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PLATO S PHAEDO

PLATO S PHAEDO
EDITED

WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES


BY

JOHN BURNET

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

Oxford University

Press,

Amen

House, London E.C.4

GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE WELLINGTON


BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI LAHORE DACCA
CAPE TOWN SALISBURY NAIROBI IBADAN ACCRA

KUALA LUMPUR HONG KONG

FIRST EDITION IQII

REPRINTED 1924, 1930, 1937, 1949, 1953, 1956,


PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

1959, 1963

PREFACE
THE

text of this edition

is

by me

that prepared

for

the Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis with

Such

a few corrections and modifications.


is

as

it

is,

it

the only text based on the three archetypal MSS.,

the Clarkianus (B), the


boncnsis

The

(W).

a photograph

in

my

collation of Professor

the Introduction

In

Marcianus
of

readings

(T).

and the Vindo-

are

possession, those of

taken

from

from the

Krai of Prague.

and Notes

have chiefly en

deavoured to elucidate the argument, and to show the


importance of the PJiacdo as an historical document.

Grammatical points have only been dealt with when


they seemed to have a direct bearing on these problems.

The

interpretation of an ancient

document must always

be based on grammar, but an edition of the PJiaedo is


not the place for a full discussion of general grammatical

problems like the constructions of ov jjn] and /A/) ov.


I have given references throughout to the second
edition of my Early Greek Philosophy (E. Gr. Ph. 2 ),

where

have discussed more

ground of the dialogue,

fully the historical

back

hope to have an early

PREFACE

vi

opportunity of discussing certain


a

more

scientific

way than

is

textual problems

in

possible in an edition like

the present.

The

reader will see that

am

under great obligations

to the editions of

recent editions

Wyttenbach and Heindorf. Of more


owe most to that of the late Sir William

Geddes.
J.

B.

CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION

TEXT
NOTES

....

APPENDIX

I.

APPENDIX

II.

DEATH

II.

III.

HEMLOCK

FXauKov re^vn

INDEX TO THE NOTES


I.

BY

...

M9
I

Proper Names
Greek Words

Grammatical

15

152
.

i5 8

INTRODUCTION
I

IF only we
to be,
ture.

it

may

take the Phacdo for what

surely stands quite

It

by

it

professes

itself in

does not, indeed, claim to

European litera
be a word for word

report of all Socrates said to the inner circle of his


followers on the day he drank the poison in prison.
By
letting us know incidentally (sgb 10) that he was not
present, Plato seems to decline responsibility for the
literal exactitude of every detail.
But, for all that, it

does on the face of

it

memorable day

its

as

bear to be such an account of that

author could conceive a favourite

disciple giving not long afterwards to a group of deeply


interested listeners.
That means a great deal. Though
he was not present when the Master died, it is certain

that Plato continued in close association with others

who

were, and they must often have talked about Socrates


1

Further, the narrative is put into the mouth


together.
of Phaedo of Elis, who was certainly still living when the
So. no doubt,
dialogue called by his name was written.

were the chief interlocutors, Simmias and Cebes, and


1
The statement in Diog. Laert. ii. ic6, iii. 6 that, just after the death
of Socrates, Plato retired with other Socratics to Megara, the home of
Euclides (cp. 59 c 2 .), rests on the authority of Hermodorus, who was a

disciple of Plato and wrote a book about him.


certain that the Socratics kept together and

Even apart from


remained

in

this,

it is

touch with

Some of them, like Theaetetus and the younger Socrates, were


Plato.
subsequently members of the Academy.

INTRODUCTION

1
probably others of the company. In these circumstances,
it is not easy to believe that Plato intended his readers to

conversation
regard the Phacdo simply as an imaginary
Of course, as has been indicated, he need not have
.

meant every

detail to

be taken as historically exact.

If

choose to suppose that he introduced into the Phaedo


to
sayings and doings of Socrates which really belonged
other occasions, there is nothing to be said against that
\ve

such concentration of characteristic traits in a single


scene is quite legitimate in dramatic composition.
for

certain idealization

might

also be allowed for

but

we

should expect the idealizing process to have taken place


in the minds of Plato and the rest before the dialogue

was written, and to have been

We may

say,

then, that the

main unconscious.
Phacdo professes to be

in the

nothing less than a faithful picture of Socrates as Plato


It professes to be even
conceived him when he wrote it.

We

more.
are certainly led to believe that it gives us
a truthful record of the subjects on which Socrates dis
coursed on the last day of his life, and of his manner of
treating them.

No

reader

who made

his first

acquain

tance with Socrates here could possibly suppose anything


else.
and
This, then, is what the Phaedo professes to be
;

only it is this,
in the supreme
if

It

is

the likeness of a great philosopher


crisis of his life, drawn by a philo-

it is

impossible to discuss the date of the Phaedo here; for this

would involve an inquiry

into that of the Republic.


I
may say, however,
as proved that the Phaedo is earlier than the
Republic,
and as probable that it was written within ten years of the death of
Socrates.
But, in any case, Phaedo, who lived to found the school
that

regard

of Elis, is a

it

mere

lad in

399

B. c. (cp.

89 b 3), while Simmias and Cebes

are viaviaicoi (8933).


No one would assign the
which it \s reasonable to suppose they were dead.

Phaedo

to

a date at

INTRODUCTION

xi

who was greater still, and was also one of the


most consummate dramatic artists the world has known.
It would not be easy to find the match of such a work.

sopher

II

But are we entitled to take the Phaedo for what it pro


be ? The general opinion apparently is that we

fesses to

not. 1

are

It is admitted, indeed, that the narrative


portion of the dialogue is historical, but most interpreters
doubt whether Socrates talked about immortality at all,

and many deny that he held the belief set forth in our
dialogue.
Hardly any one ventures to suppose that the
reasons given for holding this belief could have been
given by Socrates it is assumed that they are based on
;

doctrines formulated
after Socrates

by Plato himself

had passed away.

at least ten years


cannot accept this

account of the matter.


all

I cannot, indeed, feel sure that


the incidents of the narrative are strictly historical.

These are, in my opinion, the very things for which


a dramatic artist might fairly draw on his imagination.
I

have only an impression that they are, broadly speak


life, and that they all serve to bring before us

ing, true to

a picture of Socrates as he really was. But the religious


and philosophical teaching of the Phaedo is on a very
different footing.

done
that

in

Whatever Plato may or may not have

and I say nothing here about


cannot bring myself to believe that he falsified

other dialogues
I

i refer mainly to current opinion in this country.


Some references
views of another character will be found below (p. xiv, n. 2).
*
It is obvious that we must apply a somewhat different standard to a
dialogue like the Phaedo, which is supposed to take place when Plato
was twenty-eight years old, and to one like the Parmenides, which deals
with a time at least twenty years before he was born. If it can be
1

to

INTRODUCTION

xii

s last hours on earth by using him


mere mouthpiece for novel doctrines of his own.
That would have been an offence against good taste and

the story of his master

as a

an outrage on all natural piety for if Plato did this


There can be
thing, he must have done it deliberately.
/

fe>

no question here of unconscious development he must


have known quite well whether Socrates held these

or

doctrines

not.

confess that

should regard the

better than a heartless mystification


half the things commonly believed about it were true.

PJiaedo as

little

if

Ill

The

interpretation which finds nothing in the PJiaedo

but the speculations of Plato himself is based on the


belief that the historical Socrates
of whom we may get
some idea from Xenophon, is quite a different person
v

from
to say

the Platonic Socrates

What

the latter

is

made

treated as evidence for the philosophy of Plato,


but not for that of Socrates himself.
This does not mean
is

merely that Plato s Socrates is idealized. That might be


if it were admitted that
Xenophon too idealized

allowed,

own fashion. If it were only meant


men drew Socrates as he saw him, and
was, in fact, a different man for each of

Socrates after his


that each of these
that Socrates

them, the truth of such a view would be self-evident.


We should only have to ask which of the two had the
better opportunity of seeing Socrates as he
really was,
and which was the more capable of
understanding and
But very much more than this is meant.
portraying him.
shown, as

I believe
that the latter dialogue is accurate in its
it can,
historical setting (cp. E. Gr. Ph. 2
p. 192) and involves no philosophical
anachronism, the Phacdo will a fortiori be a
document.

trustworthy

INTRODUCTION
It

is

meant

conceal his

xiii

that Plato has used Socrates as a

own

features,

and that the Platonic

mask

to

Socrates

in fact, Plato.

is,

The

general acceptance of this view in recent times is


apparently due to the authority of Hegel. Speaking of
Socrates, he lays down that we must hold chiefly to

Xenophon in regard to the content of his knowledge,


and the degree in which his thought was developed x
and this dictum became a sort of dogma with the He
gelian and semi-Hegelian writers to whom we owe so
,

much

of the best nineteenth-century

of Greek philosophy.

It

work

the history

in

made

can only be

plausible,

however, by isolating the Memorabilia from Xenophon s


other writings in a way which seems wholly illegitimate.
We must certainly take the Oec0?i0micus and the Sympo

sium into account as well and, in estimating Xenophon s


claim to be regarded as a historian, we must never forget
;

was the author of the Cyropaedia.

that he

The Apology of Socrates which has come down


under Xenophon s name raises another question.

to us
It

is

pretty clearly based on Plato s Apology, and it contains


a rather clumsy plagiarism from the Phaedo* This has

deny the authenticity of the work


Xenophon s methods arc studied the less
do
such
arguments appear, and there is now
cogent
led

many

scholars to

but the more

a growingdisposition to regard \.\\e Apology as Xenophon s


If so, we have to face the possibility that he
after all.

derived

much

of his knowledge of Socrates

from the

writings of Plato.

As
is

for the

Memorabilia

itself,

there

is

no doubt that

a strangely constructed work, and the


1

Gesch. der

Phil

ii.

69.

Cp.

higher
89

b 2 w.

it

critics

INTRODUCTION

XIV

1
It is
have condemned whole chapters as interpolations.
I
not necessary to discuss their theories here
only
mention them at all in order to show that the book
presents a real problem, and that the time has gone by
;

for

speak ing of
cavil.

yond

of the critics,

better

its

their

in

something be

historical character as

however, we wish to avoid the conclusions


we can only do so by putting something

If,

The

place.

question

we must ask

is

possible to give an account of Xenophon s


Socratic writings which will explain them as they stand.

whether
I

it is

believe that

it

is;

historical Socrates

but

who

will

also believe

that

it

then appear as the

is

the

fictitious

character. 2

IV
By

young
1

It

own account

his

lias

of the matter,

hardly more than

Xenophon was quite


when he saw

and twenty

five

quite recently been argued that two of the most important


are derived from Plato s Timaeus, and
(I. 4 and iv. 3

conversations

were inserted
(K.

Lincke,

in their

Xenophon

present place by Zeno, the founder of Stoicism


ttiul

die

Stoa,

Neue

Jahrbiicher,

xvii

(1906

pp. 673 sqq.;.


2

the

This view

is

distinction

gradually making its way. Raeder, while speaking of


between the Platonic and the historical Socrates as

a recognized truth
is equally emphatic in
stating that the Platonic
Socrates must be distinguished from Plato himself (Platous
philosopliische
Ivo Bruns Das literarische Portrdt der
Entivickelung, p. 53
,

Griechen,

1896) insists upon the fact that both Plato and


portraits of Socrates as they knew him, only it

Xenophon give faithful


was a different Socrates

knew. C. Ritter (Platan, i, p. 71) says that Plato s Socrates,


even though poetically transfigured, is yet
certainly the true one, truer
not only than the Socrates of comedy, but also than that of
Xenophon
My colleague Professor Taylor s Varia Socratica (St. Andrews University
Publications, No. IX.
Oxford, Parker} came into my hands too late for

that they

me to refer to it in detail.
am glad to find myself in
I

Though

substantial

cannot accept

all

his conclusions,

agreement with him.

INTRODUCTION

xv

When he made his acquain


but of course Socrates was a

Socrates for the last time. 1


tance

we do not know

familiar figure to

most Athenian

We

lads.

can see pretty

clearly, however, that Xenophon cannot have associated


regularly with Socrates after he reached the age of mili
It is very significant that, as he tells us
tary service.

himself (An. iii. i. 4), it was the Boeotian Proxenus who


wrote to him suggesting that he should attach himself to

That certainly looks as if he


the expedition of Cyrus.
had already served a pretty serious military apprentice
and in these years most of the fighting was at a dis
tance from Athens. The fact that a Boeotian professional
ship,

soldier

knew him

be a likely

to

man

for

an adventure of

kind seems to imply that he had already given proof


of such inclinations and, if so, his intercourse with the
this

teacher

who had

not

left

Athens

for years

must have been

intermittent at best.

That Xenophon did know Socrates personally,


2
however, no reason to doubt.

What

subject in the Anabasis rings true,

he

and

see,

tells

us on the

in

complete

is

harmony with what we know otherwise. He says (An.


iii. i.
5) that, when he had read the letter of Proxenus
The youth

of Xenophon at the time of the expedition of C3TUS was


pointed out clearly by Cobet (Novae Lectiones, pp. 539 and 543). In
the Anabasis (iii. i. 14 and 23) he tells us himself that he hesitated to
take command of the Ten Thousand because of his youth.
Now two of
the generals who had been killed were thirty-five and Proxenus was
thirty, so Xenophon must have been appreciably younger.
Cp. also iii.
1

first

2. 37, iii. 3 sq., and iv. 2 where he insists upon his youth.
As Croiset
says (Lift, grecque, vol. iv, p. 340, n. i), Si Ton se laissait aller a 1 impression generate que donne VAnabase, on attribuerait a Xenophon en
The fact that Apollodorus gave his
399 plutdt vingt-cinq ans que trente.

archonship of Xenaenetus (401/0 B. c.) does not weigh


merely the date of the expedition.
has been doubted by E. Richter, whose work I have not seen.

floruit as the

against this
a

It

for that is

INTRODUCTION
he consulted

the

Socrates

Socrates had misgivings.

proved him right

that,

Athenian

He was
if

afraid

on the matter.
and the event

Xenophon attached himself

to

at Athens, so he
Cyrus, it would damage his prospects
But Xeno
oracle.
advised him to consult the Delphic

and only asked the


phon had already made up his mind,
and sacrifice to en
Pythia to what gods he should pray
sure a prosperous issue to the journey he had in view and
The oracle, of course, gave him the answer
a safe return.
he sought, but Socrates blamed him for not asking first
whether he should undertake the journey at all. As it
This story
was, he bade him do as the god commanded.
throws great light on what Xenophon afterwards wrote in
the Memorabilia,

We

read there

(i.

4) that Socrates

I.

used to warn his friends to do this and not to do that, on


the strength of premonitions from his
that for those who did as he told them
while those

who

did not repented of

it

divine sign
it

and

turned out well,

later on.

We

are

also told that Socrates used to advise his friends to consult

oracles on difficult questions, but in matters within the


reach of human intelligence to use their own judgement.

without significance that Xenophon


us this at the very beginning of the Memora
bilia, just as the story given above from the Anabasis
occurs at the precise point in the narrative where he in
It is

should

not, surely,

tell

own personality. It seems as if it had been


the centre round which his personal memories of Socrates
In those days, as we
naturally grouped themselves.
troduces his

know from other sources, Socrates struck many young


men chiefly as one possessed of a sort of second sight
.

In the Thcagcs (wrongly included in the Platonic canon,


but still an early work) we read (128 d 8 sqq.) how

INTRODUCTION
Charmides consulted Socrates before beginning to
for the foot-race at

Nemea.

xvii

train

He

neglected the advice


worth while to ask him what he got

and it is
So, too, Timarchus declared, when
by that training
he was being led to execution, that he owed his plight to

given him,

And there
disregard of a warning given by Socrates
certain Sannio consulted Socrates, just
were others.

starting for the wars, and Socrates


as
saying that he expects him either to
represented
lose his life or come within an ace of doinir
o so.
It was not his second
sight alone, however, that
like

Xenophon, before

is

young men to Socrates. If they had re


him
mere clairvoyant, their feelings to him
as
a
garded
would not have been what they plainly were. No doubt
it was Alcibiades who did most to make Socrates the
but we can see from the Symposium that Plato
fashion
had good grounds for believing that his enthusiasm was
based on a conviction that Socrates was a man of no
attracted these

common

In particular, all these


strength of character.
to be a brave soldier and a good

young men knew him

His services at Potidaea, where he saved the


of Alcibiades, and at Amphipolis, and above all his
personal courage in the field of Delium, were matter of

citizen.
life

common
(181

report.

7 sqq.),

Plato

In the dialogue called by his name


makes Laches express the high esteem

which Socrates was held in military circles, and all that


would appeal strongly to the group of young men I am
in

trying to characterize.

had

left

The close

definite occupation, and


to try their luck as soldiers of

they were very ready


fortune.
They were not

Meno was one


mi

of the war with Sparta

them without any very

of

them

all Athenians
the Thessalian
and in any case they had no local
b

INTRODUCTION
patriotism to speak

They were

of.

willing to fight for

any one who would employ them, and they were naturally
attracted by a man who had not only given proof of
bravery in the field, but had also a mysterious gift of
foreseeing the chances of military adventures.
Nor would these young men think any the worse of

Socrates because he was an object of suspicion to the


leaders of the Athenian democracy.
They were mostly
hostile,

if

not actually disloyal, to the democracy them


certainly be impressed by the action

They would

selves.

of Socrates at the trial of the generals after Arginusae.


Xenophon was very likely present on that occasion,

and he mentions the matter with some emphasis


Hellenic a

(i.

7.

in

the

15).

That Xenophon belonged to this group we may readily


admit, without supposing him to have been a member of
As we have seen, he
the more intimate Socratic circle.
can have had little time for that, and this makes his
testimony to the existence of such an inner circle all the
more valuable. In dealing with the charge that Critias
and Alcibiadeshad been associates of Socrates, he points
out that they were so only for a time and to serve their
ends.
Besides these, and others like them, there

own

were

many who

associated with

Socrates in order to

become good men, and not to further any political


ambitions of their own.
The names he gives Crito,
Chaerephon, Chaerecrates, Hermocrates, Simmias, Cebes,
Phaedondas
are all familiar to the readers of Plato.
T

Mem.

of the Theban Phaedondas, of whom


might suggest the suspicion that Xeno
phon merely took his list from the Phaedo, were it not that Plato calls
him Phaedondes, just as he calls Archytas Archytes. It almost seems as
if Xenophon knew him
personally by his Boeotian name.
1

nothing

is

\.

2.

48.

known

The mention

^cp.

59

c 2

.),

INTRODUCTION

xix

With one doubtful exception, 1 they are those of men

whom
in

he represents as supporting Socrates at the trial or


the prison or both.
Now, if Xenophon is here speaking from his own per

sonal knowledge, he confirms the statements of Plato in


the most remarkable way; for he bears witness to the

existence of a circle of true disciples which included the


Theban Pythagoreans, Simmias and Cebes.
on
If,
the other hand, he has merely taken his list of names
from Plato s Apology, Crito, and Phaedo, he must mean at

the very least that Plato s account of the matter is quite


in keeping with the memories of his youth.
The refer
ence to Simmias and Cebes in the conversation with

Theodote (Mem. iii. n.


they had been attracted
desire to associate with

shows further that he knew


Athens from Thebes by their

17)

to

Socrates,

or at

least

that he

accepted this as a true account of the matter.

There

nothing so far to suggest that Xenophon had


any special information about Socrates, or that he was in
any real sense his follower. His behaviour in the matter
is

of the Delphic oracle is highly characteristic, and he tells


the story himself.
It represents him as a self-willed lad

who thought he might guard


his actions

by

against the consequences of


a
favourable response, no matter
getting

Most editors follow Groen van Prinsterer in changing the MS.


Ep/to-ye i/T;?, which would bring Xenophon and Plato into

EpnoKpaTT/s to

complete agreement. It is to be observed, however, that, in the Timaens


and Critias, Plato represents Hermocrates as present, and that he meant

make him the leading speaker in the third dialogue of the trilogy.
do not think it likely that Plato should have invented an impossible
meeting, and Hermocrates may have come to Athens and made the
acquaintance of Socrates during his exile. ,If he did, the fact would cer

to
I

tainly interest

Xenophon.

INTRODUCTION

xx

how, from the Pythia. That is quite human, and we


need not be too severe upon him for it but it hardly
witness to the beliefs of
inspires confidence in him as a
;

Socrates about things unseen and eternal.

V
Turning a deaf ear to the warnings of Socrates, young
Xenophon left Athens to join the expedition of Cyrus.
and he never saw Socrates again. He had, therefore, no
first-hand knowledge of his trial and death, while Plato
was certainly present at the trial. Further, though it is
just possible that

time

Xenophon

in the interval

between

revisited

Athens

his return

for a short

from Asia and

departure with Agesilaus, he spent practically

his fresh

He was, therefore, far


life in exile.
favourably situated than Plato for increasing his
knowledge of Socrates by conversation with others who
all

the rest of his

less

had known him.


Phaedo, indeed, was not far off at
He might
Klis, but he never mentions Phaedo at all.
very easily have made inquiries among the Pythagoreans
of Phlius
but, in spite of the exceptional sympathy he
shows for Phlius in the Hellcnica, he never says a word
about Echecrates or any of them. We have seen that
he docs mention Simmias and Cebes twice (in both cases
for a special purpose), but it is very significant that no
;

them are reported in the Memorabilia.


seems to follow that Xenophon did not belong to the
same circle as these men did, and we can very well
believe his sympathy with them to have been imperfect.
He does appear to have known Hermogenes, son of
lipponicus (Phaed. 59 b 7 ;/.), but that is apparently all.
Where, then, did he get the conversations recorded in
conversations with
It

INTRODUCTION
the Memorabilia

To

xxi

a considerable extent they arc

discussions at which he cannot have been present, and


which he had no opportunity of hearing about from oral
tradition, as Plato

may

easily

have done

in similar cases.

does not seem probable that they are pure inventions,


though he has given them an unmistakable colouring
It

which

quite his own.

is

some cases they seem

In

to be

It is difficult to believe that


adaptations from Plato.
what he makes Socrates say about Anaxagoras, and the
hazy account he gives of the method of hypothesis, have

any other source than the PJiaedo^

some

that

of the conversations

It is

highly probable

come from Antisthenes,

though I think it a mistake to regard Antisthenes as his


main source. We must bear in mind that there were
many Socratic discourses of which we get a very failidea from what Wilamowitz calls
the Socratic Apo
If we take up the Memorabilia when we arc
crypha
fresh from the The ages or the Clitopho (to the latter of
which there seems to be an allusion in the Memorabilia 2 ).
we shall find the book much easier to understand in
many respects. If I mistake not, we shall have the
,

feeling that

Xenophon got the substance

of

many

of his

conversations from sources of this kind, and fitted these


as well as he could into his own recollections of the
For Anaxagoras cp. Mem. iv. 7. 6 with PJuied. 97 b 8, and for
Mem. iv. 6. 13 and Phaed. 92 d 6 n. That both passages are
misunderstood proves nothing against this view.
1

iiruQfois cp.
2

Clitopho
Tfn&v

*TT

408

dpfTrjv

d2
w>

Kal \af3eiv O.VTO T(\(OJS


iytfj.t\(iav
i.

4.

KaAAjoV

Et 5e nvts

iroTf

TTUIS

OVTOS
;

vvv

fj.uvov
.

410

u.-no5c^6fj.(8a TTJV ^utcpdrovs nporponfjv


TOVTOV^ tiT(t\dtiv 5^ OVK 4V t TO) IT pdy fj.o.7
b 4 vo/^icras oe TO ftiv irporpeTTtiv fls dper^s

dvOpwircvv Spdv

~S.ojKpa.Trjv

fir*

vofj.ifrvGii

CIVTOV TfKfj.aip6fji(voij TTpoTpti^affdat

vivai, trpoayayfiv S

/j.a/cpuTtpov 8f ouSeV.
,

&s

(.VLOI ypd<povai

av&puTiuvs
O,VTT)V ovx l/cavov KT\.
fj.ev

fir

Cp. Xen.

Mem.

re Kal \e-fovcrt

irfpl

dpeTTjV KpcLTicfrov yt yo-

INTRODUCTION

xxii

brave old

man

with the

intention of taking

of second

gift

advice he had sought in early

life

sight,

whose

without any particular

it.

VI
It is not even necessary for our purpose to discuss the
vexed question of Xenophon s veracity, though it is right
to mention that, when he claims to have been an eye
At the
witness, his statements are not to be trusted.
his
was
of
he
he
Symposium
says
present at
beginning
the banquet which he describes, though he must have
been a child at the time. 1 He also claims in the Oeconomicns to have heard the conversation with Critobulus,
in the course of which (4. iSsqq.) Socrates discusses the

battle of Cunaxa, though it is certain that Xenophon


saw Socrates for the last time before that battle was
These things show clearly that we are not to
fought.
take his claims to be a first-hand witness seriously, but

the misstatements are so glaring that they can hardly


have been intended to deceive. Xenophon was eager to
defend the memory of Socrates for that was part of the
;

case against the Athenian democracy.


