malagasy side-striped chameleon, is a
small species of chameleon endemic to humid primary
forests, particularly along rivers, in eastern and central
Madagascar at elevations between 600 and 1,530 m. It
is listed on CITES Appendix II, and as such, trade in
the Perinet chameleon is regulated. Exporting the species
from Madagascar has been banned since 1995.

49.1 Description
Perinet chameleons are small and slender, reaching 1520
cm, with elongated heads and bodies. They have smooth,
uniformly green, brown or yellow skin with white undersides. A thin stripe runs from their tail bases along the
sides of their bodies and across their eyes, and may include white spots. The three subspecies are C. g. andringitraensis with a dorsal crest, C. g. marojezensis. and C.
g. guillaumeti. The male Perinet chameleon is larger than
the female and has a bony head crest.

49.2 References
Perinet chameleon ARKive.com. Accessed 201107-30
Calumma gastrotaenia WAZA.org. Accessed 201107-30

71

Chapter 50

Peyrieras Reptile Reserve


Madagascar Exotic (also known as the Peyrieras Buttery Farm, Peyrieras Nature Farm and Mandraka
Reptile Farm) is a small privately run reserve (or zoo)
at Marozevo, on National Road N2, 75 km (47 mi) east
of Antananarivo, between the towns of Manjakandriana
and Moramanga. It is a popular tourist stop between
Antananarivo and Madagascars Andasibe-Mantadia National Park.

Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) [5] ,[6]

It was founded and owned by the French entomologist and


naturalist Andr Peyriras, [1] [2] [3] which is why it is also
known as the Reserve Peyrieras.

Wills Chameleon (Furcifer willsii)

Parsons Chameleon (Calumma parsonii) [6]


Perinet Chameleon (Calumma gastrotaenia) [6]
Pygmy Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia minima)
[5]

White-lined Chameleon (Furcifer antimena)


[6]

Frogs

The collection includes many reptiles (chameleons, iguanas, geckos, frogs), Batraciens (Bats), crocodiles, papillons (Butteries). The adjacent forest area supports families of relocated and habituated Verreauxs Sifaka and
Common brown lemur which provide opportunities to
photograph them close up at feeding times.[1]

Black-eared Mantella (Mantella milotympanum) [5]

Most of the reptiles and other species are held within several large caged buildings and greenhouses, which tourists
may enter when accompanied by a guide. A group of
Coquerels sifaka return daily to be fed and to aid photography by the tourists.[4]

Tomato Frog (Dyscophus antongilii) [6]

Painted Mantella (Mantella madagascariensis)


[5]

Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca)


Reptiles
Bright Skink (Trachylepis elegans) [6]
Collared iguana (Oplurus cuvieri)
Lined Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus lineatus)
[5] [6]
,

50.1 Species List


This list will inevitably be incomplete. Please help by expanding the list.
The following species have been listed and/or photographed at this reserve:[5] [6]
Chameleons
Horned Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia superciliaris) [5]
Jewelled Chameleons spp. (Furcifer lateralis)

Madagascan House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) [5]


Mossy Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus sikorae)
[5] [6]
,
Satanic (or Giant) Leaf-tailed
(Uroplatus mbriatus) [5] ,[6]

Gecko

Spearpoint Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus ebenaui) [5] ,[6]


Butteries and moths
African (or Mocker) Swallowtail Buttery
(Papilio dardanus cenea) [6]

[5]

Lance-nosed Chameleon (Calumma gallus)

Insects

Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia tristis) [6]


Nose-horned Chameleon (Calumma nasutum)
[5] [6]
,

Broad Scarlet Dragony (Crocothemis erythraea) [6]

Oustalets Chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) [5] ,[6]

Stick insects [5]


72

50.2. REFERENCES
Snakes
Madagascar Leaf-nosed snake (Langaha
madagascariensis) [5] ,[6]
Madagascar Tree Boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis) [6]
Other
Common Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus) [6]
Madagascan giant red (or Fire) Millipede
(Aphistogoniulus) [5] ,[6]
Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum) [5]
Nile (or Common) Crocodile (Crocodylus
niloticus) [6]

50.2 References
[1] Bradt, Hillary (Mar 2011). Madagascar: Madagascar Exotic (PK72) (10 ed.). London: Bradt Travel Guides Ltd.
p. 253 (total 424 pages). ISBN 9781841623412.
[2] Peyrieras Madagascar Exotic Reserve. http://travel.
michelin.com/''. Michelin Travel. Retrieved 9 September
2014.
[3] Madagascar exotic (Buttery farm)".
www.
travelmadagascar.org. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[4] Pereyras Nature Farm. www.TripAdvisor.co.uk. TripAdvisor. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
[5] Lister, Paul. Peyrieras Exotic Reserve at Marozevo,
Madagascar Photo Gallery. www.TheSussexWildlifer.
co.uk. The Sussex Wildlifer. Retrieved 8 September
2014.
[6] Clark, Dave. Mandraka. www.SmartMug.com. SmartMug. Retrieved 13 October 2014.

73

Chapter 51

Rhampholeon
Rhampholeon is a genus of small chameleons, commonly known as pygmy chameleons or African leaf
chameleons, found in central East Africa (extending
slightly into adjacent DR Congo). They are found
in forests, woodlands, thickets, and savanna, and most
species are restricted to highlands. They are brown, grey,
or green, and typically seen at low levels in bushes, or on
the ground among grasses or leaf litter.

Rhampholeon
chameleon

Rhampholeon beraduccii
Boulengers

pygmy

Rhampholeon bruessoworum
Rhampholeon chapmanorum
Rhampholeon gorongosae Broadley 1971, Gorongosa
pygmy chameleon
marshalli,

Branch, W.R., Bayliss, J. & Tolley, K.A. (2014).


Pygmy chameleons of the Rhampholeon platyceps
compex (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae): Description of four new species from isolated sky islands
of northern Mozambique. Zootaxa 3814: 136.
doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3814.1.1.
Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field
Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic
Press. ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

Rhampholeon acuminatus

Rhampholeon
chameleon

pygmy

51.2 References

Until recently, the members of the genus Rieppeleon were


commonly included in Rhampholeon, instead.

boulengeri,

Uluguru

Rhampholeon viridis

51.1 Taxonomy

Rhampholeon
chameleon

uluguruensis,

Marshalls

pygmy

Rhampholeon maspictus
Rhampholeon moyeri
Rhampholeon nchisiensis, pitless pygmy chameleon
Rhampholeon nebulauctor
Rhampholeon platyceps
Rhampholeon spectrum, spectral pygmy chameleon
Rhampholeon spinosus, rosette-nosed chameleon
Rhampholeon temporalis, Usambara pitted pygmy
chameleon
Rhampholeon tilburyi
74

Tilbury, Colin (2010). Chameleons of Africa, An


Atlas including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle
East and Asia. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira.

Chapter 52

Spectral pygmy chameleon


The spectral pygmy chameleon (Rhampholeon spectrum) is one of the so-called dwarf or leaf
chameleons, from mainland Africa.

52.1 Description
They are small, not exceeding 4 in (10 cm), with very
short, albeit prehensile, tails. They tend to frequent the
ground and low shrubbery in forested areas.[1]
This species is capable of color change, but generally in
somber shades of tan to gray. It also has a ventral stripe
from the eye to above the base of the tail which, however,
is not always displayed in lieu of plain ground colors. It is
capable of quite striking coloration in the form of streaks
and blotches.
In spite of their small size, plain color, and often terrestrial habits, they are otherwise very much like the
larger chameleons in possessing independently rotating
eye sockets, opposable digits on the front and back feet,
and projectile tongues. Males may be dierentiated from
females by their wider tail bases.

52.2 Behavior
They are extremely sedentary, and not territorial (unlike
other chameleons). They eat small invertebrates. Their
reproductive habits are poorly known. These animals
seem to prefer cooler temperatures.

52.3 References
[1] Matthee, C. A.; Tilbury, C. R.; Townsend, T. (2004).
A phylogenetic review of the African leaf chameleons:
Genus Rhampholeon (Chamaeleonidae): The role of vicariance and climate change in speciation. Proceedings
of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271 (1551):
1967. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2806.

75

Chapter 53

Rieppeleon
Rieppeleon is a genus of small, typically brown
chameleons found in forests and savannas in central
East Africa (extending slightly into adjacent DR Congo).
They are found at low levels in bushes, or on the ground
among grass or leaf litter.[1]

53.1 Taxonomy
The genus was named after the herpetologist Olivier
Rieppel.[2] Until recently, they were commonly included
in the genus Rhampholeon instead.
Beardless pygmy chameleon, Rieppeleon brachyurus
Bearded pygmy chameleon, Rieppeleon brevicaudatus
Kenya pygmy chameleon, Rieppeleon kerstenii
R. k. kerstenii
R. k. robecchii

53.2 References
[1] Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field Guide to
the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic Press. ISBN
0-12-656470-1.
[2] Mattison, Chris; Garbutt, Nick (2012). Chameleons.
United States: Firey Books Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-177085-121-4.

76

Chapter 54

Rieppeleon brevicaudatus
Rieppeleon brevicaudatus, commonly known as
the bearded leaf chameleon or bearded pygmy
chameleon,[1] is a chameleon originating from the eastern Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in northeastern
Tanzania and Kenya. It is easily distinguished from
others in the Rieppeleon genus by the presence of a
beard below the mouth, consisting of a few raised
scales. At a full grown length of only 3 in (8 cm), it
is marked by somewhat drab coloring in comparison
to other chameleons, usually assuming a brown or tan
coloring. It is quite capable of changing its coloration,
though, often taking on a shade to blend into the
background and becoming darker when under stress.
It is also capable of compressing its body laterally and
producing a stripe down its side, mimicking a dead leaf.
It often assumes this form when sleeping in the open. It
can adopt a variety of colors, including yellow, green,
orange, black, and brown. A common misconception is
that these chameleons use their color-changing abilities
as camouage, but they actually use their color-changing
skin to court and show stress or emotion. Males are
distinguished by a longer tail, more prominent dorsal
crest, slimmer body type, and persistent patterning. Like
others in the Chamaeleonidae family, it is distinguished
by independently rotating eye sockets and a tongue
longer than its body.

54.1 References
[1] Rieppeleon brevicaudatus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database. Accessed 22 October 2014.

Chameleon News brevicaudatus care guide

54.2 External links

R. brevicaudatus female

77

The Pygmy Chameleon Community - Forums Gallery - Care Sheets


Bearded Pygmy Chameleon Care Sheet

Chapter 55

Rosette-Nosed Chameleon
The rosette-nosed chameleon (Rhampholeon spinosus)
is a small species of chameleon found in virgin forest
and woodland of both the eastern and western Usambara
Mountains in Tanzania. This endangered species is predominantly ash-grey in colouration, with a distinctive
rosette-like nasal appendage.

55.1 References
[1] Mariaux, J. (2010). "Rhampholeon spinosus". IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International
Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 August
2012.

78

Chapter 56

Rough Chameleon
The rough chameleon, Trioceros rudis, also known as
the Rudis chameleon, is a chameleon from western
Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and eastern DR Congo.[1]
Contrary to common belief, this species does not inhabit
Mount Meru, Tanzania. Tanzania chameleons called T.
rudis are in fact T. sternfeldi.
T. rudis is small (10 to 15 cm (3.9 to 5.9 in)) and lacks
horns or occipital lobes. It has a long tail and a small crest.

56.1 References
[1] http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/search.php?genus=
Chamaeleo&species=rudis

Chamaeleo Research Group

56.2 External links


Chamaeleo rudis at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database

79

Chapter 57

Senegal chameleon
The Senegal chameleon, Chamaeleo senegalensis, is a
species of chameleon native to West Africa. Its range includes Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, and Cameroon, and it lives
in moist savanna. Due to its wide range and unknown
population, the Senegal chameleon is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List. However, it may be threatened by the pet trade.[1] The Senegal chameleon is usually
olive brown, and ranges from 20 to 30 cm in length, although the male is usually smaller.[2]

57.1 References
[1] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/176312/0
[2] http://www.camaleonte.net/articoli/care_sheet_
senegalensis.html

80

Chapter 58

Sharp-nosed Chameleon
The sharp-nosed chameleon (Kinyongia oxyrhina) is a
chameleon native to the Uluguru and Uzungwe Mountains of Tanzania.[1] Its length averages 16 cm (6.5 in).
Females are smaller than males, and have smaller helmet
protrusions. They are usually coloured white, gray, brown
and ochre. Males have bluish horns.
The sharp-nosed chameleon was scientically described
in 1988.[2]

58.1 References
[1] http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=
Kinyongia&species=oxyrhina
[2] http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=
Kinyongia&species=oxyrhina

81

Chapter 59

Short-horned chameleon
The short-horned chameleon, Calumma brevicorne, is
a species of chameleon found in Madagascar.[1] [2][3]

59.1 References
[1] Calumma brevicorne (Short-horned Chameleon)".
www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[2] Calumma brevicorne (Gnther, 1879)". ww.cbif.gc.ca/.
Retrieved 19 August 2013.
[3] Calumma brevicorne (GNTHER, 1879)". reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 19 August 2013.

82

Chapter 60

Side-striped chameleon
The side-striped chameleon or the two-lined
chameleon, Trioceros bitaeniatus, is a chameleon
native to Ethiopia, southern Sudan, Somalia, Kenya,
Tanzania, Uganda, and the northeastern Democratic
Republic of the Congo.[1]
In Kenya, the side-striped chameleon lives on Mount
Kenya, Kilimanjaro, and in the Aberdare Range. They
live in the Hagenia and Hypericum scrub in the timberline
forest between 3000 and 4000 m. It lives between 1 and
2 m (3 and 6 feet) above the ground in the giant heathers
that grow here. They are strictly diurnal and shelter at
night between dense bushes.[2]

60.1 References
[1] Klaver, Charles J. J.; Bhme, Wolfgang (1997). Bauer,
Aaron M., ed. Das Tierreich, Part 112: Chamaeleonidae.
Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015187-1.
[2] Andren, Claes (June 1975). The Reptile Fauna in the
Lower Alpine Zone of Aberdare and Mount Kenya.
British Journal of Herpetology: 566573.

83

Chapter 61

Spiny-anked chameleon
The spiny-anked chameleon (also known as the spinysided chameleon), Trioceros laterispinis, is a species of
chameleon endemic to the United Republic of Tanzania,
East Africa. It was rst described in 1932 by Arthur
Loveridge.

61.3 References
[1] Spawls, S. & Carpenter, A.I. (2011). "Trioceros laterispinis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 2012-11-21.
[2] "Trioceros laterispinis | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-13.

61.1 Distribution and habitat


Trioceros laterispinis is only found in one mountain range,
the Udzungwa Mountains, part of the Eastern Arc Mountains in the United Republic of Tanzania, East Africa.
The type locality is Kigogo, Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, and another is Kibau Iyaya in the southwestern
Udzungwa Mountains.[2] It is currently found mostly in
the vicinity of Mundi and Kigogo, but its range covers a
total area of 11,529 km2 (4,451 sq mi).[3] T. laterispinis
is collected for the international pet trade industry.[1] The
true population of the species is unknown and no trend
has been found. Its habitat is forests and dense woodland
and it seems to have a preference for shrubs and small understorey trees rather than towering giants. Much of the
forest is fragmented into small patches and it is threatened
by a high rate of destruction of its habitat for agricultural
purposes.[1] The International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN) classed this species as Vulnerable and it is
listed in Appendix II of the CITES treaty.[1] This species
gives birth to live young.[1]

61.2 Taxonomy
Trioceros laterispinis was rst described in 1932 by
British herpetologist and biologist Arthur Loveridge as
Chamaeleon laterispinis. It was described under the same
name in 1966 by Daan and Hillenius.[4] In 1982, Bhme
described it as the Chamaeleo laterispinis brookesiaeformis, and in 1999, Necas described it as the Chamaeleo
laterispinis. Tilbury and Tolley described it as Trioceros
laterispinis in 2009.[2] It is commonly also known as the
spiny-anked chameleon.[5]
84

[3] Spiny-anked Chameleon - Trioceros laterispinis Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved
2012-11-13.
[4] Daan, S. & Hillenius,D. 1966 Catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Zoological Museum,
Amsterdam. Beaufortia 13: 117-144
[5] Spiny-anked chameleon videos, photos and facts - Trioceros laterispinis". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-13.

Chapter 62

Strange-nosed Chameleon
Not to be confused with the Bizarre-nosed chameleon of
Madagascar
The strange-nosed chameleon (Kinyongia xenorhina) is
a chameleon native to the rainforests of the Ruwenzori
Mountains of western Uganda and eastern Democratic
Republic of the Congo.
The strange-nosed chameleon is named for the large protuberance extending from the top of its snout, particularly prominent on the males of the species. This feature
is composed of two separate plates extending outwards
from either side of the snout and merging at the end. This
feature has also earned it the alternate common name,
single welded-horn chameleon. It also has a very high
casque (a helmet-like structure towards the back of the
skull). The head and casque are covered with enlarged,
plate-like scales.
Strange-nosed chameleons are olive to brown in color,
sometimes with lateral orange or blue coloration. Males
range more towards olive and females more towards
brown. They can reach a length of 11 in (280 mm), making them one of the larger members of the Kinyongia
genus. They have among the sharpest teeth and longest
claws of any chameleon species.
The strange-nosed chameleon has rarely been bred in
captivity, and is, due to its restricted distribution which
places it at risk from habitat destruction and overcollecting for the live animal trade, considered threatened.[1]

62.1 References
[1] Spawls, S., K. Howell, R. Drewes, and J. Ashe. (2002). A
Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press.
ISBN 0-12-656470-1

Pollak, E. (2003). Bradypodion xenorhinum. adcham.com.

85

Chapter 63

Trioceros
Trioceros is a genus in the family Chamaeleonidae. It was
previously considered a subgenus of the genus Chamaeleo
until 2009 when it was elevated to full genus level.[1]

Von Hohnels chameleon, helmeted or high-casqued


chameleon, T. hoehnelii
Ukinga hornless chameleon, T. incornutus
Ituri forest chameleon, T. ituriensis

63.1 Species

Jacksons chameleon, T. jacksonii

Beardless Ethiopian mountain chameleon or Ruppells desert chameleon, T. anis

Jacksons three-horned chameleon, T. j. jacksonii

Bale Mountain two-horned chameleon, T. balebicornutus

Dwarf Jacksons chameleon, T. j. merumontanus

Side-striped chameleon or two-lined montane dwarf


chameleon, T. bitaeniatus

Mount Kenya three-horned chameleon or


yellow-crested Jacksons chameleon, T. j. xantholophus

Cameroon chameleon, T. camerunensis

Johnstons three-horned chameleon or Ruwenzori


three-horned chameleon, T. johnstoni

Chapins chameleon, T. chapini

Mount Kineti montane dwarf chameleon, T. kinetensis

Sudanese cone-horned chameleon, T. conirostratus


Crested chameleon or fringed chameleon, T. cristatus

Spiny-anked chameleon, T. laterispinis

Usambara giant three-horned chameleon, T. deremensis

Marsabit one-horned
marsabitensis

Elliots groove-throated side-striped chameleon, T.


ellioti

Mellers chameleon or Mellers giant one-horned


chameleon, T. melleri

Bioko hornless chameleon, T. feae

Cameroon sailn chameleon, T. montium

Poroto Mountain three-horned chameleon, T. fuelleborni

Mount Kulal helmeted chameleon, T. narraioca

chameleon,

Trioceros

Nyiru montane dwarf chameleon, T. ntunte

Whistling chameleon, T. goetzei

Cherangani helmeted chameleon, T. nyirit

Goetzes whistling chameleon, T. g. goetzei

Owens three-horned chameleon, T. oweni

Nyika whistling chameleon, T. g. nyikae

Southern peacock chameleon, T. perreti

Mount Hanang montane dwarf chameleon, T.


hanangensis

Pfeers two-horned chameleon, Trioceros pfeeri


Four-horned chameleon, T. quadricornis

Harenna hornless chameleon, T. harennae

Southern four-horned chameleon, Trioceros


quadricornis quadricornis

Harenna hornless chameleon, T. h. harennae


Fitchs Harenna hornless chameleon, T. h.
tchi

Rumpi Hills chameleon, T. q. eisentrauti


86

63.3. REFERENCES
Northern four-horned chameleon, T. q. gracilior
Rough chameleon or Rwenzori bearded montane
dwarf chameleon, T. rudis
Schoutedens montane dwarf chameleon, T. schoutedeni
Mount Kenya montane dwarf chameleon, T.
schubotzi
Central peacock chameleon, T. serratus
Tanzanian montane dwarf chameleon, T. sternfeldi
Tubercle-nosed chameleon, T. tempeli
Werners chameleon, T. werneri
Northern peacock chameleon, T. wiedersheimi

63.2 Footnotes
[1] Tilbury & Tolley (2009)

63.3 References
Tilbury, C.R., & Tolley, K.A. (2009). A reappraisal of the systematics of the African genus
Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa
2079: 5768.
http://www.chameleoninfo.com/Species_Profiles.
html

87

Chapter 64

UMlalazi dwarf chameleon


The uMlalazi dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion
caeruleogula) is endemic to KwaZulu-Natal, South
Africa. It is found in Dhlinza, Entumeni and Ongoye
Forests.

64.1 References
Tolley, K. and Burger, M. (2007). Chameleons of
Southern Africa. ISBN 978-1-77007-375-3.

64.2 External links


Search for
caeruleogula

Distribution

of

Bradypodion

88

Chapter 65

Van Heygens chameleon


Van Heygens chameleon (Kinyongia vanheygeni) is
a chameleon native to the Ngozi Crater in the Poroto
Mountains of Tanzania. It was named after Emmanuel
Van Heygen, who took the rst pictures of it in the wild.[1]

65.1 References
[1] http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=
Kinyongia&species=vanheygeni

89

Chapter 66

Veiled chameleon
The veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) is a
species of chameleon native to the Arabian Peninsula in
Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Other common names include
cone-head chameleon and Yemen chameleon.[1]

66.1 Description

veloping. Increasing temperatures in the substrate initiate


development.[5]
Males display for females during courtship, performing
behaviors such as head rolls and chin rubs. Females
change color when they are receptive to breeding, and
males are more likely to court them during this time.[4]

The male is 43 to 61 centimeters long from the snout to


the tip of the tail. The female is shorter, no more than
about 35 centimeters, but it has a thicker body. Both
sexes have a casque on the head which grows larger as the
chameleon matures, reaching about 5 centimeters in the
largest adults. Newly hatched young are pastel green in
color and develop stripes as they grow. Adult females are
green with white, orange, yellow, or tan mottling. Adult
males are brighter with more dened bands of yellow or
blue and some mottling.[2]

66.3 In captivity

Coloration can be aected by several factors, including


social status. In experimental conditions, young veiled
chameleons reared in isolation are darker and duller
in color that those raised with other individuals.[3] Females change color across their reproductive cycles.[4]
Chameleons also change color when stressed.[2]

This chameleon is an introduced species in Hawaii, where


it is invasive in the local ecosystem. There is a breeding
population established on Maui.[6] It can also be found in
the wild in Florida, where escaped pets have established
populations.[1]

The veiled chameleon is the most common Chamaeleo


species in the pet trade. It is easy to breed and prolic in
its egg production. It tolerates a range of conditions and
survives well in captivity.[2]

66.4 Invasive species

66.5 Gallery

66.2 Behavior and ecology

This chameleon lives in a number of habitat types in its


native range, including plateaus, mountains, and valleys.
Like other chameleons, it is arboreal, living in trees and
other large plants. It prefers warmer temperatures, generally between 75 to 95F (24 to 35C).[2]
The veiled chameleon is an omnivore. It favors insects,
and it also eats plant matter, especially as a source of
water.[2]

66.6 References

The life span is about 5 years for females, and up to 8


years for males. They reach sexual maturity at four to
ve months. They breed more than once a year. The
female lays large clutches of up to 85 eggs and buries
them in sand. The eggs are white with a tough skin.[2]
The embryos experience a diapause, a length of time
when they are dormant in the egg before they begin de90

[1] Wilms, T., R. Sindaco, and M. Shobrak.


2012.
Chamaeleo calyptratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
[2] Veiled Chameleon.
Park.

Smithsonian National Zoological

66.8. FURTHER READING

[3] Ballen, C., et al. (2014). Eects of early social isolation on the behaviour and performance of juvenile lizards,
Chamaeleo calyptratus. Animal Behaviour 88 1-6.
[4] Kelso, E. C. and P. A. Verrell. (2002). Do male veiled
chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus, adjust their courtship
displays in response to female reproductive status? Ethology 108(6) 495-512.
[5] Andrews, R. M. and S. Donoghue. (2004). Eects of
temperature and moisture on embryonic diapause of the
veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Journal of Experimental Zoology 301A 629-35.
[6] Detecting the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus)
on Maui: Enhancing Control of an Injurious Species. First
Progress Report. Maui Invasive Species Committee.

66.7 External links


Veiled Chameleon Care Sheet. The Lizard Lounge.
Veiled Chameleon. Biotropics.com

66.8 Further reading


Andrews, R. M. (2008). Eects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled
chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and
Physiology 309(8), 435-46.
Herrel, A., et al. (2014). The scaling of tongue projection in the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. Zoology 117 227-36.
McCartney, K. L., et al. (2014). The eect
of carotenoid supplementation on immune system
development in juvenile male veiled chameleons
(Chamaeleo calyptratus). Frontiers in Zoology 11
26.

91

Chapter 67

Vences chameleon
Vences chameleon (Calumma vencesi) is a species of
chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It was named after
Miguel Vences, a German herpetologist.[2]

67.1 Distribution and habitat


The range of Vences chameleon is not well understood;
it is thought the total area is around 591 square kilometers. What is certain is that specimens have been collected
from several forests in the northeastern corner of Madagascar. The species mostly inhabits the understories of
humid forests in the lowlands.[1]

67.2 Conservation and threats


The main threat to Vences chameleon is habitat loss and
degradation. While having a sizable range, the species
is extremely intolerant of damaged habitat. Also, it has
not been recorded in any protected areas, making it all the
more vulnerable to logging and slash and burn agriculture.
Fortunately, the illegal trade of this species seems to be
virtually nonexistent.[1]

67.3 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. 2011. Calumma vencesi. In:
IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26
June 2014.
[2] Calumma vencesi. The Reptile Database

92

Chapter 68

West Usambara two-horned chameleon


The West Usambara two-horned chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) is a chameleon endemic to the
Usambara Mountains of Tanzania.[1] Its length averages
to 18.7 cm.

68.1 References
[1] Kinyongia multituberculata at the Reptarium.cz Reptile
Database. Accessed 28 June 2014.

93

Chapter 69

Dave the Chameleon


is part of a longer campaign to portray Cameron as an
indecisive populist indeed, John Prescott had used the
term 'Chameleon' to describe Cameron some two months
previously.[3]
The broadcasts were accompanied by the song Karma
Chameleon by Culture Club. In particular, the line I'm a
man, without conviction can be heard during the broadcast.

69.3 Plot
Dave the Chameleon (in blue)

69.3.1 Episode 1

Dave the Chameleon was the British Labour Party's advertising slogan, and the basis of their political campaign,
for the 2006 local elections. The campaign attempted
to portray the recently elected opposition leader, David
Cameron, as an ever changing populist who will be whatever people want him to be. It was criticised as being a
particularly negative form of campaigning.[1] In the event,
Labour had a projected national share of the vote 13%
behind the Conservatives.

The rst episode details the biography of Dave. A blue


David the Chameleon emerges from a blue egg royal
blue being the Conservative partys colour and goes to
school, wearing a straw hat, an allusion to his Etonian
past. David, like David Cameron, joins the Conservative Party during its time in power under John Major but,
when Majors government begins to collapse, David the
Chameleon 'disappears into the background to work in
public relations (again reecting Camerons career).

According to the story, David the Chameleon learns a


number of 'sneaky' skills in P.R., making him a master of
69.1 Broadcasts
spin. He changes his name to the more informal 'Dave'
and learns that, as a Chameleon, he can change his colours
A short video, showing some of Daves antics was rst at will. As the narrator says:
aired on British TV as a party political broadcast on be- And Dave the Chameleon changed into every colour of
half of the Labour Party on 18 April 2006. A sequel aired the rainbow, as he told everyone just what he 'thought'
on 27 April. The 'episodes were also available on the they wanted to hear. But underneath it all he was still
campaigns website,[2] which also included ringtones and true blue, through and through.
a podcast version, until the website was closed.
Dave the Chameleon is then shown as very blue, accompanied with a quote from David Cameron that 'I am Conservative to the core of my being, as those who know me
69.2 Message
best will testify' (taken from an interview with the Daily
Telegraph). He then turns red reecting the colour
Dave the Chameleon uses the chameleon's ability to of the Labour Party and is accompanied by the David
change colour to mock the Conservative Party leader. Cameron quote that he is the 'heir to Blair'. Next Dave
They aim to show that Cameron will 'change his colours turns yellow to reect the UKs third biggest party, the
to t the opinions of the people he is speaking to at Liberal Democrats alongside Camerons quote that 'I
a certain time. The Labour Party claim that this is a am a liberal conservative'. Dave then becomes green (and
trick to hide his conservative values from others. This visits a solar panel shop) mocking David Camerons
94

69.5. SEE ALSO


attempts to make the Conservative Party more environmentally friendly before nally turning blue. The campaigns tag line is: 'Available in any colour (as long as its
blue).'

95
ing to younger generations used for the sale of mobile
phone ringtones, most notably the Crazy Frog, have been
banned from appearing on British television before the
watershed. Ann Treneman, writing in The Times, said
Labour had plumbed new depths.

Other critics have noted that Tony Blair, then leader of


the Labour Party and Prime Minister has done a number of the things for which Cameron is criticised in the
The second episode of Dave the Chameleons adventures campaign. Indeed, in a 2002 article in an American jourwas aired on 28 April, a week before the Local Elections nal, Blair was described as 'something of a chameleon'.[8]
(4 May). The plot of this episode is largely the same as They claim that:
that of the previous one; repeating a number of scenes and
accusations. This second episode, however, twice links
He has shortened his name from Anthony to Tony
Dave to Black Wednesday, seen as being the low point
in John Majors reign as Prime Minister. Ironically, the
He, and much of his party, have gone green[9]
press had dubbed the previous day a 'Black Wednesday'
for Tony Blair, after scandals involving John Prescott,
Blair was educated at Fettes College in Edinburgh
Charles Clarke and Patricia Hewitt, three British Cabi(sometimes called the "Eton of Scotland[10] ), so
net members. It also criticises the Tory manifesto for the
had a fairly privileged education himself.
2005 UK General Election, which Dave helped write, as
Blair and 'New Labour' are often credited with ina little blue book... which they loved, but nobody else
troducing spin to the UK as an important element of
did.
political campaigning.[11]
The second episode also makes references to Daves trip
to a glacier in Norway, parodying Camerons similar visit;
it makes the point that for an apparently pointless trip, Commentators have also noted that the campaign was
the harm on the environment from Daves ight would be awed to the extent that it shows Cameron in a positive
high. Dave is shown turning into his greenest green and light. It has been said that Conservative MPs like the
the Conservative election slogan, Vote blue, go green Chameleon tag, as it encourages the idea that Cameron
is highlighted to indicate Daves colour changing tenden- does not stick steadfastly to bad policies, and that he
thus listens to what people have to say.[12]
cies.
Dave the Chameleons specic colour changes are then At a reception for Conservative Fastrack in May 2006,
mentioned; all of these show that he is True Blue, David Cameron himself said that his two-year-old daughthrough and through and refer to apparent position ter described the chameleon as that nice frog on the bike
[13]
changes from David Cameron. These include changes in and refers to it as my favourite video.

69.3.2

Episode 2

policy on the minimum wage and the Iraq War. The narrator then refers to David Cameron directly by name (as
opposed to Dave the Chameleon), saying that:
David Cameron will tell you whatever he thinks he want
you to hear, because he knows you will never give him
your vote if you see his true colours.
The nal scene shows the Vote Labour slogan, before
ending.

69.5 See also


UK local elections, 2006

69.6 References
[1] Telegraph comment on the campaign

69.4 Criticisms
The campaigns critics have commented that this is just
a personal attack on the Conservative Party leader,[4]
especially since the Labour party have released a ringtone which impersonates David Cameron.[5] Others have
noted that the Conservatives, with their election slogan
'vote blue, go green' have not eectively combatted this
approach.[6] The Labour party claim that the campaign
is meant to be humorous and re-engage voters. By using
ringtones and podcasts, they claim to be campaigning to
younger generations.[7] However other creatures appeal-

[2] http://web.archive.org/web/20060423124737/www.
davethechameleon.com/dtchome
[3] Wheeler, Brian (11 February 2006). Two Jabs hits
'chameleon' Cameron. BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
[4] The Times comment describing the campaign as 'a new
low'
[5] Dave the Chameleon merchandise including ringtone
[6] Cameron vows 'green revolution'". BBC News. 18 April
2006. Retrieved 25 February 2007.

96

[7] Branigan, Tania (19 April 2006). Primary colours. The


Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
[8] Robin Harris on UK/US special relationship describes
Blair as a chameleon
[9] Blair demands green 'revolution'". BBC News. 29 March
2006. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
[10] Arthur MacMillan (25 June 2006). Fettes puts old boy
Blair head and shoulders above the rest. Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
[11] Branigan, Tania (22 February 2006). Blairs spin machine ran on 'dark ages technology. The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
[12] Assinder, Nick (19 April 2006). Why no mention of
Dave?". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
[13] Hugo Rifkind, People, The Times, 17 May 2006, p. 14

69.7 External links


BBC elections 2006 homepage
Labour party homepage
David Cameron homepage

CHAPTER 69. DAVE THE CHAMELEON

Chapter 70

Gex (series)
Gex is a platformer video game series, developed by
Crystal Dynamics, that details the adventures of an
anthropomorphic gecko named Gex. Gex has a passion
for television, which makes him a target for the cybernetic
being, Rez, who is determined to overthrow The Media
Dimension, the world of television. He has also served
as the mascot of Crystal Dynamics, appearing on their
company logo for several years. In the North American
version, Gex is voiced by comedian Dana Gould throughout the entire series; the United Kingdom version features Dana Gould, Leslie Phillips and Danny John-Jules
as Gexs voice throughout the series.

explosion. Rather than grieving, Gex bottled up his emotions, and sat in front of the TV.
Gexs mother decided that it was time for a change, she
told the whole family that they were moving to California. Week after week of Gex watching TV, his mother
decided to take action, and sell the TV. This infuriated
Gex so much that he decided to leave his home, and never
return. For the next few months Gex slept in his friends
garage, and made money by doing odd jobs.

One day, Gexs mother found him and had fantastic news.
Gex and his family had inherited over twenty-billion dollars from his late Uncle Charlie. With the money, Gex
The games are largely inspired by American TV culture.
bought a mansion back in Hawaii and the largest screen
Gex also contributes to the games with wise-cracking re- TV in the world.
marks laced with media and pop-culture references, reminiscent to the catchphrases of Duke Nukem and most As seen in the games opening, Gex was watching his
notably those of Ash Williams, the protagonist from The enormous TV one day, when a y buzzed by his head.
Gex icked out his tongue and swallowed it. Unknown to
Evil Dead lms.
Gex, the y was actually a metallic transmitter. SudGex also appears as an unlockable character in the North denly, Gexs remote jammed and the TV went blank. A
American and European versions of Hot Shots Golf 2.
huge hand shot out of the screen and grabbed Gex by his
The Gex series has sold a combined total of over 15 mil- neck, and pulled him into the Media Dimension. The cold
lion copies for all platforms. Gex 3 is the best selling of claw belonged to Rez, the overlord of the Media Dimenthe series, shipping over 6 million copies and also became sion, who had intended to make Gex his new mascot and
the best-selling PlayStation adventure game of 1999 with conquer the world.
3 million copies in that year alone.
Gex managed to nd the hidden remotes in the strange,
television worlds. Gex made it through a disturbing
cemetery, an odd cartoon land, an enormous jungle, an
ancient Chinese village, the mysterious Planet X, and Rezopolis, the capital of the Media Dimension. Gex made
it into Rezs inner sanctum and battled him head-to-head.
Using one of his own mechanical bugs, Gex defeated Rez,
and made it back home in time for his shows. Rez transformed into a ball of energy and escaped.

