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PRODUCTION

ESTIMATION
@

Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution-Gas Drive Wells


Jo V. VOGEL
MEMBER AIME

Abstract
Its calculating oilwell production, it has commonly been
assumed that producing rates are proportional to drawdowns. Using thi,s assumptimt, a wells behavior can be
described by its productivity index (Pi). This PI relationship was developed from Darcys law for the steady-state
radial flow oj a single, incompressible
fhid. Although
Muskat pointed out tha~ the relationship is not valid when
both oil and gas jiow in a reservoir, its use has continued
for lack of better approximations, Gilbert proposed methods of well analysis utilizing a curve of producing rates
plotted against b ot!om-hole well pressures; he termed this
complete graph rhe infiow performance relatiorsship (IPR)
of a well.
The calculations necessary to compute IPRs from twophme fiow theory were extremely tedious bejore advent of
the computer. Using machine computations,
IPR curves
were calculated for wells producing from several fictitious
solution-gas drive reservoirs that co>ered a wide range O!
oil PVT properties and reservoir relative permeability characteristics. Wels with hydraulic fractures were also included. From these curves.. a reference IPR curve was
developed that is simple to apply and, it is believed, can
he used for most solution-gas drive reservoirs to provide
more accurate calculations for oil well productivity
than
can be secured with PI methods. Field verification i.s
needed.

Introduction
In calculating the productivity of oil wells, it is corn
monly assumed that inflow into a well is directly proportional to the pressure differential, between the reservoir
and the wellbore that production is directly proportional to drawdown. The constant of proportionality is
the PI, derived from Darcys law for the steady-state radial flow of a single, incompressible fluid. For cases in
which this relationship holds, a plot of the producing
rates vs the corresponding bottom-hole pressures results
in a straight line (Fig. 1), The PI of the well is the inverse
of the slope of the straight line.
However, Muskat pointed out that when two-phase
liquid and gas flow exists in a reservoir, this relationship
should not be expected to hold; he presented theoretical
calculations to show that graphs of producing rates vs
bottom-hole pressures for two-phase flow resulted in
curved rather than straight lines, When curvature exists,
Original matmacript received in Society of Petroleum Engln*rs o~@e
July 11, 1966. Revised manuscript reaekd
Dec. S, 1967. PaPer (SPE
1476) wae presented at SPE 41st Annual Fall Meetbra held in Dallas,
Tex,, Oot, 2.5, ISSC. @CbRyrlght 1S6S American Institute of Minims,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Errsineers, k,
preferences given at end of papsr.
This paper will be printed hr Transactions Volume 24L3, which will
cover 196S.
JANUARY,

19611

SHELL OIL CO.


BAKERSFIELD, CALIF,

a well cannot be said to have a single PI because the


value of the slope varies continuously with the variation
in drawdown, For this reason, Gilbert proposed methods
of well analysis that could utilize the whole curve of
producing rates plotted against intake pressures. He termed
this complete graph the inflow performarwe relationship
(IPR) of a well.
Although the straight-line approximation. is known to
have limitations when applied to ttio-phase tlow in the
reservoir, it still is used primarily because no simple substitistes have been available: The calculations necessary to
compute IPRs from two-phase flow theory have been
extremely tedious. However, recently the approximations
of Welled for a solution-gas drive r~.servoir were programmed for computers. The solutior, invoived the following simplifying assumptions: (1) ihe reservoir is circular and completely bounded with t. completely penetrating well at its center; (2) the porous medium is
uniform and isotropic with a constant water saturation
at all points; (3) gravity effects can be neglected (4)
compressibility of rock and writer can be neglected (5)
the composition and equilibrium are constant for<oil and ,
gas (6) the same pressure exists in both the oil and gas
phasex and (7) the semisteady-state assumption that the
tank-oil desaturation rate is the same at all points at a
given instant. Wellers solution did not require the constant-GOR assumption.
The resulting computer program proved convenient to
use and gave results closely approaching those furnished
by the more complicated method of West, Garvin and
Sheldon. The program also includes the unique feature

Ps4nwclns

Fig. lStraight-line

SATE,

MA KIMUM

bwd

inflow performance relationship.