He had to eke
out his own rather meagre recollections from such sources
as appealed to

divine sign

him most, those which made much of the


and the hardiness of Socrates, and occa

sionally he has to invent, as is obviously the case in the


When Plato
passage of the Oeconomicus referred to.
1

The banquet

421/0 B. c. In Athenaeus
not born at that date, or
was at any rate a mere child. It follows that Herodicus (a follower of
Crates of Mallos), whom Athenaeus is here drawing upon, supposed
Xenophon to have been only twenty years old at the time of the
Anabasis. This is probably an exaggeration of his youth at that date.
216 d

we

is

supposed

are told that

to take place in

Xenophon was perhaps

INTRODUCTION
conversations

reports

xxin

which he cannot have been

at

apt to insist upon the fact that he is


or third-hand with what seems to us
at
secondspeaking

present, he

is

unnecessary elaboration,

but

Xenophon

He

says I was there or


only to make the narrative vivid.

different.
is

posed to believe

manner

heard

We

is

but that

are not sup

it.

VII
In view of

all this, it is

now

pretty generally admitted

that Xenophon s Socrates must be distinguished from


the historical Socrates quite as carefully as Plato s. That
seems to leave us with two fictitious characters on our
hands instead of one, though of course it is allowed that
But how
in both cases the fiction is founded upon fact.
are

we

quire,

We

re
to distinguish the one from the other ?
would seem, a third witness, and such a witness

it

has been found in Aristotle.

It is

pointed out that he

was a philosopher, and therefore better able

to appreciate
the philosophical importance of Socrates than Xenophon
On the other hand, he was far enough removed
was.

from Socrates to take a calm and impartial view of him,


a thing which was impossible for Plato.
Where, there
fore,

sure

Aristotle confirms Plato or

we have

Socrates.

Xenophon, we may be

at last got that elusive figure,

the historical

This method rests wholly, of course, on the assumption


that Aristotle

had access

to independent sources of infor-

Cp. especially the openings of the Parmenidcs and the Symposium.


a
This is the distinctive feature of Joel s method in his work entitled
Dff echfe und der Xenophontische Sokrates. Though I cannot accept his
1

conclusions,
industry.

must not be understood

to

disparage Joel

learning and

INTRODUCTION

XXIV

There can be no question of


had been dead fifteen
first-hand evidence
and
a whole generation
years when Aristotle was born,
had passed away before he came to Athens for the first
He might certainly have learnt something from
time.
conversation with Plato and the older members of the
Academy, and he might have read Socratic dialogues no
mation about Socrates.
;

for Socrates

It is impossible to suggest any other


longer extant.
source from which he could have derived his information,

and these do not come to much. It is to be supposed


that Plato and his friends would represent Socrates much
as he appears in the dialogues, while the lost Socratic
writings would not take him far beyond Xenophon.
practice, too, this criterion proves of little value.

In

tell us a great deal, and the


Aristotelian Socrates has to be reconstructed with the

Aristotle himself does not

help of the

Endemian Ethics and

the

Magna

This seriously vitiates the results of the method

Mor
;

alia.

for the

considerations urged in support of Aristotle s trustworthi


ness cannot be held to cover these later works.
As to
the remainder, Zcllcr

is
clearly right in his contention
that Aristotle never says anything about Socrates which

he might not have derived from works which arc still ex


There is no sign that he had even read the Memora
bilia, and in fact the presumption is that, when Aristotle
tant.

he regularly means the Socrates of


Socrates
says
Plato s dialogues. No doubt, like all of us, he sometimes
refers to the Platonic Socrates as Plato, but that is
,

natural
fact

is

enough on any supposition the really significant


that he so often calls him Socrates.
Indeed, he

was so much

in
1

the habit of regarding the


dialogues
Phil, der Gricchen*

ii.

94, n. 4.

INTRODUCTION
discourses of Socrates

of Plato as

includes the

Laws under

this title.

xxv

that
It

he actually

is

surely quite
impossible to suppose that he really meant to identify
If
he was
the Athenian Stranger with Socrates.
not be
it
would
like
blunder
a
of
that,
making
capable

worth

consider his evidence on the

while to

subject
simpler to assume that, for Aristotle,
Socrates was just the Platonic Socrates, and that, in
speaking of the Laivs as discourses of Socrates he has

at

It

all.

far

is

intelligible enough on that


but
wholly inexplicable on any other. It
supposition,
meant to
discourses of Socrates
that is so, and if
we can make no use of
Aristotle dialogues of Plato
what he says to check the statements of Xenophon, and

made

a slip

which would be

still less

to support the

Plato,
real

and

if

view that the Platonic Socrates

Aristotle

is

he had been

in

unhistorical.

is

Socrates with Plato

have done so somewhere


It

s,

in

always

ready to

criticize

a position to contrast the


we may be sure he would

unmistakable language.
s statements as

cannot be said either that Aristotle

really meant are of much help to us.


a good interpreter of philosophical
means
He is by no
is not in sympathy.
he
He is. for
which
with
views

what

to

instance,

Socrates

demonstrably unfair to the Kleatics, and the


is almost equally beyond his range.

Platonic Socrates

jj.lv OVV TTfplTTuV (XOVVl TTai/TfJ Oi TOU


paTOVS
TO KaivoTujjiov /cat TO ^rjTrjTiKoi1 KT\.
Aristotle has
the paradoxes of which he also ascribes
just been speaking of the Republic,
to Socrates, and he goes on to the Laws with these words ,1265 a i) ruv
1

Pol. B. 6.

I265a

\6yot KOI TO Kop.\puv

II TO

"S.OJK

Ko.1

5e nfpl TTJJ
jjitv irXtiarov ptpos vupoi rvy\dvovaLv ovres, u\iya
The editors say that the Athenian
noXiTfias fiprjKfv (sc. o Sw/rpdT^y).
Stranger is identified with Socrates, and seem to be unconscious of the

8t No/^cwi/ TO

absurdity of such an identification.

INTRODUCTION

xxvr

VIII
all as if our only chance of learning any
was from Plato, but we must of
about
Socrates
thing
his
evidence
to the same tests as we have
course subject

It

looks after

applied to

Xenophon and

Aristotle.

In the

first

place

we must ask what opportunities he had of knowing the


true Socrates.

He

his dialogues.

We

singularly reticent on this point in


learn from them that he was present

is

at the trial of Socrates but not at his death,


all.

He

his writings.

We may

and that

is

own

personality from
note, however, that he likes to

has completely effaced his

dwell on the fact that his kinsmen, Critias and Charmides,


and his brothers, Glaucon and Adimantus, were intimate

with Socrates.
Plato was twenty-eight years old when Socrates was
1
put to death, and we cannot doubt thai he had known
him from his boyhood. The idea that Plato first made
the acquaintance of Socrates when he was grown up may
be dismissed. 2 It is inconsistent with all we know about

Athenian society, and especially that section of it to


which Plato s family belonged.
It was common for
and
to
parents
guardians
encourage boys to associate
with Socrates, and to beg Socrates to talk with them.
Plato was the nephew of Charmides, and we know that
1

Cp.
2

This rests on the authority of Hermodorus (ap. Diog. Laert.


p. ix, n.

The

iii.

6).

i.

current story that Plato

made

the acquaintance of Socrates

when

he was twenty does not rest on the authority of Hermodorus at all,


though it is quoted in Diogenes Laertius just before the statement re
ferred to in n. i.
Others said that Plato associated with Socrates for ten
Both figures, I take it, are arrived at by a calculation based on
years.
the solitary datum furnished by Hermodorus.
Some counted from the
beginning and others from the end of Plato s two years as an t^/Sos. If
that is so, there was no genuine tradition.

INTRODUCTION

xxvii

Charmides was warmly attached to Socrates when Plato


was in his teens. Even later, as we know from Xenophon, Socrates prevented Glaucon from speaking in
being well-disposed to
public before he was twenty,,
him because of Charmides and Plato. 1 In these circum
stances, it is inconceivable that Plato did not meet
Socrates over and over again in the gymnasia and else

Xenophon may have known Socrates

where.

in this

way

but the presumption is far stronger in the case


of Plato.
Moreover, the son of Ariston would certainly
too,

be a

far cleverer

boy than the son of

artistic susceptibility

and

his

keen eye

Gryllus, while his


for the character

The sketches he has


would be early developed.
us of the Master s way with boys in the gymnasia are
too vivid to be wholly imaginary.
istic

left

When

he grew up, Plato does not seem to have left


No doubt he saw some service but he tells us
2
himself that his ambitions were political, and by his time
If
the political and military careers were quite distinct.
Athens.

he had qualified himself, like Xenophon, to be a pro


known something
fessional soldier, we should have
about it.
1

We

learn

from the dialogue called by his name that Charmides

came under the influence


the birth of Plato.

of Socrates as a boy, three or four years before


Xenophon that he kept up the close
which began then. It was Socrates who did him the

We

learn from

relationship to him
doubtful service of urging him to enter public life in spite of his shyness
(Mem. iii. 7), and in the Symposium (1.3) Xenophon represents him as

associating with Socrates along with Critobulus, Hennogenes. and AntiHe is made to say that he could associate more freely with
sthenes.
Socrates when reduced to poverty by the war. For the conversation with

Glaucon, cp. Mem. iii. 6. i. These data cover the whole period of Plato
boyhood and early manhood.
2

Ep.

vii.

324 b

8 sqq.

INTRODUCTION

xxviii

Plato, then, had exceptional opportunities of knowing


Socrates, but this does not prove that he belonged to the

inner Socratic circle. 1

The evidence does

not carry us

beyond the probability that he belonged to the group of


the sons of the richer citizens, who have
young men
who gathered round Socrates for
most time to spare
the pleasure of hearing him expose the ignorance of pre
tenders to knowledge.
That is a different group from
the one to which Xenophon belonged, but it is equally
well marked, and it is not the inner circle.
We can
infer no more from the passage in the Apology where
Socrates offers to call Adimantus to prove that Plato had
3
The fact that
got no harm from associating with him.
Phaedo thinks it necessary to explain Plato s absence
from the scene

in the prison

may mean

little

more, but

that refers to a later date.


If

not

we regard the Seventh Epistle


see

who

else

could

as Plato s
and I do
have written it the matter
Plato does not say a word in

appears in a clearer light.


it about
having been a disciple of Socrates, though he
of
him as an older friend for whose character he
speaks

had a profound admiration. 4 His ambitions, as we have


seen, were political, not scientific.
He was in his twentyfourth year when the Thirty were established, and his
kinsmen urged him to take office under them; but the
behaviour of Socrates
1

We

in

the affair of

Leon

of Salamis

cannot draw any inference from

name from

the

list.

Xenophon s omission of his


To mention the kinsman of Critias and Charmides

would have
!

spoilt the point he is trying to make.


s
Apol. 2302.
Apol 34ar
Ep. vii. 324 d 8 i\ov avSpa e/zot nptoQvrfpoj SajfcpaTij, ov tyca
av alrj-^vvoi^v tiiruv SiKatuTarov fli ai raiv rorf.
<p

oiitt
5

Ep.

vii.

32462

irri

nva TWV noXiruv

fittf

trfpcov tirfunov,

ia

cr^f

aovra

5o>

is

INTRODUCTION

xxix

his eyes to the real character of the oligarchy.


the Thirty fell, he was at first impressed by the
moderation of the restored democracy, and once more

opened

When

thought of entering public

life,

but the condemnation

of

Socrates proved to him that there was no hope in that


1
In fact, though his first awakening
direction either.

went back to the year of the Thirty, his final conversion


He probably
dated only from the death of Socrates.
rose a new man from the sick-bed on which he was then
It would not be the only case of a man called to
lying.
be an apostle after the death of his Master.
Such seems to me the most probable account of the
relations between Socrates and Plato but, even if he was
;

not a disciple in the strict sense, his opportunities for


learning to know Socrates as he really was were vastly

Xenophon. Above all, he was at


two years of his life, while Xeno
So far as the Phacdo is concerned,

greater than those of

Athens during the


phon was in Asia.

last

the statement of our earliest authority, Hermodorus, that,


after the death of Socrates, Plato threw in his lot with the
Socratics and retired with

them

Euclides and Terpsion,

of the

may

be sure that he

is

made

it

to Megara, the

home

of

We
importance.
his business to hear every
first

words and actions from all who


had been present, and he makes Phaedo express the
delight they all took in speaking of him, while Echecrates
Master

detail of the

dTro6a.vovfJ.evov,

6 5

OVK

va

5r)

of

Leon

fttrfx 01

tirtiOtTo, TTO.V 81

yevtoOai Koivojv6s.
is

s last

The

TWV

IT

pay fj.cn ouv

auTofy, e/Ve fiovXoiro (ire

ira.pKiv8vvfvatv rradeTv irplv dvoaicuv avrois


story is told in Apol. 32 c 4 sqq., where the

fir)

tpyw
name

given.

1
Ep. vii. 325 a 5 sqq. Plato says that he was prevented from entering
public life by the impossibility of effecting anything without a party and
the proved impossibility of acting with either party.

Cp.

p. ix, n. i.

INTRODUCTION

xxx

voices the desire of

all

admirers of Socrates for exact

That Plato was really in a


a
full
and
true account of the clay
give
position
described in the Phacdo is not, therefore, open to doubt.
information about

him.

to

IX
Still, it will

was so

be

different

said,

the ancient idea of historical truth

from ours, that

\ve

cannot look for what

objective narrative from such a writer as


Plato. It is usual to refer to the speeches of Thucydides
in support of this contention, and they are really rather
called an

is

It seems to me, however, that they prove


something different from the position they are supposed
to illustrate.
Thucydides tells us that he has put into

to the point.

the

mouth

of each speaker the sentiments proper to the

occasion, expressed as he thought he would be likely to


express them, while at the same time endeavouring, as

nearly as he could, to give the general purport of what


was actually said. 1 Even that would carry us a consider
able

way

Pkaedo.

in the

case of the

Platonic Socrates in the

would surely mean

at the very least that


Socrates discussed immortality with two Pythagoreans
on his dying day, and that implies a good many other
It

things.

But it is really the contrast between the speeches of


Thucydides and the dialogues of Plato that is most
instructive.
Broadly speaking, all the orators in Thu
Even Pericles and
cydides speak in the same style.
Cleon can hardly be said to be characterized. In Plato
1

was

Thuc.

Observe that he only professes to give TO, Sf


ovra, what
by the occasion, not TO. -npovfiKovTa, what was appropriate

22.

called for

to the character of the

speakers.

INTRODUCTION
we

xxxi

Even the

find just the opposite.

Eleatic Stranger

and the speakers in the Laws have a character of their


own, and only seem shadowy by contrast with the rich
This realism is
personalities of the earlier dialogues.
just one of the traits which distinguishes the literature of
Aristotle had
the fourth century from that of the fifth.
observed the existence of the new literary genre and calls
attention to the fact that it had not received a name.

had two
ment and

It

distinctive marks,

it

used prose for

its

instru

was an imitation. It included the mimes


Xenarchus and also the Socratic dis
and
of Sophron
courses

This classification of the Platonic dialogue


is one of Aristotle s happiest thoughts.

with the

it

mime

the anecdotes which are told of Plato

If

are historical, 2

Sophron
but in any

we can

true.

see

Plato

delight in

what suggested

it

case,
dialogues really arc
mimes, but with this difference, that the characters are all
it

is

and well-known people. They are just the opposite


of the speeches in Thucyclides.
real

The critics have, no doubt, discovered a certain


number of apparent anachronisms in the dialogues. It
is said that, in the
Symposium (193 a 2), Plato makes
Aristophanes refer to the SLOLKLO-^JLO^ of Mantinea which
took place in 385 B. C., and that, in the Meno (90 a 4), he
makes Socrates refer to the enrichment of Ismenias by
Persian gold as recent, whereas it happened after the
The latter instance, however, is
death of Socrates.
for Ismenias was an important
extremely doubtful
;

figure
1

at

Thebes

considerably

before

the

1447 b 2 sqq.
The story that Socrates was a student and imitator
on the authority of Duris of Samos (FHG. ii, p. 480).
2

death of

Poet.

of

Sophron

rests

INTRODUCTION

xxxii

Socrates. 1 and the former

is probably a misunderstanding.
mention
not
does
Mantinea, and what he
Aristophanes
of
Arcadians by Sparta
the
says about the 8101x10-^6$
of the Arcadian
dissolution
the
to
may very well refer

Confederacy, which was quite recent when the banquet


2
described in the Symposium is supposed to take place.
the
dictum
to
For my part, I am quite ready
accept

Wilamowitz that there are no anachronisms in Plato


if there were one or two of the kind just men
tioned, they would be of little account.
They would
have to be regarded as slips which no one would have
noticed unless he had been looking for them, and which
do not detract in the least from the historical character

of

but, even

of the dialogues in which they occur.


On the other hand, we must note

certain positive

which show that Plato was not only a realist


in his character-drawing, but had also a
strong sense of
historical perspective and a genuine feeling for historical
features

values.

In particular, he has avoided completely a very


He has a wonderful way of

subtle form of anachronism.

keeping up the

illusion that his dialogues

prc-revolutionary period.
1

Cp

belong to the
of 404 and

The Revolutions

E. Meyer, Gesch. des Alterth.

the llellenica

is

v.
854, 855. The chronology of
certainly at fault in regard to these transactions, and

Persian gold may well have found its way to Thebes before the supposed
date of the conversation described in the Meno.
2

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Die Xenophontisclie Apologie, Hermes xxxvi


He points out that Plato does not make Aristophanes
i.
mention Mantinea at all, and that the allusion does not
correspond to
(1897!, p. 102. n.

what we know of the Spartan treatment of Mantinea in 385 B.C. The


Arcadian League struck coins with the superscription Ap/caSiitov, and
these coins cease after the battle of 418 B.C.
posed to take place in 416 B.C., Aristophanes
to

an event then recent.

As
is

the

Symposium

is

alluding in a natural

sup

way

INTRODUCTION

xxxiii

a complete break in the politics and


new world had arisen, and the
literature of Athens.

made

E. C.

403

carry-over, so to speak, was far less than at the French


Revolution.
There is hardly a single statesman or
writer of the fifth century whose activity was prolonged
into

the fourth.

proves the rule


and the Plntus

Aristophanes

is

the

exception that

Aristophanes of the Ecclesiazusae


a different man from the Aristophanes

for the

is

of the Lysistrata and the Birds.


It is important to
realize this gap between the centuries and to keep it

constantly in view if we wish to understand Plato s art.


The majority of the dialogues are supposed to take
place before the Revolutions, and Plato never loses sight
of this for a

moment, though many of

his

personages

came

to play a leading part in the troubled times which


had cause to remember so vividly.
Critias and

he

Charmides were kinsmen of his own, and he must have


been affected by the tragedy of the life of Alcibiades.

Yet there
Charmides
politician

beautiful

wild

not the slightest hint of

is

all

this

in

the

Symposium. Critias is still a cultured


and poet
Charmides is still a modest and
or the

lad

career.

is still at the
height of his
events are not even suffered to

Alcibiades

Coming

cast their shadows before, as an inferior artist would


have made them do. Like the great dramatist he was,

Plato has transported himself back to the age of Pericles


and the age of Alcibiades, and portrayed them as they
seemed to the men who lived in them, not as they must
have appeared to his contemporaries and to himself,
when the glamour of the great time had passed away.

Nowhere, perhaps,

is

Plato

self-restraint

in

this

respect better seen than in the picture he has drawn


1261

INTRODUCTION
It is

of Aristophanes.

almost the only one of his literary

can fully appreciate. We can form


portraits which we
a fairly clear idea of Aristophanes from his comedies,
and there can be no doubt that Plato s Aristophanes
Platonic Aristophanes
corresponds admirably to it. The
this raises at least a
is thoroughly Aristophanic, and
Socratic. But,
presumption that the Platonic Socrates
above all, what strikes us is the relation of good fellow
ship in which Socrates and Aristophanes stand to one
The Clo2tds had been produced some years
another.
is

before, but they are

still

the best of friends.

time,

resent

the

At

that

really no reason w hy Socrates should


brilliant caricature of Aristophanes, and

there was

Alcibiadcs does not hesitate to quote it in his encomium


No one in these days would take a
(Symp. 221 b 3).
too seriously.

comedy

Even

different.

Aristophanes
literally,

in

if

At

a later date, things were rather


is made to say about

what Socrates

the Apology

is

not to be taken quite

the Socratic circle must have

ment against him

after the

felt

condemnation.

some resent
Yet Plato

such thoughts belong to the


all that out of sight
fourth century and not to the fifth.
It seems to me that the reason why Plato s power of

keeps

transporting himself back to an earlier time has met with


such scant recognition is just the success with which he

As we

read him, we can hardly realize that


a
time
which was passing away when he
calling up
himself was a boy. The picture is so actual that we feel

has done

he

it.

is

it must be
contemporary.
on Plato speak as if the

That

is

why

so

many

writers

half of the fourth century


ran concurrently with the second half of the fifth. 1 They
1

It

is

first

no wonder that lesser writers should be deceived, seeing that

INTRODUCTION

xxxv

think of Plato as the adversary of the Sophists though,


wrote, there were no longer any sophists in the
sense intended.
They were merely memories in his day;
,

when he
for

they had no successors.

to the generation
child.

Even Thrasymachus belongs

which flourished when Plato was a

So, too, the problems discussed in the dialogues

Eduard Meyer, who has done more than any one to make the
background of Plato s life intelligible, falls under the illusion.

historical

He

says

(Gesch. des Alterthums, vol. iv, p. 429) that the Symposium proves nothing
as to the relations of Socrates with Aristophanes, but only as to those of
.
Two such diametrically opposed natures as Socrates and
Plato.
.

Aristophanes could have no relations with one another, hut it is quite


natural that Plato and Aristophanes should have found and understood
each other

He

finds a confirmation of this in the Ecclesiazusae,

which

he regards as a parody of Plato s Republic, but which he says is quite free


from the bitterness and malice of the Clouds, so that Plato and Aristo
Now Meyer also holds
phanes may have been on excellent terms.
that Aristophanes was in earnest when he attacked Socrates,
(loc.
<r//.)

and that Plato was quite right in ascribing the chief responsibility for his
master s death to him. We must apparently believe then that, some
half-dozen years after the death of Socrates (the Ecclesiazusae was pro
bably produced in 392 B.C.% and within a few years of the time he wrote
the Phaedo, Plato found and understood the man whom he rightly re

garded as mainly responsible for the death of Socrates, and then thought
it appropiiate to write a dialogue in which he represents Socrates and
Aristophanes as boon companions. If that can be true, anything may.
fact is that the Aristophanes whom Plato might very well have
found and understood is just the Aristophanes of the Symposium, not

The

who wrote the Ecclesiazusae and the Plutus. But Plato was
when the Clouds was produced, and a mere boy at the time
Symposium took place. What we may really infer is that the

the revenaut

only a baby
the

little more than Socratic


Phaedo itself (70 c i), and that
Plato knew very well that Aristophanes was not in earnest, and that no
one supposed he was. Constantin Ritter has, in my opinion, put this

references to Aristophanes in the Apology are


persiflage like the similar allusion in the

matter
1

in a truer light (P/aton,

Thrasymachus

is

i,

about the

p. 50, n.

last

i).

representative of the

Sophists
(though Plato never gives him that name), and he was early enougli to
be satirized in the AairaA^r, the first comedy which Aristophanes wrote.

That was

in

427 B.C., before Plato had learned

C 2

to

speak.

It is

improbable

INTRODUCTION
are those which were of interest at the time they are
That of the Strong Man, for
to take

supposed

place.

the subject of the Gorgias, belongs to


It is also the theme of the
the end of the fifth century.
instance,

which

is

Hcrakles of Euripides.
It naturally follows from this that, when Plato does
wish to discuss questions which had come up in his own
time, he is quite conscious of the impropriety of making

If

Socrates the leading speaker.


of the dialogues

now generally

we adopt

the chronology

received, the Theaetetus

with one striking exception, the latest in which Socrates


In the Parmenides, he is quite
leads the discussion.

is,

and the immature character of his views is shown


and Zeno. In form, the Sophist and the
Parmenides
by
Statesman are a sequel to the Tlieaetetus but Socrates,
a youth,

though present, takes hardly any part in the argument,


which is conducted by an anonymous stranger from Elea.
The Timaens and the Critias profess in the same way
to continue the Republic, but here too Socrates is no

more than an
it.