70.1 Games
70.2 Books
70.3 Synopsis
70.3.1

70.3.2 Events in Enter the Gecko

Events in Gex

Main article: Gex (video game)

Main article: Gex: Enter the Gecko

Gex and his family lived in Maui, Hawaii. His mother


raised him and his three siblings while his father worked
at NASA. One day, Gexs mother got a phone call saying
that Gexs father and his co-workers had died in a rocket

Two years later, Gex is still living in Maui and still greatly
enjoys watching TV. Eventually, every day began to seem
like the same one over and over again. Gex was on the
verge of insanity. One day, the TV goes blank for a few

97

98
seconds, then ashes Rezs image over and over again.

CHAPTER 70. GEX (SERIES)

70.4 Characters

Two government agents show up at Gexs house, requesting Gexs help. Gex denies, saying hes already saved the
universe once. One of the agents then beats Gex over the
head with a crowbar, knocking him unconscious.
When he wakes up, he realizes he is in an interrogation
room. The two agents ask Gex what he knows about Rez,
Gex tells them everything. Once again they ask for his
help, one of the agents reaches under the table and pulls
out a briefcase full of cash, as well as a secret agent suit.
Gex nally agrees to help them. The two agents give him
a map, and say they want Rez to disappear, instructing
him to hide the body between Jimmy Hoas and Spuds
MacKenzies.
As Gex leaves the building, a beautiful female agent walks
up to him, and introduces herself as Agent Xtra, she
wishes him good luck and leaves. Gex then leaves to the
Media Dimension.
Once Gex is in the Media Dimension, he navigates
through several channels. Toon TV; Scream TV; Rocket
Channel; Circuit Central; Kung Fu Theatre; The Prehistory Channel; Rezopolis; and Channel Z. Once Gex
navigates through Rezopolis and Channel Z, he ghts the Gex, as he appears in Enter the Gecko.
overlord again. By dropping a large TV on top of him,
Gex defeats Rez. Rez once again transforms into a ball of
Gex is a smart alec, wise-cracking gecko. Gex lives
energy, and is then trapped in the same TV Gex dropped
with his family in Maui, Hawaii. He spends his
on him. Rez begs him to let him out of the TV, he even
days with his friends, surng, playing the ukulele
bribes him, but Gex shuts o the TV.
and throwing poi parties down on the beach with
Gex is last seen in a hotel room with Nikki, from the
the local lady lizards. After his father dies, he bePandemonium video games.
gins watching mass amounts of TV to get over the
tragedy.[1] He eventually inherits over twenty billion
dollars from his deceased uncle, and buys the worlds
70.3.3 Events in Deep Cover Gecko
largest television. He has his own island hideaway
called the GEXCave located in the South Pacic.[2]
Main article: Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko
His catchphrase is Its tail time!". Gex is voiced by
Dana Gould in North America. The European version features three actors as his voice; Dana Gould in
After defeating Rez a second time, Gex retreats back to
the original game, Leslie Phillips in the rst sequel,
his mansion in Maui, which was looked after by his newly
and Danny John-Jules in the nal game.
hired butler, a tortoise named Alfred. Gex is watching
the news one day, when Agent Xtra contacts him through
Rez is a megalomaniacal, cybernetic entity, and the
his TV. She says that Rez has kidnapped her, and she is
main antagonist of the series. His one true ambition
trapped in Rezopolis. Gex uses a secret entrance to the
is to control the entire Media Dimension under his
Media Dimension, that he calls the GexCave.
own rule and ensure the longevity of bad TV shows
Gex navigates through all new channels. Holiday;
and Z-Grade movies. His entire essence is made up
Mystery; Ancient Egyptian; Army; Western; Pirate;
of Liquid Rez, liquid noise spread throughout the
Greek Mythology; Fairytale; Anime; Maa; Superhero;
series. He also claims to be Gexs father. Rez is
and Channel Z. Once Gex collects all the remotes, he
voiced by Bruce Robertson
travels to an enormous Space Station above Earth, and
battles Rez. Unlike the previous two times, Rez did not
Agent Xtra is Gexs crime-ghting partner, who
transform into a ball of energy, instead he exploded into
loves TV as well. She is kidnapped by Rez, and comseveral pieces, possibly meaning that he is truly dead.
municates to Gex through video signals in mission
control. She is portrayed in live-action sequences
Gex is last seen in a hotel room with Agent Xtra, who is
by Marliece Andrada.
telling him about her time in the Media Dimension. Alfred contacts Gex, saying there is an emergency, however
Alfred is Gexs butler. He is a turtle who wears a
Gex disconnects the computer and ignores him.

70.6. EXTERNAL LINKS


bow tie and glasses. He provides Gex with constant
help to defeat Rez. He is voiced by Marc Silk.
Rex is a small, red Tyrannosaurus rex and Gexs prehistoric ancestor.[3] He is frozen in a block of ice that
Gex melts to free him.
Cuz is Gexs overweight cousin.[3] He is saved by
Gex after being locked in a cage by the Gangsters.
Gexs Father works for NASA by doing various research projects. He and ten other volunteers are chosen to eat tapioca pudding in zero gravity, though
their rocket explodes due to a Band-Aid oating
into one of the fuel tanks, killing them. His mother
later moves to California, and after gaining money
inherited from Gexs great-uncle, Charlie, she purchases 51 percent ownership in NASA, res everyone, sells the rockets to some third world countries,
and converts Mission Control into Space Monkeys, a theme restaurant featuring robotic dancing chimps wearing spacesuits.[1] In the novel, Rez
claims that he is Gexs real father and became the
way he was after the explosion, whether this is true
or not is unclear, although Rez makes the same claim
in Gex 2 but with a dierent story (saying he fell into
a scrapheap while trying to get free cable).

70.5 References
[1] PlayStation Gex instruction booklet, p. 6-10
[2] Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko instruction booklet, p. 2
[3] Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko instruction booklet, p. 9

70.6 External links


Gex series at MobyGames

99

Chapter 71

Henrys Amazing Animals


Henrys Amazing Animals (more commonly known as
Amazing Animals) is an educational childrens nature
program produced by Dorling Kindersley and originally
broadcast on the Disney Channel in 1996. It currently
plays in syndication on Treehouse TV in Canada. It is
also available on VHS.

71.2 Cast and major characters

The show centers on the interactions of Henry the Lizard,


a green CGI gecko with purple spots, and an unseen narrator. Each episode centers on a theme relating to the
episodes subject matter, such as Henry traveling through
prehistory in a time machine in an episode about prehistoric animals. Henry is usually faced with some kind
of predicament or work, always relating to the episodes
theme, which he resolves by the end of the episode, often
learning a lesson of some sort in the process.

71.1 Plot
Each episode is made up of sections in which Henry is
featured, video sequences of animals narrated by the narrator with replies by Henry, and cartoons featuring recurring unnamed cartoon animals. There are also two
recurring segments: Henrys Report and The Golden
Gecko Awards. Early episodes depicted Henrys Report
as a school report, though later episodes changed it to a
news report. In either case, the report is comical and almost always wildly inaccurate. The correct information
is given by The Narrator after the report.
In Henrys Amazing Golden Gecko Awards, Henry picks
three animals relating to the subject of the episode and
presents them with awards. Unlike the report, the Golden
Gecko Awards are typically more genuine. Henry does
most of the narration and often gets annoyed at the Narrator for interrupting him. Henrys Report occurred in every episode; the only episode that did not have the Golden
Gecko Awards was Underground Animals, probably
because of timing issues.
100

Henry: The shows main protagonist. He is a


small green gecko with purple spots and yellow eyes.
Henry is portrayed as being enthusiastic, albeit foolish and immature. He is generally depicted as ignorant of the episodes subject matter and typically
fails in the endeavours he attempts to undertake.
Sometimes, he can prove himself to be quite smart;
he is also an inventor. He often identies lizards
seen in the video sequences as his cousins. His favorite food is pizza. Henry is voiced by Eric Meyers.
The Narrator: The Narrator is Henrys co-star, but
he is never seen and almost never named. He is depicted as being wise and knowledgeable. In addition to teaching Henry about animals and correcting
his special reports, the Narrator acts as a comedic
foil to Henry: the shows straight man, who cuts
Henry down for his immaturity and lack of knowledge with some combination of a mature seriousness
and a dry sarcasm. The Narrator is voiced by Tom
Clarke-Hill.
Crab Tuesday: Henry met Crab Tuesday during a
visit to the seashore, and the crab has been Henrys
best friend and assistant ever since. Henry names
him Tuesday after Robinson Crusoe's "man Friday". Henry can often tell what Tuesday is saying,
although he has no voice at all and communicates
by snapping his claws. However, in Amazing Animal Hunters, he is heard mumbling I don't know
to Henry. Crab Tuesdays vocal eects by Frank
Welker.
Cartoon animals: Throughout the episodes, there
are short cartoons relating to the episodes subject
matter. Cartoon animals include, but are not limited
to:
A blue chicken professor and his wife and kids
Three (sometimes four) green lizards
A yellow snake with jingle bells on its tail

71.3. EPISODES

101

An elephant with a pink trunk

6. Animal Senses (cat) - May 21, 1996

A large green Tyrannosaurus

7. Animal Weapons (goat) - May 28, 1996

A blue parrot with a purple beak and colored head


feathers

8. Animal Builders (American beaver) - June 4, 1996

A tiger that stands on two legs


A blue gorilla

9. Armored Animals (tortoise) - June 11, 1996


10. Mini Beasts (tarantula) - June 18, 1996

A spider monkey

11. Animal Babies (puppy, kitten, duckling) - June 25,


1996

A green porcupine with a turquoise crest

12. Poisonous Animals (Gila monster) - July 2, 1996

A black spider

13. Animal Journeys (camel) - July 9, 1996

A mole that wears sunglasses


A large green bat

Season 2:

An orange squirrel

1. Birds of Prey (vulture) - April 15, 1997

A large blue sh

2. Desert Animals (dromedary camel) - April 22, 1997

A blue rhino

3. Scary Animals (tarantula) - April 29, 1997

A pink weasel (or skunk)

4. Animal Records (tortoise, Rabbit) - May 6, 1997

A yellow vulture

5. Animal Colors (golden pheasant) - May 13, 1997

A small gray frog

6. Animal Mothers (lioness) - May 20, 1997

An orange-brown beetle

7. Animal Pets (puppy) - May 27, 1997

A large golden bear

8. Seashore Animals (pelican) - June 3, 1997

A brown eagle sergeant and brown owl army

9. Animal Families (ducks) - June 10, 1997

A teal pigeon

10. Endangered Animals (Bengal tiger) - June 17, 1997

A pink stork

11. An Animal Year (red squirrel) - June 24, 1997

A small gray mouse

12. Prehistoric Animals (crocodile) - July 1, 1997

A green crocodile

13. Monkeys and Apes (mandrill) - July 8, 1997

A green chameleon

Season 3:

A green turtle
1. Animal Hunters (golden eagle) - April 14, 1998

71.3 Episodes

2. Animal Talk (dog) - April 21, 1998


3. Slimy Animals (apple snail) - April 28, 1998

- All episodes are shown in the order that Disney Channel


and Discovery Kids aired them.
Season 1:
1. Tropical Birds (scarlet macaw) - April 16, 1996
2. Animal Disguises (chameleon) - April 23, 1996
3. Nighttime Animals (springhare) - April 30, 1996
4. Animal Appetites (emperor penguin) - May 7, 1996
5. Animal Survivors (wolf) - May 14, 1996

4. Rainforest Animals (scarlet macaw) - May 5, 1998


5. Animal Acrobats (spider monkey, red kangaroo) May 12, 1998
6. Underwater Animals (sh) - May 19, 1998
7. Animal Neighbors (rabbit) - May 26, 1998
8. Giant Animals (dog) - June 2, 1998
9. Creepy Crawly Animals (grasshopper) - June 9,
1998

102
10. Farm Animals (cow) - June 16, 1998
11. Animal Changes (lion cub, Lioness) - June 23, 1998
12. Extinct Animals (footprints) - June 30, 1998
13. Animal Eggs (egg) - July 7, 1998
Season 4:
1. Around the World Animals (red kangaroo, monarch
buttery) - April 13, 1999
2. Polar Animals (arctic hare) - April 20, 1999
3. Clever Animals (dolphin) - April 27, 1999
4. Underground Animals (rabbit) - May 4, 1999
5. Animal Helpers (llama) - May 11, 1999
6. Woodland Animals (giant panda) - May 18, 1999
7. Mountain Animals (alpine ibex) - May 25, 1999
8. Backyard Animals (mockingbird) - June 1, 1999
9. Tiny Animals (ant) - June 8, 1999
10. Animal Partners (Asian elephant) - June 15, 1999
11. Scaly Animals (crocodile) - June 22, 1999
12. River Animals (beaver) - June 29, 1999
13. Animal Flight (ladybug) - July 6, 1999

71.4 Merchandise
Some merchandise was also released during the activity
of the series. Only 1234 of the episodes were released on
VHS but they were never released on DVD. An educational computer game was also released with the television show. A board game known as The Really Amazing
Animal Game was also sold but was shortly discontinued.
In the episode Extinct Animals Henrys gift shop displayed several Henry plush toys but it is unknown if they
were actually sold in stores or not.

71.5 External links


List of episodes

CHAPTER 71. HENRYS AMAZING ANIMALS

Chapter 72

Pascal and Maximus


Pascal and Maximus are two ctional characters who
appear in Walt Disney Pictures' 50th animated feature
lm Tangled (2010) and its sequel Tangled Ever After
(2012). Created by directors Nathan Greno and Byron
Howard, both characters are voiced by American actor
Frank Welker in Tangled; in Tangled Ever After, Welker
reprises his role as Pascal while Greno replaces the actor as the voice of Maximus. A comedic chameleon and
horse duo, Pascal and Maximus serve as the sidekicks of
main characters Rapunzel and Flynn Rider, respectively.
In Tangled, Pascal resides with Rapunzel in Mother
Gothel's tower, while Maximus is a police horse determined to arrest Flynn Rider before he eventually befriends him at Rapunzels insistence. In Tangled Ever
After, Pascal and Maximus star as ring bearers at Rapunzel and Flynns wedding. When they lose the couples wedding rings, the duo frantically attempts to retrieve them. Greno and Howard created Pascal in order
to provide the lonely, isolated Rapunzel with a friend to
talk to. Feeling that a reptile would best compliment Rapunzels quirky personality, the directors ultimately decided to make the character a chameleon as opposed to a
more traditional woodland animal. Meanwhile, Maximus
was originally conceived as a very serious horse based on
American actor Tommy Lee Jones until the animators
eventually made him a funnier and more likeable character. The unusual decision to make Pascal and Maximus non-speaking characters was inspired by the performances of silent lm actors Charlie Chaplin and Buster
Keaton.
Both as a duo and individually, Pascal and Maximus have
garnered universal acclaim from lm critics, who dubbed
the characters scene stealers British magazine SFX introduced Maximus as the lms breakout star while The
Age hailed the character as the funniest horse in lm history in addition to extolling the fact that both characters
are funny, expressive and charismatic without having to
utter a single word. Additionally, many lm critics preferred Pascal and Maximus to the lms two main characters.

72.1 Development

72.1.1 Conception
Filmmaker Walt Disney himself had rst attempted to
adapt the Brothers Grimm fairy tale "Rapunzel" into a
feature-length animated lm during the 1930s. However, Disney eventually abandoned the project because
the story was considered too small.[1] When rst approached to direct Tangled in 2008, directors Nathan
Greno and Byron Howard decided that it would be best to
update the story for a modern audience.[1] The directors
soon discovered that the problem with having a prison
character [like Rapunzel] ... is that they dont have anyone to talk to. Howard explained that because Rapunzel
is incapable of having a conversation with Mother Gothel,
the isolated, incarcerated heroine needed someone to relate to.[2] Unwilling to default to using the boring, ordinary side-kick", Greno and Howard created Pascal and
conceived the character as a chameleon because Rapunzel is, according to Greno, a rough-and-tumble girl.[1][2]
Howard explained that what we wanted to do is something fresh, something dierent. This girl, shes not a
dainty, precious girl ... So what would she have? ... Shes
going to have a lizard.[2] Additionally, Howard believed
that a reptile would compliment and suit Rapunzels personality best he described the character as a quirky pet
for a quirky young woman.[1]
Maximus was originally conceived by Howard as the ultimate super-cop, jokingly dubbing the character the
Tommy Lee Jones of horses.[3] Attempting to make
Maximus feel like a fresh character, the lmmakers
researched several historical horses from both animated
and live-action lms in order to ensure that the character was unique and dierent enough from his predecessors. Greno explained that Maximus ... could have easily
slipped into the category of, 'Oh, Ive seen that before.'"[3]
To prevent this, the lmmakers referenced a board with
photos of all the dierent animated horses that had been
done.[4] Howard explained that Maximus was originally
conceived as a pretty serious character, but eventually developed into a funnier and more likeable horse
as the animators continued to draw him with dog-like
attributes.[3] Both Pascal and Maximus, who according
to the Austin American-Statesman are responsible for providing the lm with the majority of its comic relief,[5][6]
were eventually written into the lm by screenwriter Dan

103

104

CHAPTER 72. PASCAL AND MAXIMUS

Fogelman.[7] Analyzing the characters roles in the lm,


HitFix observed that Theres a simplicity to it all that
I admire, and you throw in a few anthropomorphized
animals so everyone laughs a lot, and thats the Disney
recipe.[8] One critic wrote about Maximus:[9]
Horses have played a key role in armies
and police forces around the world for hundreds of years, but Maximus is clearly one of a
kind. Fearless in the face of danger, relentless
in pursuit, and possessed of a nose betting a
bloodhound, this equine super-sleuth wont let
anything stop him getting his man.
Femalerst

72.1.2

Characterization

Both Pascal and Maximus were inspired by the performances of


actor and comedian Charlie Chaplin in silent lms.

Considered rare for Disney animals,[10] Pascal and Maximus do not speak.[11] The idea to make Pascal and Maximus mute was inspired by the performances of actors
Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton in silent lms.[12]
Identifying themselves as huge fans of Chaplin, Greno
and Howard suggested that it would be a good idea to
have a character like the actor featured in the lm.[13]
Additionally, the directors explained in an interview with
Orange that Pascal and Maximus silence was also inspired by the roles of Princess Aurora's animal friends
in Disneys Sleeping Beauty (1959), following the lms
rules and guidelines that even though they do not talk,
they remain very expressive nonetheless[14] and act

and understand without words.[15] Maximus particularly belongs to the grand tradition of Disney creatures that are full of personality even though they dont
talk.[16] One lm critic observed that Pascal and Maximus have personalities all their own, making use of
techniques harkening back to the silent era".[17] Howard
explained that "Pantomime acting is a great challenge
for our animators[12] because, according to animator Jin
Kim, Pascal and Maximus both had to be funny without speech, forcing the animators to exaggerate their
emotions and facial expressions.[18][19] The Chicago SunTimes observed that Pascal ... doesn't speak, but manages to convey himself with eye rolls and changes of
color.[20] Both animals sound eects are provided by
American actor Frank Welker.[21][22]
Pascals supervising animator Lino DiSalvo told the Los
Angeles Times that at one point the animators weren't
getting enough entertainment out of Pascal. DiSalvo
elaborated, originally, he was very realistic. He moved
like a real chameleon, which in turn depicted him as very
cold. By exaggerating the characters shape and face,
the animators eventually amped [him] up in order to
make him funnier.[23] The name Pascal was borrowed
from a pet chameleon owned by Tangled animator Kellie
Lewis.[24] During production, Lewis other pet chameleon
and Pascals mate hatched six eggs, in turn making Pascal a father. In tribute to Pascal, the directors included
a Chameleon Babies credit in the lms closing credits, parodying the more traditional "Production Babies"
credit,[10] while Lewis herself received a Chameleon
Wrangler credit.[25]
Discussing the likelihood a Tangled sequel, Howard explained to the Los Angeles Times We dont want to do a
sequel for the sake of sequels ... The story has to be worth
telling. Because the original lm buttons up well, the
directors wanted to avoid simply creating a movie wedding featuring Rapunzel and Flynn because thats not entertainment, so Greno and Howard conceived a funny
story about Pascal and Maximus instead, providing the
animators and writers with an opportunity to do a lot
ofslapstick" that was mostly absent in Tangled. Wanting the lm to be a movie for everyone, the directors
gured out a way to give [the audience] exactly what
they wanted, so there is a beautiful grand wedding in the
short, but what happens pretty quickly, those two goofballs Maximus and Pascal lose the wedding rings ... It
turned into this big, zany, cartoony, fun, action-packed
short.[26] In the short, Pascal and Maximus encounter
a trail of comical chaos that includes ying lanterns, a
ock of doves, a wine barrel barricade and a very sticky
nale.[27]

72.2 Appearances

72.3. RECEPTION

72.2.1 Tangled
Pascal and Maximus rst appear in Tangled (2010). Introduced as the pet and best friend of Rapunzel, Pascal is
a chameleon who lives with Rapunzel in Mother Gothels
secluded tower. Although Rapunzel pretends to be happy
living in isolation under Gothels strict, controlling parenting, Pascal refuses to hide his discontent. Meanwhile,
Maximus and thief Flynn Rider share a bitter animosity;
a police horse, Maximus is determined to arrest Flynn
Rider for stealing a crown. Seeking refuge from Maximus, Flynn hides in Gothels tower where he is quickly
incapacitated by Rapunzel, and he and Pascal immediately adopt a love-hate relationship. Determined to see
the mysterious oating lights in time for her eighteenth
birthday, Rapunzel agrees to return Flynns crown to him
only after he escorts her to safely to the kingdom. Meanwhile, Maximus, who continues his search for Flynn, inadvertently tips o Gothel that Rapunzel, on whose magical hair she relies to stay alive, has left the tower accompanied by Flynn. With her life in danger, she desperately
pursues them.
When Maximus eventually catches up with Rapunzel,
Flynn and Pascal, the horse attempts to apprehend Flynn
only to be charmed by Rapunzel, who convinces him to
leave Flynn alone until they have arrived at their destination while Pascal ensures that the two maintain a healthy
relationship. In the kingdom, Flynn, Rapunzel and Pascal embark on a canoe ride to see the oating lights, revealed to be lanterns, up-close, while Maximus is forced
to wait ashore as there is not enough room for him. In a
friendly gesture, Flynn gives him a bag of apples. Realizing that he is falling in love with Rapunzel, Flynn attempts
to hand o the crown he was promised to the Stabbington Brothers, two colleagues of his, only to be kidnapped
and handed over to the police. Mistaking this for abandonment, Rapunzel is taken back to the tower by Gothel,
who has caught up with them.
Maximus manages to help an imprisoned Flynn about to
be hung for his crimes escape from the dungeon and races
him to Gothels tower, where he is stabbed. However,
Rapunzel eventually heals Flynn after he cuts her hair,
which in turn destroys Gothel, and they live happily every
after Pascal and Maximus move to Corona with them;
Maximus is eventually knighted, becoming Captain of the
Guards and eliminates crime in the kingdom.

72.2.2 Tangled Ever After


Tangled Ever After (2012) is set shortly after the events of
the rst lm. In the short, Pascal and Maximus are ring
bearers at Rapunzel and Flynn Riders wedding. When
Maximus suers a reaction from one of the ower petals
Pascal is sprinkling along the aisle, Maximus sneezes and
the rings are propelled o the pillow on which he is carrying the rings; the y through a window in the chapel
and into the city streets. Pascal and Maximus discretely

105
sneak out of the chapel to retrieve them in time for Rapunzel and Flynn to exchange them. Pascal and Maximus encounter several obstacles and hindrances in their
attempt, eventually crashing into a tar factor upon retrieving the rings from a ock of ying doves. Completely
soiled, Pascal and Maximus nally return to the chapel
and return the rings, only to cause the wedding cake to
roll out the door.

72.2.3 Miscellaneous
Both Pascal and Maximus appear in the Nintendo DS
version of Tangled: The Video Game (2010).[28] While
playing mostly as Rapunzel, players are allowed to
interact with Flynn, Pascal, and Maximus, according to Nintendo.com.[29] The video game includes a
minigame inspired by Pascal entitled Pascals Colors/Melody Match.[30]

72.3 Reception
72.3.1 Critical response
Pascal and Maximus have garnered widespread universal acclaim from lm critics, who greeted both characters with nearly equal praise but generally reviewed Maximus more enthusiastically.[31][32][33] Citing both characters as right on the money, Jonathan Crocker of Total
Film described Maximus as A horse ... who thinks hes
John McClane.[34] Kerry Lengel of The Arizona Republic enthused, In true Disney fashion, two of the most
memorable characters are animals: Pascal ... and Maximus, a barrel-chested horse with the tracking skills of
a bloodhound and a sense of duty straight out of Gilbert
and Sullivan.[35] The Chicago Tribune's Michael Phillips
wrote that both characters are Very funny, very noble
and lovely supporting character[s].[36] Peter Travers of
Rolling Stone admitted to having fell hard for Maximus and Pascal.[37] Similarly, Lindsey Ward of Canoe.ca
predicted Tangled Ever After, writing, Kids and adults
alike will also fall for Rapunzels trusty chameleon sidekick Pascal and palace horse Maximus -- whose hilarious role as Flynns foe-turned-BFF might just earn
him his own spin-o.[38] The Globe and Mail's Jennie Punter hailed them as characters that only Disney animators could so memorably portray.[39] Writing for the Miami Herald, Rene Rodriguez described
both characters as terric,[40] while Alison Gang of
U-T San Diego called them hilarious.[41] David Edelstein of Vulture.com admitted that he cant help liking a movie with chameleon reaction shots.[42] Joe Neumaier of the Daily News appreciated the fact that although There are laughs involving ... Rapunzels silent
chameleon sidekick ... directors Nathan Greno and Byron Howard keep the tale grounded.[43] Observing the
way in which animal sidekicks have become Disney an-

106
imation staples, Doris Toumarkine of Film Journal International wrote that Pascal is cute-as-can-be, likening
the character to Jiminy Cricket from Disneys Pinocchio
(1940).[44] Matt Brunson of Creative Loang wrote that
Pascal is likely to charm the adults, further designating Tangled as silky-smooth entertainment.[45] Norman
Wilner of Now wrote that the best performance is a
silent one delivered by ... Maximus, a guardsmans
horse clearly modelled on Tommy Lee Jones in The
Fugitive but funnier.[46] Describing the character as
marvelously bothered, Michelle Orange of Movieline
wrote that Maximus is given a nuanced delity and
expressive agility so precise that it seems more human
than human.[47] Cynthia Fuchs of PopMatters called
Maximus magnicent.[48] Empire's Helen O'Hara wrote
that Maximus is a comic scene-stealer and police horse
extraordinaire.[49] While Ian Berriman of SFX dubbed
Maximus the lms "breakout star,[50] The Age's Jim
Schembri hailed the character as the funniest horse in
lm history.[51] Sandra Hall of The Sydney Morning Herald labelled Maximus The de facto star of ... Tangled" who possesses the strength of Hercules, the nose
of an airport snier dog and the crankiness of Harrison
Ford.[52]
According to Greno and Howard, the decision to make
Pascal and Maximus non-speaking characters has been
appreciated by both critics and audiences alike,[54][55]
explaining, We've gotten so many compliments about
him and Pascal ... and so many people saying: 'Thank
you for not making them talk.'"[15] Hailing Pascal and
Maximus as delightful supporting characters who continue yet another Disney custom without saying a word of
dialogue, Leonard Martin of Indiewire compared Pascal to a comic Greek chorus" while dubbing Maximus
an extraordinarily expressive equine adversary ... who
earns many of the movies biggest laughs.[56] Similarly,
The Wall Street Journal's Joe Morgenstern wrote, No
one voices Maximus ... but he steals every scene hes
in, while calling Pascal endearing.[57] The Quad-City
Times' Linda Cook reviewed, its fun to watch the animal sidekicks express themselves, not through words,
but facial expressions and body movements. The critters provide much of the comedy,[58] while Steve Persall of the Tampa Bay Times penned, No talking animals here, although when they're as amusing as a loyal
chameleon and a horse whos partly bloodhound and copick action hero, they don't need to speak, joking that
the Brothers Grimm probably wouldn't object.[59] ABC
Online like[d] the way the animals were used, explaining, They don't talk ... it really is funny, accrediting this to executive producer John Lasseter's inuence
on the lm.[60] Criticizing the scripts abundant chatter, Justin Chang of Variety commended the lmmakers
shrewd decision to have the animal sidekicks ... express
themselves without the benet of speech.[61] Similarly,
Richard Corliss of Time wrote that both characters radiate plenty of personality without speaking.[62]

CHAPTER 72. PASCAL AND MAXIMUS


Critics who were generally less positive in their opinions
of Tangled and its main characters Rapunzel and Flynn
Rider[63] were otherwise impressed by Pascal and Maximus performances.[64] The Liverpool Echo's Catherine
Jones felt that Pascal and Maximus shamelessly scenesteal from the human characters,[65] while Chris Tookey
of the Daily Mail wrote, The enjoyable visual gags
generally come from the two animal sidekicks.[66] The
Illinois Times' Chuck Koplinski wrote, Throw in two
animal sidekicks wily horse Maximus and protective
chameleon Pascal and you have a lm that, while not
as moving as the Pixar movies, is a satisfying lark.[67]
TV Guide opined that although Theres nothing particularly innovative about Dan Fogelmans screenplay, the
author wrote that a cute animal sidekick ... extend[s]
to the visual aspects of the lm.[68] Similarly, Simon
Reynolds of Digital Spy wrote, This rides a familiar
one, but with humourous (sic) sidekicks such as horsewho-thinks-hes-a-dog Maximus and chameleon Pascal,
its thoroughly enjoyable.[69] Although Dave White of
Movies.com strongly panned Tangled, he dubbed Pascal and Maximus the lms Most Memorable Clich",
writing that the characters are better than the movie deserves. White continued, they both steal scene after
scene from the Cream of Wheat-like main characters,
concluding, I kept wishing I was watching a movie about
just them.[70] The Independent's Anthony Quinn, who
was ambivalent towards the lm, admitted that Pascal and
Maximus provide some chuckles.[71] Similarly, Tom
Huddleston of Time Out wrote, With two such bland
heroes, its good that plenty of attention is paid to the
supporting characters, notably ... a bad tempered but
loveable horse,[72] while Todd Hertz of Christianity Today called Maximus a more complex, multi-dimensional
character than some movies leads.[73] Despite calling
the lm bland, the Houston Chronicle's Amy Biancolli
called Maximus a stone cool character.[74] Tyler Hanley Palo Alto Weekly, however, praised the entire ensemble as a whole, calling Rapunzel, Flynn, Pascal and Maximus a thoroughly enjoyable quartet.[75] In a lone lukewarm review, James Berardinelli of ReelViews called Pascal among the least recognizable animal sidekicks (although he possesses amusing mannerisms).[76]
In 2013, M Magazine ranked Maximus the sixth best
Disney sidekick,[77] while Pascal was ranked eighth.[78]
In 2014, BuzzFeed organized a list of the Denitive
Ranking Of Disney Sidekicks, ranking Pascal and Maximus fourth and fourteenth, respectively. Author Jemima
Skelley described Pascal as The most badass chameleon
there ever was while hailing Maximus as The ercest
horse youve probably ever seen.[79] Unranked, Glamour
slightly preferred Pascal to Maximus in the magazines article Our Favorite Disney Animals of All Time.[80]

72.4. REFERENCES

72.3.2

Merchandise

Tom Huddleston of Total Film predicted that the popularity of Pascal and Maximus, combined with the success of
Tangled, would ultimately provide Disney with promising merchandising opportunities, describing the characters as "tie-in toys you just pre-ordered in your head,[34]
while Keith Uhlich of Time Out called them action-gure
ready.[81] Pascals likeness has since been adapted into a
wide variety of items, including toys, decorations and ornaments, costumes, clothing, jewellery and cosmetics, as
demonstrated by the Disney Store's website.[82] In much
of the lms merchandise, Pascal is included alongside
Rapunzel, namely play sets;[83] The Rapunzel Tangled
Figure Play Set features miniature gurines of both Pascal and Maximus in addition to Rapunzel, Flynn Rider
and Mother Gothel.[84] However, merchandise inspired
by Maximus remains less common. The characters likeness has, however, been adapted into a plush toy.[85]

72.4 References
[1] Bonanno, Luke (March 28, 2011). Interview: Tangled Directors Nathan Greno & Byron Howard.
DVDizzy.com. DVDizzy.com. Retrieved September 19,
2014.
[2] Graham, Bill (2010). SDCC 2010: Exclusive Interview
with TANGLED Directors Byron Howard and Nathan
Greno. Collider. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
[3] Graham, Bill (2010). Directors Byron Howard and
Nathan Greno Interview TANGLED. Collider. Retrieved September 19, 2014.

107

[11] Neal, Matt (May 13, 2011). Review: Tangled.


Standard-Examiner. Fairfax Media. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[12] Byron Howard & Nathan Greno Tangled Interview.
Girl.com.au. Girl.com.au. 2010. Retrieved September
19, 2014.
[13] A Chat with Tangled Directors Byron Howard and
Nathan Greno Part 1. Chip and Co. Chip and Company.
March 18, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
[14] Tangled Nathan Greno and Byron Howard interview.
IndieLondon. IndieLondon.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved
September 21, 2014.
[15] Carnevale, Rob (February 1, 2011). Tangled - Nathan
Greno and Byron Howard. Orange. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
[16] Snider, Eric D. (2010). MOVIE REVIEW: Tangled.
www.ericdsnider.com. Eric D. Snider. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
[17] Brevet, Brad (November 23, 2010). Movie Review:
Tangled (2010)". Rope of Silicon. RopeofSilicon.com
LLC. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
[18] A Korean hand behind Disney blockbuster. HanCinmena. January 27, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
[19] Plath, James (March 26, 2011). TANGLED - Blu-ray
3D review. Movie Metropolis. Retrieved September 23,
2014.
[20] Coyle, Jake (2010). Disneys 'Tangled' updates 'Rapunzel'". Chicago Sun-Times. Sun-Times Media, LLC. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
[21] Muljadi, Paul, ed. (2012). Disney Theatrical Animated
Features. United States. p. 367.

[4] Ferguson, Sean (March 20, 2011). A Talk With the Directors of Tangled. Why So Blue?. WhySoBlu.com. Retrieved September 9, 2014.

[22] Disney Princess Rapunzel Tangled Kingdom Dance


Video. Cartoons Vids. 2010. Retrieved September 21,
2014.

[5] Kendrick, James (2010). Tangled. QNetwork Entertainment Portal. QNetwork. Retrieved September 25, 2014.

[23] King, Susan (October 31, 2010). The Animators: In


'Tangled,' animals get a little worked up for their debut.
Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 7, 2014.

[6] Roe, Dale (November 26, 2010). While lovely to gaze


upon, `Tangled' gives us a modern princess and a rogue to
love (Our grade: B)". Austin360.com. Cox Media Group.
Retrieved October 7, 2014.
[7] Myers, Scott (November 27, 2010). Written Interview:
Dan Fogelman (Tangled)". Go Into The Story. Retrieved September 9, 2014.

[24] Tangled: Byron Howard & Nathan Greno Interview.