of making complete IPR predictions for a reservoir. $mch


predictions for a typical solution-gas drive reservoir are
shown as a family of IPR cur: s on Fig. 2. Note that
they confirm the existence of curkdure.
U appeared that if several solution-gas drive reservoirs
were examined with the aid of this program, empirical
relationships might be established that would apply to
solution-gas drive reservoirs in general. This p&per summarizes the results of such a study that dealt with several
simulated reservoirs covering a wide range of conditions.
These conditions included differing crude oil characteristics and differing reservoir relative permwbiiity characteristics, as well as the effects of well spacing, fractwing
and skir~restrictions.
The i:westigation sought relationships valid only below
2800
RESERVOIR CONDITIONS:
ORIGINAL PRESSURE I 2130 Psi
BuBBLE POINT , 2130

2400

psi

CRUDE OIL PVT CHARACTERISTICS


FROM FIG. A-10
RELATIvE

PERMEABILITY

ACTERISTICS

- 2000
w
a

CHAR-

FROM FIG. A-20

WELL SPACING * 20 ACRES


WEI L RAOIUS I 0.33 FOOT

J
g,

1600
CUMULATIVE RECOVERV,
, !,
PERCENT OF ORIGINAL
14+
o. I OIL IN PLACE

-1
d
.

k \

the bubbie point, Computations were made for reservoirs


initially above the bubble point, but only to ensure that
this initial condition did not cause a significant change in
behavior below the bubble point.

Shape of Inflow Performance Relationship


Curves with Normal I/eterioration
As depletion proceeds in a solutlon-gas
drive reservoir,
the productivity of a typical well decreases, primarily
because the reservoir pressure is reduced and because
increasing gas saturation causes greater resistance to oil
flow, The result is a progressive deterioration of the IPRs,
typified by the IPR curves in Fig. 2. Exarr.ination of these
curves does not make it apparent whether they have any
properties in common other :han that they are all con.
cave to the origin.
One useful operation is to plot all the IPRs as dimensionless IPRs. The prissure for each point on an
IPR curve is divided by the maximum or shut-in pressure for that particular curve, and the corresponding production rate isdivided bytt.e maximum (l OOpercentdrtwdown) producing rate for the same curve. When this is
done, the curves from Fig, 2 can bereplotted as shown in
Fig. 3. It is then readily ~ppaIentthat with this construe.
tion the curves are,, remmkably similar throughout most
of the producing life of the reservoir

2500

A+PR

FROM FIG 2FCIR Npfld

01%

BIPRw IT HP DIFFERENT
CRUDE OIL
FLOWING,
ALI. OTHER CON OIIIONS

2000

BEING THE SAltE. CRUOE


~TIE
FRO M)l G, A-lb,

1500

OIL PROP-

1000

.
.0

500

PRODUCING RATE , bo$~

r~
Fhr.
., 2Contrx4ter-culculatetl inflow performance
relationships for a solution-gas drive reservoir.

F\
o

~~

l_L_L~
100

50

!50

200

250

300

PRODUCING RATE , bopd

I .0

(al

ACTUAL

IPRS

k!
a

0,8

&

Np/N=OJ%,2eh,4l.

:go,
~g

6le,8h

Io%

.3b

~z

~o
g ~ 0.4

I 2 A

I 4/.

ZS
ok
1- -g

RESERVOIR

go.?

CONDITIONS

SAME AS FIG.2

.J.

..
o

0,6

0.4

0.2

PRODUCINGRATEfqo /~o)mox),

0.8

1.0

FRACTION OF MAXIMUM

NE. 3Dimensionless injlow performance relationships


a solution-gasdrive
reservoir.

n.s

0.2
ROOUCIN5

0.4

0.6

(b} DIMENSIONLESS

jor

Fig. 4-Eflect

0.8

RATE klD~%)maa),
OF MAXIM1M

1.0

fRACTION

IPRS

of crude oil properties on IPR*s.

JOURNAL

OF

PETROLEUM

T13CHNO_&OCY

had about the same bubble point, IPRs were then calculated for a third crude oil with a higher bubble poirit.
Again, the characteristic shape was noted,
Two further runs were made to explore the relationship
under more extreme conditions. C)ne utilized a more viscous crude (3-cp minimum compared with 1-cp minimum ),
and the other used a crude with a low solution GOR
(300 scf/STB). With the more viscous crude, some straightening of the IPRs W?.Snoted. The low-GOR crude exhibited the same curvature noted in previous cases.
Runs were a[so made with the initial reservoir pressure exceeding the bubble point, During the period while
the reservoir pressure w-as above the bubble point, the
slopes of the IPR curves were discontinuous with the
upper part being a straight line until the well pressure
was reduced below the bubble point. Below this point
the IPR showed curvature similar to that noted previously. After the reservoir pressure went below the bubble
point, all the dimensionless IPR curves agreed well with
the previous curves.