We

honorary president

as a recent writer

can see that the same was meant to be the

puts
case in the Hennocrates, a dialogue which Plato designed
but never wrote.
In the Laws, Socrates disappears
altogether,

and

his

place

is

taken by an

Athenian

who seems

Stranger
really to be Plato himself.
this
rule is the PJiilebus, and
only exception to
exception

is

The
that

easily accounted for, as the dialogue deals


which Plato makes Socrates discuss else

\\ith subjects

where.

In fact the P/iilebusis the crucial case.

It

must

was still living when Plato began to write, and the theories
which he is made to uphold in the Republic are not such as any one is
likely to have maintained in the fourth century.
that he

INTRODUCTION

xxxvii

be later than some, at least, of the dialogues just men


tioned, and the fact that Plato once more makes Socrates
take the lead shows that it was solely in the interests of
historical verisimilitude that he refrained from doing so
in other dialogues.

X
Of

we

are to regard Plato as our best


have
to revise our estimate of Socrates
authority,
The need for such a revision has long
as a philosopher.
been felt, though it has never been taken thoroughly in
hand.
Even before Hegel laid down that Xenophon
was our only authority for the philosophy of Socrates,
if

course,

we

shall

Schleiermacherhad suggested a much more fruitful method


of studying the question. 1 He started from the considera
tion that, as Xenophon himself was no philosopher, and
as the Memorabilia does not profess to be anything more
than a defence of Socrates against certain definite accusa
tions, we are entitled to assume that Socrates may have

been more than Xenophon is able to tell us, and that


there may have been other sides to his teaching than

Xenophon thinks it convenient to disclose in view of his


immediate purpose. He goes on to show that Socrates
must have been more than Xenophon tells us,, if he was
to exercise the attraction he did upon the ablest and
most speculative men of his time. The question, then,
is
What may Socrates have been, besides what Xeno
:

phon
traits

tells us of

him, without, however, contradicting the


of character and principles of life which Xenophon

definitely sets
1

vol.

up as Socratic

and what must he have

Ueber den Werth des Sokmtes als Philosophen (Works, Section


ii, pp. 287 sqq.).

III

INTRODUCTION

xxxviii

been to give Plato the occasion and the right to represent


This is surely the
him as he does in his dialogues ?
the
to
which
in
question, and it was
regard
proper light
be
so
to
by Zeller, though the
formally acknowledged
have not been fully
it
so
of
regarding
consequences

would only add one more question to


with his
s, and it is quite in harmony
method. We must ask, I think, very specially What
must Socrates have been to win the enthusiastic devotion
of the Pythagoreans of Thebes and Phlius and of the
That question is forced upon us
Kleatics of Megara?
the PJiaedo, and the answer to it
of
serious
study
by any
in a very different light from
us
to
Socrates
reveals
I

recognized.

Schleiermacher

Xenophon

Memorabilia.

XI
For one thing, this consideration suggests that Socrates
cannot have stood aloof from the scientific movement of
his time.
Xenophon does not really say that he did.

He

tells

us,

indeed, that Socrates dissuaded his friends

from spending their lives in the study of higher mathe


matics and astronomy, but he adds in both cases that
It
Socrates was not unversed in these subjects himself.

would be quite

like Socrates to tell a

young man

to leave

these things alone till he had learnt to know himself, and


that would account for all Xenophon says. 1
Nor does
1

Mem.

iv. 7.

ypa^fj.a.TOJVj

dvrjKoos

times

rjv

of

as

3 Kairoi OVK dnfipus 76 O.VTWV

r\v

(sc.

T&V

fJvffffvvfToov 5ia-

Xenophon

quaintly calls them), ib. 5 tcairoi ou5t TOVTQJV 76


(sc. the planetary orbits, their distances from the earth, the
their revolutions and their causes, i. e. the \vhole higher

astronomy of the Pythagoreans).


Certainly Socrates held that there
was something more important than this knowledge, and what Xenophon
tells us as to his advice not to waste one s life in such studies would be
amply accounted for by the recollection of some such saying as that re-

INTRODUCTION

xxxix

say anything inconsistent with the account


of his intellectual development in the
Socrates
given by
Phaedo (96 a 6 sqq.). He only says that he applied his
Aristotle

new method of
alone
the

universal definitions to ethical subjects


Phaedo represents the discovery of

and, as the

new method

Socrates, there

is

as subsequent to the scientific studies of


no contradiction at all. 1 On the other

hand, the narrative in the Phaedo is confirmed in a striking


way by our earliest witness, Aristophanes. As was pointed
out long ago by F. A. Wolf, 2 Socrates was only about
forty-five years old, and Plato and Xenophon were babies,
when the Clouds came out (423 B. C.), and it is quite
possible that Socrates was still known chiefly as a student
The really decisive
that time.

of natural science at

argument, however, is this, that, if we take the Phaedo


and the Clouds seriously, making due allowance for comic
in the latter, we get an account of the
position of Socrates which fits exactly into
know of the intellectual atmosphere of the middle

exaggeration
scientific

what we

of the fifth century B.

any other

at

C.,

and which would be inconceivable

date.

In the

first place, the cosmological theories burlesqued


the Clouds are mainly those of Diogenes of Apollonia.
who had revived the theory of Anaximenes that Air was

in

corded

in the

yvuivai

Phaedrus (229 65) ov

fj.avrov

aKOtrtiv.

Cp.

vofj.i<jai>T(s

ye\oiov

Mem.

ixavus

i.

817

I.

Svva/^ai ncu Kara. TO AeA^tfui/

(paivtrai

TavdptinTiva. fidtvai

ij5rj

TOVTO

ypd^^a

ZTI

a-yvoovvra TO. d\\uTpia


12 nal -rrpwrov p.lv avrwv la/eond Trurtpd -rrorf
poi

(pxovrat

(TTI

rb

irepl

rSjv TOIOVTOJV

(ppovri^etv KT\.
1

Cp. Met. 987 b i


1078 b 17. Part. An. 642 a 28. These statements
mean that Socrates did not apply his special method to cosmological
subjects. Aristotle nowhere denies that Socrates started from the science
;

only

of his time.
2

See

his edition of the Clouds

i8n), pp.

ix sqq.

INTRODUCTION

xl

1
the primary substance.

based on

Indeed, the whole

comedy

is

Air condenses
the form of Clouds.

to Diogenes,

this.

According
and becomes visible in
That is why the Clouds are the divinities of the Socratic
school. a
Further, Diogenes held that Air was what we
and that is why Socrates swings aloft in the
think with
The damp of the earth would clog his thought. 3
air.
into Mist,

The theories of Diogenes were fashionable at Athens


when Socrates was a young man, and it would only be
natural for him to adopt them at that date.
Another influence with which we must reckon is that
The statement that
of the Anaxagorean Archelaus.
Socrates was his disciple is far too well attested to be
Ion of Chios apparently said that he visited

ignored.

Samos with Archelaus, and in any case the statement


was known to Aristoxenus and (what is more important)
to Theophrastus.

ment.

It

Archelaus

is

is,

therefore,

no Alexandrian

not mentioned

in

fig

the Pliaedo by

Sre Dicls in Rhein. Mns. N.F. xlii, p. 12 sqq. and Vors." pp. 340,341.
2
Cp. also K. Gr. Ph. p. 408, n. 3.
*
See E. Gr. Ph. 2 pp. 409 sqq.
3
and Clouds 225 sqq. where Socrates explains
Cp. Phue do
that he could not rightly have discovered the things aloft
ei /HT) Kp(/.maas
,
1

Q6b4.

ro

i/.;///m /fat TTJV

<f>povTi8a

\(TTTTJV

Karaufigas ey rov ouoiov depa.

If

he had

do so on the ground, he would have failed ov yap ciAA* rj yrj /3ta


t\ic(t npos avTTjv rj]v 1/cf.iaSa
Cp. Theophrastus, de Sens. 44
(ppovriSos.
(of Diogenes) ^povfiv 8 waTrep tAt x^??, TO) d(pL KaOapy xal fopy KU\VHV yap
tried to

TTJ>

TTJI
6

t/i

/(fi5a

Tuv

vijvv.

Diog. Laert.

ii.

22

"low

5e o Xfos

/fat

vtov ovra (sc. SuiKparr) )

ei y

2a/xov

nvv

Ion may, however, have meant another


Apx f ^-ay dnuSrj^jjffat.
Socrates, as Wilamowitz suggests (Philol. Unters. i. 24), viz. Socrates of
Anagyrus, who was a colleague of Pericles and Sophocles in the Samian

War For the evidence of Aristoxenus, see Diels, Vors? p. 323. 34 sqq.
For Theophrastus, cp. Diels, Dox. p. 479.
17 Kat A/r^aoy 6 Atf^atos,

a>

Kal Zoj/cpaTT) av-yycyovivat


Avaayupov ytvoutvu naO^TTJ.
Chiapelli in Arch. f. Gesch. der Phil, iv, pp. 369 sqq.
<\>a.aiv,

See also

INTRODUCTION

xli

name, but Socrates says he had heard the book of


Anaxagoras read aloud by some one and had been
deeply impressed by it (97 b 8 sqq.).

The narrative in the Phaedo goes on to tell us how


Socrates grew dissatisfied with the doctrines of AnaxaThat also is characteristic of the time. Gorgias
goras.
certainly,
in the

and Protagoras probably, had given up science

same way.

the dialectic of the


faith of all three. 1

And we

can see pretty clearly that

Eleatic

Zeno was what shook the

In the Parmenides, Plato has told us


so many words, while the problem of

this of Socrates in

the unit, which had been raised by Zeno, holds a pro


minent place in the enumeration of his doubts and diffi

Phaedo (c6

culties in the

But there

is

e 7 sqq.).

another influence at work and from a


In

different

quarter.
references to the

the

PJiaedo there are

several

Socrates

doctrines of

Empedocles.
was in doubt whether what we think with was Air or
Blood (96 b 4). The latter was the doctrine of Empe
2
docles, and Aristotle tells us it was adopted by Critias
What is more important still is that Socrates was troubled
in his youth by the question whether the earth was flat
or round (97 d 8), and that implies Pythagorean influence.

The

philosophers of Ionia

flat,

and

all held that the earth was


was only from some Italian source that
Socrates could have learned the other theory. 3
1

it

2
Cp. E. Gr. Ph. p. 417. Gorgias had been an Empedoclean (tb. p. 234,
and Plato at least suggests that Protagoras had been a Heraclitean

n. 4),

(ib. p.

188).

others of the
(tb.
2

The experience of Socrates was only one


bankruptcy of science

in the

middle of the

effect

among

fifth

century

406).
Arist.

tie

An.

colony of Thurii
Athens.

in

A. 2.

444

405 b

As Empedocles joined the Athenian


views ma} easily have become known at
3
Cp. Q7d8.

6.

B.C., his

INTRODUCTION

xlii

This influence of Western cosmological ideas upon


is confirmed in a curious way by Aristophanes.
is quite natural that Socrates should be classed with

Socrates
It

who busy themselves with

(ra
things aloft
beneath
find
that
the
we
but
things
regularly
fjLT(Dpa),
the earth
(ra VTTO 777?) are associated with these in his

those

case.

Now

it

was Empedocles who

attention to the subterranean.

The

first

volcanic

paid

much

phenomena

of Sicily and the Orphic interest in the House of Hades


both led him to dwell upon the question of the earth s
2

interior,

and

this

out in the closing

double interest is beautifully brought


myth of the Phaedo. Aristophanes

and his words tptpoSifyccxriv VTTO


have
been written in ridicule of
TOV Tdprapov^ might
the very theories which Plato has put into the mouth

knows

this point

too,

of Socrates at the end of our dialogue.


Further details as to the science of the

Phaedo

will

be

found in the notes here


only wish to point out that
the curious fusion of Ionian and Western theories which
I

characterizes it is inexplicable unless we regard it as


belonging to Athens in the middle of the fifth century
At no other date, and in no other place, could
B.C.
such a fusion well have taken place. 4
1

Cp. ApoL l8 b 7 TO. Tf fJ.TfOJpa <ppOVTl(TTTIS KOI


Clouds 1 88 r)Tovaiv OVTOL TO, Kara 7775.
2
E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 277. n. 2.
Diels, Vors
p. 164.

TO, VTTO yTJS TTCLV

TT]K<jj<i,

i.

Clouds iQ2.
The interest of the myth in the Phaedo is mainly
eschatological, but it also gives us a complete theory of ra vno 777$,
5

explaining incidentally tides, volcanoes, earthquakes, and the


subterranean rivers are specially Empedoclean.
4

The lonians remained

the West.

Democritus

like.

The

unaffected by the more scientific cosmology of


believed that the earth was a disk hollow

still

the centre. As explained in the note to Phaedo 109 b 3, the theory of


Socrates represents an attempt to combine this view with the theory
of a spherical earth.
At any date earlier or later than that of Socrates.
in

INTRODUCTION

xliii

XII
According to the Phaedo^ when Socrates gave up
natural science in despair, he found satisfaction in what
is generally known as the Theory of
Ideas.
I
have
tried to explain this

as such

theory simply in the Notes, so far


is necessary for a right under

an explanation

standing of the Phaedo we have only to do here with


the fact that it is represented in our dialogue as already
familiar to Socrates and all his associates, whereas it is
;

generally held to be a specifically Platonic doctrine, and


one which was not even formulated by Plato in any
dialogue earlier than the Phaedo itself. This is evidently
a problem of the
fully here.

first

magnitude and cannot be treated

can only restate the conclusion to which

I have
come elsewhere, namely, that the doctrine in
question was not originated by Plato, or even by Socrates,
but is essentially Pythagorean, as Aristotle tells us it

was. 1
firm

this

few further considerations, which tend to con


view are, however, strictly pertinent to the

present inquiry.
have seen that there was a point beyond which
did
Plato
not think it right to go in making Socrates the

We

leader of his dialogues.


Now, if the
and
with
himself,
if, as is
originated

was the central thing

it

in

Ideal

Theory

had

commonly believed,
we should

his philosophy,

certainly expect the point at which Socrates begins to


take a subordinate place to be that at which the theory
What we do find is exactly the opposite.
is introduced.
such an attempt would have been an anachronism, and it is only at
Athens that it would seem worth making. The lonians did not trouble
themselves about a spherical earth nor the Westerns about a flat one.
1

E. Gr. Ph. 2 pp. 354 sqq.

INTRODUCTION

xliv

into the background


dialogues where Socrates falls
Ideal
the
which
in
are just those
Theory is criticized,

The

or in which nothing at all is said about it where it is


assumed and affirmed, Plato has no hesitation in making
;

Indeed, with one remarkable


and significant exception, no speaker but Socrates is
ever made to expound the doctrine at all, and the excep
Socrates

its

mouthpiece.

tion

the Pythagorean Timaeus.


has been said that to question Plato s authorship of
Ideal Theory is to deprive him of his birthright

is

It

the

in
It is at any rate a birthright he has never claimed
deed, he has done everything in his power to bar any
He has made Socrates discuss
such claim on his part.
;

the theory with Parmenides

and Zeno almost a genera

own birth, and he has indicated that it


unknown to the Eleatics. Nor is it only Socrates

tion before his

was not

who

is represented as familiar with the


In the
theory.
Phaedo^ the Theban Pythagoreans, Simmias and Cebes,
know all about it and are enthusiastic believers in it,

Men
of

of such divergent views as Antisthenes and Euclides


are present, but no one asks for a proof of it.

Megara

or

even

for

an explanation.

When Phacdo

granted.

It

repeats

is

simply taken

all this

to the

for

Pytha

goreans at Phlius, the same thing happens.


Echecrates,
who shows himself anxious for exact information on
other points, asks no questions about this one.
As I

have argued elsewhere (E. Gr. Ph.- p. 355), it is


surely
incredible that any philosopher should introduce a novel
1

Tun. 51

Here we have the


4 tiro/ ri (fm^tv elSos (KCKTTOV OTJTOV.
such a marked feature of the discussions of the
Phaedo,
and this time it is used by a Pythagorean. The Timaeus was written
years after the Phaedo, but it still preserves the old way of speaking.

we

which

is

INTRODUCTION

xlv

own by representing it as already familiar


of distinguished living contemporaries, and
that in reporting a conversation at which he distinctly
theory of his

number

to a

states

he was not present.

own

to philosophy is a great
from
the theory of forms
enough thing, quite apart
is not the place to
Phaedo.
This
expounded in the

Plato

discuss

has

it,

contribution

but

it

come about

of the

seems worth while to consider how

that in

modern times the

Phacdo and the Republic has

Ideal

it

Theory

often been regarded

In the first place, about


as practically the whole of it.
the middle of the nineteenth century, most of the dia
logues from which we can learn anything of Plato s riper
thought, the dialogues in which Socrates no longer takes
In the
the leading part, were declared to be spurious.
second place, the importance of Plato s oral teaching in
the

Academy, which

did not find

full

expression in his

This was due to


theory of an esoteric

dialogues, was seriously underrated.


a natural

reaction

against the

which had been much abused; but it cannot


be
disputed that many of Plato s fundamental
really
Aristotle over
doctrines were only expounded orally.
and over again attributes to him precise statements which
doctrine

may

be implicit

in

the later dialogues, but are certainly


many words. The task of

not to be found there in so

reconstructing Plato s mature philosophy from the un


sympathetic criticisms of Aristotle is a delicate but not,
I believe, an impossible one.

During the
later dialogues

latter half of the nineteenth century, the

were reinstated one by one

in the positions

from which they had been thrust, and a serious attempt


was made to understand Aristotle s criticism of Plato.

INTRODUCTION

xlvi

l
was assumed that there was a later theory of Ideas
which in many respects contradicted that set forth in the
Phaedo and the Republic, and this had one very salutary
effect, that of directing attention once more to those
dialogues which had always been held in antiquity to

It

At the same
contain the genuine philosophy of Plato.
I
am convinced that the theory of an earlier and

time,
later

theory of Ideas

is

only a half-way house.

knows nothing of such a


delighted to insist upon
come,

distinction,
it

if

Aristotle

and he would have

The time

he had.

has

and better view.

believe, for a return to the older

Plato s earlier
accordingly, not to speak of
I
because
do
the theory
of
Ideas
believe
not
theory
was Plato s at all and I prefer not to speak of Plato s
I

prefer,

because I am not clear that


theory
Platonism proper is adequately described as a theory
however true it may be that it is based on the
of Ideas
of Ideas

later

Pythagorean doctrine to which alone that name

is

really

appropriate.
1

This view

specially associated with the

is

name

Jackson. Though I cannot accept all his results,


undervalue his great services to Platonic study.
Plato

s later

dialogues

was

first

of Professor

Henry

must not be taken

to

The genuineness

of

clearly established

by

my

predecessor.

Professor Lewis Campbell.


2
Aristotle is commonly said to have denied that Socrates held
the
theory of Ideas but there is really no such statement in all his writings.
What he does say is that Socrates did not make universals separate
from particulars, and that is quite true of the Platonic Socrates.
(XQjpi<TTd}
,

In the Parmenides he

is represented as puzzled about the precise relation


of the forms to particular things, and in the Phaedo (loods) he is not
sure whether napovaia or teoivoavia is the right term.
So, too, particulars
imitate
the fonns
but always and everywhere the
partake in or
:

We

particular thing is what it is because the tUos is immanent in it.


know from Plato s Sophist that there were friends of the ei Sr; who did
separate the intelligible from the sensible, and it is with these that Aris
totle contrasts Socrates.

The true

Peripatetic interpretation

is

preserved

INTRODUCTION
It

remains to be added that

xlvii

have only discussed

in

the notes that aspect of the theory of Ideas with which


we are concerned in reading the Phaedo, So far as that
it is a
purely logical and scientific doctrine.
possibility of science extends just as far as the theory

dialogue goes,

The

of Ideas will carry us

and no

Where

further.

it

can no

I am well
longer be applied, the region of myth begins.
aware that the doctrine has another aspect, to which

attention has been specially called by Professor Stewart


In certain dialogues the Ideas are regarded as objects of
ecstatic contemplation,

present.

that, while

may say,
I

and appear, to some extent,


that we have nothing to do

With

a mythical setting.

in

at

however, to avoid misunderstanding,

quite agree with the

demand

for a

psycho

explanation of this way of presenting the doc


I
can
trine,
by no means admit that the explanation is
f Plato son of Ariston.
to be looked for in the
7
?
logical

^x

The

idea of ecstatic vision

The

soul of the

is most prominent in the


and
the
PJiacdrus, that is to say, in just
Symposium
those dialogues where Plato s dramatic art is at its best,
and where, therefore, if my general principles of inter
pretation are sound, Socrates is most truly Socrates.

man who
for

stood

transfixed in

twenty-four hours

brooding thought
Potidaea is surely the soul to which

in the

we must

silent,

camp

at

look for

a psychological explanation of the beatific vision de


scribed in the Phaedrus.
On what else can his thouhts
by Aristocles the teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias
5( na.1

2o>/cpaT77?,

GUTO

ST)

TO Xcyopd

oi

(fr.

i)

tfivtro Trvp tnl vvpi,


Savos uTropfjaat irtpl
,

OL>X

Ka.9a.trtp

avros

(vtyvfaraTos fa.p wv KO.I


OTOVOVV,
(n(lff-f]V(JK( TCLS Tf IldlKCLS KO.I irO\lTlKaS (IKt\{/(lS, tTi 5f TrjV TTt pi TUIV ISfUIV,
upifaaOaf iravra 8t (ytipajv \6yov Kal irepl navroiv

(<brj

n\drwv.

TTO.I>T&S

INTRODUCTION
been concentrated during that day and night?
Surely not on the things he discusses in the Memorabilia ?

have

XIII
book on Greek beliefs about the soul has no
Even Plato, the writer says, had
chapter on Socrates.

The

best

not clearly conceived the thought of immortality so long


as he continued to regard the world from the standpoint
1

This view is based


of a slightly developed Socraticism.
in
the first place, that
It is said,
on two considerations.
in the Apology Plato makes Socrates treat the question
of immortality as an open one, and that the Apology is
more historical than the PJiaedo. In the second place, it
is pointed out that
say anything about

The

inference

Xenophon does not make Socrates


immortality

that the

is

historical Socrates

is

in

Memorabilia.

the

was foreign

the

to

When, however, we look


their significance

belief

little

closer at these facts,

seen to be rather different.

Plato

Apology professes to give us the speeches delivered by


Socrates at his trial and, though it would be absurd to
;

treat

it

historical
is

as
in

clear that

a word
its

word

for

report,

outlines. 2

main

Plato has taken

Even

pains to

it
if

is

doubtless

it

is

make

not,

it

such

it

a speech as might actually have been delivered in an


Athenian court, and it is quite certain from the practice
of the orators

that,

in

addressing the judges,

was

it

impossible to assume immortality as distinct from mere


survival.
The old belief in powerful and dangerous
ghosts had disappeared, and nothing very definite had
1

E.

Rohde, Psyche,

As Gomperz puts

ii,

it,

p.

265 (557).

the

Apology

is

stilisierte

Wahrheit

INTRODUCTION

xlix

No doubt the average Athenian would


its place.
allow that the souls of the departed had some sort of
the religious observances connected with the
existence
taken

but he had lost all faith in the primi


they continued to interest themselves
If by any means, says
in the affairs of this world.
Demosthenes, the departed should be made aware of
what is now taking place, and that is the standing

dead imply that


tive belief that

Nor

formula. 1
of the next

life

is

there any evidence that people thought


life, or of the house of Hades

as a better

as a better world.

who had been


than others.
after

death

It

They
;

was believed, indeed, that those

Elcusis enjoyed a better lot


alone could properly be said to live

initiated at

but even that was a shadowy sort of

removed

life,

possible from the immortality


preached by the Orphic sectaries and the Pythagoreans.
According to them, the soul was divine and immortal in

and as

far

own

as

and it was only after separation from the


become truly itself. The soul of the
could
body
dwelt
with God and the saints and attained
Orphic votary
to complete purity and wisdom, while the initiated of
its

right,

that

it

Eleusis were at best a class of privileged shades.


Had there been any real belief in a better life,

have found expression

in

it

must

the Funeral Speeches, and

especially in that part of them which was regularly


devoted to the consolation of the survivors 2
but we
;

Cp. Dem. Lept. 87

ei

nvts TOVTCUV TUV TfT(\fVTr]ifurwv Aa/Soiev

rpuirca

At the end of his speech


ytyi op.(vov irpdy/j.a.Tos aiffOrjaiv.
against Eratosthenes (100) Lysias goes so far as to say o7jj.ai 5 avrovs
(TOV? rtQvtijJTas} fjpuv re dfcpoaodai KO! vp.as eiaeaOeu rfjv
(ptpovras,
nvl TOV

vvi

i//TJ<pov

which

the strongest statement in the orators.


Cp. also Isocr. 19. 42
t i ris toTiv a
io&Tjffis TOIS TtOvewai irepi TOJV evddSe ytyvo/j.fvojv, Plato, Menex.
248 b 7 f I TIS tan rots TfTfXevrrjKuaiv afaOrjais TUJV
is

<JJVTQJV.