Movie Muser. The Handpicked Media. 2011. Retrieved
September 21, 2014.
[25] Knight, Chris (April 2, 2011). On DVD: Dos & donts
from Tangleds cutting room oor. National Post. National Post. Retrieved September 19, 2014.

[8] McWeeny, Drew (November 23, 2010). Mandy Moore,


Zach Levi, Donna Murphy all excel in animated roles.
HitFix. HitFix, Inc. Retrieved October 6, 2014.

[26] Clark, Noelene (January 15, 2012). "Tangled Ever After': Disney lets its hair down. Los Angeles Times. Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved October 10, 2014.

[9] Tangled: Top Detective Tips. Femalerst. First Active


Media Ltd. January 27, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2014.

[27] Armitage, Hugh (November 15, 2011). "'Tangled' returns


in short Disney lm 'Tangled Ever After'". Digital Spy.
Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved October 10, 2014.

[10] Gallagher, Brian (March 28, 2011). Byron Howard and


Nathan Greno Talk 'Tangled'". MovieWeb. Retrieved
September 19, 2011.

[28] Disney Tangled: The Video Game. Disney.com. Disney. Retrieved November 10, 2014.

108

[29] Disney Tangled: The Video Game. Nintendo.com. Nintendo. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
[30] Forbis, Chris (December 12, 2010). Disneys Tangled:
The Video Game Review (DS)". Platform Nation. Platform Nation. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
[31] Moore, Roger (January 27, 2013). Movie Review: Tangled"". Movie Nation. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[32] Do you like Maximus better or Pascal?". Fanpop. Fanpop, Inc. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

CHAPTER 72. PASCAL AND MAXIMUS

[47] Orange, Michelle (November 22, 2010). REVIEW: Advances in Fairy-Tale Technology Finally Bring Rapunzel
to Big Screen in Tangled. Movieline. PMC. Retrieved
December 10, 2014.
[48] Fuchs, Cynthia (November 24, 2014). "'Tangled': Why
Would He Like You?". PopMatters. PopMatters.com.
Retrieved December 26, 2014.
[49] O'Hara, Helen (2010). Tangled. Empire. Bauer Consumer Media Ltd. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

[33] McGranaghan, Mike (2010). TANGLED. The Aisle


Seat. www.aisleseat.com. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

[50] Berriman, Ian (January 28, 2011). Tangled lm


review. SFX. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved
September 24, 2014.

[34] Crocker, Jonathan (January 14, 2011). Tangled. Total


Film. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved September
24, 2014.

[51] Schembri, Jim (January 7, 2011). Tangled. The Age.


Fairfax Media. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

[35] Lengel, Kerry (November 22, 2010). "'Tangled,' 4.5


stars. The Arizona Republic. azcentral.com. Retrieved
October 6, 2014.

[52] Hall, Sandra (January 8, 2011). Tangled. The Sydney


Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved December 8,
2014.

[36] Phillips, Michael (November 22, 2010). Locked up:


Disney climbs its heroines tresses to animation renewal.
Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 6, 2014.

[53] Levy, Shawn. Review: 'Tangled' is a (hair)cut above


most princess pictures. The Oregonian. Oregon Live
LLC. Retrieved September 30, 2014.

[37] Travers, Peter (November 24, 2010). Tangled. Rolling


Stone. Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 28, 2014.

[54] Cline, Rich (2010). Tangled. Shadows on the Wall.


Rich Cline. Retrieved September 23, 2014.

[38] Ward, Lindsey (November 23, 2010). Easy to get caught


up in Tangled". Canoe.ca. Retrieved September 28,
2014.

[55] Turner, Matthew (January 27, 2011). Tangled (12A)".


View London. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

[39] Punter, Jennie (November 24, 2010). Tangled: The


roots of animated tradition, with 3-D highlights. Tangled: The roots of animated tradition, with 3-D highlights.
The Globe and Mail Inc. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
[40] Rodriguez, Rene (November 24, 2014). "'Tangled' (PG)".
Miami Herald. Miami.com. Retrieved September 28,
2014.
[41] Gang, Alison (November 24, 2010). ""Tangled comes
out of the tower, into our hearts. U-T San Diego. The
San Diego Union-Tribune, LLC. Retrieved September 28,
2014.
[42] Edelstein, David (November 24, 2010). Movie Review:
Tangled is No Big Deal, But Still a Goofy Good Time.
Vulture.com. New York Media LLC. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[43] Neumaier, Joe (November 23, 2010). "'Tangled' review:
Mandy Moores Rapunzel is chill Disney retelling of classic hair-raising tale. Daily News. NYDailyNews.com.
Retrieved September 30, 2014.
[44] Toumarkine, Doris (November 24, 2010). Film Review:
Tangled. Film Journal International. Film Journal International. Retrieved September 9, 2014.

[56] Martin, Leonard (November 24, 2010). lm review:


TANGLED. Indiewire. Indiewire.com. Retrieved
September 23, 2014.
[57] Morgenstern, Joe (November 26, 2010). "'Kings Speech':
Wit, Warmth, Majesty Disneys Rapunzel tale 'Tangled'
has body and sheen; comic 'Tiny Furniture' debuts a big
talent. The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company,
Inc. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[58] Cook, Linda (November 22, 2010). ""Tangled a clever
twist on Rapunzel. Quad-City Times. The Quad-City
Times. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[59] Persall, Steve (November 24, 2010). Review: Disneys
'Tangled' is enchanted holiday treat. Tampa Bay Times.
Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[60] Pomeranz, Margaret (2010). Tangled. ABC Online.
ABC. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
[61] Chang, Justin (November 7, 2010). Review: Tangled".
Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
[62] Corliss, Richard (November 26, 2010). Tangled: Disneys Ripping Rapunzel. Time. Time Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2014.

[45] Brunson, Matt (November 24, 2010). Tangled has its


roots in old-school Disney. Creative Loang. Womack
Newspapers, Inc. Retrieved September 26, 2014.

[63] Kois, Dan (November 24, 2010). Tangled Looks and


Feels Great, So Why Is Disney Selling It Short?". The
Village Voice. Village Voice, LLC,. Retrieved September
29, 2014.

[46] Wilner, Norman (November 18, 2010). Tangled. Now.


Retrieved September 23, 2014.

[64] Wilkinson, Amber (2010). Tangled. Eye For Film. Eye


For Film. Retrieved September 24, 2014.

72.4. REFERENCES

[65] Jones, Catherine (January 28, 2011). FILM REVIEW:


Tangled. Liverpool Echo. Trinity Mirror Merseyside.
Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[66] Tookey, Chris (January 31, 2011). Cute and clever, a
fairy tale thats a cut above the rest. Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[67] Koplinski, Chuck (December 2, 2010). Tangled goes
back to Disneys roots. Illinois Times. IllinoisTimes. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[68] Tangled. TV Guide. CBS Interactive Inc. 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[69] Reynolds, Simon (January 24, 2011). Tangled. Digital Spy. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved September 23,
2014.
[70] White, Dave (2010). Tangled Review. Movies.com.
Movies.com. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
[71] Quinn, Anthony (January 28, 2011). Tangled (PG)".
The Independent. independent.co.uk. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[72] Huddleston, Tom (January 25, 2011). Tangled (PG)".
Time Out. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
[73] Hertz, Todd (November 24, 2010). Tangled. Christianity Today. Christianity Today. Retrieved September 25,
2014.
[74] Biancolli, Amy (November 23, 2010). Tangled. Houston Chronicle. Hearst Newspapers, LLC. Retrieved
September 28, 2014.
[75] Hanley, Tyler (November 24, 2010). Tangled. Paloa
Alto Online. Palo Alto Online. Retrieved September 28,
2014.
[76] Berardinelli, James (2010). Tangled. ReelViews. James
Berardinelli. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
[77] Omanski, Stephanie (December 11, 2013). The 25 Best
Disney Sidekicks Ever. M Magazine. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
[78] Omanski, Stephanie (December 11, 2013). The 25 Best
Disney Sidekicks Ever. M Magazine. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
[79] Skelley, Jemima (June 10, 2014). The Denitive Ranking Of Disney Sidekicks. BuzzFeed. BuzzFeed, Inc. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
[80] Sastry, Keertana (June 13, 2014). Our Favorite Disney
Animals of All Time (Happy Anniversary, Lion King!)".
Glamour. Cond Nast. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
[81] Uhlich, Keith (2010). Tangled. Time Out. Retrieved
December 10, 2014.
[82] Pascal. Disney Store. Disney. Retrieved October 8,
2014.
[83] Tangled. Disney Store. Disney. Retrieved October 8,
2014.

109

[84] Rapunzel Tangled Figure Play Set. Disney Store. Disney. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
[85] Maximus Plush - Tangled - Medium - 14". Disney Store.
Disney. Retrieved October 8, 2014.

Chapter 73

Rango (2011 lm)


Rango is a 2011 American computer-animated action
comedy western lm directed by Gore Verbinski and produced by Verbinski, Graham King and John B. Carls.
Rango was a critical and commercial success, and won
the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.[3]

Dean Stanton), mistaking them for prospectors. The


townsfolk nd their water bottle stolen the next day, so
Rango organizes a posse. They discover bank manager Merrimack (Stephen Root) dead in the desert from
drowning, and track the robbers to their hideout. They
In the lm, Rango, a chameleon, accidentally ends up in ght the robbers clan over the stolen water bottle in a
chase through a canyon before discovering the bottle to
the town of Dirt, an outpost that is in desperate need of a
new sheri. It features the voices of actors Johnny Depp, be empty. Despite the robbers professing they had found
it empty, the posse brings them to town for trial.
Isla Fisher, Bill Nighy, Abigail Breslin, Alfred Molina,
Harry Dean Stanton, Ray Winstone, Timothy Olyphant, Rango confronts the mayor about his buying of land
Stephen Root and Ned Beatty. It was released to theaters around Dirt, who denies any wrongdoing and shows
Rango that he is building a modern city with the puron March 4, 2011.
chased land. The mayor summons Rattlesnake Jake, who
runs Rango out of town after humiliating him and making him admit that everything he told the town about him73.1 Plot
self is a lie. Rango wanders away ashamed and confused
about his identity. Finally, he meets the Spirit of the West
A pet chameleon (Johnny Depp) becomes stranded in the (Timothy Olyphant), whom Rango identies as the Man
Mojave Desert after his terrarium falls from his owners with No Name. The Spirit inspires Rango, telling him,
car by accident. He meets an armadillo named Roadkill No man can walk out on his own story.
(Alfred Molina) who is seeking the mystical Spirit of the With the aid of Roadkill and mystical moving yuccas,
West and directs the parched chameleon to nd water at Rango learns that Dirts water supply is controlled by an
a town called Dirt. While wandering the desert, he nar- emergency shut-o valve in a water pipeline to Las Verowly avoids being eaten by a vicious red-tailed hawk and gas, which the mayor has been manipulating. Recruithas a surreal nightmare before meeting the desert iguana ing the robbers clan to aid him, Rango returns to Dirt
Beans (Isla Fisher), a ranchers daughter, who takes the to call out Jake for a duel with a single bullet, a diverchameleon to Dirt, an Old West town populated by desert sion so the clan and yuccas can turn the pipelines valve
animals.
to ood the town with water and free the falsely accused
robbers. The mayor, however, forces Rango to surrender
by threatening Beans life, and locks them inside the glass
bank vault to drown. He then tries to shoot Jake with
Rangos gun, believing that Jake is still part of the Old
West that the mayor wants to destroy along with the rest
of the town. The mayor is shocked to discover that the
gun is empty; Rango has taken the bullet, which he uses to
crack the glass and shatter the vault, freeing himself and
Beans while washing the Mayor and his men away outside. Impressed, Jake tips his hat to Rango as thanks for
saving his life and drags the mayor into the desert to take
revenge for double-crossing him. The citizens of Dirt celAfter discovering Dirts water reserves stored in the
ebrate the return of the water and recognize Rango as
town bank inside a water cooler bottle to be near
their hero.
empty, a skeptical Beans demands Rango investigate.
That night, however, Rango inadvertently assists a trio
of bank robbers, led by a mole named Balthazar (Harry
Using bravado and improvisation to t in, the chameleon
presents himself to the townsfolk as a tough drifter named
Rango. He quickly runs afoul of outlaw Gila monster Bad
Bill (Ray Winstone), but avoids a shootout when Bill is
scared o by the hawks return. Rango is chased by the
hawk until he accidentally knocks down an empty water tower which crushes the predator. In response, the
town mayor (Ned Beatty) appoints Rango the new sheri. Meanwhile, the townsfolk worry that with the hawk
dead, the gunslinger Rattlesnake Jake (Bill Nighy) will
return.

110

73.3. PRODUCTION

73.2 Cast
Johnny Depp as Rango, a chameleon[4]
Isla Fisher as Beans, a desert iguana[5]
Abigail Breslin as Priscilla, a cactus mouse or ayeaye[6][7]
Ned Beatty as Tortoise John, a desert tortoise, who
is the Mayor of Dirt[8]
Alfred Molina as Roadkill, a nine-banded armadillo[8]

111
Lew Temple as Furgus; Hitch
Gore Verbinski as Sergeant Turley, a wild turkey;
Crevice; Slim, a turkey vulture; Lupe, the violin
player
Kym Whitley as Melonee
Alex Manugian as Spoons, a mouse prospector

73.3 Production

The lm was produced by Nickelodeon Movies, Gore


Verbinski's production company Blind Wink, and
Bill Nighy as Rattlesnake Jake, a rattlesnake
Graham King's GK Films. The CGI animation was creHarry Dean Stanton as Balthazar, a mole[9]
ated by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), marking its rst
full-length
animated feature. ILM usually does visual efRay Winstone as Bad Bill, a Gila monster[10]
fects for live-action lms.[11] It is also the rst animated
lm for Verbinski. During voice recording, the actors reTimothy Olyphant as the Spirit of the West
ceived costumes and sets to give them the feel of the
Stephen Root as Doc, a rabbit;[10] Mr. Johannes Wild West"; star Johnny Depp had 20 days in which to
voice Rango; and the lmmakers scheduled the supportMerrimack III; Mister Snuggles
ing actors to interact with him.[12] Verbinski said his atMaile Flanagan as Lucky
tempt with Rango was to do a small lm after the largeAlanna Ubach as Boo Cletus, a raccoon; Fresca; scale Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy, but that he underestimated how painstaking and time-consuming animated
Miss Daisy
lmmaking is.[11][12]
Ian Abercrombie as Ambrose, a burrowing owl
The lm contains a number of references to movie West-

Gil Birmingham as Wounded Bird, a Chihuahuan erns and other lms, including The Shakiest Gun in the
West, A Fistful of Dollars, Chinatown, The Good, the Bad
raven
and the Ugly, Once Upon a Time in the West, Cat Ballou,
James Ward Byrkit as Waes, a horned toad; Raising Arizona, and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas;[13]
and references to earlier ILM work, including the dogGordy; Papa Joad; Cousin Murt
ght in the Death Star trench in Star Wars Episode IV:
Claudia Black as Anglique, a fox[10]
A New Hope.[14] Verbinski has also cited El Topo as an
inuence on the lm.[15]
Blake Clark as Buford, a Sonoran desert toad and a
In a discussion about the nature of contemporary aniGas Can Saloon bartender
mated features, Verbinski said in December 2011,
John Cothran, Jr. as Elgin
Patrika Darbo as Delilah; Maybelle
George DelHoyo as Seor Flan, the accordion player
and narrator of the Mariachi Owls
Charles Fleischer as Elbows
Beth Grant as Bonnie
Ryan Hurst as Jedidiah, Balthazars son, Ezekiels
brother
Vincent Kartheiser as Ezekiel, Balthazars son, Jedediahs brother; Lasso rodent
Joe Nunez as Rock-Eye, a toad who disguises himself as a rock, until he is snatched by the hawk
Chris Parson as Hazel Moats, Kinski, Stump,
Clinker, Lenny, Boseefus, Dirt Kid

There are shackles with the budgets and


the prot margins. You want to compete with
what they're doing at Pixar and DreamWorks.
Theres a price tag with that just in terms of
achieving that quality level. What happened to
the Ralph Bakshis of the world? Were all sitting here talking about family entertainment.
Does animation have to be family entertainment? I think at that cost, yes. Theres the
bulls-eye you have to hit, but when you miss
it by a little bit and you do something interesting, the bulls-eye is going to move. Audiences
want something new; they just can't articulate
what.[16]

73.4 Release

112

73.4.1

CHAPTER 73. RANGO (2011 FILM)

Marketing

Theres no gory violence or swearing, of course, but there


sure is a lm bus parade of great movie moments.[33]
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the lm four
out of four stars calling the lm some kind of a miracle: An animated comedy for smart moviegoers, wonderfully made, great to look at, wickedly satirical.... The
movie respects the tradition of painstakingly drawn animated classics, and does interesting things with space and
perspective with its wild action sequences.[34]

Rango's teaser trailer was released on June 9, 2010,[17]


along with the lms ocial site, RangoMovie.com.[18] It
shows an open desert highway and an orange, wind-up
plastic sh oating slowly across the road.[19] On June 28,
2010, the rst poster was released, showing the character
Rango.[4] A two-minute lm trailer was released June 29,
2010.[20][21] Another trailer was released December 14,
2010.[22] A 30-second spot was made specically to run After praising the brilliance of its visuals, Joe Morgenduring Super Bowl XLV on February 6, 2011.[23]
stern of The Wall Street Journal wrote, The narrative
isn't really dramatic, ... [but] more like a succession of
picturesque notions that might have owed from Dream73.4.2 Home video
Works or Pixar while their story departments were out to
lunch.[35]
The lm was released on Blu-ray and DVD on July 15,
2011.[24][25] The release had been produced as a two- In one of the more negative reviews, Michael Phillips
disc Blu-ray, DVD, and Digital Copy combo pack of the Chicago Tribune acknowledged its considerable
with both the theatrical and an extended version of the care and craft but called it completely soulless and that
lm, cast and crew commentary, deleted scenes, and watching it with a big suburban preview audience was
instructive. Not much laughter. Moans and sobs of prefeaturettes.[26][27][28]
teen fright whenever Rattlesnake Jake slithered into view,
The extended version adds a nal scene with the ooded threatening murder.[36]
town now a beach resort renamed Mud, and Rango riding out to deal with news that Bad Bill is causing trouble
elsewhere.
73.5.2 Box oce

73.5 Reception
73.5.1

Critical response

Rango generally received positive reviews. It holds an


88% rating on the lm critics aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes, based on 200 reviews, with an average rating of
7.6/10. The sites consensus says, "Rango is a smart,
giddily creative burst of beautifully animated entertainment, and Johnny Depp gives a colorful vocal performance as a household pet in an unfamiliar world. [29] Another review-aggregation website, Metacritic, reported
that the lm had been given an average rating of 75 out of
100, indicating generally favorable reviews.[30] Richard
Corliss of Time applauded the savvy humor and called
the voice actors at-out awless.[31] He later named it
one of the 10 best movies of 2011, saying, In a strong
year for animation ... Rango was the coolest, funniest
and dagnab-orneriest of the bunch.[32] Bob Mondello of
National Public Radio observed that "Rango's not just a
kiddie-ick (though it has enough silly slapstick to qualify
as a pretty good one). Its a real movie lovers movie, conceived as a Blazing Saddles-like comic commentary on
genre thats as back-lot savvy as it is light in the saddle.[5]
Frank Lovece of Film Journal International, noting the
nervous but improvising heros resemblance to the Don
Knotts character in The Shakiest Gun in the West, echoed
this, saying that with healthy doses of Carlos Castaneda,
Sergio Leone, Chuck Jones and Chinatown ... this [is]
the kid-movie equivalent of a Quentin Tarantino picture.

Rango, which was distributed by Paramount Pictures, earned $123,477,607 in North America
and $122,246,996 in other countries for a total
$245,724,603.[37] It is the 23rd highest-grossing lm of
2011 worldwide.[38]
In North America, Rango debuted in 3,917 theaters,
grossing $9,608,091 on its rst day and $38,079,323
during its opening weekend, ranking number one at the
box oce.[1] On March 26, 2011 it became the rst
lm of 2011 to cross the $100 million mark in North
America.[39]
In markets outside North America, during its rst weekend, it earned $16,770,243 in 33 countries.[40] It topped
the overseas box oce two times in March 2011.[41][42]
With its distribution contract with DreamWorks Animation set to be concluded in 2012, Paramount Pictures,
pleased by the performance of this lm, announced plans
to establish its own animation department.[43]

73.5.3 Smoking controversy


The Sacramento, California-based anti-smoking organization Breathe California regards the lm a public health
hazard; it said there were at least 60 instances of smoking in the lm.[44] Because of this, some of the antismoking organizations, including Breathe California, petitioned for the lm to receive an R rating instead of the
original PG rating received by the Motion Picture Association of America. However, no change was made, and
the lm retained the PG rating.[45]

73.8. REFERENCES

73.5.4

Accolades

Rango is the rst Nickelodeon Movies lm to win the


Academy Award for Best Animated Film and the rst
Nickelodeon movie to be nominated for the award since
Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius. It is the rst non-Pixar lm
since Happy Feet in 2006 to win the award.

73.6 Video games


73.6.1

Console games

Main article: Rango (video game)


Electronic Arts released a video game based on the lm.
It is rated E10+ and was released for the PlayStation 3,
Xbox 360, Nintendo DS, and Wii.[49]

73.6.2

Online games

Funtactix launched Rango: The World, a browser-based


virtual world set in the Rango universe, on March 4, 2011,
the day of the lms release.[50][51]

73.7 Soundtrack
73.8 References

113

research and found the aye-aye[]which doesn't really


belong in this particular desert.
[8] O'Hehir, Andrew. "'Rango' and the rise of kidult-oriented
animation, Salon.com, March 2, 2011. WebCitation
archive.
[9] della Cava, Marco R. "'Rango' team can't be caged, USA
Today, March 4, 2011, p. 1D. WebCitation archive
[10] Coyle, Jake (March 4, 2011). Movie review: 'Rango'".
Associated Press via NorthJersey.com. Archived from the
original on March 7, 2011.
[11] Moody, Annemarie. ILM Jumps to Features with
Rango, Animation World Network, September 12, 2008.
WebCitation archive.
[12] Vejvoda, Jim. What Exactly is Rango?", IGN.com, June
30, 2010. WebCitation archive
[13] Breznican, Anthony (March 6, 2011). Johnny Depps
'Rango': Its top six ris on classic movies. Entertainment
Weekly. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
[14] The DVD directors commentary track mentions Star
Wars during this sequence.
[15] "'Rango' Director Gore Verbinski Reveals The Top Ten
Inspirations Of His Oscar-Contending Animated Feature
Film | The Playlist. Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved
2013-01-20.
[16] Verbinski in THRs Animation Roundtable: 7 Top Filmmakers Debate R-Rated Toons and If 'Tintin' Should Be
Eligible for Ani[mation] Oscar. The Hollywood Reporter. December 22, 2011. Archived from the original
on February 27, 2012.

[1] Rango (2011 lm)". Box Oce Mojo. Amazon.com.


Retrieved March 3, 2011.

[17] O'Hara, Helen. First Baing Rango Glimpse Is Here,


Empire, June 9, 2010. WebCitation archive.

[2] Kaufman, Amy (March 3, 2011). Movie Projector:


'Rango' expected to shoot down the competition. Los
Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Archived from the
original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2011.

[18] Gallagher, Brian. Rango Announcement Teaser and


Ocial Site Launch, MovieWeb, June 9, 2010.
WebCitation archive.

[3] Reuters Rango wins Oscar for best animated feature


lm 27 February 2012
[4] Billington, Alex. Posters: Introducing: Johnny Depp as
a Western Chameleon in Rango!", FirstShowing.net, June
28, 2010. WebCitation archive.

[19] Rango Movie Trailers iTunes


[20] Young, John. "'Rango': A peek behind the scenes
of Johnny Depps epic lizard western, Entertainment
Weekly, June 30, 2010. WebCitation archive.
[21] Rango Trailer Online: Fear, loathing and guitar-playing
owls, Empire, June 29, 2010. WebCitation archive.

[5] Mondello, Bob. Ride 'Em, Chameleon! 'Rango' A Wild,


Wacky Western, NPR.org, March 4, 2011. WebCitation
archive.

[22] Raup, Jordan. Theatrical Trailer For Gore Verbinskis


'Rango' Starring Johnny Depp, TheFilmStage.com, December 14, 2010. WebCitation archive.

[6] C., Sonja (March 4, 2011). Abigail Breslin in Rango.


Scholastic. Retrieved May 31, 2013. My character in
Rango is Priscilla. She is a cactus mouse and the technically [sic] term is an Aye-aye...

[23] Rango (Big Game Spot) (2011)", VideoDetective.com,


February 7, 2011. WebCitation archive.

[7] Donald Schultz, Gore Verbinski, Real Creatures of


Dirt, Rango DVD. Schultz: She represents one of the
strangest looking creatures on our planet. Shes not from
the desert or the United States at all[]" Verbinski:
"[Character designer] Crash [McCreery] went and did the

[24] Tom Woodward (May 11, 2011). Paramount Home Entertainment has announced DVD and Blu-ray releases.
DVD Active. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
[25] Stahler, Kelsea (May 9, 2011). "'Rango' Comes to Blu-ray
and DVD in July. Hollywood.com. Archived from the
original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2011.

114

CHAPTER 73. RANGO (2011 FILM)

[26] Gallagher, Brian (May 9, 2011). Rango Blu-ray and


DVD Arrive July 15th. Retrieved May 20, 2011.

[48] 10th Annual VES Awards Recipients. Visual Eects


Society. February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.

[27] Rango with Johnny Depp Blu-ray Release Date and Details. TheHDRoom.com. May 10, 2011. Retrieved May
20, 2011.

[49] Rango The Video Game - EA Games. Ea.com. Retrieved 2013-01-20.

[28] Rango Rounded Up. IGN.com. May 9, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
[29] Rango. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
[30] Rango at Metacritic
[31] Corliss, Richard. Rango Review: Depp Plays Clint the
Chameleon in Years Coolest Film, Time, March 14,
2011
[32] Corliss, Richard (December 7, 2011). The Top 10 Everything of 2011 - Rango. Time. Retrieved December
13, 2011.
[33] Lovece, Frank. Film Review: Rango", Film Journal International, March 2, 2011
[34] Ebert, Roger. Rango (review), Chicago Sun-Times, March
2, 2011
[35] Morgenstern, Joe (4 March 2011). Lizard Tale 'Rango':
Clever, Coldblooded. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved
29 May 2012.
[36] Phillips, Michael. "'Rango' sells its soul for live-action,
Chicago Tribune, March 2, 2011
[37] Rango. Box Oce Mojo. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
[38] 2011 WORLDWIDE GROSSES. Box Oce Mojo.
Retrieved February 27, 2011.
[39] Weekend Report: 'Wimpy Kid' Blindsides 'Sucker Punch'
[40] Segers, Frank. "'Kings Speech' Nabs No. 1 at Int'l Weekend Box Oce With $19.4 Million. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 9, 2011.. WebCitation archive.
[41] Overseas Total Box Oce March 1113, 2011. Box
Oce Mojo. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
[42] Overseas Total Box Oce March 1820, 2011. Box
Oce Mojo. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
[43] Semigran, Aly (July 6, 2011). Riding high o the success of 'Rango,' Paramount Pictures to launch in-house
animation division. Entertainment Weekly.
[44] Rubin, Rita (March 7, 2011). "'Rango' Has Smoking Foes
Fuming. USA Today. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011.
[45] Pomerantz, Dorothy. Should 'Rango' Have Been Rated
R. Forbesdate=March 15, 2011.
[46] Nominations Announced for the 'Peoples Choice Awards
2012'
[47] Ng, Philiana (July 19, 2011). Teen Choice Awards 2011:
'Pretty Little Liars,' Rebecca Black Added to List of Nominees. The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.

[50] Rango: The WORLD. Retrieved March 6, 2011.


[51] Harrison, Alexa (February 10, 2011). "'Rango' range extends online. Variety. Reed Elsevier Inc. Retrieved
March 6, 2011.. WebCitation archive.
[52] Rango [Soundtrack]". Amazon.com. Amazon.com, Inc.
15 March 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
[53] Rango - Music From The Motion Picture.
Records. Retrieved May 8, 2012.

Anti-

73.9 External links


Ocial website . WebCitation archive. (Archived
sites opening page requires clicking on onscreen
URL for entry.)
Rango at AllMovie
Rango at the Internet Movie Database
Rango at the Big Cartoon DataBase

Chapter 74

African chameleon
74.3 Behaviour
The African chameleon is usually found on the lower
branches of trees, on shrubs and on reeds (Phragmites). It
grasps its support with its four-toed feet, a pair of toes on
either side of the branch, and its tail, and remains stationary or advances slowly and stealthily. It feeds mainly on
insects which it catches by suddenly extending its stickytipped tongue. It may also eat small lizards or edgling
birds.[6] The female descends to the ground to breed and
lays a clutch of up to seventy eggs in an underground nest.
Silent movie from a zoo. Raymond L. Ditmars?, 1915. Collection
These take about three months to hatch and the young
EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
chameleons take a year or more to reach maturity.[1]
The African chameleon or Sahel chameleon
(Chamaeleo africanus) is a species of chameleon
native to the Sahel and Nile Valley, although it has been
introduced to Greece.[1] An average size may be around
34 cm (13 in) long, including its tail.[2]

74.4 References
[1] Sahel chameleon (Chamaeleo africanus)".
arkive.org. Retrieved 23 April 2013.

Reptiles.

[2] "Chamaeleo africanus". EOL. Retrieved 23 April 2013.


[3] "Chamaeleo africanus Laurenti, 1768. reptile-database.
Retrieved 23 April 2013.

74.1 Range
Chamaeleo africanus is found in much of the Sahel, from
Mali and Mauritania to Sudan.[3] Its range also extends
north along the Nile to Egypt, but it may have been introduced there.[4] From Egypt, the species has been brought
to the Peloponnese.[5] It lives in dry savanna.[1]

74.2 Description
The African chameleon is a slow-moving, laterally attened species growing to a maximum length of 46 cm
(18 in). It has bulbous eyes which can move independently of each other and a prehensile tail. It is very similar in appearance to the common chameleon (Chamaeleo
chamaeleon) but has no aps at the back of its head
and is rather larger.[6] It is often green with many black
spots, but like other chameleons, is capable of changing
its colour. It has a large bony casque on its head. It has
long limbs, and the male has tarsal spurs.[4][5]
115

[4] "Chamaeleo africanus Laurenti 1768. lifedesk. Retrieved 23 April 2013.


[5] African Chameleon (Chamaeleo africanus)". Library.
wildlife-archipelago. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
[6] Arnold, E. Nicholas; Ovenden, Denys W. (2002). Field
Guide: Reptiles & Amphibians of Britain & Europe.
Collins & Co. p. 120. ISBN 9780002199643.

Chapter 75

Calumma gallus
The Lance-nosed chameleon, also known as a Blade
chameleon (Calumma gallus) is endemic to eastern
Madagascar.

75.1 Description
75.2 Distribution and Habitat
This chameleon is found in eastern Madagascar, in
several areas including Ambavaniasy, Ampasimbe,
Andekaleka, Betampona, Ile aux Prunes, Karianga,
Lokomby, Mahanoro, Manombo, Vohidrazana and
Zahamena.[1]

75.3 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina,
F., Robsomanitrandrasana, E. & Carpenter, A. (2011).
"Calumma gallus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of
Nature. Retrieved 11 September 2014.

116

Chapter 76

Cameroon sailn chameleon


The Cameroon sailn chameleon (also known as the 76.2 Description
Cameroon two-horned mountain chameleon), Trioceros montium, is a species of chameleon endemic to It is usually green,[4] but males often turn blue when on
Cameroon.[2] It has a very unusual appearance.[3]
display.[3] Distinguishing features on males include two
large horns just above the upper jaw which are used for
jousting and a prominent dorsal sail.[3][4] The males can
range to ten inches or 30 centimeters[3][4] and the females
76.1 Distribution and habitat
eight inches.[4]
The Cameroon sailn chameleon is found only in the
Cameroonian highlands around Mount Cameroon.[3][1]
Because it is almost entirely restricted to rainforests ranging from 700 to 1900 meters above sea level, it is estimated only a few locations support populations of the
species. However, it has also been found in small farms
and gardens.[1]

76.3 References
[1] LeBreton, M. & Carpenter, A.I. (2013). "Trioceros montium". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 26 September 2014.
[2] Trioceros montium at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database.
Accessed 26 September 2014.
[3] Flannery, Tim. Schouten, Peter. Astonishing Animals.
Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002, p. 145.
[4] Christopher V. Anderson, Mike Coraggio, & Leah
Kroo (June 2005). Cameroon Mountain Two-horned
Chameleon, Chamaeleo (Trioceros) montium BUCHHOLZ, 1874. Chameleons! Online E-Zine. Retrieved
26 September 2014.

Haeckel Lacertilia, with Cameroon sailn chameleon in top left


corner

117

Chapter 77

Flap-necked chameleon
The ap-necked chameleon, Chamaeleo dilepis, is native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is a large chameleon, reaching 35 cm (14 in). Colouring ranges through various
shades of green, yellow, and brown. There is usually
a pale stripe on the lower anks and one to three pale
patches higher on the anks. These chameleons lay 25 to
50 eggs in a hole dug in soil, which is covered over again
by the female. Food includes grasshoppers, butteries
and ies. This chameleon is kept as a pet.

77.1 Subspecies
Flap-necked chameleon, C. d. dilepis
Idjwi Island ap-necked chameleon, C. d. idjwiensis
Isabelline ap-necked chameleon, C. d. isabellinus
Pemba Island ap-necked chameleon, C. d. martensi
Peters ap-necked chameleon, C. d. petersii

77.2 Bibliography
Branch, B. (1988). Field Guide to the Snakes and
other Reptiles of Southern Africa. ISBN 0-86977641-X.
Tolley, K. and Burger, M. (2007). Chameleons of
Southern Africa. ISBN 978-1-77007-375-3.

77.3 References
[1] Carpenter, A. I. and S. Sprawls. Chamaeleo dilepis. 2012
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on
26 May 2013.

118

Chapter 78

Smooth chameleon
The Smooth chameleon (Chamaeleo laevigatus) is a
species of chameleon native to Africa.[1] It is bluish-green
and has small scales. Its body is very slender, and it looks
similar to Chamaeleo senegalensis.[2]

78.1 Distribution
Found mostly in the lowlands,[3] Chamaeleo laevigatus
lives throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Specimens
have been found in Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Sudan,
South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Zambia,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Cameroon.[4]

78.2 References
[1] Chamaeleo laevigatus GRAY, 1863.
Database. Retrieved 1 January 2014.

The Reptile

[2] Notice on a new species of Chamaeleon sent from Khartoum by Mr. Consul Patherick. Biodiversity Library.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
[3] Chamaeleo laevigatus. Chameleon Forums. Retrieved 1
January 2014.
[4] Chamaeleo laevigatus. Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved
1 January 2014.

119

Chapter 79

Trioceros hoehnelii
Trioceros hoehnelli, commonly known as Von Hhnels chameleon, and the helmeted or high-casqued
chameleon, is a species of chameleon found in eastern
Africa, in Kenya and Uganda.[1] It was named after the
Austrian explorer Ludwig von Hhnel (1857-1942).[2]

The high-casqued chameleon eats most small insects and


spiders, and does so by extending the tongue to capture
the prey. It is capable of extending the tongue more than
a complete body length.

79.3 References

79.1 Identication
Trioceros hoehnelli is a small to medium-size chameleon,
growing up to 10 inches in total length. Coloration is
highly variable across its range. During morning hours,
it may be seen basking in the sunlight, almost completely
black in color to capture heat energy from the sunlight.
This species has a single horn on the rostrum, a serrated
back crest, and a spiny throat crest.[3] Males are typically
larger than females with a larger casque, horn, and enlarged tail base.