Effect of Crude Oil Characteristics


On IPR Curves
From the foregoing results it appears that IPR curves
differing over the life of a given reservoir actually possess
a co,mmon rekdtionship. To determine whether this same
relationship would be valid for other reservoirs, IPR calculations were made on the computer for different conditions, The first run utilized the same relative permeabilities but a complete] y different crude oil. The new
characteristics included a viscosity about half that of the
first and a sohrtion GOR about twice as great.
Fig. 4a compares the initial IPRs (~{P/N = 0.1 percent) for the two cases. As would be expected, with a
less viscous crude (Curve B) the pr~ductivity was much
greatec than in the first case (Curve A). However, when
plotted on a dimensionless basis (Fig. 4b) the IPRs are
quite sim!lar, As lPR.s for the second case deteriorated
with depletion, no greater change of shape occurred than
was noted in the previous section. These two crude oils
1,

w
K

0.

m
u)

w
a
a
E

5
>

a
w
m
w

0,

0
PRODUCIN9

SATE (qo/(qo

Fig. 5-Irrf70w performance


JANUARY,

1968

)ma*),

FfSACTION OF

MAXIMUM

relationship for solution-gas drive reservoirs.


m

,, ,-

Lo

TWO-PHASE
(REFERENCF

FLOW
CURVE I

0.8 1-

g
u
a

1.0
0.6 !==
>
LIQUIO

.;
,REFERENCE

CURVE

0.4

FLOW

,,
08 2-

0 ~

12%

I 4 /.

0,4

0.2

.
RESERVOIR
sAME

o
t10

AS FIC.2

Fig. G-Comparison

0.4

0.2

0.6

FRACTION oF MAXIMUM

Fig. 6Con?pmison of reference curve with computerca[culated IPR curves.

Effect of Relative Permeability and


Other Conditions
lhe same basic shape of the curves was noted when
the study was extended to cover a much wider range of
conditions, Runs were made with three different sets of
in various combinations with
relative permeability curves
the different crude oils. The results were in agreement
sufficient to indicate that the relationship might be valid
for most conditions.

oo~

of IPR$ for !iquid flow, gas flow


and fwo-phase ffow.

To explore further the generality of the relationship,


a run was made in which the crude oil PVT curves and
the relative permeability curves were roughly approximated by straight linss. It was surprising to fi,ld that, even
with no curvature in either the graphs of crude oil characteristics or the relative permeability input data, the output IPRs exhibited about the same curvttturc as those
from previous computer runs.
Calculations also were made for different wdl spacings.
for fractured wells and for WCIISwith positive skhs.
Good agreement was noted in all cases except for the
well with a skin effect, in which case the IPRs more
nearly approached straight lines.
in summary, calculations for 21 reservoir conditions
resulted in IPRs generally exhibiting a similar shape.

LO

0.8

PROOUCIMG RATE (qo /@o)max),

-.

cl/qmQR

CONDITIONS

RESERVOIR

CONDITIONS

SAME

AS FIG. 2

2000~\poNToFMATcH(
wELLTEsT)
o
1800
1600

\
\

1400

\
4\ STRAIGHT.
t~+
\

I 200

Y?

EXTRAPOLATION

LINE

[000
\

~,

k+

800
\

\f2

COMPUT*FR
\

-< AL CULATED

IPR

\
\

600

\-\

\@

\\.

400

\
i\

\~of

i,

~IPREXTRApOLAJF~\

\\\

~\;\

20 0

\
\\

so
~

OK
0

1
20

i,
\

lU
40

60

Ii

60

II

I,i

100

120

f40

:tiv:EFERENcE

,
\

\\r

[60

l\

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

%.1\

320

PRODUCING RATE , b@Pd

Fig. 7Deviations
86

when IPRs

are predicted

by reference

curve from well tests at low drawdowns.


JIO URNA?.

OF

PETROLEUM

CECEN(SLOGY

Proposed Reference IPR Curve

Significant deviation was no:ed only for the more viscous


crude, for a reservoir initially above the bubble point,
and for a well producing through a restrictive skin. Even
in these cases, definite curvature was still apparent,
The curves of crude oil characteristics and of relative
permeability that furnished the input data for the various
conditions studied are given in Appendix A. Dimension.
less IPR curves calculated for various conditions are
shown in Appendix B.

