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34 views8 pagesQAM Modulation

Feb 14, 2015

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QAM Modulation

© All Rights Reserved

34 views

QAM Modulation

© All Rights Reserved

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While 8 PSK is commonly used, higher order M-ary is not common as the neighbor

points get very close which increases the probability of symbol and bit error. To

maintain a reasonable BER, the SNR becomes very large which is impractical for most

communication links.

QAM is a 2D signal space modulation scheme that uses the same basis functions as

before:

1 (t ) =

2

t

cos(2f c t )rect

T

T

and

2 (t ) =

2

t

sin( 2f c t )rect

T

T

constellation points to the signal alphabet hence the simplest approach for describing

QAM is by example. Consider a 16 QAM signal as shown below:

2(t)

1(t)

decision

boundaries

S i = si ,11 (t ) + si , 2 2 (t )

where

s i ,1 { 3,1,1,3} E

s i , 2 { 3,1,1,3} E

Note E is not the symbol energy but rather E is the shortest distance from a

constellation point to a decision boundary.

As before, the number of symbols contained per QAM symbol is log2(M) where M is the

number of constellation points or signals in the alphabet.

The easiest way of obtaining the approximate BER is to view QAM as two orthogonal

independent PAM schemes with M levels each. Note that this analysis is only valid

for square QAM modulation schemes such as the 16 QAM example above.

Consider the 4 level PAM constellation below

-3

-1

Define E as an energy scaling factor such that the distance between a constellation point

and the decision line is E . Consider the case where u=1 was sent. The probability

that an error occurs such that it is interpreted as u=-1 or u=3 is given by the

conditional probability

2E

P (1 | 1) = P(3 | 1) = Q

N

0

2E

Pe|1 = 2Q

N

0

2E

Pe|1 = 2Q

N

0

For the end points u=-3 and u=3, the probability of error is half this value as there are

only 1 neighboring state for the end points. Hence

2E

Pe|3 = Pe|3 = Q

N

0

The total probability of symbol error for the 1D four state PAM system is

Pe = Pe|3 P3 + Pe|1 P1 + Pe|1 P1 + Pe|3 P3

where P-3 is the probability that the input is 3 etc. It is reasonable to assume that

P3 = P1 = P1 = P3 =

1

4

such that

Pe =

2E

1 2 E

+ 2Q 2 E + Q 2 E = 3 Q 2 E

+

Q

Q

2

N

N

N 2 N

4 N 0

0

0

0

0

Next we have to determine the average energy per PAM symbol as a function of E which

is

3 2 + 12 + 12 + 3 2

E pam = E

= 5E

4

Also the energy per QAM symbol is twice that of the energy per PAM modulation.

Hence, denoting Es as the average QAM symbol energy we have

E s = 10 E

Consequently

3 2Es

Pe = Q

2 10 N 0

Let Ps be the probability of symbol error of the 16 QAM modulation. This is easily

determined from the union bound based on considering QAM as two independent and

quite tight and therefore used in practice.

The union bound for QAM is

Es

Ps = 2 Pe = 3Q

5N 0

The exact probability of symbol error is determined in the same manner as we did for

QPSK. That is

Es

Ps = 2 Pe Pe = 3Q

5N

0

9 Es

Q

4 5N

0

If we assume that grey coding of the 16 QAM modulation and assume that errors are only

made to the neighboring lattice point then a single bit error will occur every time there is

a symbol error. Also for the 16 QAM modulation Es=4Eb as there are 4 bits per symbol.

Consequently

4 Eb

Pb = 3Q

5N 0

Comparing with BPSK, the Eb/No requirement for a given BER is more than

10log10(5/2)=4dB for the 16 QAM modulation. This is the penalty that is paid for having

a more bandwidth efficient modulation. ie 4 bits/sym vs 1bit/sym.

Section 6.4 in Haykin outlines the general development of the square QAM constellation

performance which follows a very similar development to the 16 QAM analysis given

above.

Note that the probability of symbol error for QAM is twice that of the probability of

symbol error for the equivalent PAM.

Note error in curve for 4QAM or 4PSK which should be 2x higher.

Note 16PSK requires higher Eb/No than 16QAM which is why it is not used.

As square QAM constellations can be regarded as two orthogonal independent PAM

modulations that are transmitted simultaneously the PSD of QAM is merely twice the

PSD of the individual PAM modulations.

recall

For v(t) is given as

v(t ) =

n =

g (t nT )

the PSD is

Sv ( f ) =

1

S g ( f )C ( fT )

T

C ( fT ) =

c ( m )e

j 2fmT

m =

c ( m) = I q I m + q

For 4-PAM with levels of {-3,-1,1,3} we have

m=0

10

c ( m) =

0 otherwise

Such that C(fT)=10 and the PSD of the 4 level PAM signal becomes

Sv ( f ) =

10

Sg ( f )

T

S16QAM ( f ) =

20

Sg ( f )

T

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