79.2 Behavior

[1] Spawls, S. & Carpenter, A.I. (2013).


"Trioceros
hoehnelii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 26 September 2014.
[2] Steindachner, F. 1891. Bericht ber die von Herrn Linienschisleutenant Ritter von Hhnel whrend der Graf
Samuel Telekis ostafrikanischer Expedition gesammelten
Reptilien. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss., Wien 100 (1): 307313.
[3] Bartlett, Richard D. (2005), Chameleons: everything
about purchase, care, nutrition, and breeding, Barrons Educational Series, p. 73, ISBN 0-7641-2863-9
[4] Gans, Carl (1992), Biology of the reptilia, University of
Chicago Press, pp. 350351, ISBN 0-226-28124-8
[5] Toxopeus, A. G., et al. (1988). Pair-bonding in
chameleons. Naturwissenschaften 75 5.

Most chameleons in east Africa tend to be territorial and


the high-casqued chameleon is no dierent. If males are
placed together, they will hiss at each other, turn black,
and compress their bodies to make them look larger.
Dominant males display brightly colored patterns that
dier from females or subordinate males, which often
persist until they are defeated during a courtship battle.[4]
T. hoehnelli forms stable pair bonds during the mating
season, which endure throughout the ve months of pregnancy. After the birth, the pair usually splits up.[5]
120

Chapter 80

Furcifer
Ambiky chameleon, Furcifer timoni[2]

Furcifer is a genus of chameleons whose members are


mostly endemic to Madagascar, but F. cephalolepis and
F. polleni are endemic to the Comoros. Additionally, F.
pardalis has been introduced to Runion and Mauritius,
while F. oustaleti has been introduced to near Nairobi in
Kenya.

Ambiky chameleon, Furcifer tuzetae


Warty chameleon, Furcifer verrucosus
Furcifer verrucosus verrucosus
Furcifer verrucosus semicristatus
Canopy chameleon, Furcifer willsii

80.1 Taxonomy
The generic name (Furcifer) is derived from the Latin
root furci- meaning forked and refers to the shape of
the animals feet.[1]

80.3 References
[1] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The
Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
4. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.

The genus contains about 19 species.[2]

[2] Glaw, F., et al.


(2009).
A distinctive new
species of chameleon of the genus Furcifer (Squamata:
Chameleonidae) from the Montagne d'Ambre rainforest
of northern Madagascar. Zootaxa 2269 32-42.

80.2 Species
Angels chameleon, Furcifer angeli
Antimena chameleon, Furcifer antimena

Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide


to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR.
ISBN 3-929449-01-3.

Two-banded chameleon, Furcifer balteatus


Belalanda chameleon, Furcifer belalandaensis
Two-horned chameleon, Furcifer bidus

Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field


Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic
Press. ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

Jewelled chameleon, Furcifer campani


Comoro Islands chameleon, Furcifer cephalolepis

Anderson, C. V. (2006). Captive Chameleon Populations. Accessed 23-01-2009

Labords chameleon, Furcifer labordi


Carpet chameleon, Furcifer lateralis
Lesser chameleon, Furcifer minor
Furcifer nicosiai
Malagasy giant chameleon, Furcifer oustaleti
Panther chameleon, Furcifer pardalis
Petters chameleon, Furcifer petteri
Mayotte chameleon, Furcifer polleni
Rhinoceros chameleon, Furcifer rhinoceratus
121

Chapter 81

Angels chameleon
Furcifer angeli, also known as Angels chameleon, initially described as Chamaeleo angeli, is a species of
chameleon that is endemic to northwest Madagascar. It
was described by douard-Raoul Brygoo and Charles
Antoine Domergue in 1968.

81.3 References

81.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer angeli is endemic to Madagascar, and can
be found in dry forest at the northwest of the country. It has been found in Bongolava, and between
Anjiamangirana I and Tsingy de Namoroka Strict Nature
Reserve (Namoroka National Park or Parc National de
Namoroka). It has also been reported to occur at Ambohibola and on the coast near Antsanitia in Mahajanga
province.[2] It has been found at between 40 and 300 metres (130 and 980 feet) above sea level. It lives in trees
in dry forests and is diurnal. It is listed as being of Least
Concern by the International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN). This is because it has a wide range, estimated to cover an area of 31,506 square kilometres
(12,165 square miles).[1] Although the natural habitat of
this species is virgin forest, it also occurs close to roads
and human habitations.[1] The population size is unknown
but is believed to be stable.[1] The main threat to this
chameleon is the destruction of forest, including illegal
logging, slash-and-burn, but also wildres.[1]

81.2 Description
This species looks like a drably coloured version of
Furcifer pardalis (the panther chameleon).[3] It often has
a white stripe down each side and can be distinguished
from the otherwise similar Furcifer lateralis by the presence of a spike an the front of its head.[4]
It was initially described by Brygoo and Domergue in
1968[5] as Chamaeleo angeli, but was later transferred to
the genus Furcifer. Furcifer angeli is also known as Angels chameleon after the French herpetologist Fernand
Angel.[6]
122

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer angeli".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-01-01.
[2] Angels Chameleon - Furcifer angeli - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[3] Angels Chameleon (Furcifer angeli)". wildherps.com.
2007-05-08. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[4] Bowles, Philip. White-lined Chameleon. The Online
Field Guide. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
[5] Bhme, Charles Klaver Wolfgang; Klaver, Charles J. J.
(1997). Das Tierreich - The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups.
Walter de Gruyter. pp. 16. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9.
Retrieved 11 November 2012.
[6] "Furcifer angeli | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

Chapter 82

Antimena chameleon
Furcifer antimena, also known as the Antimena 82.4 Taxonomy
chameleon, is a species of chameleon that is endemic
to southwest Madagascar. It was initially described by Furcifer antimena was rst described in 1872 by French
French naturalist Alfred Grandidier in 1872.
naturalist and explorer Alfred Grandidier. It is commonly
known as the Antimena chameleon after the name of the
species.[2] There are several synonyms: Chamaeleo antimena (Grandidier, 1872), Chamaeleon rhinoceratus lin82.1 Distribution and habitat
eatus (Methuen & Hewitt, 1913), and Furcifer antimena
(Glaw & Vences, 1944).[1][5]
Furcifer antimena can be found in southwest
Madagascar,[1] more specically between 5 and 80
metres (16 and 262 feet) above sea level mainly around 82.5 References
Antsokay, Toliara and Ankotapiky. It is believed to
occur over an area of 6,310 square kilometres (2,440 sq [1] "Furcifer antimena | The Reptile Database. Reptilemi); the Onilahy River and Mangoky River both seem
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
to be natural boundaries to the range of this species.[2]
IucFurcifer antimena was ranked as a Vulnerable species [2] "Furcifer antimena (Antimena Chameleon)".
nredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) because it is found in an area where there is [3] Artbeschreibung Furcifer antimena" (in German). Madmassive clearing of the forest for agriculture and charcoal
Cham.com. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
production and because the population is believed to be
[4] "Furcifer antimena - Die Chamleon Webseite. www.
declining.[2]
chamaeleons.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[5] Antimena chameleon videos, photos and facts - Furcifer
antimena". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

82.2 Description
Furcifer antimena males have a dorsal crest[3] formed of
about thirty cone-shaped scales, each of which is between
3 and 6 millimetres (0.12 and 0.24 inches) in length. The
males are green with yellow and/or whitish stripes, and females are fully dark green. Males can grow to a maximum
length of 34 centimetres (13 inches), and females to 17
centimetres (6.7 inches). There is a projection on the tip
of the snout which is larger in males than in females.[4][3]

82.3 Biology
Furcifer antimena typically lives among thorny scrub in
dry savannah locations. The female lays a clutch of between ten and fteen eggs in a concealed position, burying them in sandy soil. The young hatch out about a year
later.[3]
123

Chapter 83

Two-banded chameleon
Furcifer balteatus, also known as the two-banded 83.3 Taxonomy
chameleon or the rainforest chameleon, is a species of
chameleon that is endemic to Madagascar. It was de- The species was initially described in Dumril & Dumril
scribed by Andr Marie Constant Dumril and Gabriel 1851: 32 by Dumril and Bibron. It was described as
Bibron in 1851.
the Dicranosaura bifurca var. crassicornis by Gray in
1865, and then as Chamaeleon balteatus in 1865: 347
by the same person. It was next described by Angel in
1942 as Chamaeleo balteus. Werner in 1911: 27 later
described it under Chamaeleon bidus, and then it was
83.1 Distribution and habitat
described as Chamaeleo bidus fty-ve years later in
Mertens 1966.[2] Brygoo and Domergue described it as
[2] Chamaeleo balteatus in 1969, and then Brygoo described
Furcifer balteatus is endemic to southeast Madagascar.
It can be found in Ranomafana where the average tem- it under the same name in 1971 and 1978. In 1986, it beperature is between 14 and 20 degrees Celsius (57 and came known as the Furcifer balteatus. Klaver and Bhme
68 degrees Fahrenheit) and the rainfall is roughly 4,000 described it as this in 1986, and it was later described unmillimetres (160 inches) per annum.[3] It has been found der the same name by Glaw and Vences in 1994. Furcifer
over an estimated area of 1,971 square kilometres (761 balteatus was most recently described by Necas in 1999
square miles) but has a patchy distribution and is be- as Furcifer balteatus.[2]
lieved by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to be decreasing in population. Most sightings were
at a height of 800 to 1,050 metres (2,620 to 3,440 ft) 83.4 References
above sea level but some were at lower altitudes. It is
a rare species and most of the sightings were of single [1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anindividuals. Some surveys have failed to locate any injeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Radividuals and it is ranked as an Endangered species by
bibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
the IUCN.[1] The major threat to this species is degraRandrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.,
Raxworthy, C.J. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011).
dation of its forest habitat.[1] It is a CITES-listed species
"Furcifer balteatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
and export from Madagascar has been banned since 1994.
Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of
Nevertheless, it is believed to be highly desirable to the
Nature. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
pet trade and illegal exports are a threat.[1]
[2] "Furcifer balteatus | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[3] "Furcifer balteatus |" (in German). Pantherchameleon.de.


Retrieved 2012-11-11.

83.2 Description
Though basically green, Furcifer balteatus is variable in
colour and is well camouaged in its arboreal surroundings. It often has darker green diagonal stripes with
paler bands between and usually has a characteristic bucoloured diagonal streak. The body length can be as
much as 24 cm (9 in) and the tail as least as long again.
The males have a pair of horny projections 1.5 cm (0.6
in) long on their heads.[3][4] It is commonly known as the
two-banded chameleon[5] or the rainforest chameleon.[4]
124

[4] Rainforest Chameleon (Furcifer balteatus) [female]".


Travel.mongabay.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[5] Two-banded chameleon videos, photos and facts - Furcifer balteatus". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Chapter 84

Belalanda chameleon
Furcifer belalandaensis, also commonly known as the
Belalanda Chameleon or the Sangoritan'i Belalanda,
is a species of chameleon that is endemic to Madagascar.
It was described by douard-Raoul Brygoo and Charles
Antoine Domergue in 1970. The International Union for
Conservation of Nature rated this species as Critically
Endangered on their Red List of Threatened Species. The
World Wide Fund for Nature is trying to save this species
from extinction.[1]

and the Sangoritan'i Belalanda.[1] It has two synonyms:


Chamaeleo belalandaensis (Brygoo and Domergue,
1970), and Furcifer belalandaensis (Glaw and Vences,
1994 and Necas, 1999).[4]

84.4 References
[1] WWF - Protecting the chameleon Furcifer belalandaensis". Wwf.mg. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

84.1 Distribution and habitat

[2] "Furcifer belalandaensis (Belalanda Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. 2011. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Furcifer belalandaensis is endemic to Belalanda, a town


and rural commune in Toliara II, Atsimo-Andrefana,
south-west Madagascar. It is one of only ve Critically
Endangered (Extremely Threatened) reptiles extremely
threatened by extinction.[1] It has an extremely small
range, being restricted to an area of 4 square kilometres
(1.5 square miles). Its original habitat was gallery forest but this has all been cleared and it is now found in
the canopies of the non-indigenous trees that have been
planted and in the few remaining mature trees. Its main
threat is from the signicant amount of logging occurring for the manufacture of charcoal in this area.[2] It can
be found at between 18 and 20 metres (59 and 66 feet)
above sea level. Although the true population of the Furcifer belalandaensis is unknown, the International Union
for Conservation of Nature believes that the population
is declining.[2] In a local initiative, the municipal authority has taken steps to ban the collection and trade in this
species and local people are involved in its preservation.[1]

[3] Belalanda chameleon videos, photos and facts - Furcifer


belalandaensis". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

84.2 Description
The Belalanda Chameleon is green in colour.[3]

84.3 Taxonomy
Furcifer belalandaensis was initially described as
Chamaeleo belalandensis by Brygoo and Domergue in
1970, and is also known as the Belalanda Chameleon[2]
125

[4] "Furcifer belalandaensis | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Chapter 85

Furcifer bidus
Furcifer bidus is a species of chameleon that is endemic
to Madagascar. It was described by Alexandre Brongniart in 1800. The International Union for Conservation
of Nature have ranked this species of chameleon as Least
Concern.

85.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer bidus is found in east Madagascar, and there is
no known type locality.[1] According to the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), it can be
found over an area of 35,368 square kilometres (13,656
square miles), and is therefore ranked as a Least Concern species of animal, although it is exposed to many
threats.[2] It can be found on the east of Madagascar
north after the Mangoro River, and as far as Daraina and
Marojejy National Park (Marojejy Massif). It has been
found at a highest of 700 metres (2,300 feet) above sea
level.[2] The two major threats to the Furcifer bidus are
logging for commercial reasons and the slash-and-burn
method in agriculture. The species has been listed as
protected.[2]

85.2 Taxonomy
Furcifer bidus was initially described by French chemist,
mineralogist, and zoologist Alexandre Brongniart in
1800.[3][4]

85.3 References
[1] Furcifer bidus | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[2] Furcifer bidus. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-1111.


[3] Charles Klaver Wolfgang Bhme; Charles J. J. Klaver
(1997). Das Tierreich - The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups.
Walter de Gruyter. pp. 17. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9.
Retrieved 11 November 2012.

126

[4] ITIS Standard Report Page: Furcifer bidus. Itis.gov.


Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Chapter 86

Jewelled chameleon
Furcifer campani, commonly known as the jeweled
chameleon or the Madagascar forest chameleon, is a
species of lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. Furcifer campani is endemic to the central highlands of
Madagascar, where it is threatened by bush res and
habitat loss.

consists largely of insects which they catch by shooting


out their long tongues which have sticky tips.[6]

Reproduction in Furcifer campani takes place two or


three times a year. Clutches of eight to twelve eggs are
laid in concealed locations. When reared in the laboratory, incubation takes about nine months at a temperature
of 20 C (68 F) and the emerging juveniles are about 23
mm (0.9 in) long. The young grow fast and are sexu86.1 Etymology
ally mature at three months. Some reports say that this
chameleon hibernates, burying itself in leaf litter during
[5]
The specic name, campani, is in honor of Dominique the winter months.
Campan, a French resident of Madagascar.[3]

86.5 Status
86.2 Description
Furcifer campani grows to a length of about 14 centimetres (5.5 in). The background colour varies from pale
green through dark green to brown. There are three pale
brown, lateral stripes running along each side of the body
and numerous small bright-coloured spots between them.
The head is often decorated with small red spots.[4] This
chameleon has a crest running along its back composed
of small projecting granules.[5]

86.3 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer campani is endemic to the central mountainous
region of Madagascar where it lives at altitudes of 1,850
to 2,300 metres (6,070 to 7,550 ft). Its range extends
from Ankaratra, an extinct volcano, to the Andringitra
National Park, an area of 14,500 square kilometres
(5,600 sq mi), but only part of this is suitable habitat and
its population is fragmented. It is a terrestrial species and
its habitat is mountain grass and heathland with shrubs
and isolated trees.[1]

In some areas of shrubby savannah grassland Furcifer


campani is reported to be common but no real assessment of its abundance has been made.[5] The IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species lists it as being "Vulnerable".
This is because its habitat is being cleared for agricultural
production and there is an annual cycle of burning.[1] It
shares its range with the white-lined chameleon (Furcifer
lateralis) and that species seems better able to cope with
the disturbance and degradation to the habitat caused by
humans. It should be safe from human disturbance in the
national park but this is not the case on the Ankaratra
mountains. Exports of Furcifer campani peaked in 1994
when over ve thousand were removed from the island.
Although the export of all chameleons from Madagascar
has been banned since then, some may still be being collected. The IUCN consider that steps should be taken
to limit the damage done by res to the grassland where
Furcifer campani is found.[1]

86.6 References

86.4 Biology
Chameleons are ambush predators, standing still and
waiting for suitable prey to come within reach. The diet
127

[1] Jenkins RKB, Andreone F, Andriamazava A, Andriantsimanarilafy RA, Anjeriniaina M, Brady L, Glaw F, Grifths RA, Rabibisoa N, Rakotomalala D, Randrianantoandro JC, Randrianiriana J, Randrianizahana H, Ratsoavina F, Robsomanitrandrasana E, Carpenter A. (2011).
"Furcifer campani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of
Nature. Retrieved 2012-12-26.

128

[2] The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.


[3] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. (2011). The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Furcifer campani, p. 46).
[4] Jeweled chameleon (Furcifer campani)". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
[5] Brady LD, Griths RA. (1999). Status Assessment of
Chameleons in Madagascar. IUCN Species Survival Commission: 21, 31, 41.
[6] Chameleons of Madagascar. WildMadagascar. Retrieved 2012-12-20.

CHAPTER 86. JEWELLED CHAMELEON

Chapter 87

Furcifer cephalolepis
Furcifer cephalolepis is a species of chameleon that is
endemic to Grande Comore. It was described by Gnther in 1880. The International Union for Conservation of
Nature ranked the species as Least Concern on the IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species as there are no signs that
this species is in decline. Furcifer cephalolepis is used in
the pet trade, with 8,583 specimens being exported from
Grande Comore between 2004 and 2008.

87.3 References
[1] Furcifer cephalolepis | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. 1946-08-22. Retrieved 2012-1111.
[2] Furcifer cephalolepis - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[3] Furcifer cephalolepis. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 201211-11.
[4] Furcifer cephalolepis Gnther, 1880. Cities. Retrieved
11 November 2012.

87.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer cephalolepis is native to Grande Comore
(Ngazidja) in the Comoros Islands.[1] It is believed to
cover the whole of Grande Comore (Ngazidja), 1,146
square kilometres (442 square miles), although the true
coverage of the species is unknown and has not been
recorded. It was ranked as Least Concern by the
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
in their Red List of Threatened Species (Red List
Data).[2] Despite covering a small area and the fact that
it has been used in the pet trade, the species is ranked
as Least Concern (LC) because there are no signs that
the population of the Furcifer cephalolepis are currently
in decline.[3] The population has been conrmed to be
stable.[3] It is found in humid regions around the coast
of Grande Comore and in forests in and around towns.
Between 1994 and 2003, an estimated 7,150 specimens
of this chameleon were exported.[4] Between 2004 and
2008, 8,583 living specimens of Furcifer cephalolepis
were exported to be kept as pets from Grande Comore.[3]
The amount of the species to become pets to people is
controlled.[3]

87.2 Taxonomy
Furcifer cephalolepis was initially described by Gnther
in 1880: 237 as Chamaeleon cephalolepis. It was later
described under the name of Furcifer cephalolepis in 1999
by Necas: 210.[1]
129

Chapter 88

Labords chameleon
Labords chameleon (Furcifer labordi) is a species of
chameleon endemic to Madagascar. Like other Furcifer
species (F. antimena, F. lateralis), it has an obligate yearlong lifecycle. It lives for only about 4 to 5 months, making it the shortest lifespan ever recorded for a four legged
vertebrate.[2][3] In their natural habitat, eggs hatch with
the rst rains in November, the growth is rapid, and adulthood is reached by January, at which time they breed. By
later February or early March, females have deposited the
eggs which will hatch next year, and the entire population
dies until the next hatching.
In captivity, eggs of F. labordi have hatched after 4
months of incubation at 26 C (79 F). Juveniles grow
very rapidly, reaching adulthood after 3 months. Females
that were properly fed grew with eggs and a vivid coloration, whereas females that were fed a less caloric diet
grew thinner and only showed a green coloration.

88.1 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M.,
Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer labordi".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[2] Karsten, K. B.; Andriamandimbiarisoa, L. N.; Fox, S. F.;
Raxworthy, C. J. (2008). A unique life history among
tetrapods: An annual chameleon living mostly as an egg
(PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
105 (26): 89808984. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802468105.
[3] Natural history: Nasty, brutish and short (subscription required)

88.2 External links


Labords chameleons of Madagascar live fast, die
young (BBC, Earth News)

130

Chapter 89

Carpet chameleon
Furcifer lateralis, also known as the carpet chameleon 89.3 Taxonomy
or the white-lined chameleon, is a species of chameleon
that is endemic to Madagascar. It was described in 1831 Furcifer lateralis is also commonly known as the jewel
by John Edward Gray.
chameleon,[5] the white-lined chameleon,[1] and the carpet chameleon.[6]

89.1 Description and habitat

89.4 References

Furcifer lateralis can be mainly found in central


Madagascar.[2] According to the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the species is found
around the entirety of Madagascar except the northern
part. It can be found between 120 and 1,925 metres
(394 and 6,316 ft) above sea level and has been estimated
to be found over an area of 467,634 square kilometres
(180,554 sq mi), and is ranked as Least Concern (LC).[1]
The population of Furcifer lateralis is currently stable.[1]

[2] "Furcifer lateralis | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. 1946-08-22. Retrieved 2012-1111.
[3] Barcelow, Gregg (2002-09-04).
ADW: Furcifer lateralis:
INFORMATION.
Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

89.2 Description
Both sexes of Furcifer lateralis can reach a maximum
length of anything between 17 and 25 centimetres (6.7
and 9.8 in). The males are largely green and females
are heavier-bodied and have a wider range of colours, including bands of white, yellow and orange. Both sexes
have stripy throats and lips. They can change their
colour depending on their mood and environmental factors and they usually start the day with a dark colour to
enable them to warm up rapidly by exposing themselves
to sunlight.[3] This species is one of the smallest true
species of chameleon, and they are timid and shy.[4]

89.2.1

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer lateralis".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-11-22.

Reproduction

Furcifer lateralis adults mature at the age of three months.


Females lay between eight and twenty-three eggs at one
time, and can produce up to three clutches a year. The
eggs have to be maintained at a steady temperature of
about 24 C (75 F).[3]
131

[4] "Furcifer lateralis lateralis". Chameleon World Muji. Retrieved 2012-11-11.


[5] Jewel chameleon videos, photos and facts - Furcifer lateralis". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[6] Jewelled Chameleon (Furcifer lateralis)".
herps.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

wild-

Chapter 90

Furcifer oustaleti
The Oustalets or Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer
oustaleti) is a very large species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar, but also has been introduced
near Nairobi in Kenya (though its current status there
is unclear). It occurs in a wide range of habitats, even
among degraded vegetation within villages, but is relatively rare in primary forest. With a maximum length of
68.5 cm (27 in), it is often considered the largest species
of chameleon, though some suggest that claim goes to
Calumma parsonii. The diet of this chameleon includes,
but is not limited to, invertebrates such as large insects.
Prey is acquired with a long, muscular tongue.

90.1 Taxonomy

Oustalets Chameleon at the Peyrieras Reserve

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.


International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-02-02.
[2] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The
Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
4. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.

Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide


to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR.
ISBN 3-929449-01-3.
Furcifer oustaleti walking in the Anjajavy Forest

Its generic name (Furcifer) is derived from the Latin root


furci meaning forked and refers to the shape of the
animals feet.[2] Its specic name is a Latinized form
of French biologist Jean-Frdric mile Oustalet's last
name, who rst described the species.

90.2 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer oustaleti".

132

Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field


Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic
Press. ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

Chapter 91

Lesser chameleon
The lesser chameleon (Furcifer minor) is a species of
lizard in the Chamaeleonidae family. It is endemic to
Madagascar.
It is threatened by habitat loss as a result of mining and
logging.[2]

91.1 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M.,
Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Jenkins, R.K.B.,
Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Rakotondravony, H.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2010). "Furcifer minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
[2] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M.,
Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Jenkins, R.K.B.,
Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Rakotondravony, H.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2010). "Furcifer minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 August 2012.

133

Chapter 92

Furcifer nicosiai
Furcifer nicosiai is a large species of chameleon that is
endemic to western Madagascar. Described as new to
science in 1999, it was ranked as an endangered species
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN). It has only been found in the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park at levels of 57 and 571 metres (187
and 1,873 feet) above mean sea level.

92.1 Description
The chameleon is relatively large, and has a high parietal crest (a central ridge down the front of the casque),
but lacks appendages on its snout (rostrum). It features
canthi rostrales that are separated, a poorly developed gular crest (a row of small spines running down the centre of
the throat), a distinctive rostral prole, a complete ventral
crest (a row of small conical scales extending down the
centre of the belly) and a poorly developed dorsal crest
extending from the neck region to the tail. It is similar in
appearance to Furcifer verrucosus, with which it is similarly sexually dimorphic. Furcifer nicosiai can be distinguished from F. verrucosus by its smaller size, dierent
colour patterns, and the orientation of its hemipenis.[2]

92.3 Taxonomy
Furcifer nicosiai was initially described by Jesu, Matioli
and Schimmenti in 1999 as a new large chameleon inhabiting Western Madagascar.[6][7] The type specimens were
collected in February and March 1997, during the rainy
season.[2] Furcifer oustaleti, Furcifer verrucosus and Furcifer nicosiai group of Chamaeleonidae may well contain
other undescribed species and needs a major revision according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1]

92.4 References

92.2 Distribution and habitat

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer nicosiai".
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
[2] Jesu R, Mattioli F, Schimmenti G. (1999). On the discovery of a new large chameleon inhabiting the limestone
outcrops of western Madagascar: Furcifer nicosai sp. nov.
(Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae)". Doriana 12 (311): 114.
ISSN 0417-9927.
[3] "Furcifer nicosiai - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Furcifer nicosiai is found in the limestone outcrops in a


small area of west Madagascar, in the Melaky Region,
north of the Manambolo River. It has only been found
in the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park (Parc National
Tsingy de Bemaraha) though there is a possibility that
it may also be found further north.[1] The size of the
park is 1,566 square kilometres (605 square miles), although it is not fully covered with forest habitat suitable for this species.[3] It has been recorded between 57
and 571 metres (187 and 1,873 feet) above mean sea
level.[3][4] The IUCN has ranked Furcifer nicosiai as an
Endangered species.[1][5] Its population is believed to be
in decline. The major threat to the species is the fragmentation, loss and degradation of the forest it lives in,
which includes damaging human activities like agriculture, logging,[1] and the clearing of land by re.[1]
134

[4] "Furcifer nicosiai | The Reptile Database.


database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[5] Chameleon photo - Furcifer nicosiai - G26163.


ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[6] ITIS Standard Report Page: Furcifer nicosiai". Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[7] On the discovery of a new large chameleon inhabiting
the limestone outcrops of Western Madagascar: Furcifer
nicosiai (Reptilla, Chamaeleonidae)". Itis.gov. Retrieved
2012-12-01.

Chapter 93

Furcifer oustaleti
The Oustalets or Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer
oustaleti) is a very large species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar, but also has been introduced
near Nairobi in Kenya (though its current status there
is unclear). It occurs in a wide range of habitats, even
among degraded vegetation within villages, but is relatively rare in primary forest. With a maximum length of
68.5 cm (27 in), it is often considered the largest species
of chameleon, though some suggest that claim goes to
Calumma parsonii. The diet of this chameleon includes,
but is not limited to, invertebrates such as large insects.
Prey is acquired with a long, muscular tongue.

93.1 Taxonomy

Oustalets Chameleon at the Peyrieras Reserve

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.


International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-02-02.
[2] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The
Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
4. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.

Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide


to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR.
ISBN 3-929449-01-3.
Furcifer oustaleti walking in the Anjajavy Forest

Its generic name (Furcifer) is derived from the Latin root


furci meaning forked and refers to the shape of the
animals feet.[2] Its specic name is a Latinized form
of French biologist Jean-Frdric mile Oustalet's last
name, who rst described the species.

93.2 References
[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer oustaleti".

135

Spawls, S.; Drewes, R.; Ashe, J. (2002). A Field


Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. Kln: Academic
Press. ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

Chapter 94

Furcifer pardalis
The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) is a species 94.3 Biology
of chameleon found in the eastern and northern parts of
Madagascar[3] in a tropical forest biome. Additionally, it Panther chameleons are zygodactylous: on each foot, the
has been introduced to Runion and Mauritius.
ve toes are fused into a group of two and a group of
three, giving the foot a tongs-like appearance. These specialized feet allow the panther chameleon a tight grip on
narrow branches. Each toe is equipped with a sharp claw
94.1 Taxonomy
to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing.
The claws make it easy to see how many toes are fused
The panther chameleon was rst described by French into each part of the foot two toes on the outside of
naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1829.[3] Its generic name each front foot and three on the inside.
(Furcifer) is derived from the Latin root furci meaning
forked and refers to the shape of the animals feet.[4] Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles and
The specic name pardalis refers to the animals mark- function like a gun turret. The upper and lower eyelids
ings, as it is Latin for leopard or spotted like a pan- are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil
ther. [5] The English word chameleon (also chamaeleon) to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to
derives from Latin chamaele, a borrowing of the Ancient observe two dierent objects simultaneously; their eyes
Greek (khamailn), a compound of move independently from each other. It in eect gives
(khama) on the ground and (ln) lion. The them a full 360-degree arc of vision around their bodGreek word is a calque translating the Akkadian n ies. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in
qaqqari, ground lion.[6] This lends to the common En- the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and
depth perception. They have keen eyesight for reptiles,
glish name of panther chameleon.
letting them see small insects from a long (510-m) distance. Ultraviolet light is part of the visible spectrum for
chameleons.

94.2 Description

Panther chameleons have very long tongues (sometimes


longer than their own body length) which they are capable of rapidly extending out of the mouth. The tongue extends at around 26 body lengths per second. The tongue
hits the prey in about 0.0030 sec. The tongue of the
chameleon is a complex arrangement of bone, muscle and
sinew. At the base of the tongue, a bone is shot forward,
giving the tongue the initial momentum it needs to reach
the prey quickly. At the tip of this elastic tongue, a muscular, club-like structure covered in thick mucus forms
a suction cup.[8] Once the tip sticks to a prey item, it is
drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the panther
chameleons strong jaws crush it and it is consumed.

Male panther chameleons can grow up to 20 inches in


length, with a typical length of around 17 in (45 cm).
Females are smaller, at about half the size. In a form
of sexual dimorphism, males are more vibrantly colored
than the females. Coloration varies with location, and
the dierent color patterns of panther chameleons are
commonly referred to as 'locales, which are named after
the geographical location in which they are found. Panther chameleons from the areas of Nosy Be, Ankify, and
Ambanja are typically a vibrant blue, while those from
Antsiranana and Sambava are red, green or orange. The
areas of Maroantsetra and Tamatave yield primarily red
specimens. Numerous other color phases, and patterns
occur between and within regions. Females generally remain tan and brown with hints of pink, peach, or bright 94.4 Behaviour and ecology
orange, no matter where they are found, but there are
slight dierences in patterns and colors among the dif- It is a common misconception that chameleons of any
kind can change colour to match any colour of their enferent color phases.[7]
136

94.6. IMAGES
vironments. All chameleons have a natural colour range
with which they are born, and is dictated by their species.
Colour change is, for the most part, subconscious. It is
aected by temperature, mood, and light. If, for example, the colour purple is not within the range of colours to
which their particular species can change, then they will
never turn purple.

137
chameleon, this will also help maintain humidity, a water
dripping system could be used so that water droplets form
on the interior of the cage setup. The chameleon will
sponge the water droplets from the surfaces of the cage
using their tongue. It is very important that chameleons
are not housed together as adults, there should be only
one chameleon per cage. These rules could be slightly
bent during breeding season by slowly introducing an opposite sex chameleon for short periods of time. Females
should have many places available to lay eggs at all times,
no matter what female chameleons will lay eggs, pregnant
or not.

94.5.1 Reproduction
Panther chameleons reach sexual maturity at a minimum
age of seven months.[3]

Head and neck

Like most species of chameleons, the panther chameleon


is very territorial. It spends the majority of its life in isolation, apart from mating sessions. When two males come
into contact, they will change color and inate their bodies, attempting to assert their dominance. Often these
battles end at this stage, with the loser retreating, turning
drab and dark colors. Occasionally, the displays result in
physical combat if neither contender backs down.[3]

When gravid, or carrying eggs, females turn dark brown


or black with orange striping to signify to males they have
no intention of mating. The exact coloration and pattern
of gravid females varies depending on the color phase of
the chameleon. This provides a way to distinguish between locales.[3]
Females usually only live two to three years after laying eggs (between ve and eight clutches) because of the
stress put on their bodies. Females can lay between 10
and 40 eggs per clutch, depending on the food and nutrient consumption during the period of development. Eggs
typically hatch in 240 days.[9]

94.6 Images
94.5 Captive care
When kept as pets, they require a large enclosure and are
fed crickets primarily but also wax worms, meal worms,
and roaches chameleons should have a varied diet. It
should be noted that panther chameleons require fresh
owing air, so the use of an open air screen cage is necessary. A glass aquarium should not be used as it restricts
airow and can cause respiratory infections in the animal. Enclosure size is very important, a 2'2'4' mesh
cage is perfect for a single adult although females could
be kept in a 1.5'1.5'3' enclosure. A proper day and
night light schedule is required along with a UVB bulb
being present in the cage. The reptile requires UVB to
replicate sunlight, and help its body process. A 5.0 UVB
bulb should be on for 12 hours a day as well as a heat bulb
to replicate the suns heat. Humidity is very important
with chameleons, 50-60% humidity should be perfect for
a panther chameleon, although it will not be fatal if this
is not consistent. Panther Chameleons do however require the constant availability of water. When studying a
Panther Chameleon you will notice that they do not drink
from a dish as might be considered. A misting bottle
should be used three times daily to properly hydrate the

Male panther chameleon


Gravid females
Female
Panther chameleon from Nosy Be Island
Panther chameleon at night in the Anjajavy Forest
Ambilobe panther chamelion in the Shedd Aquarium, Chicago

94.7 Notes
[1] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/172955/0
[2] Synonyms of Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis)".
Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
[3] Andreone, F.; Guarino, F. M.; Randrianirina, J.
E. (2005).
Life history traits, age prole, and
conservation of the panther chameleon, Furcifer
pardalis (Cuvier 1829), at Nosy Be, NW Madagascar (PDF). Tropical Zoology 18 (2): 209225.

138

CHAPTER 94. FURCIFER PARDALIS

doi:10.1080/03946975.2005.10531221.
6975.

ISSN 0394-

[4] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The


Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
4. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.
[5] Padilla, Michael J.; Ioannis Miaoulis (2002). From bacteria to plants. Prentice Hall. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-13054059-1.
[6] Dictionary.com entry for chameleon"".
nary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17.

Dictio-

[7] Ferguson, Gary; James B. Murphy, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Achille P. Raselimanana (2004). The Panther chameleon: color variation, natural history, conservation, and captive management. Krieger Publishing Company. pp. 54, 6263. ISBN 978-1-57524-194-4.
[8] Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Greenwood Press.
p. 74.
[9] Badger, David; John Netherton (2006). Lizards: A Natural History of Some Uncommon CreaturesExtraordinary
Chameleons, Iguanas, Geckos, and More. Voyageur Press.
p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7603-2579-7.