If the IPR curves for other solution-gas drive reservoirs exhibit the same shape as those investigated in thk
study, well prodl.activities can be calculated more accurately witha simple reference curve than with the straightIine PI approximation method currently used.
Applying one reference curve to all solution. gas drive
reservoirs would not imply that all these reservoirs are,

[ooo~o
200

:[:+-----:
-

[600

4.0

I I

N
o
- 3,0 ;

I 50 . - 1200 .-

150

-w

1200

~w
a-

K*

x
-

100 -

800

K
I 00

- 2!0 *O
L
m

50 -

RS

-1

B.

.~f$

400

50

1.0

Pg

800

1,0

PO
0 -

Jo

f)
-o

1000

(o) Pb : 2r30
250

1000

psi

PRESSURE

2009

PREsSURE,

psi

I/Bg

psi

: 2130

(b)

2000

-10

nflt

Zooo

psi

5.0

25:[
200

2000+50170
1600

- 4,0

- 6.0

t
[50
m

- 3,0N:

I 200

l/Bg

a
100

am
- 2.0

800

-1.

.. ~,f)
~

- 440
m

%
B.
50

,0

3.0

400

~o

onI

Y&

(c)

Pb

PRESSURE,

psi

PRESSURE,

2130

(d]

psi

pb

o:

2,0

2000

1000

-o

psi.

: 2130

psi

or oo~~(o

[
ooo~o

II

[600

200

4.0
N
0

l;!3g
1200

I50
m

- 3,0

m
a.

K-

:
100

s 00

Pg

2,0

?
II

B.
50 IL

400

Po

- 1.0

;1.OIAZI=Z!ZI=Z!O

(e)

Fig, 9-Input
JANUARY,

196S

pb

:3000

2000

1000

PRESSURE,

PRESSURE,

psi
~

psi

data, crude oil PVTchoracteristics


,..

(f)

12 XIO-gin

(c,=
.

pb

psi

: 2130

psi

all cases).
87

identical any more than wou!d the preser.: use of straightline PIs for all such reservoirs. Rather. the curve can be
regarded as a general solution af the solution-gas drive
reservoir flow equaticms with the constants for particular
solutions depending on the individual reservoir characteristics,
Although one of the dimensionless curves taken from
the computer calculations could probably be used as a
reference standard, it seems desirable to have a mathematical statement for the curve to insure reproducibility,
permanency and flexibilityy in operation.

The equation of a curve that gives a reasonable empirical


fit is
,qo

1 0.20&- 0,80 &M~\ , , ,


(1)
(q. )nmx
Pn
\ Pli /
where g. is the producing rate corresponding to a given
well intake pressure p,,,, ~;, is the $orrespcnding reservoir
pressure, and (qO),,,,,. is the maximum (100 percent drawdown) producing rate, Fig. 5 is a graph of this curve.
For comparison, the relationship for a straight-line 1PR
is
/.

,
0.40
t
Sgc

0.35

0.30

.s,0%

Sw

19840/

13.90/.

.#

13,9%

23.5fl

= 23.5ft

2.1

19.49/0

k ~.

0.25

Sgc

Sw
+

20md
(l OO?/.

s,,):

k ~.

0,444

20md
(100%

s,,1=

0.444

I
k
k

f9

k ro

rq

ro

-0,3

0,4

0.5

0(6

0.7

0,8

0.9

1,0

0,3

0,4

0,5

C,6

0,7

OS

1.0

0.9

(b)

(0)

0.45

0,40

0835

Sgc
Sw

0.30

L1 25

10%

Sgc

, 5%

19,470

Sw

19.4/0

13.90/0

13,970

: 23.5fi

:20md

kro

(l OOO/OS+l

r
0.20

0.15

ro

k
):

: 20md

0.444

..[

r9

0.10 -

0.05

0 b

0.3

0,4

0,5

0.6

0,7

08

0!9

1,0

0,3

0,4

0,5

S( TOTAL LIOUID]

(4)

(cl

Ffg. 10Input data, relative permeability

0,7

0,6

S(TOTAL

curves.