Rohde, Psyche,

ii,

p.

203 (495),

3.

INTRODUCTION

find

nothing of the sort even

put into the

mouth

Plato or another, has


in

practice

this

the Menexenus, which

in

The

of Socrates.
felt

bound

to

Nor

respect.

is

whether

writer,

conform to the usual

is

there any trace in

im
Aeschylus or Sophocles of a belief in a blessed
life
if
knows
Who
It is Euripides who says
mortality.
at
is
and
be death and death be life ?
by
laughed
,

We see from this how


Aristophanes for doing so.
Athenian mind.
foreign such a thought was to the
Euripides, like Socrates, had been influenced by strange
doctrines,

pious

and

he,

like Socrates,

was considered

im

In the Apology, then, Socrates only speaks as he was


He wishes to show that death is no
to speak.

bound

evil to

correct.

a good man, even if the ordinary view of


At the worst, it is a dreamless sleep,

a night of dreamless sleep is better than


But that is only one possibility.
days.

it

is

and

most waking
There are

according to which death is really


sayings
a migration of the soul to another world
and, if these
the
to
we
death
are true,
company
join
may hope after
*

certain

It is
of Orpheus and Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer.
in
more
sympathy
surely clear that Socrates himself is

with this belief than the other, though he

may

not say

words, and though he speaks with a


certain reserve on the subject.
Even in the Phaedo he
so

in

makes
is

as

many

certain

He

reservations.

is

sure that the soul

immortal, and that the purified soul only leaves the

1
I take to be the meaning of rd \fyoThis, and not popular opinion
Hfva in Apol. 40 07, d 6.
Cp. notes on Phaedo 63 c 6 and 70 c 5- The
term belongs originally to the language of the mysteries, in which rd
,

\tyoncva are opposed to TO. 5pu;/j/a, and


the mystic doctrine or iepos \6yos.

is

used elsewhere

in Plato of

INTRODUCTION
body
that

to be with the wise

li

and good God

he

not sure

is

enjoy the company of the saints and heroes


Both in the Phaedo and elsewhere he steadily

will

it

of old. 1

commit himself

declines to
doctrine.

It is

to the details of the Orphic


and we may hope that

probable tale

In this respect the


or something like it, is true.
Phaedo does not go a step further than the Apology^ and
the language of the Apology really implies the belief
it,

Whatever concessions
explicitly stated in the Phaedo.
may make for the sake of argument, Socrates lets

he

be clearly seen that his beliefs about the soul are not

it

man

those of the

in

the street.

The same
Xenophon

considerations help to explain the silence of


in the Memorabilia.
He is seeking to prove

that the belief of Socrates about the gods


same as that of other pious people, 2 and it

was just the


would never

have done to suggest that he held peculiar views about

The

the soul.

doctrine of the soul

Even Plato

and remained, a heresy.


is

represented

propounds

it

the Republic as startled

in

as

immortality was,
brother Glaucon

when Socrates

something he seriously believes and

thinks he can prove. 3 And yet Xenophon knew the


doctrine perfectly well.
Even in the Memorabilia, he
lets slip the statement that the soul
partakes in the
divine

a phrase which really implies the whole theory. 4

Phaed. 6301.

Mem.

3 o 5 ovotv Kaivortpov lff(pfpf TWV d\\cav KT\.


d 3 OVK fjaOTjcrai, TJV 5 tyw, on addvaros TI^OIIS 77 i/ i X^ tal ovotiroT aTroAAuTCU
Kai 6s en&\tyas /xot *at Qavpaaas tine Ma At OVK tycayc
ffv ft TOUT
x eis ^*7 ftl/
3

Rep.

i.

i.

608

tii

Mem.

oii5

avTTj.

14 dAAd fj.r)v KO.I avOpwnov yt tyvxn, ^, tinfp n /cat aAAo ruv


rov Otiov ^(Tf^ft, on fj.tv @affi\tvfi fv fjplv fyavipov^ uparat 8t
The invisibility and divine nature of the soul are just the

iv. 3.

9 pwrrivQiv ,

d 2

INTRODUCTION

lil

Further, this view, which could not safely be developed


the Memorabilia^ is worked out at considerable length

in

the Cyropaedia, where the dying Cyrus is made to


formulate it in language almost identical with that of
the PJiacdo^
Of this fact there can only be two ex

in

Xenophon is borrowing from the


Xenophon are drawing from a

Either

planations.

Phacdo, or Plato and

common

Further, this source must be Socratic


dying speech of Cyrus with the

source.

for the kinship of the

argument about the invisibility of the soul ascribed to


It is possible
Socrates in the Memorabilia is patent. 2
that Xenophon derived it from Hermogenes, from whom
he professes to have heard, what he knew of the trial and
death of Socrates 3 but, on the whole, it is more likely
;

points made in Phacdo 79 b


argument of Pliaedo 79 e 8.
soul

is

immortal,

Among

it

the Greeks,
changeable notions.

is

in

and 80 a

while PacriXivei refers

8,

Cp. Rohde, Psyche,


essential

its

property identical

whoever says immortal says God

to the

If the

2 (205).

p.

ii,

God.

with

these are inter

Now in the religion of the Greek people the true


fundamental proposition is that, in the divine order of the world, humanity
and divinity are locally and essentially distinct and must remain so. A
d -ep gulf separates the worlds of man and God.
looking a phrase as TOU 9dov /uTf x e ignores this gulf,

Even

so innocent-

and therefore implies

the mystic doctrine.


There are some other passages about the
which seem to be reminiscences of the Phaedo.
Cp. i. 2. 4 rrjv
^v\fjs tiTifjtf\iav ovic ffj.iroSiciv (Cp. Pliaed.

Kpariarrjv TO)
f)

\\

(j.6i r)

ord
1

-,t

^x

di Opwircu

i/frcu

(j

(o

evt(j>vae

puvijois.

Oeus

These go

far

i.

2.

65aio),
53

i.

4.

13

TTJV

TT}J tf/vxr)s egeXOoiarjs,

ev

beyond the popular use of the

?-

Xen. Cyr.

ov8l TOVTO

viii. 7.

Cp. especially 19 OVTOI

17 sqq.

TTujtroTe fTTfiaOi^v,

u>

fj

70:76,

Si

^VXTJ e cus ^tv av tv Qvqrca au>p.an rj,


ou5e 76 OTTOJS d(f>pojv tarai 77 tyvxn,

7raf5es,
77,

orav

TOVTOV u.TTu\\ayri, riOi TjKfv


f"ft5av
TOV a<ppovus o<jufj.a.TOS 5/xa yfVi)Tai t ou5t TOVTO Trenttafj.ai dA\ OTav
a/cparoj
KUL /caOapos u vovs tKKpiOf}, TOT( /cat
^ipovi^uraTov avTov CLKOS eli ai.
ot

"

Cp. Cyr. vii. 7. 17 ovSi yap vvv TOI rrjv 7 f^r/v


passage about the invisibility of the soul quoted p.
3
Xcn. Abol. a.

i/

vx^

li.,

f^part with the


4.

INTRODUCTION

liii

from the Phaedo^ adding some


he at least knew nothing
the
with
inconsistent
ascription of such arguments to

that he simply took


touches of his own.

it

If so,

Socrates.

But we can go much further than this. We have


positive evidence, dating from a time when Plato and
Xenophon were children, that Socrates was commonly
In the
believed to hold strange doctrine about the soul.
Clouds of Aristophanes (v. 94), Strepsiades says, pointing
to the house of Socrates

tyvy&v

ecm

TOVT

(rotytov

typovriVTripiov,

and, however natural such a way of speaking may appear


to us, it was not natural for an ordinary Greek in the fifth

century

It is sufficiently

B.C.

established that the use of

the word ^v^ij to express a living


is

in

Orphic

its

origin,

man

true personality

and came into philosophy from

Properly speaking, the ^t X 7? of a man is


mysticism.
a thing which only becomes important at the moment
In ordinary language it is only spoken of as
of death.

something that may be lost; it is, in fact, the ghost


which a man gives up T Yet we find Aristophanes
trying to raise a laugh by representing Socrates and his
.

disciples as
1

The 0\c

souls

i/<uxo9

is

the

or

man who

Qttv, Tptx*iv, KivSvvtvfiv irtpl


ii,

p.

it

;/<i>x

even

clings to

life.

To

Cp. Rohde, Psyche,

*7?.

i.

in their lifetime.

i,

risk
p.

one

s life is

47 (43), n. i
so regarded;

From Homer downwards, the ^v\ri is


means more than this, we may trace the influence

141 (432), n.

wherever

ghosts

of mysti

cism or philosophy.
2
Cp. van Leeuwen, ad loc. innuit non vivos vegetosque illic habitare
homines sed mera ei5ou\a Ka^ovrcav VZKVWV quaedam a^tvrjva Kdprjva quibus
,

Socrati i/^vxaywyy fAv. 1555 qui locus omnino est


conferendus) obtemperantia. Cf. infra vs. 504, ubi unus ex eorum numero

(}>pev(s

ov/c Zftfrtfioi dffiv,

This is the popular view of the ptXtrr] 6a.va.rw (8l a


See note on Oavarujai, Phaed. 64 b 5.

dicitur ^ntGvrjs.

i)

INTRODUCTION

liv

The same point


where Socrates
of the dead.
the

Sophists

made

is

in

the chorus

of the Birds

up the souls
This, at any rate, cannot be aimed at
and the caricature would be wholly
represented as calling

is

pointless unless the real Socrates taught even at that


date something like the doctrine of immortality and the

practice of death

from the PJiaedo

(/leXerr)

itself,

we know

Qavdrov] which, as

seemed so ridiculous to the mass

of men. 2

The

truth is that, apart from the prejudice which


on seeing Socrates as a rationalist
there is
to
cause
in
he
the
fact
that
was
influenced
nothing
surprise

insists

by mystic doctrines.

We

man and

character of the

have only to remember the


the times he lived

in.

The

and mysticism, to the great ad


of
had
been the characteristic feature of
both,
vantage
the generations immediately preceding his own, and his
youth was passed at a time when it was much in evidence.
He had even spoken with Parmenides at Athens, 3 and
he was only about twenty years younger than Emfusion

of

science

who

Athenian colony of Thurii


five and twenty. 4
A little
the
later,
Pythagoreans were expelled from the cities of
Magna Graecia, and took refuge at Thebes, Phlius, and
pedocles,

joined the

when Socrates was about

Cp. van Leeuwen, adloc.

tate disputare solitus

clear that ifivxayujfi


Cliaerephon the bat
it

Phaed.

64 b

Sic ridetur philosophus de animi immortali-

dum
is

is

vitae lenocinia aspcrnatur


The context makes
to be taken in the strict sense of
ghost-raising.
represented as playing the part of the spirit .

sqq.

E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 192, and, for the connexion of


goreanism, tb. pp. 194 and 221.
4

E. Gr. Ph. pp.


visited Athens, but
to Thurn.

Parmenides with Pytha-

229 and 237. It is nowhere stated that Empcdocles


would be strange if he did not, seeing that he went

it

INTRODUCTION

lv

All this could not but impress a young man


a strong vein of mysticism in his own nature, as
shown by what we know of his ecstatic trances and the

elsewhere. 1

who had
is
1

divine sign

latter

We

are told expressly that he had the

from boyhood. 2

to account for all this,

would be much more

It
if

we were

difficult

to suppose Plato rather

than Socrates to have been the mystic. By his time


Orphicism had degenerated into a mere superstition, and
the barefooted Pythagorists who still maintained the
original practices of their order would be quite un

sympathetic to him.
knew had dropped

The Pythagoreans whom he

that, and busied themselves


4
It is a fine historical
only with science and politics.
touch in the Phaedo that the young Pythagoreans,
Simmias and Cebes, are not very familiar with the mystic
doctrine, and require to have it explained to them by
all

Socrates.

XIV
But Socrates was no Orphic
another characteristic which

He had
him from turning

for all that.

kept

that
mystic out and out. That was the Attic
shrewd, non-committal spirit, natural to a people of
farmers and tradesmen, which Aristophanes has depicted
ipa>i>ia,

for us in his typical Athenian figures, and which


Enthusiasm tempered by
Demosthenes denounced. 5
1

E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 99.


ApoL 31 d 2 inol 8t TOUT larlv

hours trance at Potidaea happened


five
3
4
6

is

lit

The twenty-four
Socrates was about thirty-seven,

TratSos apa/j.fvov.

when

years before Plato was born.


E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 103, n. 2.
E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 319 sq.
The proper meaning of eipuv

is
sly ,
not regarded as exactly a good quality.

cunning

malt n, and tlpwvela

In the Platonic dialogues,

it is

INTRODUCTION

Ivi

irony (using both words in their Greek sense) may serve


as a formula for the Socratic rjOos,
Xenophon gives us
1

too

enthusiasm and Aristophanes too little irony


in the Platonic Socrates that both elements are

little

it is

only

harmoniously combined in a character with a marked


The Platonic Socrates is no
individuality of his own.
mere type, but a living man. That, above all, is our
justification for believing that

Socrates

only the opponents of Socrates


it

worst,

the historical

in truth

who

ascribe

it

The

to him.

Scots words

it

leads people to shirk their responsibilities


at its best, it is
KOI p./^vaa dmaT(u>.
For the way in which Socrates

a salutary
refuses to
cp.

is

and pawky express something similar. Demosthenes speaks


as a bad trait in the Athenian character (Phil. i. 7, 37).
At its

canny
of

he

63

va<pt

commit himseli

c i n.

Or, as

It is

to the positive details of the mystic theology


clearly a personal trait.

Gomperz puts

it,

a hot heart under a cool head.

NOTE UPON THE TEXT


dialogues of Plato were arranged in nine tetralogies by
first
grammarian Thrasyllus in the reign of Tiberius. The

THE
the

and Phaedo,
tetralogy comprised the Euthyphro, Apology, Crtio,
i.e. those dialogues which deal specially with the trial and death
of Socrates.

At some subsequent date the dialogues were edited in two


volumes, the first of which contained tetralogies I VII, the
second, tetralogies VIII-IX, with some spurious works.
one or other of the two volumes was apt to be lost, the
authority for tetralogies
tetralogies

The

VIII-IX and

I-VII

is

quite different from that for

the spurious dialogues.

leading representatives of the

first

volume are the Bodleian

MS., E. D. Clarke 39 (B), the Venice MS. App.


and the Vienna MS. 54, suppl. phil. gr. 7 (W).
B.

class. 4, i (T),

The Bodleian MS., commonly called the


D. Clarke, who discovered it in the island

after E.

was written

for

As
MS.

Clarkianus
of Patmos,

Arethas in the year 895 A.D. It was held by


it was our sole independent authority,

Cobet and others that

and

all

recent texts of the

Phaedo are based more or

less

consistently on this hypothesis.


T. The Venice IMS. or Marcianus (tenth century A. D. ?) is
the original of the great majority of existing Plato MSS., and
in particular of the MS. from which the Aldine text was derived.
text of Stephanus also goes back to the same source.
These MSS. were arbitrarily classed by Cobet and at one time

The

by Schanz as

deteriores,

and the chief work of Platonic

critics

NOTE UPON THE TEXT

Iviii

down to the last quarter of the nineteenth century was to


bring the text more and more into accordance with B, and to
eliminate readings which came from other MSS.
The credit of inaugurating a better method belongs to Schanz
In 1877 he showed that T was of co-ordinate authority
we must take account of both. In some ways

himself.

with B, and that

represents the tradition even

instance,

it

more

than B.

faithfully

contains the old scholia, while

has a new

set

For

com

in the ninth century A.D., probably by Arethas himself.


Unfortunately, Schanz had edited the Phaedo before he made
this discovery, and he has not republished it since.
The readings

posed

of

T were first published by the present editor in 1899.


W. The importance of this MS. had been seen by

Bast,

and an imperfect collation of it was used to some extent by


Stallbaum, but its omission from Bekker s apparatus criticus led
to

its

more

being generally ignored

till

called attention to

Its

it.

Professor Krai of Prague once

claims to be regarded as a co
and
were warmly contested by

ordinate authority with B


Schanz, but on insufficient grounds.

anonymous commentary on

The publication of the


the Theaetelus from a Berlin papyrus

showed conclusively that


represented a very ancient tradition
of the text.
The MS. was brought to Vienna from Florence,
and

it

seems

version of the
of Catana, in

to

have come there from

Sicily.

The

Latin

Phaedo made by Euericus Aristippus, Archdeacon


the twelfth
century, A.D., was made either from it

or from a very similar MS.


It is to be noted further that the
2
corrections made by the second hand in the Clarkianus

(B ),
probably that of Arethas himself, are taken from a
MS. closely resembling W, so that it must represent a tradition
older than B.

which

is

special feature of

which
lost,

that

it

we
more than can be

is

is

the

number of ancient

records in the margin.


If all the other
could still construct a good text from

said either of

or of T.

variants

MSS. were
alone, and

NOTE UPON THE TEXT


In this edition,

is

it

quoted,

is

to

be understood
;

Thus, on the
ro

W alone

have the reading adopted in the text when B and


alone are quoted, it is to be understood that
agrees with B.

that

when

B and T

lix

(f)( ipfj.ciKoi

and

TI

An

ovv

first

eVrtef

page,

and

it

may

be inferred that

dyyeiAut, while

W has

-yoj

B and T

a/coicrai/zi, olos

have
T

TJV

r]v.

interesting addition to our

knowledge of the

text

was

made by

the publication by Professor Flinders Petrie of some


papyrus fragments which must have been written within a century

of Plato

death (Ars.

i.e.

papyrus

their text is inferior to that

Arsinoitica}.

On

the whole,

of our MSS., though these are more

than a thousand years later.


The papyrus represents the cheap
texts current in early times, while our costly MSS. are copied

from careful editions.

The quotations in ancient writers, especially Eusebius and


Stobaeus, sometimes preserve old readings, and often confirm
as against B.
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TW

various
caution.

degrees of authority and must be used with great

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NOTES
Introductory dialogue in dramatic form, 57 a

The

scene

the Pythagorean

is

Pythagorean who speaks

oWSpiov

at

59

c 7.

Phlius.

The

only

Echecrates, but the presence of the


others is implied (cp. especially 58 d 7 and 102 a 8).
The time is
not long alter the death of Socrates; for the Pythagoreans have
not yet heard any details. As Geddes first pointed out, it would be
natural for Phaedo to visit the Pythagoreans of Phlius on his way

home from Athens

is

to Elis.

For the Pythagoreans of

It is

not far off the road.

Phlius, cp. Diog. Laert.

viii. 46 rfAfimiiru
re o
yap tytvovro rwv Hv0ayopfia)V ovs /cm Apioro^fyos eiSf, &ev(
Xa\Kidfvs airo QpaKrjs Kal tydvT&v 6
us tea! ExeKpari^s Kal AioK\rjs
t

><pi\us

4>Xtdcri

^Xtacnoi KU\ aiVoi.


rjcrav & uKpoaral ^tXoXaou wn
2
Tapavrivoiv (cp. E. Gr. Ph. p. 3~o).
Phlius lay in the upper valley of the Asopus (893 ft. above sea-

Kal

IIoAtyii/aoTOsr,

"Evpvrov

TU>V

It
level), where Argolis, Arcadia, and the territory of Sicyon meet.
was surrounded by mountains 4,000 to 5,000 feet high, under whose
immemorial shadow (daova ots ^AetoGzTo? ev
opecri.v, Pind.
u>yvyt.ois

Nem. vi. 45)


The territory

the high discourse is supposed to be held (deddes).


of Phlius, which was only a few miles square, con

sisted of a triangular valley with its

was on the eastern side of the


amphitheatre.

and

few ruins are

apex to the north. The town


and built in the form of an
The people were Dorians
left.

valley
still

faithful allies of Sparta.

Tradition connected Pythagoras himself with the place (E. dr.


of
i), and he is said to have assumed the name

Ph. 2 p. 94, n.
<pi\Go-o<pos

for the first

time there or

in

the neighbouring Sicyon

2
(E. dr. Ph. p. 321, n. 2).

Phaedo of Elis is said (Diog. Laert. ii. 105) to have been a


prisoner of war brought as a slave to Athens, where he attracted
the notice of Socrates, who secured his liberation. At the time of
1261

NOTES

57
chis

dialogue he

(89 b

At a

5).

quite a youth

is

later

and

wears his hair long


\Ye

still

date he founded the school of Elis.

know nothing

of his teaching; but, as the school of Eretria was an


offshoot from that of Elis, and as both are commonly mentioned
along with that of Megara, it is probable that he busied himself

which beset early Logic.

chiefly with the difficulties

Wilamowitz

For

says, he chiefly represents the conquest of the

us, as

most

unlikely parts of the Peloponnese by Athenian culture, which


the distinguishing feature of the fourth century B.C.

57 a

We

seem

is

be breaking in on a conversation
has no expressed object.
Perhaps
Phaedo has already spoken of something Socrates said or did on

AUTOS

T\.

already begun

for

to

TJKOVO-CLS

the day of his death.


the verbs rrapelvai and rrapayiyvecrQai are specially
7rapeY<vov
used of being at hand to support any one in times of trouble or
:

So in Lat. adesse alicui. We should say, Were you


with Socrates?
Cp. also irap<iKa\(tv, advocare,
It is nowhere expressly stated in the
TO cjxip^aKov, sc. TO Kan-aoi-.
Phaedo that it was hemlock but that was the drug commonly em
ployed, and the symptoms described at the end of the dialogue
It has
(nyesqq.) correspond to those elsewhere ascribed to it.
rejoicing.

been doubted whether hemlock-juice would really produce these

symptoms, but see Appendix

35

Ti

ecn-Lv o.TTa:

6 dvT]p

I.

the regular construction (cp. 58 c 6),


. .
ra . \s\6ivra.
.

102 a 9 we have nVa


is an emphatic avros or eVe^

^j>

note on 58 e 3
7

is

in

though

this

Cp. 85 c 8

os-.

61 c

3,

and

avrjp.

Riddell (Dig.
36) defends this by
ovftds
r&v
on
for neither of the
TTQ\ITWV,
depend
making
Most editors
Phliasians does any citizen, which seems unnatural.
[TWV -rroXiTwv]

4>Xtacricov

<tXano-tW

bracket
rather

*XacnW,

TO>J/

TTO\ITWV.

but

think v.

Bamberg

is

In Stephanus of Byzantium and elsewhere

regularly find notices like Olos

oi TroAtrcu,

Oimor

right in suspecting
*nt ro cdvizov

6/Lto:

we
o>r,

and we can understand how, in the absence of capital letters, such


an explanation might seem desirable. Further, the form <Aeiuo-iorl
is exceptional (cp. however Ayayupao-ioi), and Cicero tells us (adAtt.\
vi. 2)

that he himself wrote Phliuntii


2

by mistake.

similar casei

NOTES

57

possibly MetlO 70 b 2 oi rou croC eVmpoy [TToXtrm] Aoptrrntoi.


The
absence of the article with the etWoV is normal, and the form
*Xo-iot (#Xiu<rtoi MSS.) is guaranteed by inscriptions and coins.
ouSels Trdw TI, no one to speak of.
The phrase does not neces
no one at all though it tends to acquire that sense.
sarily mean
is

Cp. ou

It is
139) and the English not very
most editors do, why communications
between Athens and Phlius were interrupted. There is no state
ment that they were, and it must often have happened that no
Phliasian had business in Athens and no Athenian at Phlius.
There was, however, at least one such (58 a 3).
there seems to be no other instance of
mxpLci?i
A0T)va^
irdi v

(Riddell, Dig.
unnecessary to discuss, as

in this sense.

7riXu>pi(i(fii>

It

means to be native and is


Here apparently it is equivalent

usually

used of local dialects, customs, &c.

and takes the construction

to fTridrjp.flv

126 b 3

crab s
(not

TTeoj/^ujcTt i

TI

txev,

in

clear

such expressions

So

).

Ofvpn eK l\Xaofj.ei

Cp. Pann.

era $75?

means

sure

trustworthy

cra(p/)y (pt Ao?, cra(pr}s p.dvri\.

He

o ayyei Xay.

sc.

of that verb.

a>v.

has not been mentioned, but he has

been implied.
TCI -n-epl

SLKJJV

(cp.

phrase
26

V. 3.

is

T-f^s

SIKTJS

C 6

58

influenced by

rr.r

Heindorf compares Xen. Cyr.

e-rrvdeaOt.

ire pi

Xen.

Trrp\

avrov TUV ddvarov), but the prepositional

Trepi

fVel rrvdoLTo rd

iroXXcx) wcTTtpov

the normal construction would be rd

TCI

TOV (ppovpiov, Aiiab.

]\fe)n.

8.

iv.

2 dvdyKr)

ii.