94.8 External links

Chapter 95

Furcifer pardalis
The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) is a species 95.3 Biology
of chameleon found in the eastern and northern parts of
Madagascar[3] in a tropical forest biome. Additionally, it Panther chameleons are zygodactylous: on each foot, the
has been introduced to Runion and Mauritius.
ve toes are fused into a group of two and a group of
three, giving the foot a tongs-like appearance. These specialized feet allow the panther chameleon a tight grip on
narrow branches. Each toe is equipped with a sharp claw
95.1 Taxonomy
to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing.
The claws make it easy to see how many toes are fused
The panther chameleon was rst described by French into each part of the foot two toes on the outside of
naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1829.[3] Its generic name each front foot and three on the inside.
(Furcifer) is derived from the Latin root furci meaning
forked and refers to the shape of the animals feet.[4] Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles and
The specic name pardalis refers to the animals mark- function like a gun turret. The upper and lower eyelids
ings, as it is Latin for leopard or spotted like a pan- are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil
ther. [5] The English word chameleon (also chamaeleon) to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to
derives from Latin chamaele, a borrowing of the Ancient observe two dierent objects simultaneously; their eyes
Greek (khamailn), a compound of move independently from each other. It in eect gives
(khama) on the ground and (ln) lion. The them a full 360-degree arc of vision around their bodGreek word is a calque translating the Akkadian n ies. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in
qaqqari, ground lion.[6] This lends to the common En- the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and
depth perception. They have keen eyesight for reptiles,
glish name of panther chameleon.
letting them see small insects from a long (510-m) distance. Ultraviolet light is part of the visible spectrum for
chameleons.

95.2 Description

Panther chameleons have very long tongues (sometimes


longer than their own body length) which they are capable of rapidly extending out of the mouth. The tongue extends at around 26 body lengths per second. The tongue
hits the prey in about 0.0030 sec. The tongue of the
chameleon is a complex arrangement of bone, muscle and
sinew. At the base of the tongue, a bone is shot forward,
giving the tongue the initial momentum it needs to reach
the prey quickly. At the tip of this elastic tongue, a muscular, club-like structure covered in thick mucus forms
a suction cup.[8] Once the tip sticks to a prey item, it is
drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the panther
chameleons strong jaws crush it and it is consumed.

Male panther chameleons can grow up to 20 inches in


length, with a typical length of around 17 in (45 cm).
Females are smaller, at about half the size. In a form
of sexual dimorphism, males are more vibrantly colored
than the females. Coloration varies with location, and
the dierent color patterns of panther chameleons are
commonly referred to as 'locales, which are named after
the geographical location in which they are found. Panther chameleons from the areas of Nosy Be, Ankify, and
Ambanja are typically a vibrant blue, while those from
Antsiranana and Sambava are red, green or orange. The
areas of Maroantsetra and Tamatave yield primarily red
specimens. Numerous other color phases, and patterns
occur between and within regions. Females generally remain tan and brown with hints of pink, peach, or bright 95.4 Behaviour and ecology
orange, no matter where they are found, but there are
slight dierences in patterns and colors among the dif- It is a common misconception that chameleons of any
kind can change colour to match any colour of their enferent color phases.[7]
139

140
vironments. All chameleons have a natural colour range
with which they are born, and is dictated by their species.
Colour change is, for the most part, subconscious. It is
aected by temperature, mood, and light. If, for example, the colour purple is not within the range of colours to
which their particular species can change, then they will
never turn purple.

CHAPTER 95. FURCIFER PARDALIS


chameleon, this will also help maintain humidity, a water
dripping system could be used so that water droplets form
on the interior of the cage setup. The chameleon will
sponge the water droplets from the surfaces of the cage
using their tongue. It is very important that chameleons
are not housed together as adults, there should be only
one chameleon per cage. These rules could be slightly
bent during breeding season by slowly introducing an opposite sex chameleon for short periods of time. Females
should have many places available to lay eggs at all times,
no matter what female chameleons will lay eggs, pregnant
or not.

95.5.1 Reproduction
Panther chameleons reach sexual maturity at a minimum
age of seven months.[3]

Head and neck

Like most species of chameleons, the panther chameleon


is very territorial. It spends the majority of its life in isolation, apart from mating sessions. When two males come
into contact, they will change color and inate their bodies, attempting to assert their dominance. Often these
battles end at this stage, with the loser retreating, turning
drab and dark colors. Occasionally, the displays result in
physical combat if neither contender backs down.[3]

When gravid, or carrying eggs, females turn dark brown


or black with orange striping to signify to males they have
no intention of mating. The exact coloration and pattern
of gravid females varies depending on the color phase of
the chameleon. This provides a way to distinguish between locales.[3]
Females usually only live two to three years after laying eggs (between ve and eight clutches) because of the
stress put on their bodies. Females can lay between 10
and 40 eggs per clutch, depending on the food and nutrient consumption during the period of development. Eggs
typically hatch in 240 days.[9]

95.6 Images
95.5 Captive care
When kept as pets, they require a large enclosure and are
fed crickets primarily but also wax worms, meal worms,
and roaches chameleons should have a varied diet. It
should be noted that panther chameleons require fresh
owing air, so the use of an open air screen cage is necessary. A glass aquarium should not be used as it restricts
airow and can cause respiratory infections in the animal. Enclosure size is very important, a 2'2'4' mesh
cage is perfect for a single adult although females could
be kept in a 1.5'1.5'3' enclosure. A proper day and
night light schedule is required along with a UVB bulb
being present in the cage. The reptile requires UVB to
replicate sunlight, and help its body process. A 5.0 UVB
bulb should be on for 12 hours a day as well as a heat bulb
to replicate the suns heat. Humidity is very important
with chameleons, 50-60% humidity should be perfect for
a panther chameleon, although it will not be fatal if this
is not consistent. Panther Chameleons do however require the constant availability of water. When studying a
Panther Chameleon you will notice that they do not drink
from a dish as might be considered. A misting bottle
should be used three times daily to properly hydrate the

Male panther chameleon


Gravid females
Female
Panther chameleon from Nosy Be Island
Panther chameleon at night in the Anjajavy Forest
Ambilobe panther chamelion in the Shedd Aquarium, Chicago

95.7 Notes
[1] http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/172955/0
[2] Synonyms of Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis)".
Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
[3] Andreone, F.; Guarino, F. M.; Randrianirina, J.
E. (2005).
Life history traits, age prole, and
conservation of the panther chameleon, Furcifer
pardalis (Cuvier 1829), at Nosy Be, NW Madagascar (PDF). Tropical Zoology 18 (2): 209225.

95.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

doi:10.1080/03946975.2005.10531221.
6975.

141

ISSN 0394-

[4] Le Berre, Franois; Richard D. Bartlett (2009). The


Chameleon Handbook. Barrons Educational Series. p.
4. ISBN 978-0-7641-4142-3.
[5] Padilla, Michael J.; Ioannis Miaoulis (2002). From bacteria to plants. Prentice Hall. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-13054059-1.
[6] Dictionary.com entry for chameleon"".
nary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17.

Dictio-

[7] Ferguson, Gary; James B. Murphy, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Achille P. Raselimanana (2004). The Panther chameleon: color variation, natural history, conservation, and captive management. Krieger Publishing Company. pp. 54, 6263. ISBN 978-1-57524-194-4.
[8] Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Greenwood Press.
p. 74.
[9] Badger, David; John Netherton (2006). Lizards: A Natural History of Some Uncommon CreaturesExtraordinary
Chameleons, Iguanas, Geckos, and More. Voyageur Press.
p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7603-2579-7.

95.8 External links

Chapter 96

Petters chameleon
Furcifer petteri, also known as Petters chameleon,
is a species of chameleon that is endemic to north
Madagascar. It was initially described as the subspecies
Chamaeleo willsii petteri by douard-Raoul Brygoo and
Charles Domergue in 1966, but later transferred to the
genus Furcifer and given full species status by Frank Glaw
and Miguel Vences in 1994.

96.4 References

96.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer petteri is endemic to Madagascar, and it has a
type locality of the eastern edge of the Ankarana Reserve,
specically the Ankarana massif (French: Bordure Est
du massif de l Ankarana, Madagascar).[2] Furcifer petteri was listed as a Vulnerable species by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) because it only
covers an area of 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 square
miles) in northern Madagascar, where the remaining forest is in decline.[1] It lives between 120 and 850 metres
(390 and 2,790 feet) above mean sea level,[1] where it is
threatened by mining, logging for rosewood and charcoal,
and res.[1]

96.2 Description
Male specimens are roughly between 16 to 18 centimetres
(6.3 to 7.1 inches) long, and their main colour is deep
green with lateral white stripes and white lips. The female
specimens are slightly smaller than the males, and have
similar colouration. When the females are excited, they
change colours quickly, becoming yellow-lemon with two
spots of light blue, and one of red.[3] An average of both
genders shows a length of 16 centimetres (6.3 inches).[4]

96.3 Taxonomy
Furcifer petteri was initially described as Chamaeleo willsii petteri by Brygoo and Domergue in 1966.[4] It is commonly known as Petters Chameleon.[5] According to the
Integrated Taxonomic Information System, Furcifer petteri is the valid name for this species.[6]
142

[1] Jenkins R. K. B., Andreone F., Andriamazava A., Anjeriniaina M., Brady L., Glaw F., Griths R. A., Rabibisoa N., Rakotomalala D., Randrianantoandro J.C.,
Randrianiriana J., Randrianizahana H., Ratsoavina F. &
Robsomanitrandrasana E. (2011). "Furcifer petteri". In:
IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 14
November 2012.
[2] Furcifer petteri | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[3] Furcifer petteri | Pantherchameleon, furcifer pardalis.


Pantherchameleon.de. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[4] Furcifer petteri | Pantherchameleon, furcifer pardalis.
Pantherchameleon.de. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[5] Petters chameleon videos, photos and facts - Furcifer
petteri. ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[6] ITIS Standard Report Page: Furcifer petteri. Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Chapter 97

Mayotte chameleon
Furcifer polleni, also known as the Mayotte chameleon, 97.2 Description
is a species of chameleon that is endemic to Mayotte in
the Comoros Islands. It was rst described by Wilhelm The Mayotte chameleon is varying shades of light and
Peters in 1874.
dark green in colour.[5]

97.3 Taxonomy
The species was initially described by Wilhelm Peters
in 1874 as Chamaeleon polleni. In 1986, it was transferred to genus Furcifer by Charles Klaver & Wolfgang Bhme.[6] It is commonly known as the Mayotte
chameleon.[7]

97.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer polleni is endemic to the island of Mayotte, one
of the Comoros Islands in the Indian Ocean.[2] It is found
over most of the island, an area of 376.5 square kilometres (145.4 square miles). It was introduced by humans
onto the Comoran island of Anjouan, where it became established in the town of Hombo.[3] This species is ranked
as being of Least Concern by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and has been found at
between 27 and 459 metres (89 and 1,506 feet) above
sea level. This species is found in a range of habitats. It is
protected by law in Mayotte and is included in Appendix
II of the CITES treaty.[1]

97.4 References

In an integrated eld study on Mayotte, 35 specimens of


Furcifer polleni were found in a range of habitats at altitudes of up to 459 metres (1,506 ft). These included (in
approximately equal numbers) pristine forests, degraded
woodlands, plantations and scrubby dry vegetation. No
individuals were found in mangrove forests but several
were found in urban areas. During the ten years starting in 2000, the number of Mayotte chameleons exported
from the island was 1,562. This does not seem to have
had much inuence on the population size and was in
contrast to the endemic chameleon species on Grand Comoro, Furcifer cephalolepis, which suered a much heavier trade. Over 14,000 specimens were exported from
there during the same period and this seems to have impacted wild populations. The study concluded that the
population of the Mayotte chameleon is stable, and that
despite the small area in which it occurs, it is likely to
survive due to its ability to live in non-natural habitats.[4]
143

[1] Hawlitschek, O. & Glaw, F. (2011). "Furcifer polleni".


IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
[2] "Furcifer polleni | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[3] "Furcifer polleni - Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.


[4] Hawlitschek, Oliver; Brckmann, Boris; Berger, Johannes; Green, Katie; Glaw, Frank (2011). Integrating
eld surveys and remote sensing data to study distribution, habitat use and conservation status of the herpetofauna of the Comoro Islands. ZooKeys 144: 2178.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.144.1648. PMC 3233692.
[5] 04:12 PM CEST. " Furcifer polleni, observed by hcuohc
on December 10, 2009. Inaturalist.org. Retrieved 201211-11.
[6] Wolfgang Bhme; Charles J. J. Klaver (1997). Das Tierreich The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and
Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups. Walter de
Gruyter. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9. Retrieved
3 December 2012.
[7] Mayotte Chameleon. eurekalert. Retrieved 11 November 2012.

Chapter 98

Rhinoceros chameleon
The rhinoceros chameleon (Furcifer rhinoceratus) is a 98.4 Status
species of chameleon that gets its common name from its
horn-like nose which is most prominent in males. It is The rhinoceros chameleon is listed as being "Vulnerable"
endemic to dry forests in Madagascar.
in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This is because it lives in deciduous forests in the dry west of the
island which are being logged to make way for cattle grazing and for the manufacture of charcoal. It should be pro98.1 Description
tected from these threats in the Ankarafantsika National
Park but elsewhere is more vulnerable. It is also at risk
The male rhinoceros chameleon can grow to about 27 from bush res. It has always been an uncommon species
centimetres (11 in), about twice as big as the female. but it seems likely that its numbers are in decline. It is
The males proboscis-like snout projects forward above unclear whether it is able to adapt to degraded habitats[1]
its mouth and gives it its common name. The female has but it may be somewhat adaptable as it is sometimes seen
a smaller snout. On the top of the head there is a small beside paths and roads.[3]
crest of triangular, projecting scales, and a further crest
runs part way along the spine. The general colour is grey
or light brown with a few darker-coloured transverse bars. 98.5 References
The snout is often bluish, the lips pale and a white line
runs down each side of the animal. Females are similar [1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anin colour but when they are carrying eggs, they turn purjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Raple with black bands and an orange or red tail.[3]
bibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Furcifer rhinoceratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 2013-01-06.

98.2 Distribution
The rhinoceros chameleon is endemic to dry forests
in western Madagascar. Its range extends from the
Ankarafantsika National Park in the north west to Soalala
in the south west but many of the sightings in the middle
of its range were made a long time ago and it is unclear
whether it is still to be found in these locations.[1]

98.3 Biology
The rhinoceros chameleon is usually a tree-dweller and
catches insects by icking out its sticky tongue with great
rapidity. The male guards a territory and probably uses
his long snout to do battle with other males. Little is
known of the breeding habits of this chameleon but in
captivity the female lays clutches of four to eleven eggs
which take about forty one weeks to hatch into miniature
chameleons.[3]
144

[2] Furcifer rhinoceratus (Gray, 1845)".


Database. Retrieved 2013-01-06.

The Reptile

[3] Jenkins, Richard K. B. (2011-03-07). Rhinoceros


chameleon (Furcifer rhinoceratus)". ARKive. Retrieved
2013-01-06.

Chapter 99

Furcifer timoni
Furcifer timoni is a species of chameleon that is endemic 99.3 Taxonomy
to Madagascar. It was rst described by Glaw, Khler
and Vences in 2009.
Furcifer timoni was initially described in 2009 by Glaw,
Khler and Vences.[1]

99.4 References
99.1 Distribution and habitat
Furcifer timoni is endemic to the Montagne d'Ambre National Park (Amber Mountain National Park) near the
northern tip of Madagascar.[1][2] Its range probably extends to 385 square kilometres (149 square miles) at a
height of between 750 and 900 metres (2,460 and 2,950
feet) above sea level.[2] Based on some photographic
records, it may also be found in the Marojejy National
Park (Marojejy Massif), although this fact has not been
conrmed.[3]
Furcifer timoni has been ranked by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to be Near
Threatened,[4] and it is one of eleven species of
chameleon discovered since 1999.[5] It has been listed by
the IUCN as Near Threatened because there is a possible threat which can have an impact on the species. If
the threat became active, Furcifer timoni cannot become
Critically Endangered, but as it has a range of 385 square
kilometres in one place, it would be able to be classied as endangered.[3] There are also threats of logging
for charcoal and the collection of rosewood.[3]

99.2 Description
The female specimens of Furcifer timoni have a base
colour of green, and a yelloworange underside below
their stomach. Their bodies are covered in blue spots,
and the top of their head is red with blue spots.[5] The
head of a male species is green with purplish spots.[6] Female specimens of Furcifer timoni have been found with
up to fourteen eggs.[3]
145

[1] Furcifer timoni | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. 25 February 2007. Retrieved 12
November 2012.
[2] Furcifer timoni - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
[3] Furcifer timoni. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
[4] Furcifer videos, photos and facts - Furcifer timoni.
ARKive. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
[5] A decade of new species discovered in Madagascar - in
pictures (9/17)". Guardian. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12
November 2012.
[6] A decade of new species discovered in Madagascar - in
pictures (10/17)". Guardian. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12
November 2012.

Chapter 100

Furcifer tuzetae
Furcifer tuzetae is a species of chameleon that is endemic
to Madagascar in Befandriana Sud and Andrenalamivola.
It was described by douard-Raoul Brygoo, Bourgat and
Charles Antoine Domergue in 1972. The International
Union for Conservation of Nature have rated this species
as Data Decient.

100.1 Distribution and habitat


Furcifer tuzetae is found in Madagascar. Its type locality was in Andrenalamivola (Befandriana Sud).[1] Furcifer
tuzetae is found in subtropical and tropical dry forest.[2]
Only a single specimen of the species has been collected
in Andrenalamivola, although it may be found elsewhere
in Befandriana Sud, where there is a large area of suitable habitat.[3] The species was rated as Data Decient
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as not enough data has been collected.[4] It is
likely that the population of the species is declining because it has only been found once, despite multiple surveys being carried out to nd the species. It may be affected by the slash-and-burn method of agriculture and
logging for charcoal.[4]

100.2 Taxonomy
Furcifer tuzetae was described initially by Brygoo, Bourgat and Domerque in 1972 under the name Chamaeleo
tutzetae.[1][5] It became known as Furcifer tuzetae when
Glaw and Vences transferred it to Furcifer in 1994.[1]

100.3 References
[1] Furcifer tuzetae | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Reptile-

[2] Furcifer tuzetae. Zipcodezoo.com. Retrieved 2012-1111.


[3] Furcifer tuzetae - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

146

[4] Furcifer tuzetae. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-1111.


[5] Charles Klaver Wolfgang Bhme; Charles J. J. Klaver
(1997). Das Tierreich - The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups.
Walter de Gruyter. pp. 21. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9.
Retrieved 11 November 2012.

Chapter 101

Furcifer verrucosus
Furcifer verrucosus, also known as the warty
chameleon, spiny chameleon or crocodile chameleon,
is a species of small reptile endemic to Madagascar. It
was rst described by Georges Cuvier in 1829.

curs over much of the west part of the island and in drier
parts of the south. It is seldom found in primary rainforest but favours arid disturbed land, including near the
sea. It is a terrestrial species and also climbs around in
low bushes. In hot weather it sometimes retreats into a
sandy burrow to keep cool.[2][3]

101.1 Taxonomy
There are two subspecies, Furcifer v. verrucosus and Furcifer v. semicristatus, the latter being found mainly in
the southernmost part of the island. This chameleon is
closely related to Oustalets chameleon Furcifer oustaleti
(Malagasy giant chameleon), the pair forming a species
complex, but each member of the group may be a cryptic
species (two species indistinguishable in the eld and
currently believed to be a single species) and the exact
taxonomical relationship between members of the group
is unclear.[2]

101.4 Biology
The warty chameleon feeds largely on insects which it
catches with its long sticky tongue. The female lays one
clutch of 30 to 60 eggs a year and these are incubated
for about 200 days. They hatch into juvenile chameleons
which may take six months to a year to become mature.[3]

101.5 References
[1] Uetz, Peter. "Furcifer verrucosus (Cuvier, 1829)". The
Reptile Database. Retrieved 2013-01-25.

101.2 Description
The warty chameleon is a large species with males growing to a total length of 56 centimetres (22 in) and females
reaching 21 cm (8 in). On its head it has a casque, a
helmet-like crest formed from scales. A small crest runs
along a raised ridge from its eyes to its snout. There
are further low crests running along the anks, down the
throat and along the belly. A distinctive crest of up to
forty 4 millimetres (0.16 in) spines runs along the back in
males but this is cut short in females, continuing along the
spine as tubercles. Both sexes have a row of large scales
forming a lateral line. The long tail is prehensile. The
general colour of this chameleon is grey or brown variously blotched or indistinctly banded, with a white intermittent streak along each side. Females are usually paler
in colour and males are often tinged with green on the
belly, tail and limbs.[2]

101.3 Distribution and habitat


The warty chameleon is found only on the island of Madagascar including Manderano in the Tulear region. It oc147

[2] Bowles, Philip. Warty chameleon. The Online Field


Guide. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
[3] Vaucher, Pierre-Yves (2012-06-12). "Furcifer verrucosus". Bactraciens et Reptiles du Monde (in French). Retrieved 2013-01-25.

Chapter 102

Canopy chameleon
The Canopy chameleon (Furcifer willsii), also known as 102.3 Taxonomy
Wills chameleon,[2] is a species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar. The species was described by The species was initially described in 1890 by Albert
Albert Gnther in 1890.
Gnther as Chamaeleon willsii. In 1986, it was transferred to genus Furcifer by Charles Klaver & Wolfgang Bhme.[6] It is commonly known as the canopy
chameleon.[7]

102.1 Distribution and habitat

Furcifer willsii can be found in central Madagascar, with


a type locality of west Imerina Imady, in the forest
region.[3] It can also be found in northern and central
northeast of Madagascar. The species can be found at
between 600 and 1,300 metres (2,000 and 4,300 feet)
above sea level and is estimated to be found over an area
of 100,350 square kilometres (38,750 square miles).[4]
Records show that this species has been found Tsingy de
Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve. F. willsii may have been
sighted once in western Madagascar at Ankarafantsika
National Park, although this observation has not been veried as of 2007. Reports from Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict
Nature Reserve are uncertain: they may be of F. willsii, F. petteri, or a similar, undescribed species.[4] The
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
believe that the population of the canopy chameleon is
declining. However, it is rated as Least Concern as
there is not enough evidence that this species is declining
fast enough to become endangered or threatened. Furcifer willsii is threatened by agricultural clearance and
logging.[1]

102.4 References

Furcifer willsii is an arboreal species often found high


in the canopy mostly in humid forests. It seems to be
able to adapt to degraded habitats at the edge of native
forests. Large numbers of this species were exported
from Madagascar between 1989 and 1993 before the
trade from Madagascar was banned by the CITES multilateral treaty.[1]

102.2 Description
Furcifer willsii is green and white in colour,[3] sometimes
with a hint of brown along the back and head.[5]
148

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Rakotondravony, H., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). "Furcifer willsii". IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
[2] Wills chameleon (Furcifer willsii)". www.arkive.org.
Arkive. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
[3] "Furcifer willsii | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. 1946-08-21. Retrieved 2012-1111.
[4] "Furcifer willsii Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved
2012-11-11.
[5] Canopy Chameleon (Furcifer willsii)". wildherps.com.
2007-04-24. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
[6] Wolfgang Bhme; Charles J. J. Klaver (1997). Das Tierreich The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and
Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups. Walter de
Gruyter. p. 22. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9. Retrieved
3 December 2012.
[7] Canopy Chameleon. Cites.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.

Chapter 103

Antsingy leaf chameleon


The Antsingy leaf chameleon (Brookesia perarmata) is
a species of lizard in the Chamaeleonidae family. It is
endemic to Madagascar.

103.1 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw,
F., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). Brookesia perarmata. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for
Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 August 2012.

149

Chapter 104

Brookesia ambreensis
Brookesia ambreensis, also commonly known as the
Amber Mountain leaf chameleon, is a species of
chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It was initially described in 1995 by Raxworthy and Nussbaum.

104.3 References
[1] Brookesia ambreensis | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[2] Amber Mountain Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia ambreensis - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of
Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

104.1 Distribution and habitat

[3] Brookesia ambreensis (Amber Mountain Leaf


Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-1112.

Brookesia ambreensis is endemic to Montagne de Ambre


National Park (Amber Mountain National Park) in Madagascar, where it has a type locality of the Antomboka
River at an elevation between 1,050 and 1,100 m (3,440
and 3,610 ft) above mean sea level.[1] Currently, specimens of B. ambreensis can be found between 650 and
1,150 m (2,130 and 3,770 ft) above mean sea level over an
area of 287 km2 (111 sq mi).[2] The International Union
for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classed this species
as Near Threatened, as there is a future possible threat
against it.[3] If this threat became active, the species could
not become Critically Endangered, but it could be listed
as an endangered species because it can only be found in
one place with a small area. Logging for charcoal is one of
the possible dangers to this species of chameleon, along
with the collection of various rosewoods.[3] It can commonly be found in the "rainy season", and the population
is currently stable. The species is not currently protected
by any laws.[3]

104.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia ambreensis was initially described by Raxworthy and Nussbaum in 1995. Four years later, Necas later
described it under the same name: 276, and in 1999
by Townsend et al.[1] According to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), the taxonomic status
of B. ambreensis is valid, as of 2012.[4] The species is
part of the Brookesiinae subfamily of chameleons.[4] It is
also more commonly known as the Amber Mountain leaf
chameleon.[3]
150

[4] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia ambreensis.


Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Chapter 105

Brookesia bekolosy
Brookesia bekolosy is a species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar. It was described by Raxworthy
and Nussbaum in 1995. The International Union for Conservation of Nature classed the species as Endangered,
and in 1992 the single specimen of it was recorded.

[3] Brookesia bekolosy - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.


Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[4] Brookesia bekolosy | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[5] ITIS Standard Report Page:
Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

105.1 Description and habitat


Brookesia bekolosy has only been collected once, being
a single specimen from Bekolosy in the Manongarivo
Special Reserve (Manongarivo Reserve) in the region of
Diana[1] in 1992.[2] The species is believed to only be
found at the Bekolosy Plateau, although further information is unknown. Its habitat is posited as between 1,000
and 2,000 m (3,300 and 6,600 ft) above mean sea level.[3]
Despite lack of specics as to its extent, the International
Union for Conservation of Nature classed B. bekolosy as
an endangered species because it is not likely to cover
more than 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi), and it is found in an
area where logging is becoming common. If the species
turns out to be only found at the Bekolosy Plateau, then
the species will be classed as Critically Endangered, as it
could only be found over an area of less than 100 km2
(39 sq mi), and will decline in this area.[2]

105.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia bekolosy was rst described by Raxworthy
and Nussbaum in 1995. Necas recorded the species as
Brookesia bekolosy in 1999: 276.[4] According to the ITIS
(ITIS), the taxonomic status of the Brookesia bekolosy is
valid, as of 2012.[5]

105.3 References
[1] Brookesia bekolosy - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[2] Brookesia bekolosy. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 201211-12.

151

Brookesia bekolosy.

Chapter 106

Brookesia betschi
Brookesia betschi, commonly known as Blancs leaf
chameleon[2] or the Marojejy leaf chameleon,[1] is a
species of chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It was
described by douard-Raoul Brygoo, Patrick Blanc and
Charles Antoine Domergue in 1974.[3]

106.4 References

106.1 Taxonomy
The type specimen was collected in 1973, at 1,300 m
(4,300 ft) in a forest in Marojejy.[4] The specic epithet
betschi honors the biologist Jean-Marie Betsch.[5]

106.2 Distribution and habitat


Brookesia betschi is found in forests of northern Madagascar at altitudes of 1,150 to 1,650 m (3,770 to 5,410 ft).[1]
It is found in subhumid forests in the Manongarivo Reserve,[6] the Anjanaharibe-Sud Reserve,[7] Marojejy National Park and the Tsaratanana Reserve, as well as in
forests between them, over a total area of 11,090 km2
(4,280 sq mi). The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated the Marojejy leaf chameleon as
Near Threatened due to the loss of rainforest in northern
Madagascar.[1]
This species has very specialised microhabitat requirements and does not tolerate disturbance. It is threatened
by destruction of the forest for agriculture by slash and
burn and logging.[1] Although its range is fragmented into
a number of separate blocks, each one is thought to be
large enough to support a viable population.[1]

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). "Brookesia betschi". IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-01-01.
[2] Brookesia betschi - Animals. AnimalsABC. Retrieved
2012-11-10.
[3] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia betschi. Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-11-10.
[4] Charles Klaver Wolfgang Bhme; Charles J. J. Klaver
(1997). Das Tierreich The Animal Kingdom: A Characterization and Compilation of the Recent Animal Groups.
Walter de Gruyter. pp. 2. ISBN 978-3-11-015187-9.
Retrieved 10 November 2012.
[5] Brygoo, douard R.; Blanc, C. Patrick; Domergue,
Charles A. (1974). Notes sur les Brookesia de Madagascar VII. Brookesia du Marojezy. B. betschi et B. griveaudi
n.sp. (Reptilia, Squamata, Chamaeleonidae).. Bulletin
de l'Acadmie malgache 51 (1): 167184.
[6] Rakotomalala, D. 2002. Diversit des reptiles et amphibiens de la Rserve Spciale de Manongarivo, Madagascar.
Boissiera 59: 339-358
[7] Raxworthy, C.J., Andreone, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Rabibisoa, N. and Randriamahazo, H.R. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of the Anjanaharibe-Sud Massif, Madagascar: Elevational distribution and regional endemicity.
In A oral and faunal inventory of the Reserve Speciale
d'Anjanaharibe-Sud: with reference to elevational variation. Fieldiana: Zoology 90: 79-92.
[8] Brookesia chameleons of Madagascar. WildMadagascar.org. Retrieved 2012-11-26.

106.3 Biology
The Marojejy leaf chameleon is diurnal, spending the day
searching through leaf litter for insects and other small
invertebrates. If disturbed, it remains motionless, relying on its cryptic colouration to provide camouage. It
perches on low trees and plants at night, when it is most
easily spotted.[1][8]
152

Chapter 107

Brookesia bonsi
Brookesia bonsi is a species of chameleon endemic to
Madagascar. It was initially described by Ramanantsoa
in 1980. The International Union for Conservation of Nature ranked this species as Critically Endangered.

107.4 References
[1] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Brookesia bonsi, p. 31).
[2] "Brookesia bonsi | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

107.1 Etymology
The specic name, bonsi, is in honor of French
herpetologist Jacques Bons.[1]

Reptile-

[3] Namoroka Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia bonsi - Overview


- Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[4] "Brookesia bonsi (Namoroka Leaf Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[5] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia bonsi". Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-11-12.

107.2 Distribution and habitat


Brookesia bonsi is endemic to Tsingy de Namoroka Strict
Nature Reserve (Namoroka National Park; Reserve naturelle no. 8 du Tsingy de Namoroka) in Soalala District,
Mahajanga Province, northern Madagascar. Its type locality is the Tsingy de Namoroka Strict Nature Reserve.[2]
It is found on and restricted to the more humid parts of
the reserve. B. bonsi was found at elevations between 100
and 200 m (330 and 660 ft) above mean sea level. It is
believed to be found over an area less than 100 km2 (39
sq mi), and many surveys in western Madagascar have
failed to record this species.[3] Because of the small area
in which it is found, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has ranked B. bonsi as Critically Endangered because the climate continues to suer due to the
collection of wood.[4] During a 1996 survey, the species
was not considered rare, but during 2002, the species was
not found on a 15-day survey of the nature reserve.[4]

107.3 Taxonomy
Brookesia bonsi was rst described by Ramanantsoa in
1980, and later in 1994: 236, by Glaw and Vences. It was
later described by Necas in 1999: 276, and most recently
Townsend et al. in 2009.[2] According to the Integrated
Taxonomic Information System, the taxonomic status of
this species is valid.[5]
153

Chapter 108

Brookesia brygooi
Brookesia brygooi, commonly known as the leaf 108.5 Behavior
chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to
Madagascar. It was rst described in 1995 by Raxwor- It spends the night resting on twigs.[4]
thy and Nussbaum and named in compliment to douardRaoul Brygoo.[1]

108.6 Reproduction
108.1 Conservation status
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
classed this species as Least Concern.

The female of Brookesia brygooi lays two to ve eggs per


clutch. The eggs measure 2.5 by 1.5 mm (0.098 by 0.059
in) each.[4]

108.7 Taxonomy
108.2 Distribution and habitat
Brookesia brygooi is endemic to southwestern Madagascar, where its type locality is Analavelona, Fianarantsoa
Province, south-central Madagascar.[2] Because it is
widespread and commonly found in protected areas, it
was listed as Least Concern by the International Union
for Conservation of Nature. It can be found at elevations between 20 and 571 m (66 and 1,873 ft) above
mean sea level (AMSL), and over an area of 147,782
square kilometres (57,059 square miles).[3] Details about
the true population of B. brygooi are unknown, although
it is known to be widespread.[3] It is found in many protected parks/areas/nature reserves, and is also protected
under the Madagascar laws.[3]

It was initially described by Raxworthy and Nussbaum in


1995 under the name of Brookesia brygooi. The same scientic name was later used by Necas in 1999, and, most
recently by Townsend et al. in 2009.[2] According to the
ITIS, the taxonomic status of B. brygooi is valid.[5] It is
commonly known as the leaf chameleon.[6]

108.8 References
[1] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym
Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Brookesia brygooi, p. 41).
[2] "Brookesia brygooi | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] "Brookesia brygooi (Brygoos Leaf Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

108.3 Description
Brookesia brygooi has an unusual shape of body and is
earthy in colour.[4]

[4] Brygoos chameleon videos, photos and facts - Brookesia


brygooi". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[5] ITIS Standard Report Page:
Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

108.4 Diet

Brookesia brygooi ".

[6] Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia brygooi ), Central-South


Madagascar | UNEP/GRID-Arendal - Environmental
Photo Library. Grida.no. 2011-12-29. Retrieved 201211-12.

Its diet includes insects.[4]


154

108.9. FURTHER READING

108.9 Further reading


Necas, Petr [sic]. 1999. Chameleons: Natures Hidden Jewels. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing
Co. 348 pp. ISBN 1-57524-137-4.
Raxworthy JC, Nussbaum RA. 1995.
Systematics, speciation and biogeography of the
dwarf chameleons (Brookesia; Reptilia, Squamata,
Chamaeleontidae) of northern Madagascar. Journal of Zoology, London 235: 525-558. (Brookesia
brygooi, new species, pp. 542-543).
Townsend TM, Vieites DR, Glaw F, Vences M.
2009. Testing Species-Level Diversication Hypotheses in Madagascar: The Case of Microendemic Brookesia Leaf Chameleons. Systematic Biology 58 (6): 641-656.

155

Chapter 109

Brookesia condens
Brookesia condens, also known as the leaf chameleon,
is a newly discovered and one of the worlds smallest
species of chameleons. It is endemic to the Ankarana
Nature Reserve (Ankarana National Park) in Madagascar. It was rst described in 2012 by F. Glaw, J. Koehler,
T.M. Townsend and M. Vences.[1]

109.4 References
[1] Brookesia condens | EOLspecies.
species.lifedesks.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Eol-

[2] Rivaling the Worlds Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of


Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf
Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar.
Plos One. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] Brookesia condens. Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2012-1112.