LIOUIO]

o#E

0.9

psi, Find (~) the maximum producing rate with 100 percent drawdown, and (2) the producing rate if artificial
lift were installed to reduce the producing bottom-hole
pressure to 500 psi.

When q./(q.)~.,
from Eq, 1 is plotted vs p,,,/5,, the
dimensionless IPRreference curve results, Onthe basis of
the cases studied, it is assumed that about the same curve
will result for all wells, If q,, is plotted vs p~,, the actual
lPR curve fora particular well should result.
A comparison of this curve with those calculated on
the computer is illustrated in Fig. 6. The curve matches
more closely the IPR curves for early stages of depletion
than the IPR curves for later stages of depletion. In this
way, the percent of error is least when dealing with the
kigher producing rates in the early stages of depletion.
The percentage error becomes .greater in the later stages
of depletion, but here production rates are low and, as
a consequence, numerical errors would be less in absolute
magnitude,

The solution is: (1) with p., = 1,500 psi, p.,/~R=


1,530/2,000=0,75,
From Fig, 5, when p,,j/~k =0.75,
q.~(q,)t,,ii. = 0.40> 65/(qr>)[tlrix = 0,4j, (q. ),,,,. = 162
BOPD; (2) with p., = 500 psi, p,. J/p,, = 500/2,000 =
0,25, From Fig. 5,q./(q,, ),,,,,, = 0.90, q./l62 = 0.90, q. =
146 BOPD,

Use of Reference Curve

The method of using the curve in Fig. 5 is best illustrated by the following example problem. A well tests
65 130PD with a flowing bottom-hole pressure of 1,500
psi in afield where rhe average reservoir pressureis2 ,000

If the same calculations had been made by straight-line


PI extrapolation, the productivity with artificial lift would
have been estimated as 195 BOPD rather than 145 IK)PD.
..This illustrates a significant conclusion to be drawn for
cases in which such IPR r.,xvature-exists, Production in-.
creases resulting from pulling a well harder will be less
thafi those calculated by the straight.line PI extrapolation;
conversely, production losses resulting from higher back
pressures will be less than those anticipated by straightIine methods,
It is ditlicult to overstate the importance of using stabilized well tests in the calculations. In a low-permeability

0.80

I4 %

0.60 -

I2

%
Io%

0,4(

I 4 %

~
CRUOE OIL PROPERTIES,
FIG A-1o
RELATIVE
PERMEABILITY
,FIG, A-20
WELL SPACING z 20 ACRES
WELL RADIUS :0,33
FOOT
INITIAL RESERVOIR
PRESS URE:21300$I
BuBBLE POINT= 2130psi

0.20

~
SAME AS CASE 1, ExCEPT
.40-ACRE SPACING
\
1

(o)
I

WITH

(b)

00

0.80 I 4 /.
0.60

12/e

14%

I 9 A

?
6 /e, 8 %
~:
0.40

CASE
0.20

SAME AS CASE I, EXCEPT


ABSOLUTE
PERMEABILITY

SAME AS CASE I, EXCEPT


IS FRACTURED
(PSEUDO
RADIuS = 50 FEETI

WITH
OF 200md

TIIAT WEI. L
WELL

1
1

o
o

020

!
0.+0

1
0.60

I
0.80

0<20

0.60

040
qo/(%lmaa
[d]

0.80

1.00

The maximum error for the reservoir considered in Fig.


7 is less than 5 percent !hroughout most of its producing
iife, rising to 20 percent during final stages of depiction.
Although the 20 percent error may seem high, the actual
magnitude of the error is less than ?4 BOPD,
It is obvious from Fig. 7 that if well tests are made
at higher drawdowns than the extreme cases illustrated,
the point of match of the estimated and actual IPR curves
is shifted further out along the curves and better agreement will result,
Maximum-erro: calculations were made for all the reservoir conditions investigated. Except for those cases with
viscous crudes and with flow restricted by skin effect,
it appears that a maximum error on the order of 20 percent should be expected if al! solution-gas drive IPRs
follow the reference curve as closely as have the several
cases investigated. For comparison, the maximum errors
for the straight-line PI extrapolation method were generally between 70 and 80 percent, dropping to about
30 percent only during final stages of depletion.
The figures cited above refer to the maximum errors
that should be expected. In most applications the errors
should be much less {on the order of 10 percent) be-

ieservoir it frequently will be found that significant changes


in producing conditions should not be made for several
days preceding an important test. This presents no problem if a well is to be tested at its normal producing rate,
but it becomes more difficult if multi-rate tests are required
Accuracy of Reference Curve

