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Electrostatic Precipitator

[Description & Specification]

KC COTTRELL

What is ESP ?

An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a particulate collection device that re


moves particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induce
d electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration
devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and ca
n easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air
stream.

Invention of ESP

The first use of corona to remove particles from an aerosol was by Hohlfeld
in 1824. However, it was not commercialized until almost a century later. In
1907 Dr. Frederick G. Cottrell applied for a patent on a device for charging p
articles and then collecting them through electrostatic attraction the first e
lectrostatic precipitator. He was then a professor of chemistry at the Universi
ty of California, Beekay. Cottrell first applied the device to the collection of s
ulfuric mist and lead oxide fume emitted from various acid-making and smelt
ing activities. Vineyards in northern california were being adversely affected
by the lead emissions.

Frederick Gardner Cottrell


(January 10,1877 - November 16, 1948)
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Principle of ESP

In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by


the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor that is electrically
energized. The discharge will occur when the strength (potential gradient)
of the electric field around the conductor is high enough to form a
conductive region, but not high enough to cause electrical breakdown or
arcing to nearby objects.

Consist of ESP
An electrostatic precipitator consists of electrically grounded plates
with negatively-charged electrode suspended between them. A gas
stream with particulate (material to be removed) is introduced
between the plates. The electric charge on the electrode creates a
corona field, which imparts a negative charge to the particulate.
The charged plates are repeatedly struck by rappers installed above
them, dislodging the particulate, which falls into a hopper beneath
the plates. Periodically, the particulate is removed from the hoppers.

ESP Field Plot


Collecting Electrode

Discharge Electrode

MD II ESP Design Parameters

1. Actual Gas Volume : 3,349,721 Am3/min at 125


2. Inlet dust loading : 54.72 g/Nm3
3. Outlet dust loading : 50.0 mg/Nm3
4. Collecting efficiency : 99.91%
5. Number of ESP : 2 per Unit
6. Number of Chamber : 2 per ESP
7. Number of Field : 6 per Chamber
8. Average Gas Velocity : 1.185m/sec
9. Number of Hopper : 12 / Chamber
10. Number of Transformer : 6 / Chamber
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Chapter 1
(Component of ESP)

Overall
Penthouse
Collecting Electrode
Discharge Electrode
Perforated Plate
Hopper
Nozzle(Plenum)
Access Door
Insulator

Rectifier Transformer
Seal Air Blower & Heater
Rapper
Hopper Heater
Key Interlock System

Chapter 1

ESP Overall

Chapter 1

ESP Overall

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Chapter 1

ESP Overall

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Chapter 1

ESP Overall Drawing

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Chapter 1

ESP Sectional Part

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Chapter 1

Penthouse
Penthouse : a weatherproof, gastight enclose over
the precipitator to contain the high voltage insulator

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode
Collecting Surface : The Individual elements which
make up the collecting system and which collectively
provide the total surface area of the precipitator for the
deposition of dust particles.

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode

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Chapter 1

Collecting Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode
Discharge Electrode : the part which is installed in the
high voltage system to perform the function of ionizing
the gas and creating the electrical field.

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Chapter 1

Discharge Electrode

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Rapper
The Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact (MIGI)rapper is an
electromagnetic device utilizing only one moving part.
Intensity, sequence and cycle time of the rapping blows
are electrically controlled from a control cabinet, enabling
adjustment while the precipitator is in operation.

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Chapter 1

Rapper
Discharge Electrode Rapper : a device to make
impulse to discharge electrode. And impact make
vibration to discharge electrode surface to dislodge the
deposited particles or dust..

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Chapter 1

Rapper

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Chapter 1

Rapping Device
Coil
Cover

Phenol Tube &


Base Plate

Rapper Coil
Coil

Plunger
Terminal Box
Rod Seal
Top Seal PL
Nipple

Lower
Casing

Hammer
(Plunger)

Rapper Rod

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Chapter 1

Rapper Coil

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Chapter 1

Perforated Plate
Perforated Plate : Perforated plates let the gas flow
uniform distribution in ESP. It Helps to prevent reentrant
dusts into the gas by the rappers impact

<Grid Type>

<Perforate Type>
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Chapter 1

Perforated Plate

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Chapter 1

Perforated Plate

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Chapter 1

Hopper

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Chapter 1

Plenum
Plenum : Pressure equalizing chamber
Distribute gas flow equally.

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Chapter 1

Nozzle (Plenum)

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Chapter 1

Access Door
Door : a hinged or detached cover
provided with a hand operated fastening
device where accessibility is required.

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Chapter 1

Access Door 1

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Chapter 1

Access Door 2

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Chapter 1

Insulator
Support Insulator : a device to physically support and
electrically isolate the high voltage system from ground
Rapper Insulator : a device to electrically isolate
discharge electrode rappers yet transmit mechanically,
forces necessary to create vibration or shock in the high
voltage system.

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Support Insulator

Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Rapper Insulator
Rapper
FRP Shaft

FRP Shaft

Support Bushing

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Chapter 1

Rectifier Transformer
Rectifier Transformer : a unit comprised of a
transformer for stepping up normal service voltages to
voltage in the kilovolt range, and rectifier operating at
high voltage to convert AC to Unidirectional current.