109.1 Distribution and habitat


Found in northern Madagascar, B. condens is one of
the worlds smallest chameleons. It was discovered in
the Ankarana National Nature Reserve.[2] It was rst
described in 2012 by Glaw, Koehler, Townsend and
Vences.[3] The nature reserve where B. condens can be
found on is well-protected. Little habitat destruction is
currently occurring that could impact the species.[4]

109.2 Description

[4] Amphibia-Reptilia.Com.
Amphibia-Reptilia.Com.
2012-02-16. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[5] Leaf chameleon photo - Brookesia condens G133175. ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[6] New Species of Madagascar Dwarf Chameleon Detailed. Reptilechannel.com. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[7] Sheridan, Michael (September 15, 2012).
Leaf
chameleons found in Madagascar are among the worlds
smallest reptiles. New York Daily News. Retrieved 201211-17.
[8] Leaf chameleon videos, photos and facts - Brookesia condens. ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-17.

Brookesia condens is smaller than half of a human nger, and is roughly the size of a wedding ring.[5] The
snoutvent length of males is between 18.3 and 20.1
mm (0.72 and 0.79 in), and the total length is between
29.2 and 34.2 mm (1.15 and 1.35 in). The females are
slightly larger, and have a snout-vent length between 20.6
and 22.6 mm (0.81 and 0.89 in), and a full length between 32.5 and 36.2 mm (1.28 and 1.43 in).[4] It is the
sister taxon of Brookesia tuberculata (Mount d'Ambre
leaf chameleon).[4] It is just larger than Brookesia micra.[6] It looks identical to Brookesia desperata, Brookesia
micra and Brookesia tristis.[7]

109.3 Taxonomy
Brookesia condens is commonly known as the leaf
chameleon,.[3][8]
156

Chapter 110

Brookesia decaryi
Brookesia decaryi is a species of chameleon, which is 110.6 Conservation status
endemic to Madagascar, and is ranked as an endangered
species by the International Union for Conservation of The species is classed as endangered by the IUCN,[4] and
Nature (IUCN). It was initially described in 1939 by the population is decreasing. It was described by AnFernand Angel.[1]
gel in 1939.[3] It is protected under the laws of Malagasy
(Madagascar), although it can be collected, if authorised,
but collection in the Parc National d'Ankarafantsika is
not permitted. The spiny leaf chameleon is threatened
110.1 Etymology
by wood harvesting, res, farming, and ranching.[3][5][6]
The specic name, decaryi, is in honor of French botanist
Raymond Decary.[2]

110.2 Geographic range


Brookesia decaryi can only be found on the island of
Madagascar in Ankarafantsika National Park (Parc National d'Ankarafantsika), northwest Madagascar.[3]

110.7 Common names


B. decaryi is commonly known as Decarys leaf
chameleon, the spiny leaf chameleon,[7][3] or Decarys
pygmy chameleon.[2]

110.8 References
110.3 Habitat

[1] "Brookesia decaryi. The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-10.

B. decaryi can only be found at elevations under 200 m


(660 ft) above sea level.[3][1] The species can be found
over an area of 1,300 km2 (500 sq mi) the size of the
Parc National d'Ankarafantsika in dry forest.[3]

[2] Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym


Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
(Brookesia decaryi, p. 67).
[3] "Brookesia decaryi (Decarys Leaf Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-10.

110.4 Reproduction
Details about the reproduction of this chameleon are unknown, although clutch sizes of between two and ve
eggs have previously been found.[3]

110.5 Behavior

[4] Decarys leaf chameleon videos, photos and facts Brookesia decaryi". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
[5] Facts about Decarys Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia decaryi
) - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org.
2012-10-23. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
[6] Ramanamanjato & Rabibisoa 2002, pp. 98104.

B. decaryi is diurnal (sleeps at night, awake in the day) and


sleeps at a mean height of 0.17 metres (0.56 ft), mainly
on small plants, logs (fallen), and small trees.
157

[7] Spiny Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia decaryi ), Madagascar , Camouage c/o Animals Animals - Earth Scenes.
Animalsprints.com. Retrieved 2012-11-10.

158

110.8.1

CHAPTER 110. BROOKESIA DECARYI

Bibliography

Angel F. 1939. "Lzards, Scincid et Chamaeleontid nouveaux de Madagascar, des collections R. Decary ". Bulletin du Musum d'Histoire naturelle 10:
574-577. (Brookesia decaryi, new species, p. 575).
Ramanamanjato, J.-B; Rabibisoa, N. (2002). Evaluation rapide de la diversit biologique de reptiles et amphibians de la Reserve Naturelle Integrale
d'Ankarafantsika: L.E. Alosno, T. Schulenberg, S.
Radilofe and O. Missa (eds), A Biological Assessment
of the Reserve Naturelle Integrale d'Ankarafantsika.
Washington D.C.: Conservation International.

Chapter 111

Brookesia exarmata
Brookesia exarmata, also known as the dwarf
chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to
Madagascar. It was rst described by Schimmenti and
Jesu in 1996, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has classed it as an endangered
species of animal.

111.4 References
[1] Brookesia exarmata | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[2] Dwarf chameleon videos, photos and facts - Brookesia
exarmata. ARKive. 2011-06-24. Retrieved 2012-1112.
[3] Brookesia exarmata. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 201211-12.

111.1 Distribution and habitat


Brookesia exarmata is endemic to Madagascar, where it
is only found in its type localities, which is the River Ambodyreana, Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve,
in west-central Madagascar.[1][2] It can be found over an
area of 1,991 km2 (769 sq mi), and the habitat of the
species is in decline due to logging and forest res. B.
exarmata can be found at elevations between 100 and 563
m (328 and 1,847 ft) above mean sea level. It is found in
a protected area.[3] The IUCN has classed B. exarmata as
an endangered species.[3]

111.2 Description
The dwarf chameleon is one of the smallest species in the
Brookesia genus of chameleons. It has a narrow head, and
is coloured beige and brown. The species is 45 mm (1.8
in) at full length, with 20 mm (0.79 in) of that being the
tail.[2] It sleeps at around 15 cm (5.9 in) above the ground
on twigs and/or stems. When threatened, it will stien its
body and clutch its legs, and then fall to the ground, until
it feels safe.[4]

111.3 Taxonomy
Brookesia exarmata was rst described in 1996 by Schimmenti and Jesu, and was described twice since that year;
by Necas in 1999: 277, and most recently, by Townsend
et al. in 2009.[1] It is commonly known as the Dwarf
Chameleon due to its small size.[2]
159

[4] Dwarf Chameleon - Brookesia exarmata - Overview Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Chapter 112

Brookesia griveaudi
Brookesia griveaudi, commonly known as the Marojejy
leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to
northeastern Madagascar. It was described initially by
Brygoo, Blanc, and Domergue in 1974. It was listed as
Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

112.4 References
[1] Brookesia griveaudi | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[2] Marojejy Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia griveaudi Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] Brookesia griveaudi (Marojejy Leaf Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

112.1 Distribution and habitat


Brookesia griveaudi is endemic to northeastern Madagascar, and has a type locality of the Marojejy National Park
and on the Marojejy Massif, in the region of Sava.[1] B.
griveaudi is found over an area of 21,829 km2 (8,428
sq mi), beginning in Masoala (southwards) and ending at Daraina (northwards), and is found at an elevation of 1,350 m (4,430 ft) above mean sea level.[2] The
International Union for Conservation of Nature has listed
this species as Near Threatened because the population of
the species is spread out considerably, despite the area it
covers. It is aected mainly by logging and the slash-andburn method of agriculture. The species is found in many
protected places/areas, and the population is believed to
be declining.[3]

112.2 Description
During the day, the Marojejy leaf chameleon stays with
its young and eggs.[4]

112.3 Taxonomy
The species was initially described by Brygoo, Blanc, and
Domergue in 1974, and has been described three times
since: Glaw and Vences (1994: 236), Necas (1999: 277),
and, most recently by Townsend et al. in 2009. Brookesia griveaudi is commonly known as the Marojejy leaf
chameleon, after the type locality of the species.[1]
160

[4] Brookesia griveaudi (Marojejy Leaf Chameleon)". Zipcodezoo.com. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Chapter 113

Brookesia lambertoni
Brookesia lambertoni, the Fito leaf chameleon, is
a species of chameleons endemic to Fito in eastern
Madagascar. It was rst described in 1970 by douardRaoul Brygoo and Charles Antoine Domergue. It is rated
as Data Decient (DD) by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), as not enough data on
the species have been collected to judge its conservation
status.

113.1 Distribution and habitat


The Fito leaf chameleon is endemic to Fito, Toamasina,
Madagascar, and its type locality is Fito.[1] The species
common name, Fito leaf chameleon is ambiguous, and
does not explain if it is referring to the forest or the administrative area or the town, both of which are named
Fito. Recent surveys have not found the species. The
area where the species can be found is unknown and any
extrapolation is impossible, because only two specimens
have been found and recorded.[2] Both specimens collected before 1921.[3] It was found an area aected by
the slash-and-burn method of agriculture, although no
threats can be conrmed. Because of this, the International Union for Conservation of Nature listed this species
as Data Decient, as not enough information has been
collected to determine its conservation status.[3]

113.2 Taxonomy
This species was initially described by Brygoo and
Domergue in 1970 as Brookesia lambertoni, which is still
its name. However, it is more commonly known simply
as the Fito leaf chameleon.[1]

113.3 References
[1] Brookesia lambertoni | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[2] Fito Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia lambertoni - Overview
- Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org.
Retrieved 2012-11-12.

161

[3] Brookesia lambertoni. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 201211-12.

Chapter 114

Brookesia lineata
Brookesia lineata, also commonly known as the lined
leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar. It was rst described by Raxworthy and Nussbaum in 1995. The International Union
for Conservation of Nature ranked this as an endangered
species.

114.1 Distribution and habitat


Endemic to Madagascar, the lined leaf chameleons type
locality is the Manongarivo Reserve (Manongarivo Special Reserve).[1] This chameleon has only been found at
Manongarivo and Tsaratanana Reserves in Tsaratanana,
Betsiboka at elevations around 1,200 m (3,900 ft) above
mean sea level. It is found over a total area of 2,370
km2 (920 sq mi).[2] The International Union for Conservation of Nature has ranked the lined leaf chameleon as
endangered, as it is found where slash-and-burn agricultural methods are commonly used to make space to plant
coee. Its population trend is unknown.[3] It is found in
protected areas.[3]

114.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia lineata was initially described in 1995 by Raxworthy and Nussbaum. According to the ITIS, the taxonomic status of Brookesia lineata is valid, as of 2012.[4] B.
lineata is commonly known as the lined leaf chameleon.[5]
It has also been described by Necas in 1999: 277, and recently Townsend et al.' in 2009.[1] It was named after the
Latin word linea which means line or stripe.[1]

114.3 References
[1] Brookesia lineata | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Reptile-

[2] Lined Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia lineata - Overview


- Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org.
Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] Brookesia lineata (Lined Leaf Chameleon)".
nredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Iuc-

162

[4] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia lineata. Itis.gov.


Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[5] Lined Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia lineata - Overview Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Chapter 115

Brookesia micra
Brookesia micra is a species of chameleon from the islet
of Nosy Hara in Antsiranana, Madagascar. As of 14
February 2012, it is the smallest known chameleon and
among the smallest reptiles, small enough to stand on the
head of a match. In length, adult Brookesia micra can
grow up to 29 mm (1.1 in).[1]

the coast of Madagascar. They typically reside in leaf


litter during the day, and climb up into tree branches as
high as 10 cm (3.9 in) at night to sleep.[5][6] B. micra lives
in an area subject to illegal logging, which may make the
species sensitive to habitat destruction", according to researcher Jorn Khler.[7]

115.1 Taxonomy

115.4 References

Brookesia micra was discovered and named by a team Specic


of researchers led by Frank Glaw of the Bavarian State
Collection of Zoology.[2] Glaw and his colleagues have [1] Glaw, F.; Khler, J. R.; Townsend, T. M.; Vences,
M. (2012). Salamin, Nicolas, ed. Rivaling the
been conducting expeditions into the Madagascan forests
Worlds Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized
[3]
for eight years. Members of the species had previously
and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons
been labelled as Brookesia sp. Nosy Hara in 2007 by
(Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7
Glaw and Vences.[1]
(2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314. PMC
3279364. PMID 22348069.

115.1.1

[2] Phelan, Jessica (15 February 2012). Brookesia micra,


worlds smallest chameleon, discovered in Madagascar.
GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 15 February
2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.

Etymology

The specic epithet of B. micra is a derivation of the Latin


form of the Greek word "" (mikros), which means
either tiny or small and refers to the small body size.[1]

[3] Zukerman, Wendy (15 February 2012). Itsy bitsy teeny


weeny chameleons. New Scientist. Retrieved 15 February
2012.

115.2 Description

[4] Mann, Adam (14 February 2012). Worlds Tiniest


Chameleons Found in Madagascar. Wired. Retrieved 15
February 2012.

The males of Brookesia micra reach a maximum snoutvent length of 16 mm (0.63 in), and the total body length
of both of the sexes is less than 30 mm (1.2 in), ranking it
among the smallest amniote vertebrates found anywhere
in the world.[1] Compared to Brookesia minima, B. micra
has a shorter tail and a larger head.[1] Adults of B. micra
also have orange tails, as opposed to an inconspicuous
brown one.[1] The size of the lizard may be linked to its
habitat, due to insular dwarsm.[4]

115.3 Distribution and habitat

[5] Mustain, Andrea (14 February 2012). Worlds Tiniest


Chameleon Discovered. Live Science. Archived from
the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
[6] Davies, Ella (15 February 2012). Tiny lizards found in
Madagascar. BBC Nature. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
[7] Worlds tiniest chameleon discovered. Toronto Sun.
Quebecor Media. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.

General

Brookesia micra, together with three other species, was


found in north Madagascar some time between 2003 and
2007.[5] This species was discovered on a small islet o
163

This article incorporates text from a scholarly publication published under a copyright license that allows anyone to reuse, revise, remix

164

CHAPTER 115. BROOKESIA MICRA


and redistribute the materials in any form for any
purpose: Glaw, F.; Khler, J. R.; Townsend,
T. M.; Vences, M. (2012).
Salamin, Nicolas, ed. Rivaling the Worlds Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7
(2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314.
PMC 3279364. PMID 22348069. Please check the
source for the exact licensing terms.

Chapter 116

Brookesia minima
Brookesia minima, (common names of which in- 116.4 Reproduction
clude the dwarf chameleon, the Madagascan dwarf
chameleon,[2] the minute leaf chameleon,[3] the pygmy It is not known how frequently B. minima reproduces, but
leaf chameleon,[4] the Nosy Be pygmy leaf chameleon, a typical clutch contains two eggs.[7]
and the tiny ground chameleon[5][6] ), is a diminutive
chameleon that was often said to be the smallest[7] of the
Chamaeleonidae, but a smaller species, B. micra, was de116.5 Cultivation
scribed in 2012.
Few successful examples of captive breeding have been
reported. Because B. minima are somewhat territorial,
individual housing is recommended even for very young
116.1 Range
specimens. Their terrarium or other glass enclosures of
at least 16 x 16 x 16 (16"=~40 cm)"[7] should have a
B. minima is endemic to Nosy Be, an island located just substrate of leaf litter or soil. As they prefer to stay close
o the northwest coast of Madagascar, but has extralimi- to the ground, the horizontal dimensions of their habit are
tal distribution to Manongarivo Reserve on Madagascars more important than its height. B. minima eggs are tiny
northwest coast.[7]
and dicult to locate; some breeders prefer to leave them
in their enclosure until hatching.[7]

116.2 Description

116.6 Similar species

The B. minima adult has a attened head and an orbital


crest with large scales forming triangular plates above its
eyes. Along its back are two rows of granular protrusions. B. minima specimens sometimes have lateral yellow stripes over their basic drab grayish-brown color. The
maximum total length is 3.4 cm (1.3 in) for females and
2.8 cm (1.1 in) for males.[8] Males are also more slender
than females, and exhibit a hemipenial bulge at the base
of their tails. They are often considered the smallest of
the Chamaeleonidae, but there is a smaller species.[7][8]

116.3 Habitat
B. minima is native to the rain forests of its native island.
It has a relatively active habit for a chameleon and likes
moving around in the low branches and leaf litter of its native rain forests. Though they are moderately aggressive
toward one another, population and densities in the wild
may approach one animal per square meter.[7]

B. minima has been characterized as belonging to a


species group with other Madagascan dwarf chameleons
such as B. dentata, B. tuberculata, and other new
or unidentied species such as a recently described
chameleon from Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve.[7]
A 1999 paper in the Journal of Zoology disputed a
1995 paper which considered B. tuberculata and B. peyrierasiand to be the same species as B. minima. The
later paper discussed the same details as the rst
subtle morphological dierences in the hemipenises
of the respective speciesand determined they were
heterospecic. They also found dierences in the arrangement of head crests and in minute spines above the
eyes.[2][9]

116.7 Photolinks

165

Brookesia minima images on Flickr

166

116.8 Bibliography
Klaver, C. & W. Boehme. 1997. Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich, 112: i-xiv' 1 - 85. Verlag Walter de
Gruyter & Co., Berlin, New York.
Martin, J., 1992. Masters of Disguise: A Natural
History of Chameleons. Facts On File, Inc., New
York, NY.
Necas, P. 1999. Chameleons: Natures Hidden Jewels. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL.

116.9 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw,
F., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). "Brookesia minima". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for
Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[2] Journal of Zoology (1999), 247: 225-238 Cambridge
University Pres
[3] Arkive:Images of Life on Earth
[4] Zoological Society of San Diego
[5] WildMadasgar.org
[6] Common names
[7] AdCham.com: Brookesia minima by E. Pollak
[8] Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide
to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar 2nd edition. Kln: M. Vences & F. Glaw Verlags GbR. ISBN
3-929449-01-3..
[9] The Reptile Database

CHAPTER 116. BROOKESIA MINIMA

Chapter 117

Brookesia peyrierasi
Brookesia peyrierasi is a diminutive chameleon from
north-eastern Madagascar. It is known commonly as
Peyrieras pygmy chameleon, named after the herpetologist Andr Peyriras.

117.1 Similar species


A 1999 paper in the Journal of Zoology disputed a 1995
paper which considered this species and B. tuberculata
to be the same species as B. minima. The later paper discussed the same details as the rst subtle morphological
dierences in the hemipenises of the respective species
and determined they were not conspecic. They also
found dierences in the arrangement of head crests and
in minute spines above the eyes.[2]

117.2 Bibliography
Klaver, C. & W. Boehme. 1997. Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich, 112: i-xiv' 1 - 85. Verlag Walter de
Gruyter & Co., Berlin, New York.
Martin, J., 1992. Masters of Disguise: A Natural
History of Chameleons. Facts On File, Inc., New
York, NY.
Necas, P. 1999. Chameleons: Natures Hidden Jewels. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL.

117.3 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw,
F., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). "Brookesia peyrierasi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for
Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[2] Journal of Zoology (1999), 247: 225-238 Cambridge
University Pres

167

Chapter 118

Brookesia stump
Brookesia stump, also known as the plated leaf the night.[5] The species is a type of lectotype.[2]
chameleon (German: Stachelchamleon), is a species of
chameleon found in some parts of Madagascar. It can be
found in Nosy B, north-west Madagascar, Nosy Komba, 118.3 References
and Nosy Sakatia.
[1] Brookesia stump (Plated Leaf Chameleon)".
nredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-09.

118.1 Distribution and habitat

Iuc-

[2] Brookesia stump | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-09.

Brookesia stump was described and found by Oskar


Boettger, a German zoologist, in 1894. The species
has been described as Brookesia stump six times, initially by Boettger in 1894. It was later described by
Glaw and Vences in 1994: 236, Klaver and Bhme in
1997, Necas in 1999: 268, Pianka and Vit in 2003:
11, and most recently by Townsend et al. in 2009.[2]
Glaw and Veneces found the species on small islands of
Madagascar away from the main land mass of the country in 2007.[1] The species can only be found in certain parts of Madagascar; it can be found in Nosy Be
(sometimes known as Nosy B), north-western Madagascar, Nosy Komba, and Nosy Sakatia,[2] and is common
in the rainforest. Brookesia stump can be found up to
a height of 150 metres (490 feet) above sea level, and
can be found over an area of 61,884 kilometres (38,453
miles).[1][3] There are no known major threats to the
Brookesia stump, and the species seems to be adaptable
to disturbed habitats.[1] The species is sometimes kept
as a pet and domesticated.[4] The species is marked as
Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[4]

118.2 Description
Brookesia stump can grow up to 9 cm (3.5 in), and has a
life expectancy of at least three years. During reproduction, this species of chameleon lays between three and
ve eggs, which hatch between 60 and 70 days later, provided they are at a temperature of 23 C (73 F).[5] They
feed on insects such as crickets, fruit ies, cockroaches,
wax moths (waxworms), and grasshoppers. During the
day, the body temperature of B. stump is between 22
and 25 C (72 and 77 F), and is 20 C (68 F) during
168

[3] Facts about Plated Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia stump)


- Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. 2012-10-23. Retrieved
2012-11-09.
[4] Brookesia stump (Plated Leaf Chameleon)".
nredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
[5] Animals. Lucky Reptile. Retrieved 2012-11-09.

Iuc-

Chapter 119

Brookesia therezieni
Brookesia therezieni, also known as the Perinet leaf
chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to eastern Madagascar. The International Union for Conservation of Nature classed the species as Least Concern, and
it was initially described by douard-Raoul Brygoo and
Charles Antoine Domergue in 1970.

[2] Perinet Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia therezieni Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life.
Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] Brookesia therezieni (Perinet Leaf Chameleon)". Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[4] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia therezieni.
Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

119.1 Distribution and habitat


Endemic to east Madagascar, Brookesia therezieni is
found in the geological type locality of the species,
Prinet, which is why it is known as the Perinet
leaf chameleon.[1] It is also found in the east-central
area of Madagascar: An'Ala, Ankeniheny, Andasibe,
Anjanaharibe, Mantadia, and Imerimandroso. It can be
found at elevations between 900 and 1,500 m (3,000 and
4,900 ft) above mean sea level, and is estimated to be
found over an area of 30,444 km2 (11,754 sq mi).[2]
The International Union for Conservation of Nature has
ranked B. therezieni as Least Concern on its Red List of
Threatened Species, as it is found on a too large area to
be concerned about and evidence is insucient to indicate the number of specimens is declining quickly. However, the population is declining and their numbers have
decreased.[3]

119.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia therezieni was rst described by Brygoo and
Domerque in 1970. According to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the taxonomic status of this
species is valid.[4] It is commonly known as the Perinet
leaf chameleon.[1] Since it was initially described in 1970,
B. therezieni has been described three further times: Glaw
and Vences in 1994: 239, Necas in 1999: 277, and, most
recently, Townsend et al. in 2009.[1]

119.3 References
[1] Brookesia therezieni | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

169

Chapter 120

Brookesia thieli
Brookesia thieli, commonly also known as Domergues leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon
endemic to eastern Madagascar, with a type locality of
Ambodimanga, Andapa. It was rst described in 1969 by
douard-Raoul Brygoo and Charles Antoine Domergue,
and it was ranked by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as Least Concern. B. thieli is thought to
be found over an area of 43,865 km2 (16,936 sq mi) at
up to 1,200 m (3,900 ft) above sea level.

120.1 Distribution and habitat


In eastern Madagascar, its geological type locality is
Ambodimanga, Madagascar.[1] It can be found from
Ranomafana (southwards) to Anjanaharibe Sud (northwards), and the species has previously been found in Ambohitantely, Angavo-Anjozorobe, Analamazaotra, Mantadia, Marojejy, and Vohidrazana at elevations between
875 and 1,200 m (2,871 and 3,937 ft) above mean sea
level. It is believed to be found in around 43,865 km2
(16,936 sq mi) of land.[2]

120.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia thieli was rst described in 1960 by Brygoo
and Domergue. The same species was also described as
Brookesia antoetrae by Brygoo and Domergue in 1971.
Brookesia antoetrae was synonymized with Brookesia
thieli by Raxworthy and Nussbaum in 1995, but not all
subsequent authors have accepted this conclusion. It is
also commonly known as Domergues leaf chameleon after Domergue, who described it in 1960 and 1971.[1] According to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the taxonomic status of the species is valid.[3][4]

120.3 References
[1] Brookesia thieli | The Reptile Database.
database.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Reptile-

[2] Domergues Leaf Chameleon - Brookesia thieli Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Encyclopedia of Life.

170

Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.


[3] ITIS Standard Report Page: Brookesia thieli. Itis.gov.
Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[4] Brookesia thieli. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2012-1112.

Chapter 121

Brookesia valerieae
Brookesia valerieae is a species of chameleon that is
endemic to Madagascar. It was rst described by Raxworthy in 1991. The IUCN have classed this species as
endangered, and it is aected by slash-and-burn agriculture. It is not a protected species.

[2] Brookesia valerieae - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.


Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
[3] Brookesia valerieae. Iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 201211-12.
[4] ITIS Standard Report Page:
Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

121.1 Distribution and habitat


Brookesia valerieae is endemic to the Manongarivo Special Reserve (Manongarivo Reserve) in the region of
Diana, Madagascar, which is also the species geological
type locality.[1]
It can only been found at Manongarivo and the Ramena
River, which are 7 km (4.3 mi) away from each other. If
the species covers the whole area between the reserve and
the river, it will be 2,589 km2 (1,000 sq mi) in area, but
this has not been conrmed.[2] The International Union
for Conservation of Nature have classed the species as endangered species on their Red List of Threatened Species,
as the scale of habitat loss is high in that area, it is not
high up, and is mainly aected frequently by the slashand-burn method of agriculture.[3] B. valerieae has been
used as part of the pet trade/industry. The species occurs in some reserves, but it is currently not a protected
species.[3]

121.2 Taxonomy
Brookesia valerieae was initially described by Raxworthy in 1991. Since 1991, it has been described under
that name three times: Glaw and Vences (1994: 239),
Necas (1999: 277), and, most recently, Townsend et al.
in 2009.[1] According to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the taxonomic status of the species is
valid.[4]

121.3 References
[1] Brookesia valerieae | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-12.

171

Brookesia valerieae.

Chapter 122

Brown leaf chameleon


The brown leaf chameleon (Brookesia superciliaris) is a
small chameleon found on a small island o the eastern
coast of Madagascar. Its appearance mimics that of a
dead leaf.

122.1 Description
The brown leaf chameleon is distinguished by its elongated, high, laterally squashed body that resembles a
rolled-up, dead leaf. The size and appearance of this
chameleon varies considerably over its vast range, and
it may be any shade of brown, beige, grey, olive, green,
or dark red, but usually display colours and patterns that
mimic a dead leaf. Despite its tiny size, the brown leaf
chameleon has an imposing appearance due to two pronounced horns that protrude from the head above each
eye and four spiny scales that jut from the throat.[1]

belly, rolls over to one side and remains very still, mimicking a dead leaf on the forest oor.[6] Alternatively, the
brown leaf chameleon may also thrust its spines to ward
o predators.[7]
Brown leaf chameleons have an interesting courtship ritual in which a male approaches a female with pronounced
nodding and rocking movements. An unreceptive female
repels a male by reacting with jerky movements, while a
receptive female walks with the male. After some time
walking together, and before dusk, the male mounts the
female and is carried on her back until the pair copulates
in the late evening or at night. This species is known
to store sperm.[1] Between 30 and 45 days after copulation, the female lays two to ve eggs, which she hides
under dead leaves, moss, and pieces of bark on the forest
oor. Sometimes, a true nest is excavated and the clutch
is laid on to the ground. The eggs hatch after 59 to 70
days; the brown leaf chameleon reaching sexual maturity
within one year.[1]

122.2 Distribution and habitat


The brown leaf chameleon occurs in eastern Madagascar
(including the island of Nosy Boraha),[2] from sea level
up to altitudes of over 1,250 metres (4,100 ft).[3] The
oor of evergreen primary forest is the preferred habitat
of the brown leaf chameleon, but it may also be found in
secondary forest and adjacent overgrown plantations.[4] It
seems to prefer closed-canopy forest, and climbs higher
in the forest (up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft)), more often than other
species of Brookesia.[1]

122.3 Ecology and behavior


The brown leaf chameleon spends its days foraging
among dead leaves on the forest oor,[1] searching for
prey with its independently moving, protruding eyes and
catching insects with its long, sticky tongue.[5] If threatened, the lizards rst reaction is to stay still and rely on its
remarkable camouage, but it may also exhibit other defence behaviours. This includes the 'freeze-and-roll' technique, in which the chameleon folds its legs underneath its

122.4 Threats and conservation


Like other Brookesia chameleons, the brown leaf
chameleon is threatened primarily by habitat destruction,[2] which is the result of agricultural expansion, timber extraction, and small-scale mining.[8] Harvesting for
the international pet trade does occur, but is unlikely to
be threatening its survival.[9] Since 2005, export quotas
have been set at 200 individuals per year.[10]
The brown leaf chameleon is listed on Appendix II of
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITES), meaning that trade in this species
should be carefully controlled to be compatible with their
survival.[11] It is also known to occur in a number of
protected areas, including Befotaka-Midongy National
Park,[12] Mantadia National Park,[4] Analamazoatra Special Reserve,[4] and Kalambatitra Special Reserve.[13] Although illegal harvesting and other activities that degrade
the forest habitat may lessen any benets this bestows,
this species is more tolerant of forest disturbance than
other leaf chameleons.

172

122.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

122.5 References

173

122.6 External links

This article incorporates text from the ARKive fact-le Brown leaf chameleon media at ARKive
Brown leaf chameleon under the Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the
GFDL.
[1] Neas, P. and Schmidt, W. (2004) Stump-tailed
chameleons. Miniature Dragons of the Rainforest.
Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt.
[2] Carpenter, A.I. and Robson, O. (2005) A review of the endemic chameleon genus Brookesia from Madagascar, and
the rationale for its listing on CITES Appendix II. Oryx,
39(4): 345-380.
[3] Andreone, F., Randrianirina, J.E., Jenkins, P.D. and
Aprea, G. (2000) Species diversity of Amphibia, Reptilia
and Lipotyphla (Mammalia) at Ambolokopatrika, a rainforest between the Anjanaharibe-Sud and Marojejy Massifs, NE Madagascar. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9:
1587-1622.
[4] Rakotondravony, H. (2004) Diversit des camlons
forestiers de la rgion d'Andasibe (Madagascar) et modle
de distribution de cette communaut selon dirent types
physionomiques. La Terre et la vie: Revue d'Ecologie,
59: 529-544.
[5] Halliday, T. and Adler, K. (2002) The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford University Press,
Oxford.
[6] Raxworthy, C. J. (1991) Field observations on some dwarf
chameleons (Brookesia spp.) from rainforest areas of
Madagascar, with the description of a new species. Journal of Zoology, 224: 11-25.
[7] Brown Leaf Chameleon. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
[8] Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots (February 2008).
[9] Arkive factsheet (citing personal communication with Dr
Richard K.B. Jenkins, Madagasikara Voakajy and Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of
Kent.)
[10] CITES Export Quotas (March 2011).
[11] CITES (July 2007).
[12] Bora, P., Randriambahiniarime, O., Rabemananjara,
F.C.E., Ramilijaona, O.R., Glaw, F. and Vences, M.
(2007) A rapid assessment survey of the herpetofauna
at Befotaka-Midongy National Park, south-eastern Madagascar. Mitteilungen des Museums fr Naturkunde
Berlin, Zoologische Reihe, 83: 170-178.
[13] Andreone, F., and Randrianirina, J. (2007) The amphibians and reptiles of Kalambatritra, a little-known rainforest of south-eastern Madagascar. Bollettino del Museo
Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, 24: 179-190.

Chapter 123

Brookesia ebenaui
Brookesia ebenaui (northern leaf chameleon[4] or Ebenaus leaf chameleon[5] ) is a chameleon endemic to
Madagascar. They can rapidly change among various
earth hues.[6]

123.1 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw,
F., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D.,
Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
(2011). "Brookesia ebenaui". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for
Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[2] EOL.org
[3] ITIS.gov
[4] Kingsnake.com
[5] Chameleoncrazy.com
[6] Wildherps.com

Glaw, F., Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the


Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, Second
Edition
Henkel, F., Schmidt, W. 2000. Amphibians and
Reptiles of Madagascar and the Mascarene, Seychelles, and Comoro Islands

123.2 Photolinks
Wildherps.com

174

Chapter 124

Mount d'Ambre leaf chameleon


The Mount d'Ambre leaf chameleon (Brookesia tuberculata) is a diminutive chameleon from far northern
Madagascar.

124.1 Similar species


A 1999 paper in the Journal of Zoology disputed a 1995
paper which considered this species and B. peyrierasi to
be the same species as B. minima. The later paper discussed the same details as the rst subtle morphological
dierences in the hemipenises of the respective species
and determined they were not conspecic. They also
found dierences in the arrangement of head crests and
in minute spines above the eyes.[2]

124.2 Bibliography
Klaver, C. & W. Boehme. 1997. Chamaeleonidae.
Das Tierreich, 112: i-xiv' 1 - 85. Verlag Walter de
Gruyter & Co., Berlin, New York.
Martin, J., 1992. Masters of Disguise: A Natural
History of Chameleons. Facts On File, Inc., New
York, NY.
Necas, P. 1999. Chameleons: Natures Hidden Jewels. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL.

124.3 References
[1] Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M.,
Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griths, R.A., Jenkins, R.K.B., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C.,
Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F.
& Robsomanitrandrasana, E. (2011). "Brookesia tuberculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[2] Glaw, Frank; Miguel Vences; Thomas Ziegler; Wolfgang Bhme; Jrn Khler (1999). Specic distinctness and biogeography of the dwarf chameleons Brookesia minima, B. peyrierasi and B. tuberculata (Reptilia:

175

Chamaeleonidae): evidence from hemipenial and external morphology. Journal of Zoology 247 (2): 225238.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb00986.x.

Chapter 125

Naturelle leaf chameleon


The naturelle leaf chameleon, Brookesia karchei,[2] is
a species of Chamaeleonidae (chameleon) endemic to
Madagascar. It was rated as an endangered species by the
International Union for Conservation of Nature on its Red
List of Threatened Species. The species was described by
Brygoo, Blanc, and Domergue in 1970.

125.4 References

125.1 Distribution and habitat

[1] Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala,
D., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F., Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
& Carpenter, A. (2004). "Brookesia karchei". IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International
Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
[2] Brookesia karchei - Animals. AnimalsABC. Retrieved
2012-11-10.

The naturelle leaf chameleon is found in Madagascar in


Marojejy National Park (Massif du Marojezy or Parc
National de Marojejy) centered around the Marojejy
Massif).[3] It has only been found at elevations between
380 and 850 m (1,250 and 2,790 ft) above sea level. The
species can be found over an area of 597 m (1,959 ft),
and is listed as endangered by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature,[4] because of loss of quality
forest habitat caused by the extraction of rosewood
richly hued timbers, although the true population of the
species has not been determined. The extraction of rosewood is its main threat.[1] It is terrestrial and is found in
humid forests at mid- or low-elevation. In the Marojejy
National Park, collection of this chameleon, and all others, is illegal.[1]

125.2 History
This species was initially described by Brygoo, Blanc, and
Domergue in 1970 as Brookesia karchei. This name was
later referenced by Glaw and Vences in 1994: 240, Necas
in 1999: 277, Townsend et al. in 2009,[3] and most recently Glaw et al. in 2012.[5]

125.3 Description
The female measures 30.7 mm (1.21 in) in snout-vent
length, and has a total length of 51.0 mm (2.01 in).[5]
176

[3] Brookesia karchei | The Reptile Database. Reptiledatabase.reptarium.cz. Retrieved 2012-11-10.


[4] Brookesia karchei - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life.
Encyclopedia of Life. Eol.org. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
[5] Amphibia-Reptilia.Com.
Amphibia-Reptilia.Com.
2012-02-16. Retrieved 2012-11-10.