It is anticipated that the most common use of the reference IPR curve will be to predict producing rates at highat lower drawdowns.
cr drawdowns from data measured
For example, from well tests taken under flowing conditions, predictions will be made of productivities to be
expected upon installation of artificial lift. It is necessary
to arrive at the approximate accuracy of such predictions,
Maximum error will occur when well tests made at very
producing rates and correspcmdingly low drawdowns
low
are extrapolated with the aid of the reference curve to
estimate maximum productivities as [he drawdown approaches 100 percent of the reservoir pressure. The error
that would result under such conditions was investigated,
and typical results are shown in Fig, 7. in this figure the
dashed lines represent IPRs estimated from well tests at
low drawdowns (1 I to 13 percent), and the solid lines
represent the actual IPRs calculated by the computer.

1.00

BuBBLE

=. ~Np/N:

0.s0

POINT

0,1/.,6/,,10/.

\\
\
\
yA

0.50
K

14%

<

5
la

16%

\
\
\

0.40

\
CASE

I o /.
\

CASE6

\
SAME AS CASE

020

PLUS

1, ExCEPT

HAS

SAME AS CASE 1, EXCEPT THAT


RESERVOIR
PRESSU2E IS INITIALLY
ABOVE THE BuB@LE PO IN T, BEING
3040psi
IN STEAO 0F2130Psi

5 SKIN

WELL

(o)
1.00

0.s0

I4

8%

/.

12
{*
0.40
CASE
SAME

0,20

C=

AS CASE 1, EXCEPT

LESS VISCOUS
FIG. A-lb

0.20

CRUOE

OIL

0.40

WITH

*SAME

FROM

0.60

AS CASE

VISCOUS

0,60

1,00

1. EXCEPT

CRUQE

OIL

0,20

0.40

FROM

WITH

MORE

FIG. A-id

0460

I
0.80

1, )

qo/(%)mOx
(d)

(cl
Fig.

12-Calculated

dimensionless

IPR curves.

I
cause better agreement is noted between IPRs and reference curve throughout most of the prodhcing life of the
reservoirs and because well tests are ordinarily made at
greater drawdowns.
..=,,=.
Application of Reference Curve:
Other Types of Reservoirs

The proposed dimensionless IPR curve results from


computer analysis of the two-phase flo} and depletion
equations for a solution-gas drive reservoir only and
would not be considered correct where other types of
drive exist. In a major field with partial water drive, however, there can be large portions of the field that are effectively isolated from the encroaching water by barrier
rows of producing wells nearer the encroachment front,
It appears that tht reference curve could be used for the
shielded wells for at least a portion of their producing
lives. Similarly, the reference curve might give reasonable
results for a portitin of the wells producing from a reservoir in which expansion of a gas cap is a significant
factm.
Since the referecce curve is for the two-phase flow of
oil and gas only, it would not be considered valid when
three phases (oil, gas and water) are flowing. However,

it appears intuitively that some curvature should be expected in the IPRs whenever free gas is flowing in a
reservoir, For radial flow, this curve should lie somewhere between the straight line for a single-phase liquid
flow and the curve for single-phase gas flow, The dimrilsionless IPRs for the two types of single-phase flov, are
compared with the suggested reference curve for mlution gas drive reservoirs in Fig. 8.

Conclusions
IPR curves calculated both for differeut reservoirs and
for the same reservoirs at different stages of depletion
varied several-fold in actual magnitude, Nevertheless, the
curves generally exhibited about the same shape.
This similarity should permit substitution of a simple
empirical curve for the straight-line PI approximations
commonly used, Maximum errors in calculated produc.
tivities are expected to be on the order of 20 percent
compared with 80 percent with the PI method, Productivity calculations made with the reference curve method
rather than with the PI method will show smaller production increases for given increases in drawdowns and, conversely, less lost production for given increases in backpres?urcs.