5-

p.tv

37

ona)<f

pu&ui

-yap eytvtTo

r;i

O.IT<<)

implication of coincidence, which is here


In most of its uses, the
by the cognate verb eVu^fi
out
in
is
best
of
English by using the
brought
meaning
rvyxdveiv
adverb just
The Ionic oW^r
tTuxev
o-T^[XVTj, had just been crowned.
Tvxt] has always the

made

explicit

is

only used

solemnity, in

TT(xirovcrtv.

whom

the

in

a ritual sense

Rep. 398

a7

in

So, with mock


The common word is

Attic prose.

pia trrtyavTes

MS. (B) Bishop Arethas, for


2
written, has added KT ero? in his own hand (B
are also found in the Vienna MS. (W). The corrccIn the liodleian (Clarke)

MS. was

These words

i.

B2

NOTES

58
2

of

tions

W.

from a MS. very closely


words may well be an ancient

taken throughout

\vcre

P>

resembling

The

additional

variant.

a 10

irXotov

i.e.

Ad. TToX. 56

For the Delian deapia,

the dewpis.

5e KOL (6 ap^cav) etc

Kadi<TTTj(ri

Ar/Aoi>

TO; rpiciKocTop/G) TW rouf rjQeovs ayovn.


seven maids were technically called the

pov

cp. Aristotle,
\opr]yovs Kal dp^idea)-

The seven youths and


(masc. and comm. of

"jGeoi

The

irapOevoi).

Cp. also Plut.

Kdt TTaXll

TT\tV(T

TjidfCOV

told in Bacchylides xvi (xvii), a


77ies. 23 TO de nXoinv c v

is

story

Hi&oi.

entitled

6(760$^, Tt]V TplClKOl TOpOV,

XP^

TV

dithyramb
m p.fra TWV
&TlfJI.Y]TpioV

Of course none of the


XP
Adrjvaloi.
original timbers were left, and Plutarch tells us the philosophers
took it as their stock example in discussing the question of identity.
Was it the same ship or not ?

TOV

a IT

3>a\tipe(t>s

TOTJS

OV 8iefpv\aTTov

Kivovs

l-n-Ta"

"Sis

Bacchyl. xvi.

(xvii.)

<>l

was

this

also a traditional

E-vavoTrpcopa p.(v vais pevtKTVTrov

name.

Cp.

Qrjoea 8ls eVrci

In the
Kpr/TiKof TU/JLV? TTfAayo?.
xnupovs loowof
Plato says it would have been better for the Athenians
to lose TrAeowi/as errra
naldas than to become vavriKoi.

T (iy\aovs ctyovcrn

Laws (706 b 7)

mission
A ^foopd? is simply a spectator
pilgrimage
(Qtafnpos, Dor. Ofdpos), but the word was specialized in the meaning of an envoy sent by the State to the Great Games, to Delphi
Oewptav,

The dewpuu were

or to Delos.

\yrov pyiai

Diet. Ant.,

(cp.

s.

v.

Theorici).

dua^iv

the arro- has the

same

what is due.
and Ditt. Syll.

fyt tpav

b 5

uTruyooy^,

KaGapeveiv,

p.r)8tva

but he

b 8

TOV (popov,

43 TTJV aTTapxijv aTffjyayov,


to be clean from bloodshed.
Cp. Plut..
p.

KuQaptvcrat. di]p.o(riov (povov rr]v TroAii/

iv. 8.

8eC po,

(/;(5foi

anofpepfiVf

opTaov(rav, So Xen.,
2 rWi TO A/yAio pev eneivov TOV P.TJVUS etVut, TOV $t vop.ov
eav Sf//iO(ria aTTodv^CTKeiV ecot av r] 6(u>pl.a ex. A/jAoi; fTTaveXdfl,

Phocion 37

Mem.

sc.

and

a/7ayeiz/

force as in (mofttdovai

Cp. the technical

that of rendering

is

to

Athens.

It is

true that

Phaedo

is

speaking at Phlius

quoting the Athenian vopos.

This meaning o
takes a long time.
which is not clearly explained in most grammars, is well brougfr
out by an anecdote Plutarch tells of Zeuxis (Ilfpi 7ro\vcpt\ias 94 f)
6 Zev^is atTi(t}fj.va>v O.VTOV TIVWV on
O/^oAo-yaJ, ciirfv
u>ypa(pfl /iJ/jaSecos
ev TToAXcS xpovcp yiyverai,

eV,

tv TroAAw y/)ofco ypa^Jeiv, Kal

yap

(Is TTO\VV.

NOTES
gray TVX COO IV
"

them

22

Cp. Hdt.
f

the winds detain

fjftri

dno\<t/d(j)(}fUTfs,

Dem.

C/lCt

PlatO, Aft llCX.

TllUC.

35 voaw KHI

S.

243

C2

f77Tf

l\T]/J.-

fClV.

the Greek thinks of the crew rather than the ship.


aviroTJs
In
Thucydides and elsewhere a plural pronoun often stands fur n-oXts,
and the like.
fif
Cp. a 6n.
Yeyovos, had just been done.
truxev
:

i-,

avtpwv

U7TO\l](f)6l TilS,

MV

VTT

115

ii.

TTOV VTTO dir\oias tt7roAa/ij3iii co/Me$a,

ijv

when

The

regular term for cut off


detained by con
dnoXavfiiivftv, especially of ships

is

trary winds.

at times

(synchronous aor. pep.)-

intercept

VI.

a-n-oXajBovres,

58

TL TJV

aviTOv TOV Gdvarov

TO, irepl

57 a

cp.

n.

Cp. a

W has

n.

riva

here also, and

n.

So

corrects accord

ingly.
j

01 TTapaycvop-evoi

ol
1

cp.

57 a

below.

Trapi Ivui JUSt

Did they not allow? is OI K


f ina-av.
The difference between a negatived imperfect and a nega
tived aorist may generally be brought out in some such way as this.
OVK

would

eicov,

cl

tliey

not allow?

pxovTes. ol evdeKa, as \ve shall see.

There is something to IDC


quite a number in fact.
however, for the division indicated in some MSS., *AI. Oi \iKat TroXXoi yf.
KX. AXXa nap^a dv nvts
Cp. Euthyphl O
2Q. Ov yap ovv. KY9. AXXa ere a XXo? 2fi. Uiivv ye.

Kal -n-oXXoL

Y>

said,
yna>9.

2b
*

el

TO

JJLTJ

unless you are engaged jus/

TVYxa-vei ouo-a,

fxefivfjo-Gai

p.f/jLvria

4>A1.

dnL
fj,>]

ScuKparous

cp.

Xen.

Mem.

iv.

].

noii>?

(nil KU

irapui Tos vv p.tKpn toc/jgXei (a characteristic

TO fKfivov

Xenophontean

touch) roi S flu>6oT(is re airy ovveivai Kal dirodfXofJLevuvs (Kflvov,


TotovTovs Ircpous,
Well,
(pred.i, cp. Sods,
just such others
The enthusiasm ot
you will find your hearers of the same mind.
the Pythagoreans for Socrates can hardly be an invention of Plato
as minutely as you can.
,

(synchronous aor.

pep.), cp.

57aiw. and

s.

TTU^VTO.

just below.
2

ovT6

the second OVTC does not occur

has been resumed by dui

8r]

ravra

till

59 as

after this sentence

/crX.

we can say 8eos, e Xeos-, ATTIS etV /)X 67


^ f as ncre
or ciVep^erai /iot, as at 59 a I.
The MSS. have nowhere preserved this form.
ay-rip
cp. 57 a 5 n.
"

fie

u<

io-TJi

>

>

NOTES

58
but write either aV/p or 6
oblique cases (e. g. 58 c 8
existence of the crasis

e 3

Kcu TOV Tpoirou

in the

is

both

The

bearing and his words

in his

ecpnivem takes the construction of euSmfor which see Crito 43 b 6 quoted in the next note.
(The

(Church).
noi>l(eiv,

reading rwv

04

though we see from examples

61 c 3) that the article is required.


proved by the metre in Aristophanes.
;

Twv Xo^wv,

teal

Here

avr)p,

\i

eu8<itp.d>v

ya>v

better attested than roD Aoyou, which

is

(T\V)

is

a mere slip in B corrected by Arethas.)


ws cSews
ETeXeuTa, so fearlessly and nobly did he pass away.
Such clauses are best regarded as dependent exclamations. Cp.
.

Cnto 43 b 6 no\\uKiS
(iiTi/v (sc. rfjv

e 5

wcrre

[xoi

TrapfcTTwtTav
.

ire

r)i>8aip,6vi(ra

some

In the act. TT-npan-ufai ri


one s mind
Cp. Dem. Cor.

v/jui

that the

realized

gods may put

itself

impresses
b

143

e 8

ft

(T<n

into

make

TOVTO

u>s

pa<5i

to feel

on

to impress a thing
TrapacrrJ/trai

oo?

117 c 9so that I


;

TOVS

tieovs

your hearts, Mid. 72 TO deivuv


the audience realize the out

<5oa

pn

the thought

upon me,

the belief

Trap/oTarai,

comes home

to

me

(cp.

be used impersonally as here and Ale*


avTLKu p.dXa Trapearatf/, if it should come into your

or the verb

I),

it

to

we can say

the mid.

In

rage.

66

rtvi is

was made

napao-r^crai rols aKovovffLv,

TOV TpoTrov,

Cp. below 89 a 2

(pepei?.

so that

TraptaTacrOai,

trv/i<J!>opcii>)

may

head.
dvev Oetas

ing

equivalent of

59

a 2

is

Hdt.

TVX>I.

ovv doKfl

/noi p.fv

Providence

phrase 6da polpa


e

The mean
without a divine dispensation
would watch over him on his way. The
common in Plato and Xenophon as the religious

|j.oipas, lit.

that

is

df()<pL\n(>s

iii.

139 says 6euj rvxn-

poipas reru^^/ceVat

one who takes part

irapovri irfv0i,

Cp. Xen.

ApoL

32

(2coK/KJT?;s-).

in a scene of

mourning.

The

meaning of rrapewai was so fixed in this connexion (57 a I .) that


no Greek would be tempted to take it as neuter in agreement with
rrei dfi.
It is dependent on elanevai to be supplied from ear/Jet, and
governs

a 3

OTJTC

-rrevOfi.

av>

the

first oirre is

at

58 62.

Heindorf com
occupied with philosophy.
TOVTOLS TJV, iv. 3. 23 oi ^eipares Xen. Cyr. iii. I. I 6 p.(v 6/) Krpns
See below 84 a 8 aei eV rovrto (rco Xoytdr) ev TOVTOLS rols Xoyoiy ?)(rav.
ev

4>i\oo-o4>ia

OVTWV,

(i>

rrpoj)

a 4

of era.

TOIOVTOI rives,

i.

e.

philosophical.

NOTES
The phrase

just.

is

fTTfirovdrj,

At"

Atanimmv.

exv5>s

-yoiV drf^i

In this connexion the adverb

of the iraOos

YeXwvres

is

dependent on
CVIOTC 8c

more

equivalent to arexvu? aro7r.ii TL


axrre i\ T
TO roO Op.//pou

which cp. Symp. 19802


Arist. Clouds 408 vrj
e
-yco

(KdOov, for

59

be taken

to

literally

as

the participles explain

8o.Kpi>ovTs

ore

KO.I

6ie

and are not

ovro>,

eVi-t

.,

quite exceptionally

8ia4>tp6vTO)s,

Cp. Thenct. 150 a 9

8e.

Soph. 24? d
Plato avoids formal symmetry with ^iv and
.

rrore

the description

ieKi yue0a.

a variation of the usual rore

/zei>

wv (nadov TOVTI

means that
we say.

tWorf

rore

t$e

(V.

as in ^ai /ua\n).

(<ni

Cp.

117 c 4.

ATro\A65a>pos

mentioned as a disciple

is

in

34 a

Af>ol.

and

2,

Plato has chosen him as the narrator of the Symposium.


In that
dialogue, the friend to whom he narrates it says (173 d 4) Ael o /untov
ft,

8oKels

oviUTOi/ rt

are^i W? rruvras adXLovS

fjioi

ijye

KaKrjynpfls

urdai

TT\IJI>

Xenophon mentions him along

ap^a/jLfvos.
iii.

aet -yap

ATToXXo^top-

II. 17)

re Tt ivfte

A7roXAn<
a>/)dV

K<U

K<n

roi

aXXtn

2coK/)<iror?,

Ka

s,

arrn (KIVTDV

with Antisthcncs (Men;.

AvTiadei ^v uvberoTe

p.or iiTroXei-

so he seems to have belonged to the Cynic section of the


Socratic circle, which agrees very well with the tendency to
r

7rfo-(9ai),

K<iKr

yupia and with other traits mentioned


Xenophontean Apology 28 we are

in

the

told

Symposium.
he was

that

In the
eVi^i

/ir/-

In
avrov (ScoKparous), a XXco? 3 evij6i]S (naif, silly ).
most editions of the Symposium we read that he had the nickname

rr)s fj.ev

l<T)(vpCt)S

(eVcoi/u/u ci) of

and

fiaf<Ko?

(173 d 8), but IJM\UKI has better MS. autliority


His friend says he does not know how
>S

suits the context better.

Apollodorus got the name of soft


himself and every one but Socrates.
at 117

d 3

is

/zaXcm a rather than p.avia.


of native Athenians.

TUJV t-n-Lx^picuv,

rives

K<U

TU>I>

e-n-ix(opi(i)v

ev

ru>

for

he

is

always savage with

Certainly his conduct here and

\o,,w (as

Cp. Prot. 315 b

opposed

Protagoras brought in his train). Rep. 327 a 4

//

Thracian procession).
(as opposed
Kpi/ropouXos, son of Crito, was chiefly known

ct

to the

2
r<

?><T<tv

/t,

oe

whom

rwi/ eVi^co, Iwv r.op.~

to the

Xenophon
more

Symposium

for his beauty.

Socrates undertakes to prove himself

to

In

be

beautiful than Critobulus.

6 -rraTTip

auroO:

W adds the name


7

KpiVeoj/,

and so B 2

but he was

NOTES

59

known that this is unnecessary. Crito was of the same age


and deme
as Socrates (Apol. 33d 9 ^Xi/acor^y /cat
AAa>77fKf)$fi/)
Sij/uoT/??), and Plato has drawn a touching" picture of his devotion
here and in the Crito. We gather that he watched over his friend
and master s worldly interests without fully understanding his
so well

philosophy.

brother

Ep(xoYt vr]s,

of Callias

son

of

Hipponicus, who had

spent more money on sophists than any man of his time (Apol.
20 a 4), and in whose house the scene of the Protagoras is laid.

Hermogenes is one of the speakers in the Cratylus, where the


poverty into which he had fallen is alluded to (Crat. 384 05), and he
is included in Xenophon s list of the inner Socratic circle (Mem. i. 2.

Mem.

48).

In

assist

him, and

ii.

10 Socrates persuades his friend Diodorus to


4 he is quoted as the authority for the trial

in iv. 8.

of Socrates, which took place after

6 8

EiriYt vqs

cp. Apol.

33 e

Xenophon

left

Athens.

2 Airt^cov 6 KrjQia ievs ouroat, ETnyeVou?

This Antiphon must not be confused with the orator, who


was rS)v dj]/j.(jov Pa/jLvovcrios. There is a conversation with Epigenes
in Xen. Mem. iii. 12, where Socrates says to him u? IdiuTiKcas ( in
bad training ) TO o-w/zu ex cis & ETTiyeves, and urges him to take
more exercise.
e. Aeschines Socraticus, so called to distinguish him
AiCTxLVT]s
from the orator.
Cp. Apol. 336! Avo-aria? o 20;}rriof, AtV^iVou
roOSe 7Tfm;p.
After the death of Socrates, he appears to have fallen
into great poverty, but was given some place at the court of DionyHe was
sius II on the recommendation of Plato (or Aristippus).
one of the most highly appreciated writers of Socratic dialogues.
The AxiochttS) the Eryxias, and the Hep! operas- were at one time
ascribed to him and have been edited under his name, but are

TTdTr]p.

i.

certainly of later date.


AvTicr0tvT]s

is

The
the well-known founder of the Cynic school.
is uncertain, but he certainly belonged to the

date of his birth

generation before Plato.

He

is

probably the source of a good

many

It has been held in


things in Xenophon s account of Socrates.
recent times that many of Plato s dialogues were directed against
Antisthenes, and references to him have been discovered in a great

many

We

places.

really

however, to be sceptical regarding these.


little
about Antisthenes, and it is not safe to
very

It

know

is

well,

NOTES
him from doubtful allusions. So far as the Phaedo
we may be sure there are no attacks upon him in

reconstruct

concerned,
8

59
is
it,

seeing that he is supposed to be present.


v
there was also.
Though it is true that

compound verbs are


repeated by the simple (6ob3.), it is not necessary to take
here as equivalent to irapiiv. Cp. Prof. 315 c 3 roCro T rjv
^fi^iKiop,
KCU TO; ASeijudlTW d/z(/)ore,)co, Rep. 615 d 7 i](rav fie KCI
Suorai rtfff.
,

rj

>

r<>

K-n?|crnrn-os
TI?

TO

in the

Euthydemus he

riniaj/iei?,

j/aAa KaAo? rt xayaQos

e os- eii/at.

He

Mevt^evos

TtjV

called (273 a 7) rfuvurKo?

is

(favviv, ocrov

also appears in the Lysis.


the same alter whom the Mencxenus

/ir)

is

iifipujTt]S diu

called.

He

was son of Demopho and cousin of the Ctesippus just mentioned,


as we learn from the Lysis (206013), in which dialogue he plays
a leading part as the young friend of Lysis.
He must not be
10

confused with his namesake, the son of Socrates (60 a 2 .).


nXdrcov Se oip.ai Tjo-0Vi. jNlaoy strange things have been written

about this simple statement. Of course, it is an advantage from


a dramatic point of view for Plato to keep himself out of his
dialogues and, as a matter of fact, he only mentions his own name
;

two other places (Apol. 34 ai and 38 b6). At the same time,


it is
hardly credible that he should represent himself as absent on
It has been said
this occasion unless he had actually been so.
had
no occasion to
had
he
would
have
Plato
been
that,
really
ill,
make the reservation implied by oumi. He must have known
in

whether he was ill or not. That is so but it does not follow that
Phaedo was equally well informed, and he is the speaker, not
;

Plato.
:

2i|x^.ias

KCU

We

KC PTJS.

These are the chief interlocutors

in the

they were disciples of


Philolaus at Thebes, which, like Phlius, was a city of refuge for the
2
From the Crito (45031 we
Pythagoreans (E. Gr. Ph.
p. 99).
learn that they had brought a sum of money from Thebes to aid the
him.
escape of Socrates, another case of Pythagorean devotion to
It is all the more important to observe that Xenophon confirms

Phaedo.

this

shall

that

see presently

by including Simmias and Cebes

(Msm.

i.

2. 48).

Cp. also

Mem.

iii.

in his list of true Socratics

II. 17

mention of Antisthenes and Apollodorus)


at 2i/i/ii av

QrjftrjOev irapuyiyvf(rOai

It is

(immediately after the

81.1 ri

Se

(oiftj

probable that

<ul

KeW"

St/xia? is

the

NOTES

59
correct form of the

introduce

C 2

name

(from

o-t/zo r),

but

have not ventured

to

it.

MSS.

vary between this form and ^mSomfir/r.


48) mentions him along with Simmias and
Cebes as a true Socratic. giving the correct Boeotian form of his
the

4>aiSu)vS-r]s

Xenophon (Mem.

name,

<J>cuficoi

i.

2.

(W.

Euclides was the head of a philosophical school at


Megara, which held a form of the Eleatic doctrine. He is also
represented in the Theactetus as devoted to the memory of
E:K\eiST]s

Socrates.
Tepvjncov.

Euclides

in

we know

All

of Terpsion

is

that

he

the dramatic introduction to the

is

associated with

Thectetetus,

which

serves to dedicate that dialogue to the Megarians just as fatPhaedo


is dedicated to the Pythagoreans.

c 3

Many

Apio-Tiir-nos.

anecdotes are told of Aristippus of Cyrene,

which may be apocryphal, but agree in representing him as a


versatile cosmopolitan (omnis Aristippum decuit color et status ei
Many allusions to his doctrine have
res, Horace, Ep. i. 17.23).
been found in Plato s writings but the same caution applies here
;

(cp. b 8 n.) as in the

case of Antisthenes.

Callimachus has an epigram (24) on Cleombrotus


Ambracia who threw himself into the sea after reading the
Phacdo, and he has often been identified with the Cleombrotus
K\e6|o.ppoTos

of

Nothing, however, is known of him.


In antiquity this was supposed to be an
yap KT\.
Demetrius says (Ilepi e/>/^m n9 288) that Socrates

mentioned here.
v

c 4

AiYtvfl

innuendo.

had been in prison for a number of days and they did not take the
trouble to sail across, though they were not 200 stades from Athens.
To make this more pointed, Cobet inserted ou before rrapfytvovTo,

and took the clause as a question, which only proves

that the

not very apparent in the text as it stands. We must be


words.
very careful in reading such covert meanings into Plato s
Athenaeus (504 f) makes it a grievance that he does not mention

innuendo

is

Xenophon had left Athens two years before.


one else,
i/xru TjcrOeixi had been used of any
As we shall see, it had
that would have been set down to malice.
had returned from
only become known the day before that the ship
news came from
the
d
that
Crito
the
from
we
learn
and
(43
3)
Delos,
here, though
the words nXarcoy df

Xenophon
If

10

NOTES

59

Sunium where she had touched. Aristippus and Cleombrotus could


There is
hardly have heard this in time, if they were in Aegina.
no evidence that they had been there during the whole of the thirty
days, as Demetrius suggests.

The attitude of Socrates towards death

Introductory Narrative.
(59 c8

70 03).

Preliminary Narrative (59 c 8

(l)

T il
r

jfj-epa

irpoTcpcua

or

Trporepa/a.

r//

63

e 8).

seems to require either rfj


have therefore followed Hermann

Attic usage

in

bracketing l^paI

to

{nraKoveiv,

answer the door.

Co. Crito 43 a

TOV 8ecrua)TT)piov
told us to wait.
iiTv ireptjxevttv,

6
r]6t\r)(re croi

(/Ji>Aa

less suitable,

would mean

we should expect

eus av:

it

rrapifvai is

merely a

polar

has

to stay as

irpiv

duv/zaiu

OTTCO?

UTra/coucroi.
fTn/jLe veLv,

we were

which seems

(Riddell, Dig.

av after nporepov, but Knt

antithesis placed

fiia fiea-ov

p,r]

and does not

affect the construction.

v8Ka on the Eleven and their functions, see Arist. Ad. TTO\.
where we are told that the people elected them inter alia em-

ol

52,

u,(\Tjirofjii

O-TTCOS

For

ovs

av

TU>V

fv TO)

TeXeura,

oe<T/j.u>Tr]piu>.

are giving instructions for his death to-day.


commanding, where the

this rare construction after verbs of

dependent clause contains the substance of the order, cp. Gorg.


523 d 7 TOLTO p.v ovi Kdl 8!j e ipTjTaL ( instructions have been given

TW

IlpofJLTjdel.

OTTCOS

av Travar/, isaeus 7. 2/

Trddot TrpoTfpov, eyypityaxri pc.

to

present reAei-Ta (T)

OTTVS uv,
is

more

ei

ri

likely

to reAeurryo-?? (B) than vice versa.


xp vov tTTLcrxwv, lit. after waiting (en-e^co intrans.) no
Cf. 9567 crv\vov xp"v eiritrx^v.
Similarly 117 e 7

have been altered


ov iroXtiv

long time

after a short interval.


.vov 8ui\nra>v,
xpovoVf II& II oXiyov
2
has eneXevafv (and so, accordingly, B ), but this is
bid
refer to the
and
send
verbs
The English
less idiomatic.

8ia\iira>v

The

8lKf\ve<rd

K\Vv

xp<

xeXevav operate throughout


starting of the action, but ni^fiv and
The thought follows the motion (Gildersleeve). The
the action.

imperfect

is

therefore natural where


II

we should expect

the aorist.

NOTES

59
the

It is for

same reason

that

irtpirfiv

can mean

convey

escort

incite
urge on
has eto-e\66vTfs (and so B 2 ), but the present pep.
tio-uovTes
e 8
goes better with KaT\ap.pdvop.(v. There were a number of them, so
the action is resolved into successive parts ( as we entered, we

and

<e\(veiv,

found

60

).

KaT\ap.|3a.vo(Xv,

we

found.

When

/amiAa/z/Sareti is

used

in this

takes the construction of verbs of knowing.


HavGi-mr-qv. There is no hint in the Phaedo, or anywhere else in

sense,

it

that Xanthippe was a shrew.