125.5. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

177

125.5 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


125.5.1

Text

Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameleon?oldid=644643587 Contributors: William Avery, David spector, Heron, Hephaestos, Shyamal, Ixfd64, Arpingstone, Alo, Pcb21, Jpatokal, Darkwind, Glenn, Big iron, Cimon Avaro, Jiang, Rob Hooft, Lee M, A1r,
Ww, Furrykef, Grendelkhan, SEWilco, Bevo, Jurriaan Schulman, Pollinator, Donarreiskoer, Robbot, Seglea, Academic Challenger, Rursus, UtherSRG, Fuelbottle, SoLando, Marc Venot, DocWatson42, BenFrantzDale, Geeoharee, Abigail-II, Martijn faassen, Leonard G.,
Tim205, R. end, Yath, HorsePunchKid, Williamb, BozMo, OverlordQ, Cornischong, Icairns, Enisoc, Mediterraneo, Neutrality, MementoVivere, Trevor MacInnis, Imroy, Jiy, Discospinster, NrDg, Notinasnaid, Ivan Bajlo, Dewet, Billlion, Mwanner, Bobo192, Themarcuscreature, Viriditas, Malafaya, Flammifer, Conny, Alansohn, Andrewpmk, Ahruman, Malo, Snowolf, HenkvD, Staeiou, Dirac1933,
Bsadowski1, DSLdanv, Zntrip, Stemonitis, Angr, Sucoyant, Ameres, Theonhighgod, Rickjpelleg, Jrkarp, Firien, SCEhardt, Scm83x, Jon
Harald Sby, Dysepsion, Mandarax, Edison, Rjwilmsi, Gamesmasterg9, Bruce1ee, ErikHaugen, SMC, Mike Peel, Sohmc, Titoxd, Dawson,
Eubot, Lifeling, Draktorn, Crazycomputers, RexNL, Alphachimp, LeCire, Chobot, JesseGarrett, Gdrbot, YurikBot, Wavelength, TexasAndroid, Personman, Sceptre, Kiscica, RussBot, Sputnikcccp, Red Slash, Hydrargyrum, CambridgeBayWeather, Schoen, Wimt, GeeJo,
Lusanaherandraton, Shanel, NawlinWiki, Grafen, Kvn8907, , Howcheng, Daniel Mietchen, Misza13, Zwobot, Bucketsofg, DRosenbach, Alhen, Wknight94, The Halo, FF2010, Emijrp, Closedmouth, IvanP, Isarioglu, Suredeath, Dspradau, Sarefo, LeonardoRob0t, Allens,
Winning-Eleven, DVD R W, AndrewWTaylor, User24, SmackBot, Bad carpet, InverseHypercube, KnowledgeOfSelf, Od Mishehu, Vald,
Jacek Kendysz, Thunderboltz, J0lt C0la, Edgar181, Metacracker, Yamaguchi , Aksi great, Anarkisto, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Skizzik,
Andy M. Wang, Rmosler2100, Foucaults Pendulum Index, Persian Poet Gal, NCurse, Jprg1966, Miquonranger03, Moshe Constantine
Hassan Al-Silverburg, Steinninn, Mike hayes, Tsca.bot, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Snowmanradio, Matchups, Addshore, SundarBot,
Julius Sahara, Tinctorius, Funky Monkey, RolandR, SpacemanAfrica, SpiderJon, DMacks, Ultraexactzz, Kalathalan, Sigma 7, A5b, Marcus Brute, Andrewpayneaqa, RossF18, Kukini, Rockpocket, Ace ETP, TenPoundHammer, Slavlin, Lambiam, Saccerzd, Soap, AmiDaniel,
Jidanni, Papanoel, Loodog, Yathin sk, Kevmin, NJZombie, Stattouk, The Man in Question, Davemcarlson, Ceirius, Funnybunny, MTSbot,
Nicolharper, Nialsh, ShakingSpirit, Phuzion, Ginkgo100, Iridescent, Lathrop1885, TwistOfCain, Shoeofdeath, Igoldste, Lenoxus, Ndvornk, Bandan, Courcelles, Bruinfan12, Tawkerbot2, Jackalt, Lahiru k, Orangutan, DBooth, RSido, Alphonze, Ales.kocourek, Dycedarg,
KyraVixen, Dgw, CuriousEric, Joelholdsworth, WeggeBot, Iokseng, Cydebot, Faethin, Reywas92, Gogo Dodo, Xxanthippe, Clovis Sangrail, DumbBOT, Jguard18, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Bloger, Pajz, LeeG, Dinadrose, Marek69, Tapir Terric, Big Bird, Iritscen, Escarbot,
AntiVandalBot, Seaphoto, QuiteUnusual, Ian T, Alexguitar, Jonnyboy5, Elgringo18, Faendalimas, Res2216restar, PlaguedOne, JAnDbot, Leuko, Husond, MER-C, Kedi the tramp, Instinct, Sophie means wisdom, OhanaUnited, PhilKnight, Freshacconci, Frankyboy5,
Dmanagadze, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Catslash, Eus Kevin, Faizhaider, Rivertorch, Avicennasis, Catgut, Animum, M3rrick, Allstarecho,
Bugtrio, JoergenB, DerHexer, Gjd001, Atarr, Sniping dreamer, Hdt83, MartinBot, Juansidious, Anaxial, Ksoth, Stonedonkey, Aeonoris,
CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius, Dri-ft, PrestonH, Senthryl, Shorty40604, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Gthm159, Idda, Bjames9, Bo Basil,
Ayecee, Uncle Dick, Extransit, Iluvmekirani, Acalamari, Bot-Schafter, Katalaveno, Jamaljubob, Enuja, Clerks, Charlesjsharp, Nikola1609,
Gnourt, Chiswick Chap, Richard D. LeCour, NewEnglandYankee, Username X, Tiggerjay, Treisijs, TJK91, Squids and Chips, CardinalDan, Idioma-bot, X!, Deor, VolkovBot, DrMicro, Macedonian, Science4sail, Je G., Probatio Pennae, AlnoktaBOT, MenasimBot,
TheOtherJesse, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Vipinhari, Rei-bot, ElinorD, Gerrish, Derena, Clarince63, Catalyst2007, NattraN,
Melsaran, ChrisAndersonCham, Fractalizator, JhsBot, Joshlaney, LeaveSleaves, Prism Chameleons, Seb az86556, Platoaddict, Pigeon
hunter, Lxxxi, Y, Gorank4, Brianga, Therealnyquist, SaltyBoatr, Jae8998, SieBot, Chimin 07, Gerakibot, Mbz1, Dawn Bard, Hornirl,
Rangutan, Keilana, Bentogoa, Vonsche, Tiptoety, The Evil Spartan, Oda Mari, Epitron, Oxymoron83, Baseball Bugs, Harry, Gnom,
KoshVorlon, Hobartimus, Hak-k-ngn, Rabo3, Susan118, Spotty11222, Elassint, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Srkpradeep,
Wysprgr2005, Drmies, WDM27, DrFO.Jr.Tn, Gavinevans, Blanchardb, Cirt, Pointillist, Gordongrad, DragonBot, Excirial, GngstrMNKY,
Alexbot, Eeekster, Lartoven, Tyler, Kimchu, Flip69, Turtleboy267, 7&6=thirteen, Razorame, Dekisugi, Fireside79, Thingg, Aitias,
Kayleedandy, AC+79 3888, DumZiBoT, Billprimwhere, Crazy Boris with a red beard, XLinkBot, Baseballgod334, Superradrudeboy, Stickee, Rror, Ost316, Anturiaethwr, Revancher, HexaChord, CalumH93, Barrett.sturge, Bgag, King Pickle, Addbot, Xp54321, ConCompS,
RN1970, Willking1979, Bezzy101, Atethnekos, M.nelson, DaughterofSun, Moosehadley, Chamal N, Milepost53, Favonian, LinkFA-Bot,
Numbo3-bot, Chelseychickk, Erutuon, Tide rolls, , Gail, Jarble, Ettrig, Matt.T, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Fraggle81, Djzazu78,
Jujubean55, Kjaer, Synchronism, AnomieBOT, Andrewrp, A More Perfect Onion, The Parting Glass, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, AdjustShift, Kingpin13, Ulric1313, Nick UA, Materialscientist, ImperatorExercitus, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Citation bot, Goodl018, ArthurBot, LilHelpa, The Firewall, Farhner, Xqbot, Termininja, Gigemag76, Shpiglet, Nasnema, BLACKHAWK5866, Tad Lincoln, Sheridan.a,
Founlerking, GrouchoBot, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT, Doulos Christos, Mandrake76, Shadowjams, Chameleonqueen, Erik9, Wikipe-tan,
Therainingblah1949, KezianAvenger, JMS Old Al, Gouerouz, Dger, Vishizs, David Seow, Pinethicket, HRoestBot, A8UDI, Freeksquad,
RedBot, MastiBot, SpaceFlight89, Silurian King, FoxBot, Fama Clamosa, Melissableum, Tinfoilcat, Mapfn, FlameHorse, Allen4names,
Kamaldevjhalli, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Jfmantis, Guerillero, RjwilmsiBot, S-Adm, CanadianPenguin, Binoyjsdk, EmausBot, Austinb1995,
Logical Cowboy, Glosgreen2, Kingbling3141, GoingBatty, RA0808, Philipp Wetzlar, Western Pines, RenamedUser01302013, Steveirwin1010, Wikipelli, K6ka, Jack gator, Iruvtea69, ZroBot, Haifagreen, Joeyjojo12345, Access Denied, Kilopi, Wayne Slam, Gyvprincess,
Tolly4bolly, Brandmeister, Donner60, Mafushwa, Andrej Milosevski, Orange Suede Sofa, Spicemix, JonRicheld, ClueBot NG, Jkshapiro,
Mjanja, This lousy T-shirt, Satellizer, Rainbowwrasse, Chaoswurm187, Cntras, Sarahjuneclark, Widr, Morgantaylor500, WikiPuppies,
Vibhijain, Helpful Pixie Bot, Chameleons rule!, HMSSolent, DBigXray, WNYY98, Island Monkey, Krenair, TCN7JM, Kinyonga, Ryanandliam, Existential elevator, Brockjackson2001, Imnotdestroyingstu, Supernerd11, Arontjuh, Joel1001, RogerTHAT923, Gladson777,
Knowlageable, Itw1096, Simon is Jesus, NGC 2736, Jo213ey, Totagwa223, Ducknish, SurreyJohn, Dexbot, Caroline1981, Webclient101,
Kbog, TwoTwoHello, Lugia2453, Frosty, Koyrda66, Ariefrahman, Kevin12xd, JuliaMontes101, Reatlas, Forgot to put name, Epicgenius,
Prabhu parmar, Cavisson, Harrison7718, Miabertalan, Infomaser, Fussball017, Jaxgray22, Ugog Nizdast, My name is not dave, Ginsuloft,
Piratek.batek, Nevady, Weirdeditssuck, Forthegoodofnoone, Monkbot, Greedo8, Karnaoui, Richard Yin, Nofairy, TranquilHope, May
misty456, Mike radman, Lucastarrox, Cmg milkman, Harvey87, Aweaweawe87, Soren27, Cjkturtle, ChameleonsCanFly and Anonymous:
1019
Anqingosaurus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anqingosaurus?oldid=581856794 Contributors: Stemonitis, Apokryltaros, Kevmin,
Ascidian, Od Mishehu AWB, Addbot, Dawynn, Dinosauria and Anonymous: 4
Arabian chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian%20chameleon?oldid=586957918 Contributors: Goustien, Dawynn,
LilHelpa, Gigemag76, Northamerica1000 and Anonymous: 4
Archaius Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaius?oldid=631042112 Contributors: Ground Zero, ChrisAndersonCham, Dawynn,
NotWith and B14709

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Archaius tigris Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaius%20tigris?oldid=633842786 Contributors: Ground Zero, Ruigeroeland, AxelStrauss, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, Yobot, JackieBot, Rbrausse, EmausBot, Woches, ClueBot NG, Monkbot and Anonymous: 1
Bizarre-nosed chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bizarre-nosed%20chameleon?oldid=615012249 Contributors: Animalparty and B14709
Black-headed dwarf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-headed%20dwarf%20chameleon?oldid=591234043 Contributors: William Avery, SmackBot, Droll, Esculapio, Bruinfan12, Jaguarlaser, Addbot, Ettrig, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Gigemag76, DexDor,
EmausBot, Michaelwild, ZroBot and Anonymous: 2
Bradypodion Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradypodion?oldid=607223140 Contributors: Pcb21, Ahoerstemeier, Rl, Jurriaan
Schulman, Eugene van der Pijll, Postdlf, Abigail-II, FriedMilk, CanisRufus, CranialNerves, LOL, Rjwilmsi, Eubot, Gdrbot, Tavilis,
Dysmorodrepanis, Seb35, Htonl, Od Mishehu, Mwood, J. Spencer, Esculapio, Mgiganteus1, Bruinfan12, Thijs!bot, R'n'B, Nono64,
ChrisAndersonCham, Gorank4, Calliopejen1, Sun Creator, Dthomsen8, Addbot, Lightbot, Zorrobot, Laikayiu, Legobot, Luckas-bot,
Yobot, Gigemag76, Michaelwild, Aliwal2012 and Anonymous: 10
Brookesia Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia?oldid=622124325 Contributors: Pcb21, Jurriaan Schulman, Abigail-II, FriedMilk, Freakofnurture, CanisRufus, Kim rutherford, HasharBot, Alansohn, B kimmel, Dawson, Eubot, Gdrbot, Tavilis, Daniel Mietchen,
Od Mishehu, FordPrefect42, Esculapio, Thijs!bot, Lonestar662p3, Steveprutz, Magioladitis, WolfmanSF, CommonsDelinker, Inschanr,
Nadiatalent, AxelStrauss, Clarince63, ChrisAndersonCham, Calliopejen1, Rabo3, Good Olfactory, Addbot, Dawynn, Laikayiu, Luckasbot, Yobot, Pkhun, Synchronism, Bluerasberry, Xqbot, Gigemag76, Kkj11210, Kalubu, ZroBot, Diego Grez Bot, Jasonz2z, Helpful Pixie
Bot, Makecat-bot, Lyttle-Wight and Anonymous: 14
Brookesiinae Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesiinae?oldid=621228021 Contributors: Rjwilmsi, FordPrefect42, JMK,
ChrisAndersonCham, Gavinevans, Addbot, Dawynn, SwisterTwister, Vagobot, YFdyh-bot and Anonymous: 2
Calumma Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma?oldid=634594947 Contributors: Pcb21, Topbanana, Jurriaan Schulman,
Abigail-II, FriedMilk, CanisRufus, B kimmel, Eubot, Gdrbot, Tavilis, Dysmorodrepanis, Seb35, Od Mishehu, Esculapio, Bruinfan12,
Metanoid, Thijs!bot, Richiez, Magioladitis, VolkovBot, ChrisAndersonCham, Rabo3, Gavinevans, Vjethro, Addbot, Dawynn, Laikayiu,
Luckas-bot, Gigemag76, Gouerouz, Plantdrew, B14709, Lyttle-Wight, Monkbot and Anonymous: 9
Calumma amber Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20amber?oldid=626324509 Contributors: Pharaoh of the Wizards,
Anna Frodesiak and Lyttle-Wight
Calumma andringitraense Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20andringitraense?oldid=626597794 Contributors: B14709
and Lyttle-Wight
Calumma boettgeri Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20boettgeri?oldid=626711252 Contributors: T. Anthony and LyttleWight
Calumma crypticum Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20crypticum?oldid=569221844 Contributors: Pharaoh of the Wizards
Calumma fallax Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20fallax?oldid=632232018 Contributors: LadyofShalott, AnomieBOT,
Gigemag76, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth and Plantdrew
Calumma malthe Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20malthe?oldid=614654431 Contributors: Pharaoh of the Wizards,
Micromesistius and Animalparty
Calumma nasutum Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20nasutum?oldid=591087447 Contributors: Pharaoh of the Wizards,
Anna Frodesiak and Anonymous: 2
Calumma tarzan Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20tarzan?oldid=626201702 Contributors: Ruigeroeland, Pharaoh of
the Wizards, Anna Frodesiak and Lyttle-Wight
Cape dwarf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape%20dwarf%20chameleon?oldid=631026493 Contributors: Michael
Devore, Alansohn, Aranae, Stemonitis, BD2412, Eubot, Gdrbot, BuddyJesus, Dysmorodrepanis, Saudade7, SmackBot, Deon Steyn,
Mwood, Lancini87, Kaarel, Joseph Solis in Australia, Thijs!bot, Nman5, EagleFan, Andrew massyn, Hexasoft, Charlesjsharp, Cometstyles, Jaguarlaser, Flyer22, SyntheticVermin, Michnieuwoudt, Chameleon24, Addbot, Lightbot, Fraggle81, Johnleung2000s, Gigemag76,
FrescoBot, Drakenwolf, DexDor, EmausBot, Skyy Train, Michaelwild, Abu Shawka, JonRicheld, NotWith, Makecat-bot, Epicgenius and
Anonymous: 26
Carpenters chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpenter{}s%20chameleon?oldid=630547528 Contributors: Bruinfan12,
Addbot, Dawynn, Cohee, Gigemag76, EmausBot, ZroBot, Mar4d, Captain Assassin! and NotWith
Chamaeleo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaeleo?oldid=638957036 Contributors: Shyamal, Pcb21, Geo, Jurriaan Schulman,
David.Monniaux, Robbot, Abigail-II, Zinnmann, JoJan, Karl-Henner, CanisRufus, Joanjoc, Sabines Sunbird, HenkvD, Eubot, Gdrbot,
Tavilis, Dysmorodrepanis, Seb35, SmackBot, Od Mishehu, Vietlong, Steinninn, Mgiganteus1, JMK, Bruinfan12, Metanoid, Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, Dmtilly, BrianGV, STBot, Inwind, ChrisAndersonCham, Docclabo, The Red Cloud, Le Pied-bot, Sun Creator, Ryan-Hyde, Addbot, Dawynn, Laikayiu, Legobot, Bestiasonica, Kjaer, Johnleung2000s, ArthurBot, Gigemag76, Stho002, Erik9bot, MastiBot, EmausBot,
ChuispastonBot, B14709, Lyttle-Wight, Monkbot and Anonymous: 19
Chamaeleo caroliquarti Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaeleo%20caroliquarti?oldid=552903601 Contributors: Idda, Ascidian, Od Mishehu AWB, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Dinosauria and RjwilmsiBot
Chamaeleo johnstoni Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaeleo%20johnstoni?oldid=631030002 Contributors: RJFJR, SmackBot,
Mgiganteus1, ImageRemovalBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Johnleung2000s, EmausBot, ZroBot, NotWith and Anonymous: 3
Chamaeleo monachus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaeleo%20monachus?oldid=630464398 Contributors: Jprg1966, Magioladitis, Goustien, Addbot, Dawynn, Citation bot, Gigemag76, DSisyphBot, EmausBot, TYelliot, Plantdrew, FakirNL, Snowysusan,
B14709 and Anonymous: 6
Chamaeleoninae Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaeleoninae?oldid=630872451 Contributors: Klemen Kocjancic, Rjwilmsi,
ChrisAndersonCham, Gavinevans, Addbot, Dawynn, CarsracBot, Luckas-bot, Stho002, LLFrance, Lyttle-Wight and Anonymous: 1

125.5. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

179

Common chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common%20chameleon?oldid=629264912 Contributors: Richard Avery, Stemonitis, Miss Madeline, Eubot, Raymond Cruise, Dysmorodrepanis, Ohnoitsjamie, Chris the speller, Snowmanradio, Mphornet, Mgiganteus1, RotaryAce, Thijs!bot, Escarbot, Subhumanfreak, Regani, DorganBot, Philip Trueman, Haplochromis, AlleborgoBot, Atubeileh,
Trigaranus, FunkMonk, King Kobra 1990s, DragonBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Johnleung2000s, Gigemag76, XZeroBot, FrescoBot, LucienBOT, Gouerouz, Markos90, EmausBot, Legajoe, Haifagreen, ClueBot NG, Kasirbot, Benzband, BattyBot, Mickeysamuni,
JYBot, Helmy oved, Makecat-bot, B14709 and Anonymous: 20
Crested chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crested%20chameleon?oldid=558937528 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Ericoides,
Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Gigemag76, Thine Antique Pen, ClueBot NG, MrNiceGuy1113 and Anonymous: 1
Fischers chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer{}s%20chameleon?oldid=630143496 Contributors: Pcb21, Warofdreams, Postdlf, Abigail-II, Gdr, Xezbeth, Mwng, CanisRufus, Eubot, Gdrbot, Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Od Mishehu, Esculapio,
Lancini87, Kaarel, Bruinfan12, Thijs!bot, Minesweeper.007, DrMicro, Someguy1221, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, RN1970, Dawynn,
Luckas-bot, KnutHj, Gouerouz, RedBot, EmausBot, NotWith, YFdyh-bot, Khazar2 and Anonymous: 14
Globe-horned chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globe-horned%20chameleon?oldid=586957906 Contributors: Bruinfan12, Ruigeroeland, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Rbrausse and Fchristant
Graceful chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graceful%20chameleon?oldid=637883023 Contributors: Bearcat, Ser Amantio
di Nicolao, Ruigeroeland, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Dotun55, NotWith, Lugia2453, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Indian chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian%20chameleon?oldid=612283668 Contributors: Shyamal, Stemonitis,
Eras-mus, Rjwilmsi, Eubot, Lusanaherandraton, Spasage, Lancini87, Kaarel, Courcelles, Bruinfan12, Stavenn, Cydebot, Hexasoft,
Katharineamy, Warut, Anurag Bajpai, ClueBot, Jmgarg1, DragonBot, Addbot, Zorrobot, Yobot, Gigemag76, Gouerouz, Dger, Vinay84,
Deepak (old), Binoyjsdk, EmausBot, FakirNL, AntanO, Khazar2, Shantanu Kuveskar, Lauravarpa, Psarathis and Anonymous: 8
Jacksons chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson{}s%20chameleon?oldid=642361803 Contributors: Psychonaut,
Pengo, JoJan, Heegoop, Mani1, Edgarde, Nsaa, HenkvD, Feezo, -Ril-, Eubot, Gdrbot, Snek01, ExRat, Zwobot, DRosenbach, Closedmouth, SmackBot, Tinctorius, Eddxee, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Mgiganteus1, Lancini87, Kaarel, Bruinfan12, KyraVixen, Philiptdotcom,
Chasingsol, Dawnseeker2000, MER-C, Mike Searson, Ksoth, J.delanoy, BrokenSphere, LordAnubisBOT, Benjamint444, Sunderland06,
Siowl, Gwib, ChrisAndersonCham, Monty845, AlleborgoBot, Mothmolevna, Flyer22, Grizzlyrun, Movingsaletoday, ClueBot, PipepBot,
The Thing That Should Not Be, Turtleboy267, Fireside79, Vanished User 1004, XLinkBot, Superradrudeboy, Addbot, Blechnic, Tide
rolls, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, Johnleung2000s, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Capricorn42, Gigemag76, TechBot, Rayman46, Noder4, AJCham, DarkChameleon, Gouerouz, Pinethicket, Innotata, DexDor, Kandres4, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Josve05a, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot,
Zerfetzte, DBigXray, BG19bot, NotWith, Nagol345, AlaskaDave25, AK47Expert, Adouglasbhanot, Makecat-bot, Enock4seth, ArmbrustBot, Monkbot, Lord Marcellus and Anonymous: 77
Karoo Dwarf Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karoo%20Dwarf%20Chameleon?oldid=564622439 Contributors:
Pcb21, Vespristiano, Postdlf, Abigail-II, Gdr, Mwng, CanisRufus, Stemonitis, Jonnabuz, Eubot, Gdrbot, Bgwhite, Dysmorodrepanis, Htonl,
SmackBot, Od Mishehu, Lancini87, JMK, Kaarel, Shoeofdeath, CapitalR, Spookpadda, Gorank4, Jaguarlaser, Addbot, Dawynn, Yobot,
Gigemag76, Hamamelis, EmausBot, Michaelwild, ZroBot, Makecat-bot and Anonymous: 6
Kinyongia Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinyongia?oldid=591507285 Contributors: Eubot, RussBot, Dysmorodrepanis, Bruinfan12, Thijs!bot, Steveprutz, TXiKiBoT, ChrisAndersonCham, Jaguarlaser, Brianga, Ffaoe, The Red Cloud, Petefrog, Addbot, Dawynn,
Gigemag76, DSisyphBot, LucienBOT, Rsindaco, BattyBot and Anonymous: 10
Kinyongia tavetana Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinyongia%20tavetana?oldid=626969662 Contributors: Alan Liefting, RadioFan, Steveprutz, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, Dawynn, AnomieBOT, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Xqbot, Micromesistius, RedBot,
EmausBot, ClueBot NG, B14709, Davescott2600 and Anonymous: 2
Knysna dwarf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knysna%20dwarf%20chameleon?oldid=578579731 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll, Jason Quinn, D6, Malcolma, SmackBot, Paul venter, Alaibot, Meredyth, Foxj, Addbot, Igiddy, Dawynn, Yobot,
Gigemag76, Dger, Androstachys, EmausBot, Michaelwild, ZroBot, YFdyh-bot and Anonymous: 4
Magombera chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magombera%20chameleon?oldid=615765624 Contributors: Rd232,
PhilKnight, Grundle2600, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, ChildofMidnight, Alph Bot, Kafakande, BG19bot, B14709 and
Anonymous: 1
Marshalls pygmy chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall{}s%20pygmy%20chameleon?oldid=635383730 Contributors: Fungus Guy, Ucucha, JMK, CommonsDelinker, Addbot, Dawynn, Yobot, Gigemag76, Micromesistius, Rbrausse, Animalparty, Jesse
V., EmausBot, ZroBot, Qwerty1989, Porqaz, DrC.Humphreys, Dr Clive Humphreys, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Mellers chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meller{}s%20chameleon?oldid=642239434 Contributors: Woohookitty,
RexNL, Mike Searson, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, Luckas-bot, Xqbot, SD5, EmausBot, John of Reading, ZroBot, ClueBot NG,
Helpful Pixie Bot, NotWith and Anonymous: 6
Mlanje Mountain chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mlanje%20Mountain%20chameleon?oldid=635583602 Contributors:
Ground Zero, Bruinfan12, Ruigeroeland, Magioladitis, ChrisAndersonCham, Yobot, Gigemag76, B14709 and YiFeiBot
Mount Mabu chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount%20Mabu%20chameleon?oldid=615765272 Contributors: Ground
Zero, Ruigeroeland, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, Gigemag76, ZroBot and B14709
Nadzikambia Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nadzikambia?oldid=615765224 Contributors: B kimmel, Eubot, Bgwhite, Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Bruinfan12, Thijs!bot, ChrisAndersonCham, Synthebot, Ffaoe, MystBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Yobot,
Xqbot, Gigemag76, KLBot2, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Namaqua chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namaqua%20chameleon?oldid=643600857 Contributors: Freakofnurture,
Sabines Sunbird, Eubot, Gdrbot, Crisco 1492, JLaTondre, Rooivalk, SmackBot, Yathin sk, Lancini87, Kaarel, WolfmanSF, Ciar, Tomer
T, ChrisAndersonCham, Rosiestep, Denisarona, JL-Bot, Rotational, Kassorlae, Alexius08, Addbot, Dawynn, Sennahoj, Luckas-bot, Yobot,
Materialscientist, Gigemag76, Erik9bot, Drakenwolf, Micromesistius, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Jkadavoor, Abu Shawka, Alborzagros,
ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth, NotWith, Shaun and Anonymous: 12

180

CHAPTER 125. NATURELLE LEAF CHAMELEON

Natal Midlands Dwarf Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natal%20Midlands%20Dwarf%20Chameleon?oldid=


642275758 Contributors: Menchi, Pcb21, Postdlf, Abigail-II, Gdr, ClockworkLunch, Mwng, CanisRufus, B kimmel, Eubot, Gdrbot,
Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Reedy, Od Mishehu, Lancini87, JMK, CapitalR, Bruinfan12, Beastie Bot, Jaguarlaser, Thanatos666,
Finetooth, EoGuy, Addbot, Andyjoe81, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Gigemag76, EmausBot, John of Reading, Michaelwild, ZroBot,
Makecat-bot and Anonymous: 2
O'Shaughnessys chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O'Shaughnessy{}s%20chameleon?oldid=626715916 Contributors:
B14709 and Lyttle-Wight
Palleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palleon?oldid=606734387 Contributors: ChrisAndersonCham, FrescoBot, Animalparty and
Daniel-Brown
Parsons chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parson{}s%20chameleon?oldid=630566053 Contributors: PDH, Pol098,
BD2412, Mike Peel, Eubot, SmackBot, JialiangGao, Robin Chen, Bruinfan12, Dynzmoar, Thijs!bot, Ian T, VoABot II, Mike Searson, MiltonT, Hexasoft, Mrmuk, TXiKiBoT, AlleborgoBot, BotMultichill, FunkMonk, Rabo3, ClueBot, Flip69, Addbot, RN1970,
Dawynn, Luckyz, Luckas-bot, Yobot, JackieBot, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Anna Frodesiak, Gouerouz, Rbrausse, EmausBot, BattyBot, SurreyJohn,
Madiba13, Monkbot, Ryubyss, Eyrewood Studios and Anonymous: 14
Perinet chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perinet%20chameleon?oldid=560387259 Contributors: Gaius Cornelius, Wilhelmina Will, Gavinevans, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Rbrausse, EmausBot, ZroBot and BG19bot
Peyrieras Reptile Reserve Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peyrieras%20Reptile%20Reserve?oldid=630548978 Contributors:
Yobot, Animalparty, TheGGoose, NotWith and SurreyJohn
Rhampholeon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhampholeon?oldid=631800208 Contributors: Pcb21, Rl, Jurriaan Schulman, Eugene
van der Pijll, Abigail-II, FriedMilk, Gdr, CanisRufus, GVOLTT, Rjwilmsi, Eubot, Gdrbot, Tavilis, Seb35, Od Mishehu, Bruinfan12,
Mattisse, ChrisAndersonCham, Ffaoe, Addbot, Dawynn, DrJos, Rubinbot, Gigemag76, Micromesistius, MastiBot, DixonDBot, Innotata,
Braincricket, NotWith, DrC.Humphreys, Lyttle-Wight, Monkbot and Anonymous: 10
Spectral pygmy chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral%20pygmy%20chameleon?oldid=630542533 Contributors: Rl,
Luigi30, Robotje, PWilkinson, Eubot, Gdrbot, Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Kuru, Lancini87, Kaarel, Thijs!bot, Nono64, ChrisAndersonCham, MISTERMAGIKKK, FunkMonk, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Erik9bot, DrilBot, Rbrausse, EmausBot, ZroBot, KimS012,
NotWith, YFdyh-bot, B14709 and Anonymous: 4
Rieppeleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rieppeleon?oldid=631040980 Contributors: Eubot, SmackBot, Sadads, FordPrefect42,
Metanoid, Thijs!bot, Mark t young, OhanaUnited, Hexasoft, ChrisAndersonCham, Ffaoe, DragonBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76,
Erik9bot, Micromesistius, ChuispastonBot, NotWith, B14709, Monkbot and Anonymous: 4
Rieppeleon brevicaudatus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rieppeleon%20brevicaudatus?oldid=630673581 Contributors: Alansohn, LFaraone, Eubot, T-borg, Thijs!bot, VolkovBot, ChrisAndersonCham, AnteaterZot, MystBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Glenfarclas, Gigemag76, AstaBOTh15, Micromesistius, EmausBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, SaberToothedWhale, Dexbot, B14709
and Anonymous: 4
Rosette-Nosed Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosette-Nosed%20Chameleon?oldid=634587758 Contributors: Fungus
Guy, Gdrbot, CommonsDelinker, ChrisAndersonCham, Mild Bill Hiccup, Addbot, Dawynn, Ginner 321, Gigemag76, NicolasMachiavel,
DrilBot, Rbrausse, EmausBot, NotWith and Anonymous: 1
Rough Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rough%20Chameleon?oldid=633137718 Contributors: Snowmanradio, Cydebot, ChrisAndersonCham, Rabo3, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Rzuwig, ZroBot, ClueBot NG, NotWith, Jennes83 and Anonymous:
1
Senegal chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegal%20chameleon?oldid=614451084 Contributors: Dawynn, Citation bot,
Gigemag76, FoCuSandLeArN, B14709 and Anonymous: 4
Sharp-nosed Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharp-nosed%20Chameleon?oldid=630543686 Contributors: Pcb21,
Postdlf, Abigail-II, Gdr, ClockworkLunch, Dceck, Mwng, CanisRufus, Stemonitis, Eubot, Gdrbot, Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Od
Mishehu, Lancini87, Kaarel, CapitalR, ChrisAndersonCham, Addbot, Dawynn, Lightbot, AnomieBOT, Erik9bot, EmausBot, NotWith,
B14709 and Anonymous: 5
Short-horned chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-horned%20chameleon?oldid=641107997 Contributors: Pharaoh of
the Wizards, Greatestrowerever, Anna Frodesiak, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Side-striped chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-striped%20chameleon?oldid=630230741 Contributors: Snowmanradio, ChrisAndersonCham, Rabo3, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Voxii, EmausBot, ZroBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, NotWith, B14709,
Monkbot and Anonymous: 2
Spiny-anked chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiny-flanked%20chameleon?oldid=629151698 Contributors: Bruce1ee,
Mgiganteus1, JEH, WolfmanSF, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, LilHelpa, Gigemag76, Micromesistius, EmausBot, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth
and B14709
Strange-nosed Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange-nosed%20Chameleon?oldid=634593428 Contributors: Hephaestos, Shyamal, Pcb21, Postdlf, UtherSRG, Abigail-II, Bobblewik, Gdr, Rich Farmbrough, CanisRufus, Eubot, Gdrbot, Dysmorodrepanis, SmackBot, Lancini87, Kaarel, ChrisAndersonCham, Spitre, Addbot, Dawynn, Tide rolls, Gigemag76, Animalparty, EmausBot,
ZroBot, BG19bot, NotWith, DavidUdvardy, B14709 and Anonymous: 7
Trioceros Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trioceros?oldid=630503467 Contributors: SmackBot, Mgiganteus1, ChrisAndersonCham,
Docclabo, Rabo3, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Johnleung2000s, Gigemag76, Innotata, ChuispastonBot, MegaPinkSquid, Hamsteris,
B14709, Tortie tude, DenesFeri and Lyttle-Wight
UMlalazi dwarf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UMlalazi%20dwarf%20chameleon?oldid=560381735 Contributors:
Malcolma, RebelRobot, Rettetast, Jaguarlaser, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Michaelwild and ZroBot
Van Heygens chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van%20Heygen{}s%20chameleon?oldid=631030882 Contributors:
SmackBot, Timbouctou, Gobonobo, Bruinfan12, Magioladitis, Dawynn, Yobot, Gigemag76, Cchamb02, NotWith, B14709 and Anonymous: 2

125.5. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

181

Veiled chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veiled%20chameleon?oldid=635805978 Contributors: William Avery, Hofoen,