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Chapter 1

Rectifier Transformer

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Chapter 1

Rectifier Transformer

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Chapter 1

Rectifier Transformer

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Chapter 1

Rectifier Transformer
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SCR(Silicon Controlled Rectifier)


1
2
3
4
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Chapter 1

High Tension Line


Current flows from transformer rectifier to discharge
electrode through H.T line.
H.T Line

Insulator

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Chapter 1

Seal Air Blower & Heater


Seal air blower & heater are installed to dry & clean
support insulator inside and to seal the Hot-roof from
dirty gas that flows through ESP.

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Chapter 1

Seal Air Blower

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Chapter 1

Seal Air Blower


Heated gas from blower flows support
insulator inside

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Chapter 1

Seal Air Heater

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Chapter 1

Hopper Heater
Hopper heaters are installed to maintain temperature in
hopper more than dew point.
Heater
Terminal Box

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Chapter 1

Vibro Motor
Vibro motors make vibration to shake off the dust from
hopper inside.

(VibroMotor-externals)

(VibroMotor-internals)

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Chapter 1

Key Interlock System


Key Interlock system : a safety interlock
system is provided with this equipment to
prohibit entry into a precipitator or high voltage
transformer-rectifier enclose unless all electrical
energizing systems have been de-energized and
ground. The interlock system consists of a series
of key and locks located and sequenced to
prevent personal from coming in direct contact
with any energized high voltage part

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Chapter 1

Key Interlock System 1

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Chapter 1

Key Interlock System 2


Key Interlock System DWG

Access Door

Key Box

Transformer
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Chapter 2
(Description of ESP)

P&ID(Piping & Instrument Diagram)


Rapping Control
Vibrator Control
Transformer Control
ESP Start-Up Procedure
ESP Stop Procedure

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P&ID
Attachement #2

Rapper Control
The control for the rappers shall be automatic
operation and locally manual operation. The rapper
system shall be interlocked to operate continuously
when steam generator is operating and shall
adequately operate to avoid as such stack puffs and
large fluctuations in the electrical load. The Supplier
shall describe its arrangement in his contract.
The frequency of the rapping system shall be
readily adjustable. Each electrical field shall be
independently adjustable. All electrical parts of
rapping system shall be out of the gas stream or
protected there from.
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Vibrator Control
The control for the vibrators shall be
sequentially automatic operation and locally
manual operation. Interlocking equipment
furnished by the Supplier shall prevent the
vibrators from being operated before the fly
ash removal system comes into operation.

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Transformer Control
Each precipitator field shall be continuously
controlled to optimize the field voltage while
avoiding damaging levels of arcing and sparking.
The controller shall have adjustment points to
enable spark rate, HV level, and current levels to be
optimized. Each controller shall have facilities to
enable a selection ratio of cycles or half cycles to
be inhibited from firing. Firing ratio shall have a
default setting, a manual over-ride and an auto
variable capability. Local and remote automatic and
local manual control options for the controller shall
be provided.
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ESP Start-Up Procedure


Group Start
TIME DELAY
T = 2HOUR

Seal Air
Blower Start
Si-Tr Start
Seal Air
Heater Start
Rapper
Start
Hopper
Heater Start
Complete
Vibro Motor
Start
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ESP Stop Procedure


Group Stop

Si-TR Stop

Vibro-motor
Stop

Hopper
Heater Stop

TIME DELAY
T = 30min

Seal Air
Heater Stop
Rapper
Stop

TIME DELAY
T = 2 Hour

Seal Air
Blower Stop

Complete
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Chapter 3
(Reference pictures)

Overall
Foundation Erection
Support structure
Casing
Hopper
Discharge electrode
Transformer rectifier
Rapper
Insulation
Electrical
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Overall

Boryong Power Station(500MWX6) ESP


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Overall

Hsinta Power Station ESP


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Overall

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Overall

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Foundation Erection

Foundation Anchor Bolt Erection


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Foundation Erection

Foundation Anchor Bolt Erection


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Foundation Erection

Foundation Pad Erection


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Foundation Erection

Foundation Pad Erection


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Support Structure

Support Structure Erection


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Support Structure

Support Structure Erection


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Support Structure

Support Structure Erection


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Support Structure

Support Structure Erection


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Casing

Casing Erection (Side Frame)


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Casing

Casing Erection (Side Frame)


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Casing

Casing Erection (Side Frame)


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Casing

Casing Erection (Side Frame)


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Hopper

Hopper Erection (Steam Tracing)


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Hopper

Hopper Erection (Steam Tracing)


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Hopper

Hopper Erection (Steam Tracing)


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Hopper

Hopper Erection (Steam Tracing)


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Discharge Electrode

Discharge Electrode Erection


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Discharge Electrode

Discharge Electrode Erection


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Discharge Electrode

Discharge Electrode Erection


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Discharge Electrode

Discharge Electrode Erection


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Transformer rectifier

Transformer Rectifier Erection


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Transformer rectifier

Transformer Rectifier Erection


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Transformer rectifier

Transformer Rectifier Erection


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Transformer rectifier

Transformer Rectifier Erection


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Rapper

Rapper Erection
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Rapper

Rapper Erection
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Rapper

Rapper Erection
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Rapper

Rapper Erection
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Insulation

Insulation Erection
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Insulation

Insulation Erection
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Insulation

Insulation Erection
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Insulation

Insulation Erection
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Electrical

Electrical Erection (Cable Tray)


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