Xenophon makes her son
Lamprocles say of her (Mem. ii. 2. 7) ovbels av dvvuiTo avrrjs avavxtodin TI}V ^aAfTTOTTjT-rt, and in Xen. Synip. 2. 10 Antisthenes says she
was the most difficult (^a/Woo-rur?/) of all wives, past, present, or
Plato,

The

future.

traditional stories about her

appear

to

be of Cynic

origin.

TO
Kiov

-rrcuBiov.

Socrates had three sons (Apol. 34 d 6 els- /ueV fj.eipdThe fj.fipu.Kiov must be the Lamprocles men

duo Se 7rcu8ia).

ijdrj,

tioned by Xenophon (see last note). There was one called Sophroniscus after his paternal grandfather, so he would be the second.
The child here mentioned must accordingly be Menexenus (not to

be confused with Menexenus, son of Demopho, cp. sgbgn.). It


is worthy of note that the
names Xanthippe and Lamprocles
suggest aristocratic connexions, and possibly Lamprocles was called
after his maternal grandfather (cp. Arist. Clouds 62 sqq.). Socrates

was not always a poor man

ApoL 23 b 9 he
TrevLu

fj.vpia

a 3

flfu

of Xanthippe,

XaXfTroTTjs

dvT)xi(|)T)p.T]o-

for

he had served as a hoplite, and in

ascribes his poverty to his service of Apollo (tv


fiia rr]v TOV 6 eou
This may explain the
Xarpft av).
if

such there was.

ought to mean

raised

a cry of

eic/j^/zeire

verba^favete linguis\ and that gives a perfectly good sense.

was

(bona

The

xpn reXevrav (117 e l), and eut/^etre was there


fore a natural address to people approaching a scene of death.
That she should use it and then break the evfapia herself is only
rule

human

eV evcprjpia

and feminine.

Byzantine scholars took, however, another


the recently discovered portion of the Lexicon of the
Patriarch Photius (ninth cent. A.D.) we read avev^r^a-fv avr\ TOV
f6pt]i 7]crfv (Reitzenstein, Anf. des Phot. p. 135), and the rest follow
view.

suit.

In

It

was explained KUT

avri^paariVj

12

i.

e.

by a curious

figure of

NOTES
speech which consisted
{lucus a non lucendo}.

60

saying the opposite of what you meant

in

Very similar is Soph. Track. 783 ii-us


ff uvrjifyr^rjcrfv
where G. Hermann took the word in its
natural sensej and Eur. Or. 1335 eV
r
(ivevrfninel 5o/zo?.
Xfo>?

oip.a>yf/

at(<,i<j\.

In both these cases death


itself is

i)

imminent.

is

but that

bv(r^>T]fj.ov t

i,)

may

It

be said that the

not necessarily so

is

at

any

rate

yu .is is quoted from Aeschylus (fr. 40 Sk .gwick).


oia S-q
these words might have been used even without eloodaa-iv,
in the sense of just like
Cp. Xen. Cyr. i. 3. 2 ula c// mils ( just like
vat rat.
a boy ), Thuc. viii. 84. 3 ota
:

}.

<$/)

Cp. 89 b 4 avpiov
With this reading (that of B T\V have
Tdi Trjv) the words are kindly and considerate.
Xanthippe had ap
and
child (at any rate
with
Socrates
their
the
night
parently passed
she was found there when the doors were opened), and it was only
right she should go home and rest. She is sent for again just before
rjo-Tarov

so this

8-r],

d-n-aY<Tcu

is

the last time that

ft

KT\.

TIS auT-qv

}.

I do
not see any ground for the remarks
the end to say farewell.
which some editors take occasion to make here on the Athenians

Would

treatment of their wives,

it

have been right to keep

Xanthippe there all day, in her overwrought condition, and allow her
Some women would have insisted on
to witness the actual agony ?
staying, but we can find no fault with the behaviour of Socrates
in the matter.
rives

breasts
in

TWV TO

K07n-op.vr]v
,

but

KPLTOJVOS,

plaint

is

of Crito s people.

meaning

of Koirrfa-dai

was

to beat the

came to mean simply to lament (cp. the nop^u?


The history of the Lat. plango (whence planctus,

it

tragedy).

some

the original

similar.

the use of this verb in the medical writers shows


dvaKa0i6p.evos
that the meaning is
Cp. Hippocrates, Progn. 37
sitting up
:

dvaKcidi^eiv fiovXftrdai TOV vofTtovra rr-s voaov d/c/iajjoucr^? Trovrjpov.

might expect

eV

rfj

the construction of
variant eVt

r/>

K^LVT],
(io>)

K \[vr)v

verb means residens,

must have got up

to

Y\ e

but (Tecr0ni) Kndi&o-dm sometimes retain


The
Kadifa, which are verbs of motion.

and B 2 ) may be due to the idea that the


down. Wohlrab argues that Socrates
welcome his friends, and adopts eni accord

(W

sitting

but this would spoil the picture.


ingly
that he put his feet on the ground for the
;

13

We
first

are led to understand

time at 61 c

10.

The

NOTES

60
had

fetters

just

been struck

off,

and

at first

he would be too

stiff to

get up.

b 2

o-vvKaM.x{/e

Arist.
It is

this verb

is

An. $O2 b

Jrlist.

specially used of

II

TridrjKos

bending the

rrudus (rvyKdp-rrrei,

opposed to fWetVeo.
rubbed down/ as with a towel.

Athenaeus (409

Tpiv|/6,

quotes Philoxenos for e/cr/K/u/zn


the compound verb
b 3
rpi|3cov

in

Cp. 71 e 8 avTano8(
104 d IO dircpydfarat
ws UTOTTOV

TL

ws Oav^iacricos

Relation

TrefjivKfVdi erri

by
b

290

irecjnjicc

regularly repeated by the simple.

is

drroSovvai,

e)

><Tpoi>.

8407

fiie^UJAU

<5ieX$eif,

e/pyafero.
TLS is often

postponed by hyper-

c).

how

-irpos,

expressed by

is

the sense of x fl pop- (l

the uneiTiphatic

baton (Riddell, Dig.

b4

o(rop,i>

Cp.

joints.

cotrep ^eipus.

7re<j)vKfvai

it

strangely

npbs

.,

is

related

to

design or adaptation

TO ap.a p.v KT\.,


to think that they will not
The exclama
tory infinitive is often used after some expression of feeling (in the
present case as 6avfj.acria>s) which it serves to justify.
Cp. Eur.
.

Ale. 832
not tell!
Arist.

<iXXu

o-oC,

TO

p.r)

explanation, which

is

Out on thee

typdcrui,

Med. 1051 dXXa


Clouds 819 n $ /a cop in y,
,

due

rrj$

TO

(p-f /f

Am

KUKrjS,

vofj-i^eiv

to Riddell (Dig.

to think

TO

K.IU

thou didst

TTiiaftrOdL

OVTU TT)\LKOVTOVL.
85),

makes

it

KT\.,

This

unneces

MS.

authority and Stobaeus.


of
editors
b 6
HT|
speak
personification and the lively fancy
of the Greeks here, but even we say won t in such cases.
sary to read

with inferior

0<fXeiv

rco

in almost every case.


The omission of aft in
.
det,
probably accidental. The relativity of pain and pleasure is
a Heraclitean doctrine, cp. ir. 104 Bywater voia-os vyieirjv e-rroiTjrTev

o-xe86v TI

is

KdKov dyadovj Xi/noy Kopov, KUfjuiros dvinrdwiV) and it is not,


perhaps, fanciful to suppose that this is intended to prepare us for
the Heraclitean arguments as to the relativity of life and death

T/Su,

below (70 d 7 sqq. ).

h 8

K p- l o-s Kopvcf>Tjs T]p.p.vco, fastened to (Greek says fastened from


a single head, a grotesque imagination like those of Empedocles
and of Aristophanes in the Symposium. B has o-uj^/upeW, but that
<

seems to be an anticipation of c 3 a-uvf)\l/ev.


Al ortoiros Aesop was a Phrygian slave of whom many odd tales
were told (cp. Wilamowitz-Marchant, Greek Reader, ii, p. i), and
:

NOTES
the Athenians attributed to
large a part in

date

but

him the beast-fables which play

The

popular literature.

all

down

has come

60

under the

to us

title

of Alcrunrnv ^.vdoi

is

of Byzantine
verses

known from popular

of the fables were well

many

so

prose collection which

and Archilochus.
aviTots

their

this

aviTCO

[AOL

He fastened

rather neater than the variant alr^v.

is

heads together

them.

for

7TaKO\OV0

t(HKV, SC.

Iv.

claUSC

TllC

KT\.

fTTflftr]

IS,

apposition (asyndeton expUcativuni), and the original statement


as usual, restated more fully after the explanation (a b a).
tnro

8)

(5

roO

SecrixoO

Cp. VTTo TOV Seot

viroXapwv
ing of inroXappdvfiv
.

t<J>Tj,

p,

praS

instil,

The mean

rejoined (synchronous aor. pep.).


to interrupt
but to rejoin
is not

or

Cp. Lat. suscipere (Aen.

vi.

ITl

is,

retort

723 suscipit Anchises] and contrast

napaXapfidvfiv (rov \oyov) excipere.

\)

I)

tiroiT]cras uvap.vTjo-as

<rKe\l/eu>s

472

fu 8

Cp. Hdt.

TroXXT;?.

K.i6apl(T^tTa

24

me

reminding

eu eVot ^eraS

(iTTiKofj.fvos,

(synfif

Eur. ^fed.

ftp rn
Cp. Prot. 326 b I 7roir;um-ri
This seems to come from the geometrical

setting to music.
fi

Tfivuvres.

use of the term which

tion

v.

for

C 6 fv fVot ^o-a? arraXXa^a?

fTroi^crn? /uoXcoi/.

tvTeivas,

KVK\OI>

thank you

p.<=,

So Ellthyd, 282

chronous aor. pep.).

ro8e TO x w p lov

we

find in

Meno

(VTuQr/vat,

of rectangular figures

in

87 a

where

a circle

it

ft

nl6v re

ets-

refers to the

(for

roVSe

TUI>

inscrip

which Euclid uses

many geometrical terms (e. g. arc,


eyypa(f>fiv).
2
i), comes from
chord, subtend, hypotenuse, cp. E. Gr. Ph. p. 1 16
the use of ropes or strings in geometrical constructions. The
That

in turn, like

Pythagoreans were much concerned with the inscription of polygons


in circles and polyhedra in spheres (cp. nob 6 ;/.), and it was
natural that the

same word should be used of making words

Cp. also Phileb.


putting thought into words.
This was the usual
\6yovs, tales.

a musical scheme.

AtVco/rou Xoyotp,

Herodotus

ii.

3862
name

fit

into

evrelvas els (pwvi]v of

(cp. Ar.

Birds 651

134 Alaconov TOV \oymrotov)

but,

ei/

when

important to mark their fictitious character, they are called


means the
In Ionic
and opposed to Xoyot (6ib4).
same asXdyor in Attic the Ionic for fable is atVop (cp. Archil, fr. 96
it

is

fj.i<dos

p.vdoL

pea) riv

iijjCiv

alvoVj

co

KrjpvKt Sr}).

15

NOTES

60
TO

TOV

els

name

A-nroXXw irpooi^iov

Homeric

the

to

Thucydides

Hymn

(iii.

104) gives this

to

Apollo.
Properly speaking,
preludes intended to attach the rhapsode s epic re
TrpootVm are
citations to the praise of the god at whose iravfjyvpts they were
delivered. This instance shows that eWeiVar is setting to music , not
*

merely

versifying

for

the Phaedo, Socrates

no

rrpooifj,iov

could have been in prose.

In

represented throughout as the servant of

is

Apollo (cp. esp. 85b4sqq.). Apollo Hyperboreus of Delos was in


a special sense the god of the Pythagoreans (E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 97,
3),
and there would be no difficulty in identifying him with the Pythian
.

Apollo who had given the famous oracle, and to whose service, as
we know from the Apology, Socrates regarded himself as conse

They were identified in the public religion of Athens


(Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, iv, p. I loj. Geddes s suggestions
about the God of Day must be rejected. Apollo was not a sun-

crated.

god

at this

date (Farnell,

ib., p. 136 sq.).


ardp KCU ... So we find aYi fj.lv
arap
In these uses arap KOI
is equivalent to Kai

KCU aXXou Tivts


vvv (rare) ...

Kai
8rj

KCl

from Apol. 20 b 8 we learn that Evenus was a Parian


EVT]VOS
who taught human goodness for 5 minae. In Phaedr. 267 a 3
we are told that he invented certain rhetorical devices such as
:

vTroS^Xcoaiv

metre

in

irpcpTjv,

and

6 2

We

said he even

composed

rrapu\//oyoi

an elegiac poet.
know from the Apology 20 a

also

3 that

Athens about the time of the trial of Socrates.


rival
So in Ar. Frogs 816 Euripides
competitor

at

dvTirexvos,
is

He was

xnpu>.

the other day.

Evenus was
d 9

Some

TrapeTrau/os-.

fj-v^^s

the dvTLTexvos of Aeschylus.


a.TTOTTipw|xevos

Cp.

Hdt.

makes Socrates confess


33

c 5

and Crito 44

i.

46 TWV

his belief in

iiavTrjitov aVoTreipcopei/os

dreams elsewhere.

Cp.

Plato

ApoL

a.

the verb arpoo-iorpai means facio aliquid animi resoh


endi
causa.
Tr. to satisfy my conscience
ligione
6 3
i
on the chance that, si forte.
This use of
apa iroXXcLKis,
d4>oo-ioTJ^evos

TroXAuKi?

common

is fairly

TaviTTjv TTJV JXOVO-LKTJV,

otros

is

after

music

ft

and /x//. Cp. 6ia6.


ordinary sense. The pronoun

(fuv)

in the

<tpa

often depreciatory like iste.


sc povo-iKTjv. As distinguished from

KaL tpY^^ ov

>

16

Troteu/,

compose,

NOTES
larly

60

means to make a business of, practise


used of arts and trades (L. S., s. v. II. 5, 6).

uapa,KeXeiJcr0ai hortari

and

is

regu

aiiquem ut ahquia faciat tmKtXeutiv inComparatio autem auita cst ex procurrent em incitare (Wyttenbach).
Cf. Xen. Cyr. vi. 3. 27
;

citare facientem (Fischer).


iierbio

TOK
I

TO OfOf TTOlOfCrif
Kal

7TLK(\fVf IV,

the simile brings out the meaning of


and is therefore added appositively (asyndeton explicativum], after which the original fact is more fully restated (a b a).
For this regular Platonic structure, cp. 109 e 4 (Riddcll, Dig.
uxrrrep

p.ol

OVTCJ

cirtKfXeveiv

209).
8iaKeXeu6(ji<!v(H

One another

the proper meaning of Sir/KeXfiW&u is to exhort


Cp. Pidt. IX. 5 SiaKeXfucra/zei^ 8e yvvr] yvvaiKi, but
:

Plato often uses the word as equivalent to

7rapuKeAeie<r$ai.

Here

think, it is merely employed for variety ; it could hardly refer to


the partisans of different runners exhorting their favourites.
I

this is a distinctively
(JLOVCTIK^S
have the authority of Aristoxenus for
saying that the Pythagoreans used medicine to purge the body and
music to purge the soul (E. Gr. Ph.- p. 107), and Aristotle s doctrine
of the tragic KiiQapa-is seems to be ultimately derived from this
orients

4>iAoo-o4>ias

source.

Strabo,

We

shall

who had

lost, says, in

|j.YiarTT]s

We
T

Pythagorean doctrine.

see that philosophy is the true soul-purge.


access to Italiote and Siceliote historians now

discussing the orgiastic dances of the Curetes (x.468)

Kal 8ia TOITO p.ovariKt]v eKaXeafv

nXdrcov, K.UL ert irpurfpov oi HvOayopf LOI,


Cp. also Rep. 548 b 8 rijs a.\t]divris Mouar;? TTJS ^tru
Kal
LciIVS 689 d 6 TJ Ka\\iarr] Kal p.(y!.crTTj TWV cri /a-\6yu>VTf
This is
tyuvLwv ( harmonies ) /jLtyLa-rri ^tKatorar av XeyoiTO ao(pia.

TIJV

(>

<pi~\o(To(piai>.

<f>i\ooo(pias,

quite different from the

metaphor put

Lack. i88d3.
There the
is tuned in a noble key.
said that;

developed
el

mGofxtvov:

-rroXXaKis

this

cp.

60

was

of Laches in

a definite doctrine, which

is

further

made dependent on
ence to the dream

6 3 n.

7T(it/6fj.evoi>

Troi^o-avra.
.

the

originally

think, be preferred to

1251

mouth

he whose character

is

in the sequel.

j
I

into the

d^p

Any educated Athenian might have

we have

but here

<ipa

^OVO-IKUS

We

if

Tr.

T and should,
and the participle

reading of

Kal is deleted

by composing poems in obedi


/cat
interpolated between two

often rind

17

NOTES

6i

one of which is subordinated to the other. It is omitted


Schanz had bracketed it without knowing this.

participles,

here by

b 4

W, and

p,v0ovs
.

TOVTOV

TTpi

TT\av6evTa

same
b

ptv

60 d

cp.

T)yf]<TT)

(roi

dXXa

The
fact

Tim.

Xo-yoi>,

distinction

a<ovf

Prot. 324 d 6

eyo) 5e Xd-yoj/,

(pS)

and

fiction

Cp. Gorg. 523 a

n.
.

aXrjdivnv Xoyov.

as ours between
-fj

I
.

p.v6oi>,

ovKert p,v6av

dXX

fj.vdov

KCU OUTOS OUK

2664

almost the

is

the construction ceases to be indirect, as

if

not (worjcras OTL had preceded.

eVetSj?,

b 6

ov Xoyovs

<iXX

Xdyoi;, ov (TV

knew offby heart. Cp. Prof. 339 b 4 rouro eVi oruorai


Gorg. 484 b IO TO yap ucr^a OVK eVtara/xai.
TOVS Alo-w-irov the antecedent is incorporated in the relative clause

TimcTTd^v,
ro ucr/za

(Riddell, Dig.

218).
tvtrvxov the clause ovs rrpo^fipovs el\ov
b d) (Riddeil, Dig.
the explanation
218).
ois irpwrots

is

restated after

(<z

b 8

Bid him farewell from me.

ppior0ai, sc. (pptie.

word

for delivering

mid. of

pcawvfjLi)

letters,

whence

av

messages

means

is

farewell

(ppd&iv,

and

The

regular

eppaxro (perf. imper.

and was regularly used

in

ending

Lat. vale.
*

he

if

oroo(f>povTJ,

is

being used in
The more
right mind.
a<a(ppovetv

wise,
its

the regular phrase in this sense,

originally sense of sapere,

common meaning

of

to

be in one

an exten

is
o-ox/>poi>eti>

of sanity to a wider sphere.


ws TaxicrTa the omission of these words in T spoils the sense.
Cp. Theaet. 176 a 8 irfipaaBai xph f ^eVSe e/ceure ( from this world to
the Other ) (pfvyet.v on ra^tora.
sion of the idea
:

c 2
c

an exclamation, not a question. Cf. 117 d 7 ola . . Trotelre.


I have had many dealings with him.
evTeriJX nKa,
Cp. Lack. 197 d 3 6 Se Aafj.a)v
UpoSiKO) TroXXu n\r)(riuci Crat. 396
d 5 ftodfv
woXAa aura) avvrj, Pann. 126 b 9 Tlvdodaipa
?roXXa
olov

iroXXa

TO>

c 4

o-xeSov

used as

sure that

in the

phrase o-^eSd^

(rt) otSa.

Tr.

am

pretty

*
always with a negative, if he can (could) help it.
ou
as addressed to Pythagoreans, the word has a
c 6
2
special sense (E. Gr. Ph. p. 321), that of a man who follows a cer
*
Is he not
tain
It is much as if we should ask
way of life

IKWV etvai

4>iX6<ro4>os

a religious

man

18

NOTES

will

be ready

rot) trpa.Yp.aTos, sc. c^iXocro^taj,

Cp. Apol.

2005

remember

that

fan

TO (TOV ri

Trpu-y/za

not

will

wish

regarded as an occupation.
The term is natural if we

philosophy is a life.
4i\o\dc> : Philolaus was one of the most
distinguished of the later
Pythagoreans, and had taken refuge at Thebes when the community

was expelled from Magna Graecia (E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 99). There seems
to have been a regular <rweftpLov at Thebes as well as at Phlius.
The Pythagorean Lysis was the teacher of Epaminondas.
ou8v

be willing

will

TOVHOU

61

We

rather than

nothing certain

tract s,

nothing clear

(cp.

see that there were good reasons for the


teaching of Philolaus about the soul being doubtful (86b6.).
I do not think there is any reference to the Pythagoreans custom

57 b

n.}.

shall

mVrypJTcoi/, as

Olympiodorus fancies.
don mind telling you.
maxime. Cp. 59 a 9 //.
KCU p.aXio-Ta,
evtfafte and fVei are regularly used
Kio-6
TTJS Ket: the adverbs
this world and the other
of this life and the next
Cp. 64 a
and
in
a
8
Theaet.
2.
So
c
6ib8;/.,
Aristophanes,
176
quoted
117
ft eVel.
There is no need to
euKoXoy jueV fvQiift f{;
Frogs 82 o
for drro^fjiin means a residence abroad as
read T^S e-mo-f forrf/i
of speaking

Si

X YIV,

ovSels

4>06vos

i>el

/>Ao?

S"

e*e<,

well as a journey abroad.


to tell

H\j0oXoYeiv,

Tr.

tales.

our sojourn in the other world


Socrates regards all definite state
.

ments with regard to the next life as p.i.6oi. Cp. Apol. 39 e 4 where
he introduces what he has to say about it by ovSev yap tuoXvei bmpvscientific

no b

n.

proof;

Cp. 89 C 7

is

capable of
Cp. below

i.

5vo-p.u)v

ecof

of the soul

the details of the mroS^fua are not.

and 114 d

|Xxp. T]Xiov

Ol TTO)

The immortality

irpbs iiXX^Xtwt.

6u\oyfi<rai

executions could not take place

(pus eorii

Il6 e

till

sunset.

fTi fp^iov ftvai (ni TOLS opf&iv KUI

&t$VKl>ai.

In this
a little ago (o\lyov irpocrBfv).
in the text, to distinguish the
as
accent
grammarians
now at last (cp. 10704). As
adverb from viv 8rj, now indeed
a rule the MSS. have vvv Si) in both senses.
it appears from these words that Philolaus
ore
vwSV],

just

now/

i.e.

sense, the

irap

-q|xtv

SiT)TaTo

had left Thebes some time before 399 B.C.


tum (Taras), which was the chief seat of
19

We hear of him at Tarenscientific

Pythagoreanism
C 2

NOTES

6i

The

in the fourth century B.C.

62

leading

man

then was Archytas

2
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 319).
As the construction of this sentence has been
a 2
torcos fievroi KT\.

much

disputed,

will first give

what

take to be the right transla

be justified in the following notes, from which it


I
will also appear how it differs from other interpretations.
I dare say, however, it will strike you as strange if this
render
tion.

This

will

is
I

is

the solitary case of a thing which admits of no distinctions


mean, if it never turns out, as in other cases, that for man (that
at certain

times and for certain men)

it

is

better to die than to live

and, in such cases, I dare say it further strikes you as strange


that it is not lawful for those for whom it is better to die to do
this

good

office for

one else to do

it

themselves, but that they have to wait for some


them.
This comes nearest to Bonitz s inter

for

pretation (Plat. S/ud., ed. 3 (1886), pp. 315 sqq.), and I shall note
specially the points in which it differs.
I take this clause as the expression in
el TOVITO . . . dirXoOv ecrrtv
:

a positive form of what

is

If we must
stated negatively in the next.
will be TO /3e
eivai TJV r) TeBvavai } but

say what TOVTO means, it


the pronoun is really anticipatory and only acquires a definite
Bonitz once took TOLTO as
meaning as the sentence proceeds.
\Ttoi>

meaning

TO

Tf6vuv<u,

but in his latest discussion of the passage he


I do not think it
necessary

substitutes TO avrbv eavrbv anQKTi.vvvai.


to look

backwards

for

a definite reference, and

not do justice to the clearly


cnrdvTow and &a-irep KOL raXXa.

think Bonitz does

marked antithesis of PQVOV


The XXa must surely be

T>V

a XXcov

same
and if so these must be positive and negative
expressions of the same thought. I hold, with Bonitz, that the
= TO p.r) OC/JLITOV ami
interpretation of most recent editors (TOVTO
the

in both clauses,

avTov avrbv diroKTfivvvai) is untenable, if only because it gives an


impossible meaning to anXovv. Further, no one has suggested that

the lawlessness of suicide is the only rule which is absolute, and


On the other hand, many people
the suggestion would be absurd.
would say that life is always better than death. It may be added
that TUVTO is the proper anticipatory pronoun
praeparative, as the older grammars say.
1
TWV uXXwv diravTwv Riddell, Dig.
a 3
72.
a-rrXovv: that is tirrXoDv which has no

it is

constantly used

dia<f>opat

20

(cp. Polit.