Jimfbleak, Stevenj, Geo, Doradus, Raul654, Orangemike, Michael Devore, Gadum, Kayellen, JoJan, Sam Hocevar, Mwng, Matt Britt,
Vanished user 19794758563875, Hesperian, Wtshymanski, HenkvD, Deror avi, Stemonitis, Sucoyant, Tabletop, Brentdanley, Erebus555,
Krash, Eubot, LiquidGhoul, RobyWayne, Gdrbot, Rs09985, Cinik, Phaedrus86, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, Sarefo, DVD R W, Tom
Morris, SmackBot, Digimorph, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Tinctorius, TastyPoutine, Lancini87, GrahamBould, Billybizkit, KyraVixen,
WeggeBot, Metanoid, JamesAM, Drdaveng, RobotG, Darklilac, Instinct, Mike Searson, Atarr, Anaxial, Starhawk55, Trusilver, MezzoMezzo, Chiswick Chap, Tomer T, Link, ChrisAndersonCham, BotMultichill, Keilana, The Thing That Should Not Be, Chameloid001,
Mild Bill Hiccup, XLinkBot, Superradrudeboy, Addbot, RN1970, Mbinebri, Pietrow, HerculeBot, Luckas-bot, Gigemag76, 4twenty42o,
Sheridan.a, GrouchoBot, Pieceoschmidt, Sael, LucienBOT, HJ Mitchell, Rbrausse, Melissableum, DexDor, EmausBot, Orphan Wiki,
WikitanvirBot, K6ka, ZroBot, Findnemo1, Sonicyouth86, ClueBot NG, Regulov, Aintnorestforthewicked, Kbog, Chamcolors, IP.D, Sriharsh1234, FalkenbergM, Jacedc, Notthebestusername, QueenFan, Ru tu cream pu, TheNoReectivePropertiesKnight and Anonymous: 87
Vences chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vences{}%20chameleon?oldid=614461719 Contributors: Animalparty and
B14709
West Usambara two-horned chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West%20Usambara%20two-horned%20chameleon?
oldid=614727829 Contributors: RadioFan, Addbot, Dawynn, AnomieBOT, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Gigemag76, Micromesistius,
WikitanvirBot, Goldgreen1, ZroBot, ClueBot NG, DBigXray, Makecat-bot and Anonymous: 3
Dave the Chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave%20the%20Chameleon?oldid=575291063 Contributors: Chrism, David
Gerard, Fys, Gatta, Ricky81682, Nightstallion, Woohookitty, Tim!, Newmhost, Lemonade51, Robdurbar, Fang Aili, SmackBot,
WilliamThweatt, Dangherous, DWaterson, LuciferMorgan, Chris the speller, Bluebot, Suicidal mongoose, Greatgavini, Kaid100, Colonies
Chris, Oatmeal batman, Hayday, Martinp23, Andymmu, Megawattbulbman, CPCHEM, Dev920, CmdrObot, Drinibot, Lewbrown2, Smile
a While, Sonofecthelion, Ordew, RiverStyx23, Feinoha, Pointer1, Yobot, Sir Stanley, Sky4t0k, Calcucttdas and Anonymous: 15
Gex (series) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gex%20(series)?oldid=627830557 Contributors: Mrwojo, Ahoerstemeier, K1Bond007,
Altenmann, Mboverload, TerokNor, SoM, MajorB, LeeHunter, MattTM, CanisRufus, Shenme, Jason One, Jtalledo, ReyBrujo, Firsfron,
Hbdragon88, Dangerous-Boy, SeventyThree, Combination, Mandarax, Ryan Norton, Wackelpudding, Lady Aleena, Alpha Prime, Hyad,
Gaius Cornelius, Larsinio, Misza13, Bakazuki, Charron, EEMIV, Falcon9x5, N. Harmonik, Pegship, Fang Aili, Piecraft, Nall, Crystallina, SmackBot, Iamstillhiro1112, OrphanBot, Zidane4028, Nakon, Drc79, Ligulembot, Tredanse, Nishkid64, T$, Hope(N Forever), The
Bread, TheFarix, Anakata, Mika1h, Cydebot, Daniel J. Leivick, Mallanox, Thijs!bot, Chipmunk01, Dogaroon, TTN, Dreaded Walrus,
Cyclonius, Timkovski, Xeno, MegX, MetsBot, Kaijucole, MartinBot, Iggy248, Caribbean H.Q., Morris Munroe, WOSlinker, TXiKiBoT,
Frees, Visokor, Victory93, Wonchop, Angel caboodle, Martarius, ClueBot, Bokan, Mediadimension, Addbot, Paper Luigi, Llamahog,
Darkness2005, RP9, Lightbot, KiasuKiasiMan, Phthinosuchusisanancestor, Sergecross73, Darkquest21, Thehelpfulbot, Metabad, Str8cash,
Lorson, T K 19, Captjustice, Mark Arsten, Lugia2453 and Anonymous: 105
Henrys Amazing Animals Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry{}s%20Amazing%20Animals?oldid=635790092 Contributors:
Bearcat, Canterbury Tail, Mike Rosoft, Jayjg, Zscout370, Super-Magician, Woohookitty, BD2412, Muchi, Chaser, CambridgeBayWeather,
The Obfuscator, Apokryltaros, Pegship, Closedmouth, JLaTondre, SmackBot, HalfShadow, Chris the speller, Deanmo19, J. Spencer,
Colonies Chris, ILovePlankton, K00bine, Cydebot, Colin Keigher, Dora Nichov, PhilKnight, Freeleet, Kid Sonic, Rolf Schmidt, NatGertler, J.delanoy, AstroHurricane001, Warut, Sintaku, Jpeeling, StAnselm, Keilana, Aspects, Into The Fray, ClueBot, Niceguyedc, Mediadimension, Arjayay, SchreiberBike, Jojhutton, Joshcrs, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Bonusballs, Materialscientist, Eumolpo, FrescoBot,
DinosaurDan, Endofskull, EmausBot, Justinhful, The Mysterious El Willstro, ZroBot, ChipmunkRaccoon, Smartie2thaMaxXx, Ericmeyers1, EuroCarGT, Jamesx12345, Maelbros224428, Maelbros - Moi 2 and Anonymous: 194
Pascal and Maximus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal%20and%20Maximus?oldid=641526187 Contributors: Bearcat, John,
TonyTheTiger, Nthep, Jllm06, Niceguyedc, Yobot, Citation bot, Jonesey95, Reach Out to the Truth, Changedforbetter, BattyBot, GyaroMaguus, Onionring295 and Anonymous: 1
Rango (2011 lm) Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rango%20(2011%20film)?oldid=643611247 Contributors:
Edward,
Kchishol1970, WhisperToMe, Rsnn, Varlaam, Andycjp, Bender235, Zachlipton, Kocio, Mysdaao, TheRealFennShysa, Erik, Qinglong,
Slgrandson, Markkawika, Hezery99, SMC, EamonnPKeane, Antoin, Piet Delport, Tenebrae, Melly42, Sandstein, Closedmouth,
Th1rt3en, Jerome66, SmackBot, Benjaminb, Doc Strange, Goober99, ERobson, Joevi, JesseRafe, Cybercobra, PsychoJosh, UbZaR,
TenPoundHammer, Khazar, Radicaladz, Rkmlai, UnDeRTaKeR, SQGibbon, Ryulong, Manifestation, MikeWazowski, 5-, Cats Tuxedo,
Sophruhig Vita@comcast.net, Bobamnertiopsis, Gaunt, FleetCommand, Mika1h, Juhachi, FlyingToaster, Dogman15, Cydebot, Lugnuts,
Myscrnnm, DumbBOT, Thijs!bot, TonyTheTiger, Dtgriscom, QuasyBoy, Seaphoto, SummerPhD, Prolog, AdamDeanHall, Andrzejbanas,
MER-C, Art1991, MB1972, J Greb, TAnthony, Dream Focus, Wildhartlivie, JPG-GR, Cartoon Boy, Jvhertum, GroovySandwich,
Catgut, JaGa, Robochrist, Thanos777, R'n'B, McDoobAU93, TheLastAmigo, TyrS, Mara2, Tokyogirl79, DarkFalls, Skier Dude,
Funandtrvl, RingtailedFox, Je G., Bovineboy2008, Sjones23, Rwestera, Ryan032, TXiKiBoT, WilliamSommerwerck, And1987,
Bearian, Weetjesman, TheValentineBros, Yk Yk Yk, Feudonym, Visokor, The Devils Advocate, Zogalith, Yintan, NBbeauty, Crash
Underride, FrankRizzo2006, Necoplay, Varanwal, Denisarona, Drunkenpeter99, ClueBot, Jbening, Immblueversion, All Hallows Wraith,
EoGuy, Bokan, Trivialist, Puchiko, Excirial, Nymf, MatttK, Arjayay, Elizium23, Egon Eagle, Cary, 121720TH, XLinkBot, HMFS,
WikHead, MystBot, Humble user, Addbot, Some jerk on the Internet, Darwin-rover, Darkness2005, Merqurial, Wtooher, Sussmanbern,
Glane23, Bahamut Star, Favonian, Lotanam, Tide rolls, MuZemike, Vegaswikian1, Luckas-bot, Yobot, BKMastah, Amirobot, Der
Meister, Websurfer246, Bbb23, AnomieBOT, Vitaedigest, Mr.Grave, ArthurBot, Tootall183, Xqbot, Sb1990, Millahnna, Nasnema, Mr.
Chicago, Trut-h-urts man, BigBrightStars, J04n, Str8outtajerze, KokoroTechnix, Infanteriesoldat, Legend6, Who then was a gentleman?,
Sock, Ndboy, Rasmusbyg, Neptunekh2, Twinsdude, Jonathansuh, Jocullen84, JerzeyHellboy, 07jhone, Mortrainey, Ceauntay59, Freshh,
Alpheta, FriscoKnight, I dream of horses, Monkeyfox, Sebas1955, Spidey104, Calmer Waters, ScottMHoward, Mcb1209, Banej,
Saa19952, Theburn77, Imaginarium Of Doctor Parnassus, Jedi94, SuperSaiyanKirby, MikeAllen, Callanecc, Gsn93, Reaper Eternal,
Carniolus, Stegop, Aniten21, Cheddarjack, RustyPete12, Ben-Bopper, , Koppapa, Highlander1112, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot,
Avenue X at Cicero, EclecticEnnui, NinjaTazzyDevil, AJona1992, Starcheerspeaksnewslostwars, GoingBatty, FiGhT 12, ABC1356msep1,
CODY100, Solarra, Slightsmile, Tommy2010, Mdraus93, Godzillawolf, The Blade of the Northern Lights, Thecheesykid, Shootgunners,
Harry Blue5, Robotpotato, Aaapromoagent, Shotalot, Lacon432, Fingers333, , Alshaheen15, , Unreal7,
SporkBot, Maxitotal, AManWithNoPlan, Jdebenedict, Tottam100, Nautilidae, Coasterlover1994, WilliamFireFilms, Sgoldman10,
Loudmouth 2, JaDangerz, Jjm2311, Orange Suede Sofa, 456wert, Saif1618, ChuispastonBot, Spinc5, InfamousPrince, Mice never shop,
Penguinluver1431, Rusted AutoParts, TYelliot, Soe7, MoviePedia, A&ofan75, Whoop whoop pull up, SightWatcher, ClueBot NG,
Astatine211, Prioryman, Myfreeweb, Jpraup, Bubbleoui, Dushyant.bhosale, Succulentpope, Hbaum16, Wgolf, Easy4me, TravisBernard,

182

CHAPTER 125. NATURELLE LEAF CHAMELEON

BigAl2k6, Knagy, Jro6erts, Leifenberg, Jorgecarleitao, Dmc8ride, Hyliad, Calikocat, Andexplorer, Randythegeek, SeriousZev, 4best2,
Vivilowrie, Mb9114, Philip J.1987qazwsx, Helpful Pixie Bot, Rowley Halsey, Ninjiangstar, Kalmia.VT, Canihuan300, Jacob9594,
Wecantdoanythingaboutit, MariusHP, Thespoonyexperiment, Gothiclm, Zenith Diamond, 00tu, Anthony Weights, Oreo4466, Lowercase
sigmabot, Edgeofglory, Flax5, Wasbeer, Diiiiiiiii, Derpotitan, Superghost987, AvocatoBot, Ryanhahahhaha, Armonus, Skywalker80100,
Tyranitar Man, BeleiuVlad, Thorsam3333, MissGnosis43, Cralb821, Evolvo365247, Rimmerville, Panther Pictures, Jjuo, AlexManMaster, DreamWorksFan, Mrt3366, NikanaStarkiller, DisneyGirlovestacos95, Jennes83, StewieBaby05, Koala15, DisneyGirlovestacos1995,
NathanWubs, AlphaZelda, Howicus, Adarsh the Creator, Voltlds, Flat Out, ArmbrustBot, Persnal, Quenhitran, Asmym xix, Crazyforreading, , Andrewmhhs, JaconaFrere, HialeahFL, Avenger2015, Sonicgum15, UreasAlasonte787, Jdurk, TD712, WIKIGUY012,
Devin.1125, Wikimanawizardplayer and Anonymous: 564
African chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African%20chameleon?oldid=642679457 Contributors: Snowmanradio, Nick
Number, Tomer T, Davidwr, Middayexpress, Gigemag76, Cwmhiraeth, BattyBot, FoCuSandLeArN, B14709 and Hansmuller
Calumma gallus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumma%20gallus?oldid=627170924 Contributors: Fadesga, Yobot, Plantdrew
and SurreyJohn
Cameroon sailn chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cameroon%20sailfin%20chameleon?oldid=627175172 Contributors:
Citation bot, Micromesistius, Plantdrew and B14709
Flap-necked chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flap-necked%20chameleon?oldid=630143571 Contributors: Stemonitis,
Yathin sk, Dl2000, RebelRobot, Ben Skla, Charlesjsharp, ChrisAndersonCham, WereSpielChequers, Flip69, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckasbot, Gigemag76, Clarkcj12, EmausBot, Michaelwild, ZroBot, Magpie ebt, NotWith, Adouglasbhanot, Ongava, B14709, Tortie tude and
Anonymous: 1
Smooth chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smooth%20chameleon?oldid=636356617 Contributors: A412, Animalparty,
Anne Delong and B14709
Trioceros hoehnelii Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trioceros%20hoehnelii?oldid=627175825 Contributors: Ruigeroeland, Nick
Number, ChrisAndersonCham, Cmacauley, Addbot, Xqbot, Gigemag76, Micromesistius, EmausBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, KLBot2, Makecatbot and Tortie tude
Furcifer Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer?oldid=625763675 Contributors: Pcb21, Ahoerstemeier, Jurriaan Schulman, Eugene van der Pijll, Abigail-II, FriedMilk, CanisRufus, B kimmel, Stemonitis, Eubot, Gdrbot, YurikBot, Tavilis, Dysmorodrepanis, Od
Mishehu, LadyofShalott, Bruinfan12, Thijs!bot, Ian T, Magioladitis, WolfmanSF, Mike Searson, ChrisAndersonCham, Rabo3, Od Mishehu
AWB, Sun Creator, Good Olfactory, Addbot, Dawynn, Laikayiu, Luckas-bot, Omnipaedista, Kprwiki, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot,
B14709, Tortie tude, Monkbot and Anonymous: 11
Angels chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angel{}s%20chameleon?oldid=615767040 Contributors: Wetman, LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Koumz, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth and B14709
Antimena chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimena%20chameleon?oldid=615767479 Contributors: Circeus, LadyofShalott, Casliber, WolfmanSF, Kimse, Piledhigheranddeeper, Koumz, Addbot, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth and B14709
Two-banded chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-banded%20chameleon?oldid=615767878 Contributors: LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth, B14709 and Anonymous: 1
Belalanda chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belalanda%20chameleon?oldid=615511518 Contributors: Wetman,
Bruce1ee, LadyofShalott, Kimse, Berean Hunter, Koumz, Addbot, FrescoBot, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen, Brandmeister, Cwmhiraeth,
BlueMoonset, Mogism and B14709
Furcifer bidus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20bifidus?oldid=615768150 Contributors: LadyofShalott, Thine Antique
Pen, Cwmhiraeth and B14709
Jewelled chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewelled%20chameleon?oldid=625035766 Contributors: Magnus Manske, Hesperian, Eubot, Mgiganteus1, LadyofShalott, Bruinfan12, WolfmanSF, VolkovBot, ChrisAndersonCham, Polbot, Piledhigheranddeeper,
Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, DrilBot, Rbrausse, ZroBot, BabbaQ, Cwmhiraeth, Makecat-bot, B14709, Lyttle-Wight, Canvaschams and
Anonymous: 1
Furcifer cephalolepis Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20cephalolepis?oldid=615769331 Contributors: LadyofShalott, Addbot, Thine Antique Pen, B14709 and Anonymous: 1
Labords chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labord{}s%20chameleon?oldid=628272133 Contributors: Fungus Guy,
HCA, Swid, Hesperian, Stemonitis, Eubot, Joelr31, SmackBot, Mgiganteus1, LadyofShalott, Bruinfan12, Alaibot, Thijs!bot, Sm8900,
Finngall, Jaguarlaser, Od Mishehu AWB, Alexbot, Chhe, Maky, Addbot, RN1970, DOI bot, Dawynn, Kassiba, CarTick, Numbo3-bot,
Luckas-bot, Yobot, ArthurBot, Citation bot 1, Rbrausse, DexDor, EmausBot, ZroBot, ChuispastonBot, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot,
Michael Anon, Xaranda, B14709, 23wingo and Anonymous: 5
Carpet chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpet%20chameleon?oldid=616216258 Contributors: Mandarax, Mgiganteus1,
LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Arjayay, Addbot, Taketa, Thine Antique Pen, Brandmeister, Cwmhiraeth, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Malagasy giant chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malagasy%20giant%20chameleon?oldid=627959843 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll, PDH, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Mgiganteus1, JialiangGao, LadyofShalott, Thijs!bot, Ian T, WolfmanSF, Mike
Searson, MiltonT, Charlesjsharp, Uncle Milty, DumZiBoT, Bgag, RN1970, Dawynn, Tide rolls, Luckas-bot, JackieBot, Xqbot, Gigemag76,
LucienBOT, Rbrausse, , EmausBot, ZroBot, Tigers250, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, KLBot2, SurreyJohn, Monkbot, Nofairy
and Anonymous: 11
Lesser chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesser%20chameleon?oldid=615768920 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll, Fungus Guy, Hesperian, HenkvD, Eubot, Mgiganteus1, LadyofShalott, Bruinfan12, Hexasoft, Polbot, MystBot, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot,
DrilBot, Rbrausse, EmausBot, KLBot2 and B14709
Furcifer nicosiai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20nicosiai?oldid=615769072 Contributors: Sasata, LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Doug Coldwell, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Yobot, Xqbot, Rbrausse, Moswento, Thine Antique Pen, ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth,
B14709 and Anonymous: 1

125.5. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

183

Furcifer oustaleti Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malagasy_giant_chameleon?oldid=627959843 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll, PDH, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Mgiganteus1, JialiangGao, LadyofShalott, Thijs!bot, Ian T, WolfmanSF, Mike Searson, MiltonT,
Charlesjsharp, Uncle Milty, DumZiBoT, Bgag, RN1970, Dawynn, Tide rolls, Luckas-bot, JackieBot, Xqbot, Gigemag76, LucienBOT,
Rbrausse, , EmausBot, ZroBot, Tigers250, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, KLBot2, SurreyJohn, Monkbot, Nofairy and Anonymous: 11
Panther chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panther%20chameleon?oldid=642962769 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll,
David.Monniaux, HCA, Swid, Alansohn, Malo, Stemonitis, Firsfron, Eubot, Javier martin, DVdm, YurikBot, Cloud109, Sarefo, LeonardoRob0t, SmackBot, Thierry Caro, Delldot, Gilliam, Snowmanradio, Cernen, Khoikhoi, Tinctorius, Ryulong, LAlawMedMBA, KyraVixen, Markleci, Batlaugh1, Epbr123, Mike Searson, Ksoth, Ben Skla, Charlesjsharp, Ginpasu, Prism Chameleons, Agyle, Jaguarlaser,
Caltas, Rodhullandemu, Podzemnik, Excirial, DumZiBoT, Tarheel95, Superradrudeboy, Addbot, RN1970, Kirsts31, Mbinebri, Master of
Tetris and Emlith, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, Materialscientist, Xqbot, Sketchmoose, Gigemag76, GrouchoBot, RibotBOT, D'ohBot, Gouerouz,
I dream of horses, Rbrausse, Rvdb2, Lotje, Woogee, RjwilmsiBot, DexDor, TheArguer, EmausBot, ZroBot, Findnemo1, Crimsonraptor,
ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, Strike Eagle, Aurous One, Adouglasbhanot, Deadmonkey8984, I am One of Many, B14709, Madiba13,
Metadox, Koolkidmike28, Domapple16, Emmanuelbaltasar, Monkbot and Anonymous: 69
Furcifer pardalis Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panther_chameleon?oldid=642962769 Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll,
David.Monniaux, HCA, Swid, Alansohn, Malo, Stemonitis, Firsfron, Eubot, Javier martin, DVdm, YurikBot, Cloud109, Sarefo, LeonardoRob0t, SmackBot, Thierry Caro, Delldot, Gilliam, Snowmanradio, Cernen, Khoikhoi, Tinctorius, Ryulong, LAlawMedMBA, KyraVixen, Markleci, Batlaugh1, Epbr123, Mike Searson, Ksoth, Ben Skla, Charlesjsharp, Ginpasu, Prism Chameleons, Agyle, Jaguarlaser,
Caltas, Rodhullandemu, Podzemnik, Excirial, DumZiBoT, Tarheel95, Superradrudeboy, Addbot, RN1970, Kirsts31, Mbinebri, Master of
Tetris and Emlith, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, Materialscientist, Xqbot, Sketchmoose, Gigemag76, GrouchoBot, RibotBOT, D'ohBot, Gouerouz,
I dream of horses, Rbrausse, Rvdb2, Lotje, Woogee, RjwilmsiBot, DexDor, TheArguer, EmausBot, ZroBot, Findnemo1, Crimsonraptor,
ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, Strike Eagle, Aurous One, Adouglasbhanot, Deadmonkey8984, I am One of Many, B14709, Madiba13,
Metadox, Koolkidmike28, Domapple16, Emmanuelbaltasar, Monkbot and Anonymous: 69
Petters chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petter{}s%20chameleon?oldid=615859536 Contributors: Snek01, Sasata, LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Koumz, Addbot, Rbrausse, Demomoer, Thine Antique Pen, Brandmeister, B14709 and Anonymous: 2
Mayotte chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayotte%20chameleon?oldid=615853153 Contributors: Choess, WolfmanSF,
Addbot, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth, B14709 and Anonymous: 1
Rhinoceros chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinoceros%20chameleon?oldid=629152067 Contributors: LadyofShalott,
WolfmanSF, Micromesistius, Cwmhiraeth, Fchristant and B14709
Furcifer timoni Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20timoni?oldid=546419865 Contributors: LadyofShalott, Addbot, Xqbot,
Rbrausse, Schwede66, Thine Antique Pen and Cwmhiraeth
Furcifer tuzetae Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20tuzetae?oldid=615853558 Contributors: Wetman, Sasata, LadyofShalott, Addbot, Xqbot, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen and B14709
Furcifer verrucosus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furcifer%20verrucosus?oldid=630469005 Contributors: BD2412, Rcej, WolfmanSF, Cwmhiraeth, Plantdrew, B14709 and Anonymous: 1
Canopy chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canopy%20chameleon?oldid=627780974 Contributors: Choess, WolfmanSF,
Yobot, Thine Antique Pen, Cwmhiraeth, SurreyJohn and B14709
Antsingy leaf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antsingy%20leaf%20chameleon?oldid=560377084 Contributors: Fungus
Guy, Hesperian, Eubot, Bruinfan12, Mankind 2k, Polbot, Addbot, Dawynn, Laikayiu, Luckas-bot, Gigemag76, RibotBOT, Rbrausse,
EmausBot, IluvatarBot and Anonymous: 1
Brookesia ambreensis Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20ambreensis?oldid=560213500 Contributors:
7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Ptbotgourou, Gigemag76, Rbrausse and Thine Antique Pen

Bruce1ee,

Brookesia bekolosy Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20bekolosy?oldid=560214261 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Ruigeroeland, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Ptbotgourou, Gigemag76, Rbrausse and Thine Antique Pen
Brookesia betschi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20betschi?oldid=595721919 Contributors: Wetman, Mandarax,
Bruce1ee, Choess, LadyofShalott, WolfmanSF, Drmies, Addbot, Gigemag76, DSisyphBot, Rbrausse, Moswento, Thine Antique Pen,
Cwmhiraeth and Lyttle-Wight
Brookesia bonsi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20bonsi?oldid=612716503 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Ruigeroeland,
Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Gigemag76, Rbrausse, Sideways713, Thine Antique Pen, Lyttle-Wight and Anonymous: 1
Brookesia brygooi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20brygooi?oldid=622833062 Contributors: Wetman, Bruce1ee,
Ruigeroeland, Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Xqbot, Gigemag76, Thine Antique Pen and Lyttle-Wight
Brookesia condens Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20confidens?oldid=599214497 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Ruigeroeland, Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Yobot, Gigemag76, Thine Antique Pen, Rcsprinter123, HueSatLum and Makecat-bot
Brookesia decaryi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20decaryi?oldid=641287492 Contributors: Mandarax, Bruce1ee, Nihiltres, Esculapio, Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Gigemag76, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen, Brandmeister, Plantdrew and Lyttle-Wight
Brookesia exarmata Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20exarmata?oldid=561642490 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Esculapio,
Ruigeroeland, 7&6=thirteen, Gigemag76 and Thine Antique Pen
Brookesia griveaudi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20griveaudi?oldid=560227259 Contributors: Wetman, Bruce1ee,
Ruigeroeland, 7&6=thirteen, Addbot, Gigemag76, DSisyphBot, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen and Mogism
Brookesia lambertoni Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20lambertoni?oldid=560229138 Contributors:
Bruce1ee, Ruigeroeland, 7&6=thirteen, Koumz, Thine Antique Pen, Mogism and Anonymous: 1

Wetman,

Brookesia lineata Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20lineata?oldid=560241086 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Ruigeroeland,


7&6=thirteen, Thine Antique Pen and Anonymous: 1

184

CHAPTER 125. NATURELLE LEAF CHAMELEON

Brookesia micra Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20micra?oldid=601670952 Contributors: Cjensen, Utcursch,


Bruce1ee, MZMcBride, Wctaiwan, Daniel Mietchen, Crisco 1492, , Katieh5584, Newone, ERAGON, Cydebot, PamD, Znkp,
WolfmanSF, Edsova, VolkovBot, Jalwikip, C628, Addbot, RN1970, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Evans1982, JackieBot, Kyng, Miyagawa, Micromesistius, FormerIP, , RjwilmsiBot, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, George Ponderevo, IluvatarBot, Makecat-bot, Hyacynthus and
Anonymous: 13
Brookesia minima Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20minima?oldid=604818834 Contributors:
Fungus
Guy, Circeus, FlaBot, Bruinfan12, Boston, Lilac Soul, Collegebookworm, Jaguarlaser, Calliopejen1, Vanished user ewsn2348tui2f8n2o2utjfeoi210r39jf, Sun Creator, DumZiBoT, Addbot, Luckas-bot, AnomieBOT, LilHelpa, MerlLinkBot, Micromesistius, Rbrausse, Orenburg1, EmausBot, Roastedpepper, EleferenBot, ClueBot NG, Technical 13, YFdyh-bot, Football1607,
Monkbot and Anonymous: 10
Brookesia peyrierasi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20peyrierasi?oldid=629073686 Contributors: Magnus Manske,
Fungus Guy, Circeus, Mitternacht90, Mgiganteus1, Bruinfan12, CommonsDelinker, Boston, Jaguarlaser, Calliopejen1, Rabo3, Addbot,
Dawynn, Luckas-bot, DrilBot, Rbrausse, Kalubu, EmausBot, YFdyh-bot, SurreyJohn and Anonymous: 1
Brookesia stump Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20stumpffi?oldid=615368890 Contributors: Bruce1ee, Piledhigheranddeeper, Gigemag76, Miyagawa, Thine Antique Pen and B14709
Brookesia therezieni Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20therezieni?oldid=560378903 Contributors: Wetman, Bruce1ee,
7&6=thirteen, Gigemag76 and Thine Antique Pen
Brookesia thieli Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20thieli?oldid=634336211 Contributors: Wetman, Bruce1ee, Cydebot,
Genium, 7&6=thirteen, Koumz, Addbot, Gigemag76, Thine Antique Pen, NotWith and Anonymous: 1
Brookesia valerieae Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20valerieae?oldid=560379710 Contributors: Bruce1ee, 7&6=thirteen, Gigemag76 and Thine Antique Pen
Brown leaf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown%20leaf%20chameleon?oldid=607238159 Contributors: Pigsonthewing, Snowmanradio, Calliopejen1, Addbot, Luckas-bot, Gigemag76, Rbrausse, EmausBot, ZroBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, Aurous One,
Makecat-bot and Anonymous: 1
Brookesia ebenaui Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookesia%20ebenaui?oldid=626987055 Contributors: Fungus Guy, Bruinfan12,
Jaguarlaser, Calliopejen1, Addbot, Dawynn, Gigemag76, Thehelpfulbot, Rbrausse, EmausBot, Plantdrew, BG19bot and YFdyh-bot
Mount d'Ambre leaf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount%20d'Ambre%20leaf%20chameleon?oldid=606688155
Contributors: Magnus Manske, RedWolf, Fungus Guy, Circeus, Rjwilmsi, Bruinfan12, Mblumber, Boston, Jaguarlaser, Calliopejen1,
Rabo3, Addbot, Dawynn, Luckas-bot, Gigemag76, FrescoBot, Rbrausse, RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot and John of Reading
Naturelle leaf chameleon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturelle%20leaf%20chameleon?oldid=624977547 Contributors:
Bruce1ee, Ericoides, Kimse, 7&6=thirteen, Koumz, Addbot, Grolltech, Gigemag76, Micromesistius, Rbrausse, Thine Antique Pen and
Anonymous: 1

125.5.2

Images

File:Abyssal_Brachiopod_00148.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Abyssal_Brachiopod_00148.jpg


License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Myself
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: CC0
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Vipersnake151, penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Animation_disc.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Animation_disc.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original artist: Original uploader was Richtom80 at en.wikipedia
File:Antongil_Leaf_Chameleon,_Nosy_Mangabe,_Madagascar_(3899499361)_(2).jpg Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Antongil_Leaf_Chameleon%2C_Nosy_Mangabe%2C_Madagascar_%283899499361%29_%282%29.jpg
License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Antongil Leaf Chameleon, Nosy Mangabe, Madagascar Original artist: Frank Vassen from Brussels,
Belgium
File:Bothrolycus_ater.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Bothrolycus_ater.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/09/everything_about_bothrolycus.php Original artist: G. H. Ford
File:Bradypodion_damaranum00.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Bradypodion_damaranum00.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Androstachys
File:Bradypodion_damaranum1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Bradypodion_damaranum1.jpg
License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Devi Stuart-Fox and Adnan Moussalli (2008). "Selection for Social Signalling Drives the Evolution
of Chameleon Colour Change". PLoS Biology 6 (1): e25. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025. PMID 18232740. PMC: 2214820. Original artist: Devi Stuart-Fox and Adnan Moussalli
File:Bradypodion_damaranum_submissive.jpg Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Bradypodion_
damaranum_submissive.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: From Devi Stuart-Fox & Adnan Moussalli. Selection for Social Signalling Drives the Evolution of Chameleon Colour Change. PLoS Biology Vol. 6(1) January 2008. Available online at
http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025 Original artist: Devi Stuart-Fox and
Adnan Moussalli
File:Bradypodion_gutturale.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Bradypodion_gutturale.jpg License:
CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Stuart-Fox D, Moussalli A (2008) Selection for Social Signalling Drives the Evolution of Chameleon Colour
Change. PLoS Biol 6(1): e25. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025 Original artist: Devi Stuart-Fox and Adnan Moussalli
File:Bradypodion_melanocephalum01.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Bradypodion_
melanocephalum01.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: http://calphotos.berkeley.edu Original artist: Serban Proches

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File:Bradypodion_pumilum.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Bradypodion_pumilum.JPG License:


Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Andrew Massyn
File:Bradypodion_tavetanum_sleeping.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Bradypodion_tavetanum_
sleeping.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Lutz Schuettler
File:Brookesia.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Brookesia.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors:
ground chameleon. Original artist: frank wouters from antwerpen, belgium , Belgi , Belgique
File:Brookesia_nasus_01.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Brookesia_nasus_01.jpg License: CC BYSA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Axel Strau
File:Calumma_amber.jpeg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Calumma_amber.jpeg License: CC BY 3.0
Contributors: http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=0000+0000+0912+0965 Original artist: Simon J. Tonge
File:Calumma_brevicorne_Seite.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Calumma_brevicorne_Seite.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 ch Contributors: Self-photographed Original artist: Leyo
File:Calumma_crypticum_male_05.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Calumma_crypticum_male_
05.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Axel Strau
File:Calumma_malthe.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Calumma_malthe.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Fabienne Raphoz
File:Calumma_nasutum,_Ranomafana_National_Park.jpg Source:
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Original artist: gripso_banana_prune
File:Calumma_nasutum_01.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Calumma_nasutum_01.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Axel Strau
File:Calumma_tarzan_01.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Calumma_tarzan_01.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: gespendet von Sebastian Gehring (bei Fragen / for questions please contact uploader Axel Strau) Original artist:
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File:Calumma_tigris-2.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Calumma_tigris-2.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Hans Stieglitz
File:Camlon_Madagascar_02.jpg Source:
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Madagascar_02.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Bernard Gagnon
File:Cape_Dwarf_Chameleon_Bradypodion_pumilum_2012_02_02_1696s.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
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work Original artist: JonRicheld
File:Chamaeleo_chamaeleon_Frightened_thus_black.JPG
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File:Chamaeleo_jacksonii.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Chamaeleo_jacksonii.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Chamaeleo_melleri.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Chamaeleo_melleri.jpg License: GPL Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Chamaeleo_namaquensis_(Namib-Naukluft,_2011).jpg Source:
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Yathin S Krishnappa
File:Chamaeleo_namaquensis_(Walvis_Bay).jpg Source:
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namaquensis_%28Walvis_Bay%29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Yathin S Krishnappa
File:Chamealeon_dilepis_petersi.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Chamealeon_dilepis_petersi.jpg
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File:Chameleon_-_Tanzania_-_Usambara_Mountains.jpg
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Chameleon_-_Tanzania_-_Usambara_Mountains.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Own work by author Original artist: User
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Contributors: Own work Original artist: SurreyJohn
File:Chameleon_gab_fbi.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Chameleon_gab_fbi.png License: Public
domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Chameleon_in_Berenty_Madagascar_0001.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Chameleon_in_
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File:Chameleons_Tongue.GIF Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Chameleons_Tongue.GIF License: CC
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File:Charlie_Chaplin,_1917.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Charlie_Chaplin%2C_1917.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: https://twitter.com/HistoryInPix/status/465420063978577920 Original artist: n a
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:DTC_blue.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1a/DTC_blue.jpg License: Fair use Contributors:
Labour Party press release/http://www.davethechameleon.com Original artist: ?
File:DodgerBlue_flag_waving.svg Source:
cense: Public domain Contributors:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/DodgerBlue_flag_waving.svg Li-

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Red_ag_waving.svg Original artist: Red_ag_waving.svg: Wereon


File:Estesia.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Estesia.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: took
the foto on the American Museum of Natural History in New York Original artist: Ghedoghedo
File:Flag_of_Madagascar.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Flag_of_Madagascar.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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File:FurciferPardalisMale.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/FurciferPardalisMale.JPG License:
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File:Furcifer_pardalis_-Zrich_Zoo-8a.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Furcifer_pardalis_-Z%
C3%BCrich_Zoo-8a.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as IMG_8957 Original artist: Marc Staub
File:Furcifer_willsii_distribution.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Furcifer_willsii_distribution.
png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: own work, based on http://www.naturalearthdata.com/downloads/ (downloaded Oct. 2012)
and https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/spatial-data/groups/REPTILES.zip (downloaded Nov. 2012) Original artist:
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125.5. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

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File:Stress-coloured_Brookesia_desperata_female_with_two_recently_laid_eggs.png Source:
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125.5.3

CHAPTER 125. NATURELLE LEAF CHAMELEON

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