[.00

0.80

060

10 /0

16%

? o /
5
n
0.40

CASE

cASE

10

02:t:,;:,E~,;,,,,,;,,?
\
I,

BUBBLE

CRUDE OIL FROM FIG. A-le

POINT

ExCEPT

WITH

SAME AS CASE 1, EXCEPT

SAME AS CASE

HIGHER

PERMEABILITY
FROM

wITH

CHARACTERISTICS

FIG. A-2b

(a)
Loo

\
0.80

\
yA
\

20 %
\

0.60

Io %

Io %

N ~ IN =0.1%
\

<

28/*

18 A

\
\

;
a

\
040

\
CASE

\,

[1

CASE

SAME AS CASE 1, ExCEPT


WITH
PERMEABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS
FROM FIG. A-2c

0.7.0

sAME AS CASE
PERMEABILITY
FROM FIG. A-2b

ERTIE!3 FROM

~~

~
)

qo/(qOl mox
(c)

L~

0!20

12

I, EXCEPT
WITH
CHARACTERISTICS
ANDCRUDEOIL
PROPF! G. A-lb
)

0.40

f.lo /(qol mol.


(d)

1.00

\
,

\\

0.80

.A, NP/kz

O.l/e,

2%

\..\

\
\
\
\

T,A

20 i.
26%

0.4C

Iov.

6 v,

10%

\ \:N=O**

N,

\
\

CA
. SE13

CASE

[4

\
\

\
SAME AS CASE

0.20

GOR

CRUDE

1, EXCEPT

WITH

LOW-

SAME AS CASE 1, EXCEPT

FROM
\\ FIG. A-if

WITH

PERMEABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS
Y FROM FIG, A-2b ANO CRUDE OIL
PROPERTIES
FROM FIG. A-le

0
(b)
1,00

0.80
IO*A
2%
4 (*

0,40
CASE

SAME

SAME AS CASE 1, EXCEPT


WITH
PERMEABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS
FROM FIG, A-2c AN0 CRUDE OIL PROP-

0.20

ERTIES

CASE

[5

1
0.40

I
0.60

4.S CASE 1, EXCEPT

APPROXIMATELY

OF FIG, A.2d
APPROXIMATE
FIG. A-Ic

FROtd FIG, A-[b

1
0.80

Lc

16

0.20

FROM

PERMEABILITY

STRAIGHT

LINES

AND CRUDE OIL PROPERTIES


FROM STRAIGHT
I
0.40

LINES

I
0.60

OF
1
0,80

%A%)maa
(d)

(c)

Fig. 14--Calculated

dim m@lcss

This technique needs to be verified by a comparison


with field results, As meviously discussed, the conclusions
1.-.+--1,,
. .
-..1..
UaWJ
UIIIY
UII
WJUpULCJ
>Ulutions involving several
-L= L..,.A
simplifying assumptions as listed in the Introduction.
..,.

References

Muskat, M,: Calculation, of Theoretical


%oductivity 1?actor, Trans., AIME (1942) 146, 1;!6-139.
2. Gilbert,
W. E,: Flowing and Gm-IJft Well Performance,
Drill. and Prod. Prac,, API ( 1954) 126,
3. Weller, W. T,: Reservoir Performance Duri;ng Two-Phase
Flow, J. Pet, Tech. (Feb 1QK6~ ~Jn-~~~

1. Evineer.
H. _H, and
e-.
, -.

w.,

4.

II

.,,

West, W, J,, Garvin,


W. W. and
of the Equations
of Unsteady-State

.-r-&

TV,

Sheldon,

J. W.:

Solution

Two-Phase Flow in Oil


Reservoirs, Trans., AIME ( 1954) 201, 217-229.

APPENDIX A
Input Data
Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate graphically the input data (crude
oil PVT characteristics and relative permeability characteristics) from which the theoretical behavior of simulated
reservoirs was calculated by the computer,

IPR clirves,

APPENDIX

Computer-Calculated IPR Curves

l)imensionless IPR Curves

Figs, 11 through 14 are graphs of the theoretical [PRs


calculated for various simulated reservoir conditions. So
that the IPRs under various conditions can be compared
more easily, the initial IPR curve (NP/N = 0,1 percent)
from Fig 1 la is reproduced on all succeeding figures and
is designated as Curve A,
In addition KOthe cases illustrated, five more calculations
were made in which individual curves of the crude oil
properties in Fig, 9a were replaced one by one with the
curves from Fig, 9b, ~he results were comparable to those
shown, and, since the illustrations include the case in
which the curves of Fig. 9a were completely replaced by
those of Fig. 9b, it was not considered necessary to reproduce the cases in which the individual components were
**
replaced.
Editors no(e: A pictl(re and
J. V, Vogel appear on page 60.

biograplzical

sketch

o/
1