306 c

NOTES
iroTfpov &TT\OVV

no

TOVTO,

<TTi

r)

CniV

OVT KO.\OV

[lev TrpaTTO/Lte vov

*!

what admits

of

Cp. Symp. 183 d 4 ov%


OVTf (UO~Yp6V, nXXa KGlXcO?

of?.

fLVO.1 CIVTO K.(l6

mo xpco?

It IS

e^ft diafpopdv).

. .

distinctions such as ecru/ ore

(ITV\.OVV

62

O.VTO

mV^poV, Phaedr. 244 a 5 ei pevyup rjv


oTrXouv ro fjiaviav KUKOV tlvai (where Socrates immediately proceeds to
enumerate the different kinds of madness), Prot. 331 b 8 ov miw p.oi
doKfl

This

. .

is

shown
as
j

KaXoV,

ovrcas UIT\OVV elvai

many

is,

nAAu

ooKfl ev aura) Sidffoopov

/JLOI

ivat.

P\TIOV (ov) these words must be taken


It
6V, as suggested by Heindorf, or not.

we add

think, safer to

add

it

for the certain instances of the poetical

without a participle
poetical idioms are commoner.

use of

TL

editors say after Heindorf.

together, whether

the origin of the Aristotelian use of an-Aon-.


Bonitz has
once for all that oTrXoDv does not mean simpliciter -verum,

ouStTTore Tvyx^vci

Ti -y^oVco

come from

where

later dialogues

l,j

by

KCU
a><rn-ep

elvdi

man

for

TCO dvOpcoiro),

ft&Tiov, not

raXXa,

dative

is

governed by

some

editors suppose.
as other things do.
Olympiodorus rightly

(the rest of his interpretation

some such

abbreviation of

The

generally.

as

Tvy\di>i,

is

wrong).

clause as this

The phrase

coirrrfp tvinrf

mW

bv Tvyftdvei vocrelv, jrcveaOiu KrA.,


vyiaiveiv, Tr\ovTflv KT\.
Kal OlS
i. 6.
O~TIV OTf KCIL fCTTlV Olf, CVIOTC
(JTIV OT

an

is

jSe Xrtoi

*j

Bonitz

proposal to delete the

roXXa fVTiv OTf


rid of the

Knl otc

pleonasm

comma

at

raXXo and take

is at first

together

tVLOiS,

KCU.

wa-rrfp KU\

sight attractive.

It

gets

oi^ Trore and the change from

of eVrtv ore after

singular to plural involved in taking CVTLV ols with rw avdparrrw.


These are not, however, insuperable difficulties, and I feel that the
ellipse involved in coirnep

<ai

raXXa

is

easier

if it is

total

than

if

it

is

partial.

-reGvdvai

to die

such phrases rcdvdvru

in

may

properly be translated

on the process of dying, of


The translation to be dead is

for dnodvrjaKeiv lays stress

which Tfdvdvai

is

the completion.

clearly inadmissible in such common phrases as n-oXXaKtr, pvpiaKis


Cp. also Crito 43 d I ov 6e? dcptKop-fvov (sc. roC irXotov)
p.e,

fl /ic XXo)

52 c6 OVK dyavaKTwv

TToXAaKty Tfdvdvai,

adp.evos TfOvdvai

r)

et

38 64

cWvuff C

}"*

Scot Tfdvdvai

TroXu p.a\\ov

e 3 o^
21

39

"""

(re,

Apol. 30 C

alpovpn

coSe di

^p^o/iat ot IKBovra

Mf

ovS

NOTES

62
TfQvavai, 41 a 8

TroXXa/ay

below 6203 on

fde\a>

reOvavai

avro Tcflvdvai,

/3ouXei

eWif

ravr

ft

3.6; C

64

5,

So

tiXrjdrj.

67 62; 8ial.

Cp. the similar use of oTroXcoXeVai and that of reOvaTw in criminal


and see Vahlen, Opuscula, ii. 211 on the whole subject,

law,

a 8

ITTO)

Zevs

Schol. TO

trro) eVi^copia^oi/roy e ort.

Boeotian says rro) Atuy,


Zeus be my witness.

Zeus know

let

(i rrco

The meaning

In Kf.Ach. 911 the


fi$Tu>

= Att.

iWco),

much

attenuated, and
the French Parbleu ! comes nearest to it. Epist. vii. 345 a 3
Zfvs, (prjalv 6 Qrjftaios may or may not be a reminiscence of this
is

irro>

It is more likely that the phrase struck Athenian ears


passage.
as a quaint one.
The expletives of a language generally strike

foreigners in this way.

a 9

dialect.
Cp. ApoL 17 d 5 and Crat. 398 d 8 ev 17;
So we Say /3oiamdeii/, doopifeii
evieiv rrj
\\r]vifiv,
In classical Greek SiaXe/croy means
conversation
manner of
(jxovfj,

<fia>Vfl.

speech

b
b

Aristotle uses

as

opposed

of

dialect
OUTCO Y
txei

is

avyyv^^v

lit.

or

inexplicable

flxov av

only acquires the meaning

admits of something being said

it

intelligible

syn. evXoyov

e ^ft,

nva Xoyov,

Xo 7 ov

eVrti^).

my

aXX

77

to-riv,

it is

For the sense


it

for

it

e.

5.

unjustifiable

of e^eiv

admits of excuse

cp.
is

sometimes personal as in ApoL 31 b 7


conduct would be intelligible, 34 b I ra^
their conduct would be explicable. That

which immediately follow


e^ovat \oyov

(opp.

excusationem habet,

The phrase

is

\6yov e^oiev ftoriOovvres,


reason
Xo-yo? does not mean

b 3

It

everyday language

put in that way.

^oyov

justifiable

excusable

(Poet. 1458 b 32) for

to the diction of poetry.


at a later date.

Tlv<

it

in this

phrase

rbv opdov re KUL diKmov

shown by the words

is

in the last of these

passages

riva a\\ov

what explanation can

be given except the straight and honest one ?


v d-rroppriTots,
in a mystery.
Cp. Eur. Rhes. 943 /iuorijpiW re
TU>V

aTTopprjTuiv (pavas

eftfi^ev

Op(pev?.

The

doctrine of the

immor

Orphic in origin (cp. 70 c 5 n.}. There is not


the slightest reason for doubting that Socrates held it, or that he
derived it from this source (cp. Introd. XIII). At the same time, he
tality of the soul is

always refers

to the details of

ironical deference as here.


tv TIVI

<J>povpa,

in ward.

Orphic theology with a touch

Cp. below 6904/2.


This is Archer-Hind
22

s translation,

of

and

NOTES

62

conveniently retains the ambiguity of the original, which was some


times understood to mean (i) watch and sometimes (2) prison

Cicero took

the

Cp. de Senectute 20, vetatqut


Pythagoras iniussu imperatoris, id est dei, de praesidio et statione
vitae decedere.
In the Somnium Scipionis (3. 10) he uses the word
cttstodia, clearly a translation of (ppoupd
piis omnibus retinendus
in

it

sense.

first

animus in custodia corporis, nee iniussu eius a quo ille est vobis
datus ex hominum vita migrandum est. Antiphon the Sophist,
a contemporary of Socrates, says ro (jjv eWe
e^p/pM, but
est

</>poupa

that

The

be merely a simile like the Psalmist s watch in the night*.


*/ o $fo?
Stoic formula that we must live
o^p?;^ TO uvaK\rj-

may

eo>?

receptui canai] seems to be derived from an interpreta


tion of this kind, and we must remember that (ppovpd is the

TIKOV

(dum

The

Peloponnesian word for o-rparaa.

other view, however, that

means prison is strongly supported by the Axiochus, an


Academic dialogue of the third century B. c., where we read

tppovpd

(365

e 6) J7pei? p.(v

yap

fcrp.fv

^i X

C^

}>

"

o-Buvnrov eV Ovrjrut Kafleipy-

There is no doubt that the Orphics did speak of the


ptvov (ppovpiw.
body as the prison of the soul. The Christian apologist Athenagoras
p. 245. 19) KCZI JuAoAaorfif oxnrep (V cjipovpa r,dina
rou 6eov irpiet\^(f)dat Xtycof, with which we may compare Plato,
Crat, 400 C 4 fioKoDcri
pot paXiora uetr^ai oi (Jp0! Qp(f)U TOVTO

Says (Diels, Vors.~


VTTIJ

p.ei>roi

TO ono/jia (crcopa), wy

&i.K.r]v

didovcrris TTJS

\|/v^>;y

u>v

8f]

fVe/ca StSaiaii

TOVTQV

"

5t irepiQoXov tx (lv

to be

of eV3fur$cu

ds

92 a

o-copri,

eWSoui/
evSfdf]

(Is

Lva

^^C

quoted

TrippvTOV

TU>

au>[j.a

below 8iei (eW

i>&e8e<T6ai.

The

44 b

in the

av) Tm\iv fvdfGucriv

So too Tim. 43 a

eVSf^/yi/nt.

o-cop<m

KOI aTTOppvrov,

Cp. also
the next note.

prison-house

imprisoned

jrplv

Qvrjruv.

in

7 11

Cp. also the use

Beap-oiT^piov elKova.

"

orav (^f^j)) ds aco/ua

fragment of Euxitheus

(ppovpd in

Gorg. 525 a 7

is

the

of the other world, not the body.

KT\.
The genuinely Pythagorean origin of this is
by a passage from an unknown Pythagorean called
Euxitheus, quoted by Athenaeus from the Peripatetic Clearchus

KCU ou Set

vouched

STJ

for

(Diels, V0rs.

KXenp^o?

p. 245. 8),

Ev^i ^eoy 6 TIvda-yopiKos,

ceding note)

ro) (rcopari KCL\

devpo fBiw ras cnrdvT&v

T<U

KOI fiieiTracr^ai rbv Qebv ws ,


1

X<*piv

avrovs

<u

N/KIOI/,

6 HfpinaTr]TiKof (V Sevrepo) Bt cu^, eXeyev eVSeSe rr^ai

\va~ri, TrXfioai

ft p.f]

p.(vo\>(nv

0^<jt

\lrv)(as

rtpa)pt S

eVi TOUTOLS, ero? av fKtov

Kai p.doariv euntaovvTai. Tore \vp.ais

23

oi?

(cp. pre

dib Truisms

NOTES

62

ev\a[3ovij,VOVSTr)VT(aVKVpi<av(\.e. ftecnroT&v, eVtrrrarcoy)

TOV

fKovras (K^^vai,

rjv

/JLOVOV

djr6\v(riv Tijs

7rpo0-i e0-$at, TreTreio-p-evovs rrjv

rwv Kvptvv yiyveo-dai

300

B.C., this

fragment

is

b 8

aTon-a

TI

/zera rr)?

wrote about

almost certainly genuine.


493 c 3, where Socrates says of the

rather queer

\|/-i>^f/9

Soli

most characteristic of the Orphic doctrines TOUT

wo

threat

Cp. Gorg.

high-

iJuyas,

As Clenrchus of

yi>co/iT?r.

avdracriv

re TOV ev ro5 yijpq 6avarov

enieiK&s

corn/

/ueV

).

The word is often used of flocks and herds,


This doctrine of the
opposed to xi) J nT(l
divine herdsman appears more than once in Plato s later dialogues.
KTTrifxdTcov,

Cp. esp.
5

chattels.

which sense

in

nu

is

it

1t

Laws 906 a 6

KTi]/j.n

(if. /.

crvfjLfj,a%ot

Kr/y/jara)

Saturnia regna he says

(Polit.

rjfJ.lv

Koi

deoi re

cip-a

2716

KOL

5) 6eos evefj.v

<pa/j.ev

TOV ovpnvov o\ov.

KCU

coairep

(0(i,

avrovs avros eVt-

himself.

Qeu>i/

6vr)Ta

8ai.fj.nvfs, r)p.els

In describing the

8aip.6vu)i>.

God was their shepherd and tended them


LflWS 902 b 8 we have
-ye ^v Kr^/zara

oTarcoi
in

de

Oefov

Again,

eivtu iravra OTTocra

Hoos yap ov

roivvv

"Hdrj

p,cyd\a TLS (para) ravra elvai rols Oeols* ovderepovs yap rols
KeKTrjfj,uois i]fj.as (i. e. rols deirnoTais fjfjiStv) dp.\flv civ f irj Trpo&riKov,
^

arfJLiKpa

The similarity of phrase here


cVt/ufXeoTarots ye overt Ka\ a/n orots-.
points to a common Orphic-Pythagorean origin for the two pas
Cp. also Critias 109 b 6

sages.

Krijiinra Kal Opt/jL/jLara eavrtov

C 3
c 7

TeOvdvat
-n-piv

62 a

cp.
f-n-LTT(

Ileindorf, but

[ji4;Tj

is

it

ijfjLiis

KaToiKi<rapTfs9

olov

vop.rjs

iroijjivia,

erptfyov*

5 n.
i

it

more

is

easy to insert av before

likely that this archaic

and

avdyicrjv

with

poetical

con

struction is used to give solemnity to the sentence.


Unless we are
prepared to emend a large number of passages, we must admit that
Plato sometimes used it to produce a particular effect.
It is
especially common in the solemn, formal diction of the Laws,

872 e IO ovde

cp.

(povcp

C IO

o/Liot

paSiois,

co

CKTT^VTOV

ofj.oinv

rj

lightly

&e\fiv yiyvevdat

rei cr^.
dpaaaaa
without complaining

TO niavdev Trplv

(fiovov

"^v^r)

as in paStooy cpepav.

Cp.

63 a 7.

U\OYWS *x et

2).

a frequent equivalent of ev\oy6v eVrt (cf. supra


it is
easy to explain or justify is evXoyov.

That which

the transition from the popular Beovs


seems quite unconscious.

O e 6v:
6e<)v

24

to the philosophic

NOTES

62

in Plato ^pdvi^oy and CTO^O S- mean


:
exactly
Aristotle distinguished tppnvrjuK from OW/HH as
practical from theoretical wisdom, a distinction which he shows to
TOTJS

be

4>povip.a>Ta,Tovs

same

the

in

thing.

conformity with popular usage.

See

my edition

of the Ethics,

p. 261 sq.

Cp. Poht. 2716

connexion.

5 0*bs (Vfp.fv

avrovs CIVTOS enuTTaTuiv,

OVK e xei XOYOV, i. e. a\oyov fort, OVK evXoyeas tx fl ( C P- b 2


d 2).
atiros : the shift from plural to singular is not uncommon.
Cp.
;

104 d

esp.

not to run away, the regular opposite of d7roStfywo-Ki>.


it that way, more often ovrca y as above b I.

putting

fj

j\

we

than

or

or

by

opposite to

say

for its

meaning

is

especially the common duxpeptiv ;} . . .


I
as (ppovi/J-OS
cro0Of, SO a(f>p(dv
acf>povas
in

We cannot always render


wider than

afjLad-fjs

either.

Cp.

(affocfros is

not

ordinary use).

diligence
painstaking the noun of irpnyfiarfvo^ai,
equivalent to irpdyp-ara e ^oo, take pains , take trouble
In late Greek Tro\VTrpaypo<rvvr) is curiosity in a good sense, and
irpaYixaTeia,

which
the

meaning here
KPTJS

[6]

is

it

is

similar.

Plato

is

almost uniform

practice to insert the

with proper names in the narrative (cp. TOV Ke^r/roy just


above) and to omit it in the dialogue when directly reported (cp.
Ke /ityp twice in the next speech, introduced by /cat 6 2i/i/Lu a?). See
article

Beare

by the

in

Hermathena, 1895, vol. ix, pp. 197 sqq. As 6 was omitted


hand of T, I have ventured to bracket it.
is always on the track of some argument.
TIVCIS dvtpevva,

first

\6-yous

Metaphors from hunting are often used by Socrates in speaking of


arguments, and the \6yos is regularly the game which is hunted.
This
Cp. fjiCTtevai TOV \6yov (88d9.) and p.etfo8os (796372.).
(Cp. KUT
metaphor has survived in the word investigation
.

IXVTI

iisb 9

ou -n-dw

)
.

cOc Xci, *is

not very ready to believe at once.

the interlaced order (a b a

b}

ou

ndw

Note

belongs to e^eXet and fvdevs

to Treidecrdai.

AXXd
this time

P.TJV
(

... ye

for

Even I think that


the emphasis is on vvv.
there is something in what Cebes says.

once

25

NOTES

63
a 6

is

belongs to

dX-r]0ws

a-ocpoi.

620

Cp.

lightly.

a8iojs,

10.

TOV Xo-yov, to be aiming his words at you.


For an
elaboration of the tame metaphor, cp. Symp. 219 b 3 rai ra . . .
fiircov Kal dfpfls uxnrep /i^eXr;, TeTpuxrdai airbv wfj,rjv.
els are Tcivciv

b 6

ecus dXXous, sc. TOVS


Archer-Hind compares
irapd
LaiVS 959 b 4 rrapd 0eovs aXXous diricvat ficoo-oira \6yov. Geddes
refers to Aesch. Sllppl. 230x0*61 5tKaei ra/XTrXa/Oy/aa^
Zeuy
Xoyo?,
^<9oi//ouf.

aXXoy eV

Kap.ovariv tiararay

a>?

fit /caf.

who these were, appears from Apol. 41 a 6, where


-n-ap av0pumovs
Socrates mentions Orpheus, Musaeus, Hesiod, and Homer (in that
order) as persons whom one would give anything to meet after
:

death.
OUK av irdw

8iia-xvpicrai[XT]v

another touch of the

Socratic

irony which Plato has reproduced elsewhere.


Cp. above 62 b 5 #.,
114 d I ., and Meno 86 b 6, where, after explaining the doctrine
of

C 2

Socrates says

dvafjivrjcnSj
1

Stt(r/Yi pio"aiju;v,

Xoyou

on

(e\Kis

is

of that,

on

KCII

TO.

fj.fv

ye

XXu OVK av ndvv

vrrep

TOV

8f KT\.

TJIV the sentence begins as if it were to end r^ay e XTrt Cw


Orphic for faith and quite in place here) f v iVre. Instead
it takes a fresh start at eu IVrf, and the remainder of it is
.

accommodated to the parenthesis KCH TOVTO /j.ev OVK av IT aw


o-aiurjv. In T and Stobaeus the construction is regularized by

ftu<rxvpi-

TO for on, but this looks suspiciously like

c 4

oux
if I

C 5

C 6

ojioCcos,

non perinde (Heindorf),

were without

eivai TI

cp. 91

an

emendation

not to the

same

writing

extent, as

this hope.

b3

el fie

ut]$v

earTi reXevrfjcravTi.

X^eTat we must interpret this in the light of the irakaivf


\6yos at 70 c 5, where the reference is certainly to Orphic doctrine.
Such a belief as is here mentioned formed no part of ordinary
Greek religion. According to that, only a few great sinners (Sisy
-iraXcn

phus, Tantalus, Ixion) were punished in the other world, while only
a few favourites of heaven (Menelaus, Diomede, Achilles, and, in

Athenian

belief,

Harmodius and Aristogiton) were

carried off to

the Isles of the Blessed.


c 8

auros x wv

KOIVOV,

yap

>

to
TO.

keeping to yourself (* avros h. L est solus Heindorf).


be shared (as in KOLVOS Ep/bwjs). Cp. Phaedr. 279 c 6
which is a Pythagorean rule.
26

TO>V

$i\<ov,

NOTES

63

(of which you spoke a little ago, 63 b).


though omitted in B.
This interlude marks the end of the preliminary

diroXoYia, the defence


article should be kept,

f|

The

KT\.

irpwTov 8

narrative.
for

TrdXat,

refer to a

TC

8<l

e,

TTpocr^f peiv

Why, simply that


MS. authority

The adverb does not

past.

but the weight of

Hipp. ma. 281 CQ

Ti 5

otei, cJ

as

i
Tcj>

<|>cip|4.a.Kcp

^MK pares,

TT poa(f)f pfLv

157 c 4

7rpoo"o/crcD

viore

HfTroiKOTUiv 6

fjftri

Tfpov

Tpi.\}/(ii>

Xpovov $
K.a\

TO (pdpp.nKOV

means

dii.iyfi

LTT(JL>I>

rrdvTodv,

el

own

The

first

hand
Cp.

to apply
especially
that seen in Charm.
,

is

<e(pa\rj.

ScoSeKO

we have

eVf Aizrf, Ka\ 6

(fodpfiCiKOV

this story

OVK

8rjfj.o(nof

efprj

Spa^f(f, oo~ov

op.fvov KCU oiciTptfBijS) 6

fJir/Se

a-noOavelv Adrjvrjo-i dwpfav

f
o~Tii>,

e/ccXci tre TO)

suggestion has accordingly been made that


here was thinking less of Socrates than his

The

vvai TO KfpniirLov.

the dripdvios or

TO

X(i/3oi

p.rj

rfj

77

necessarily

in its favour.

is

In Plut. Phocion 36

icrX.

uvaYKao-0cu

XXo ye

medical sense, the usual construction

in a

8rjp.ios

pocket.

ta

and

B omits

of

some time

long time.
aXXo -ye T]

xcupeiv aurov,

xaipeiv fltreiv

thing from one

mind.

o-xeSov n v TI ^5i]
Cp. Lack. 192 c 5

Cp. 64 c

er^e Suv

The phrases x a ^P flv *-v,


are used of dismissing any

never mind him.

to bid farewell to

65

c 7.

go together and

p.fv

is

solitarium.

The nTToXoyta of Socrates. The philosopher will notfear death;


for his whole life has been a rehearsal of death. 63 e 8 69 e 5.

(2)

8r|

marks these words as a reference

to render
TOV Xo-yov diroBoOvcu,
to the persons who are entitled to

my

to

demand

(\6yov \ap.ftuvfiv diro\afj.^dvfiv) from


article TOV cp. 17 dno\oyia above d 2.

get

it

dvT|p

8iaTpi\)/as,

man who

only a more emphatic form of


TCO OVTI

63 b

account
it

2 sqq.

(rationem reddere]

me

has spent,

(trap

Phaedr., Theaet.

e/zoO).

quite general,

and

6 Starpt ^ay.

in his earlier dialogues Plato uses only

latest only ot/rwy.

and to
For the

(\6yov arraiTflv)

TO>

on-i,

in his

The

dialogues in which both occur are Rep.,


In Soph, there are twenty-one cases of
to
OVTQ>S

27

NOTES

6s
one of rw
reason

e 10

Oappetv,

6Ki

Phaedo

one

and

We

cp. 61 e

have no single word

who

See

English.

So
engage in
to go in for
the true sense of the word
cp. below
all

airTOfju voi,

really

a-nrfa-Oai yetoperpias, /zowriKrjy, yvpvao-TLKrjs,

commonly
to study

for this in

n.

Tvyx * vovo iv

00-01

a 4

of OVTWS from the

is

<o/3elo-&u).

64 a

The absence

others for dating it before the Republic.


to have no fear of (opp. dedievat
not to fear

oi Ti.

among

For

op05>s

in

67 b 4n.
uXXovs

Xe\T)0(vat TOIJS

a 5

that

As

on

.,

looks as

it

if

men

did not

the negative of verbs of knowing, \av6dveiv

know

may

take

on

as well as a participial complement.


*
of themselves , of their own accord
atiToi,

a 6

Cp. Cicero, 7 use.

30 tota enini philosopJiorum vita, ut ait idem (sc. Socrates), commentatio mortis est,
ib. 31 secernere autem a corpore animum ecquid aliud est quam
practise.

im-T]56iJovo-iv,

i.

mori discere? Seneca, Ep. xxvi egrcgia res est mortem condiscere
The phrase meditatio mortis means the
meditare mortem.
.

of death

practising or rehearsal
of /ueAer^/xa, 67 d 8.

T Kal TcQvdvai,
Cp. 62 a 5

aTroQvTJo-Keiv

completion).

a 9

dying

for meditatio

(the process)

a translation

is

and death

(its

member

of a

irpov0u|ioOvTo

Plato often restates the

first

period with emphasis at the end (Palindromia of the period, Schanz,


Nov. L omm., p. 10). A good instance is Apol. 27 d OuKofj/ eirre/j

diiip.ovas

f]yov[j.ai

member

here

is

eVretc^Trep ye

Trpodv^elnrdai

. .

dai^ovas

aXXo

/irjSev

As the

rjyovp.cu.
T)

roi>o,

first

must be the

object of npovOvjj.ovvTO, and not of aya.va.KTe Iv.


in no
ou TTCIVV
not very inclined to laugh ,
-ytXacrcLovTa,
In prose only the participle of desideratives in
laughing mood
.

-cretco is

used, though Sophocles says

and Euripides

(j)eve[a>

TL

epyaa-fieis

(Philoct. 1001)

Aristophanes has

(Here. 628).

dpaareiet in

parody (IVasps 168).

b 2
b 3

av

8oKtv,

tipfjo-0cu

would think.

goes closely with b

are parenthetical
do not take on.
.

Ka\

TTc ivv

is

5 ort.

clear

28

That the words KOI crvptydvai


for (pr]p.i and its compounds

NOTES
TOVS

uap

Tjp.iv

64

i. e. the Thebans
(not the Athenians,
Olympiodorus says ctKoruf Q^j3alos yap

dvOpamovs

as Schleiermacher held).

6 St/xfu a?, Trap of? Koi


BoicoT/a i^?.
That, however, is hardly
adequate; for Simmias was not likely to share Athenian prejudice
on this subject. More probably we have here a reflexion of the im
r,v

f]

Thebes.

made by
The

ducks.

In any case,

pression

the Pythagorean refugees on the bons vivants of


would not appreciate Copaic eels and

</>iXoVo(pot

it

in its technical sense

is

word (piXda-ocpos
Thebes before the end
confirms the view that it was originally

distinctly implied that the

was well known

at

fifth century, and this


2
Pythagorean (E. Gr. Ph. p. 321 n. 2).
are ripe for death
The scholium is
Oavarwcri, are moribund
Oavdrov eViA ^oiVt, and late writers certainly use the word (or
But it is not the meaning required here,
Bavariav) in this sense.
and a glance at the list in Rutherford, Ne-iv PhrynicJius, p. 153, will

of the

show

that verbs in

mind, and are

Thus

vavTiav

sickness
cp.

is

philosophers
(cp.

express morbid states of body or

(-tdco)

to be sea-sick

i.e.

below tyyvs

corpses

-ua>

only occasionally and secondarily desiderative.


but to have passengernot to long to go to sea
TI

TLi

(tv

For the

good as dead

as

real

meaning of

of TroXXoi

(65 a 6 n.}.
They think
and look upon them as living

TOV Tfdi dvdi


,

Sophocles quoted

/.

c.}.

They do

not trouble about

The

picture of the pale-faced students in the


(frpovTiaTrjpiov of the Clouds is the best commentary on this popular
impression (Geddes). Cp. v. 103 TOVS co^ptwvra?, TOVS dvvnodtjTovs
their desires.

\eyeis,

504

creeds, SC.

like

Chaerephon).

TOVS TToXXovf.
,

sc. Tfdvdvai.

Tes

Tr.

become

T]^i6vrjs yfvjja o/Ltai (if I

Never mind

Tr.

It

would serve them right

dismissing them from our thoughts.


them, but let us discuss among ourselves
Cp.
tKeivots,

6363;;.
f)Yovi|a.0a TV

TOV Odvarov etvai

Socrates regularly begins a dia

argument by asking whether we attach a definite meaning


to the name of the thing under discussion.
Cp. Gorg. 464 a i
(TU)/1U 7TOV KCtXel? Tl Kill \^U^/]l/, PfOt. 358 d 5 Ka\lT Tl 8cOS K(l\ (pufiov
Meno, 75 e i TeXeur/jf KaXft? TL 76 a I e7nVe<W KaXds TI so below
lectical

103 C 1 1 depfj-t iv TI KaXetV


dXXo n T], anything

KCI\

\|/u^puv

else than.

29

Here the words have

their full

NOTES

64
sense
see

c 5

but, if

how

<

TOVTO

i\\o

we suppress the a pa p.f) which introduces them, we


came to be used as an interrogative = nonne.
fj

pred.

that death

KT\.

The same

pci>

ryxdi/ei aif, cos

^v^]S

Aucri?, rr)?

62 a
C 6

e /zoi

this

is

which

is further explained
by
given in Gorg. 524 b 2 6
ovdev uAAo
8volv Trpay/iarotj/ 8id,

definition
doK.fl,

is

TJ

KOI TOV aajp-ciTOS) air

dAAr^AaH

For TO T0vdvat

Cp.

auTo Ka0

aviTo,

alone by itself.
The emphatic avros often
meaning which we can only render by alone
Observe especially the
eipijadai., avrol yap fcrp-ev.

acquires a shade of

So

eV avrols

rjfj.lv

substitution of

C 8

p.6vrjv

Ka$

avrr/v,

6yd

I.

surely it can be nothing else than this, can it?


The interrogative form of the idiomatic p-r/ in cautious assertions
is very rare, and occurs only four times in Plato (Goodwin, M. T.,

Spa

^T)

{};

268).

io

2Ko};cu

Three arguments are given (i) the philosopher


(2) the body impedes the search for
the things which the philosopher seeks to know cannot
KT\.

8r|

holds bodily pleasures cheap,


truth, (3)

be perceived by the bodily senses.


whether like
dv does not mean

ft,

but

on the chance that

489-93.
haply si forte. Goodwin, M. T.,
^ ov nas become
d ^
purely adverbial and always stands outside the
construction of the sentence.
Cp. 73 d 3 78 d 10 83 c I.
TL 8e TO.S TWV u4>po8io-Lcov
what of the pleasures of love?
d 6
Riddell (Dig.
21) seems to be right in regarding this as a case
if

where

ri

stands for a sentence, or part of a sentence, unexpressed,


in a following interrogation (here doKel aoi KT\., d 8).

<5e

but hinted at

Cp. e.g. Phileb. 276


Trore Ae yotTo

d 8

aos

(fSios)

ev rivi yevei

cultus corpoi is.

We

opd^s

see here

TO crw^a

Oepa-rreias,

be used as equivalent to a genitive.

to

tit

10.

comes

TCLS irepl

TTfpi c. ace.

ri ^e o

and below 78 d

So

how
just

below, d ii.

d 9

tvTijxovs
(rtju//,

T)Y

price

),

8ia<}>p6vTcov,

C4

irpayixaTeia,

^ ai
i- e
esteem , appreciate
T^O^ to value
opp. dTi^d^eiv, to hold cheap.
better than other people s.
business , concern
rather different from 63 a 1
)

above.
a 5

p.t]5tv

jx-rjBf

ueTt xfi avTwvj

30

that, for the

man

to ivhovi

none

NOTES
of these things
rule

that,

is

from the

is

when

The
pleasant, and who takes no part in them.
the second relative would be in a different case

first, it is

either omitted (cp. 81 b 5

82 d

2) or

replaced by

BTW

Not understanding the construction

a demonstrative.

but the true reading

pfTfxfiv,

65

give
preserved by lamblichus (fourth

is

cent. A.D.).
ri T

YY^ S

T u reOvavai,

v lv

that he runs death hard.

Cp. Rep.

548 d

8 fyyvs ri nvruv r\avK(ovos rovrovl rtivetv evfKii ye (piXovtKias,


It
y^heaet. 169 a 9 crL e fioi So/cei? Trpbs rov ~S,Kipa>va /zdXXof reivetv.

seems

me

to

objectless* use of Tfivfiv

that this

is

derived from

cursitm tenders), and that the meaning is to


This view is confirmed by a comparison
run hard * to run close
of Cmt. 402 C 2 (ravTd) npos TO. rov Hpn/cXeirou Triivra Tfivfi with id.
racing (reivav

5p<Wi

rnvro

409 a 7

very well

(paiverai TOV

one

to hold

sense,

Ava^ayopav ni((tv, where me^eiv may


The use of retVetv in this

to press hard.

course

in

a certain direction,

to

be bound

So also eyyvs, 6p.ov


points to the same interpretation.
eXavveiv. For the thought, cp. Soph. Ant. 1 165 TU? -yap rjftovns OTnv

for,
TL

mean premere,

tend

jrpo8)(Tiv (ivftpes, ov Tidijp

This

e yca

tfv TOVTOV, fiXX

f^vxov

rjyovfjiat.

vtKpdv.

a good commentary on 64 b 6 dav/irwTL.


KT\. The second argument. The body impedes the search

is

TL 8

for truth.
TTJS

syn.

4>povT|o-ews,

Cp. 626.471.

rrjs (To(pias.

refer to Parmenides and


Empedocles, as Olympiodorus suggests and most editors repeat.
Epicharmus,
They would hardly be spoken of as even the poets
whom he also mentions, is more possible (cp.fr. 249 vovs 6pfj na\ vovs
More likely still, the reference is, as
aKovei- ruXXa Kuxpa KOI rvfp\d).
Olympiodorus also suggests, to Horn. //. v. 127 a^Xvv 8 av rot d??

Kai

ol iroiT]TaC

this

cannot,

think,

o(pda\fj.(ov eXof,

f]

irp\v 67r^ff,

o cpp cv yiyvQHTKrjS f/p^v deov rjde

<nl

("ivSpa.

the d^Xu? of this passage is often referred to by later


Platonists as an allegory of the infirmity of sense-perception,
and such allegorizing interpretation was already common in the

At any

rate,

fifth cent. B.C.


TTCpl

TO

0-oip.a,

i.

6.

TOU

(TU>fJ.(lTOS.

Cp. 64 d 8

Cp. 57 b I n.
crafts, trustworthy.
oX o\{j, vix. Cp. our phrase It will take
o-0ai,

in

//.

him

mathematical reasoning.
31

all

his time

The primary

sense

NOTES

65

word is arithmetical calculation* (x//-//$oi? Xoyi eo-$ai), from


was extended to geometrical demonstration, and finally to
all exact and scientific reasoning.
It is no paradox, but an obvious
fact, that in mathematics the sense of sight only misleads, and yet
we are sure that there we reach the truth. The sense of hearing is
mentioned with reference to the science of harmonics which was
just the mathematical treatment of the octave, and is more exact
than tuning by ear can ever be. To take the stock instance, the
of the

which

it

does not reveal to us the impossibility of dividing a tone


we only discover that by means of TO
into two equal semitones

ear

c 3

TWV OVTOJV: the term ra 6Wa is used very vaguely in


Here, however, it is
may generally be rendered things
to
The verb elvai often means to be true
a\r}QMv.

Plato,

TU>V

in

c 6

TIS

[ATjSe

auTT| Ka9

TOU OVTOS,

(65 a

d 4

9)-

alone by

cp.

e.

i.

The

This

preferable to

is

of TYV.

atiTTjv,

KCU evravGa,

ir

nor any pleasure either.

i8ovT],

TIS ijdovr)

P-I]T

ttocra \aipeiv,

c Q

especially

Herodotus and Thucydides (cp. L. S., s. v. dpi A. III).


For the force of TTU pa-, cp. mipirritates
TrapaXvTTfl,
annoys

the

and

equivalent

63

itself.

Cp. 6^\.c6n.

e 3 n.

Cp. above C 3 n.
Case too, i.e. ev rfj

TOV aXrjdovs.
in

this

xai refers to

rrpu>TOi>

juev ev rot?

Trjf

<j)povfj(r<.<i)S

roiovrots

(64 e

KTijcrei

8).

Ti 8 STJ T d TOLtiSe KT\.


The third argument. The things the
philosopher seeks to know are not perceptible by the bodily senses,
but can only be apprehended by thought.

The

present passage introduces us to what

is

generally called the

The name is unfortunate for in English idea


Theory of Ideas
means something which is in the mind and an idea is often
opposed to a reality whereas the forms (popcpai, ei&j, Idem) are
more real than anything else.
.

On

the other hand, the

forms

are not

things

in time or

space.
It we will
only translate literally, and avoid loose philosophical
terminology, there is nothing in the doctrine here set forth which
should be unintelligible to any one who understands a few
proposi
tions of Euclid and recognizes a standard of
right conduct.

NOTES

65

Let us begin with a mathematical instance.


of statements about the triangle

number

a
its

interior angles are equal to

two right angles, and we know that

Of what

his statements are true.

The geometer makes


as, for instance, that

is

he speaking?

Certainly not of

any triangle which we can perceive by our senses (for all these are
only approximately triangles), nor even of any we can imagine. He
is speaking of what is just a triangle
(avro rpiyuvov) and nothing
more. Now, if geometry is true, that triangle must be the true
It is from this consideration that the theory seems to
triangle.
have arisen.

The

next step

to extend

is

to

it

such things as

right

(S/Kntoi/)

and beautiful (KH\UV). We seem to be able to make true state


ments about these too
and, if so, it follows that TO SiKaiov and TO
must be real in the same sense as the triangle
We have
never had experience of a perfectly right action or a perfectly
beautiful thing, yet we judge actions and things by their greater or
less conformity to what is
just right
(UVTO diKaiov) and
just
;

K<i\6i>

beautiful

KaAoc).

(avT<>

The forms
beautiful

then, are what

and

it

we

really

mean by

triangle

be found helpful to think of them

will

right

in

the

first

place as meanings. There are, of course, further difficulties, but


these can be dealt with as they arise.
On the whole subject see
A. E. Taylor, Plato, Chap. 11.
4>a[i.ev

TI tlvai

or not?

It

is

Socrates says

f]

we

ouSc v

Do we

be noticed that,

to
,

and Simmias,

to

in

whom

enthusiastically, also using the


suggestion clearly is that Socrates and

accepts

it

language of a school to
p.
;

354

is

apparently familiar,

The

person plural.

is

mentioned.

Cp. E. Gr. Ph.

sq.

av-To,

by

of auTo?,

itself.

alone.

In this technical sense nvro


It

come

nearest the

is

a development

has become almost adverbial, as we see from

such expressions as avro

We

it

first

Simmias are using the


which both belong. The same phenomenon

whenever the doctrine

recurs

is such a thing
introducing the doctrine,

say there

17

riper//,

euro diKaioavvr] (Riddell, Dig.


47).
it
The transla
just

meaning by rendering

highly misleading for it suggests the modern


doctrine that we cannot know the thing in itself, whereas the au-jb
is just the only triangle we can know.

tion

in itself

1251

is

33

NOTES

65
d 6

Aia,

p-tvToi VT|

<l>an,v

should think we do

The

particle

used when the emphatic word of a question is repeated in


an affirmative answer (cp. 81 d 6
93 c 2), and may be further
strengthened by vr] Am (cp. 68 b 7 73 d 11). Olympiodorus gives
is

us the orthodox Platonist interpretation of this remark


IdfSiv Xoyco
e rot/icof
avyKaTaTidfTdL ( assents ) rco n(pl
TO>I>

familiar
vyitias,

UvPayopt iois.
lcr x vos
the addition of medical

6 2t/M^im?

u>s

(rvvijdr)s

like health

flfy

and

It has quite recently become known that


strength is significant.
Philolaus played an important part in the history of medicine
8
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 322). If medicine is a true science, its objects must

be real

d 13

like

those of geometry.
The Construction

KCU TWV dXXcov KT\.

TWV a\\wv cnvavTwv^

oixriag

e.

Ka\

is

ei/l

cmavrwv

aAXcoi/

Xdyo) ?repi

T>jl

is

governed by
Tr. And, to sum up,
nva-ias, which is governed byvcpi understood.
I am
speaking of the reality of all the rest, i. e. of what each of them
really

is

word
word

r>v

Xoycp: this phrase

vl

i.

for Xoyo?

a word

is

not quite accurately rendered by in one


mean a word nor is there any Greek

does not

always a statement, and in the great


majority of cases consists of several words
the reality.
In this sense the term ovaia was not
TTJS ovo-ias,
for

Ao yos-

is

familiar at Athens (where it meant property , estate ), and it is


explained by o rvy^av^i tKao-rov ov, what a given thing really is
It was not,
72 b I ^teXtrrrj? Tffp\ ovcrias on TTOT ecrriV).
however, invented by Socrates, and still less by Plato. In Crat.
u
401 C3 we read o r^jal* ovviav" KaXovp-ev, d(r\v ol eacriav Ka\ov(Tlv

(cp. I\Ieno

"

"

01

"

5 av

UHTIO.V
",

and we see from 401 d 3 that Socrates there means

We

ova-lav, just as he does here.


plainly that the term is Pythagorean.

TIJV TTCLVTWV

more

genuine Doric, and

twa-a is

while

o>o-m,

may be
e

fern.

pep. eVera

a correct Doric form,

though only found now in pseudo-Pythagorean writings,


by the Boeotian Icoaa.

justified

auTo eKao-Tov,
(WTO

eVcrui is therefore

could hardly be told

The

any given thing by itself/ generalizing OVTO SIKCIIOV,


auro peyedos, &c.
If we wish to know a thing, we must
just that , e. g. just the triangle , leaving out of account its

/caXoi^,

think

material, colour, &c.,


isosceles, or scalene).

and even

its

34

particular shape (equilateral,

NOTES

65

most cleanly.
To the mathematical mind irrele
i,
vancy suggests dirt. Later mathematicians speak of the elegance
of a demonstration in a similar sense.
with thought alone.
without taking into account.

TQ Siavoia,
.

As

TTapa.Ti0f |u.evos,

riderai

used of setting down an item in an account, it is probable that


irapnTiQtvai is here equivalent to apponere (cp. Hor. Cari. i.g. 15 lucro
appone\ though I can find no exact parallel. The middle, as often,
is

If this is
would give the sense setting down to his own account
correct, \ve must understand ra X 07407x0) from the context.
I have written TIV
for
as being more idiomatic, and
TIV ovjuv
because B has a superfluous nvd in the next line, which 1 take to be
a correction of ri)v added after the wrong pyre.
.

4>e

r/yi>

aviT-p

him.

trailing after

AKcov,

Ka0

aviT-rjv

its

apprehends
.

eiAiKpivei

avro

Ka0

av-To

thought

alone by itself.
Cicero (Off.
fIXiKpivc s

translates sincentHi,

4)

i.

alone by itself

c 6 n.

Cp. 64

object

The etymology is uncertain,


Tertullian (de An. 41) germanum.
Valckenaer (quoted
unadulterated
but the meaning is unmixed
.

by Stallbaum) says proprie signijicat volvendo


secretuni) aique adco cribro purgatum^ and

s.

-uolubili agitatione

sifted

would

clean

certainly suit very well.


the favourite metaphor of Socrates.
07jptviiv

Cp. above 63 a

and 66

LXV*].

C 2

rijv

TOU

OI/TO?

115 b 9

6i]p<iv,

coo-rrep

ar

TOV OVTOS is the truth


OVTCJV, things, apparently, but at a 8
irdvTwv TOVTCJV, as a conclusion from the three arguments just

TWV
tic

2 n.,

given.
that a belief like this should be brought

irapicrTao-0cu 86|av,

to
j

genuinely,

yvT]cr\.u<s,

oWoK

much

as

it

were

of TIS

(W

whether
(cp.

the

same as

op0o>p

(64 a 4

6764) and

(83 e 5).

wo-iTp aTpa-rros [TIS],

home

Cp. 58e5/v.

it

omits
is

it

looks as

uxnrep

if

of evidence

in the text,

added or

Meno 70 c 4

no reason

it

The weight

is

>

for inserting 6 Bdvaros after

the short cut

is

not death

the yvrnritat

35

a short cut

it

in the

margin)

but,

the subject of KivSwfici


a sort of drought ), and there is

phrase

slightly against the addition

and adds

not, the
ai>xp-us

a sort of by-way

it

is

with Tournier.

(piAcVo<poi

know

Further,
there is no

D2

NOTES

66
thoroughfare that

An

but the p.e\rrj dai drov or philosophy itself.


track over hills or through woods (semita,

way

drparros is properly a

which does not follow the turnings of the high road. The
mountain-path taken by the Persians at Thermopylae is so called
(Hdt. vii. 215, Thuc. iv. 36). There was a Pythagorean precept rn?
\eaxfiopovs pr/ fladifciv, not to walk on highways, and Olympiodorus
sentier],

Though no doubt originally


supposes a reference to this here.
a mere taboo, it may quite possibly have received some such applica
by the end of the

tion as this

The Pythagorean

fifth

century

B. c.

2
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 105).

Way (68bs /Siou) would naturally


suggest the idea of the Narrow Path.
b 4
K4 p etv ^IP-CIS: as the metaphor of hunting dominates the whole
UI/TOS 6fjpav),the meaning is
passage (cp. 66 a 3 n. and C2 TI]V
idea of the

>6

r<w

by Soph. Ai. 7 fv Se o- eV^epei KWUS AaKuivrjs cor n?


The by-way brings us on to the trail in our hunt

really settled

tcpti-of PUO-IS.

after truth.

It will

much when we

very

lo-erd

TOV Xoyou

ev

be seen that the metaphor of the ar/juTroy gains


bring it into close connexion with the hunt.
orKf vjm

rfj

these words have been variously

There is no difficulty about cv r// tTKt^ci except that


interpreted.
the phrase is superfluous.
As to ficra TOU Xoyou it must mean the
same thing as p.fra TOU Xoyur/nof above (66 a l). Schleiermacher
transposed the words, placing them after f x^p-^, where they make
excellent sense
but, on the whole, it seems more likely that they
;

note on

a marginal

are

e^co/zev

which has got

into

the wrong

place.

because.

on,

or\jp.Tre<j>up|juvr]

(65 e

p-uptas

TOU OVTOS

the word

suggests the opposite of KndnpWTara

6).
.

uo-xoXias,
5.

countless distractions.

TOU d\r)6ovs (cp. b

e.

imaginations.
TO Xe-yofxevov, as the saying

7).

eiSwXcov,

c 4

ovfte
(/>/joz

for

it.

7Jo-<u

We

This must refer

is.

to the

phrase

we don t even get a chance of thinking


do not know what quotation or proverb Socrates
fy^iyvfTai,

refers to.
<Ls

CK

dX-r]0iLs

TO>

OVTI,

TTrj/mXXj/Xou, as

Both (and

in

the

later

in very truth.

grammarians

say,

dialogues 6Vco?)

36

The two phrases


and

their effect

is

are placed
cumulative.

are used to emphasize

the

NOTES
We

appositeness of quotations.

66

also find are

\i>o-s

same

in the

sense.

go 04.

Cp.

The same account of the origin of war is put into


mouth of Socrates in Rep. 373 e 6.
The dialogue of the
Refiitblic is supposed to take place during the Peloponnesian War,
and that of the Phaedo while the memory of it was still fresh, and
Sid yap KT\.

the

was clearly recognized, especially by opponents of the war like


Aristophanes, that commercial interests had a great deal to do with
it.
(Cp. the Achamians on the Megan an decree.)

it

TO 8 to-xctTov, and the worst of


also by yap).

that

all is

Cp. r

>

e //t

yirrroi.

on (followed
T>

when you

turning up,

TrapamTTTov,

56l b 3

7T<lp(lTTl~TOl(T>]

least

expect
8 3 2 b 6 TO)

Of! (^SoP/?), J^tlU S

it.

Cp. Rep.

TTrZ/XITTfTTT&JKOri

Adyco.

aura. TO. irpaYp-a-Ta,

themselves

is

4>povr ]o-eti>s

Dig.

There

assimilated in case to the preceding relative (Riddell,

The phrase

192).

name

things by themselves
just the things
no distinction between ITpay para and oWu.
,

is

<ppovr)0-ea>s

fpaami

an explication of the

is

(pi\6cro(poi.

ws 6 \6yos crr]|u.a.ivi, as the argument signifies.


This is the only
rendering which will suit all the passages where this phrase occurs,

we must not think

so

8votv Gdrepov
OTI

[XT|

irdcra a.voLyKj]

83 a 6

aiiTair,

of the iepbs Adyov here.


way of introducing a

the regular

o(TQv

Cp.

KUv

o<rui>

aidyKf] airtus ^p/;cr^i

p.rj

dilemma.
(ii

zroAA/j

p.*/

dyKr/ fjLfT\SLv

t.

nor suffer the contagion

dva-n-L[xir\co^0a,

|AT)8

646

Cp. Thuc.

of.

ii.

51 (in the description of the Plague) ercpos afi eW/;oi depitTTfias dvaTTi/jLTrXunevoL ( one catching the infection from tending another )
TrpdjSara ZOvrjcrKOv.

cotTTrep

p.Ta

Toiot/Tcov

sc.

this to be neuter

and

better to take

of the

above (63 b
St

T]|a.v

TOVTO 8

Cp.

by

IO-OK.
jji-q

ou

The

8).

auTwv

also

refer

(pap.ev

83d

IO TOV

cro)juaros

it

to aura ra

7r/my/i<mi

dvan\ea,

Some suppose

54).

or oVra, but

it

is

far

great company of which Socrates speaks


KdOupoi are in Orphic language the saints .

no longer

through a glass darkly

TO u\T]0ts,
8e TOUTO elvai TO

to-Tiv icrcos

66 b 7

it

So

KuQapuv (Riddell, Dig.

and
d\i]ties.

that,

take

No real

it, is

doubt

is

the truth.

expressed

Cp. opinor.
.

fi,

fear

it

is

not.

37

For

this

characteristically

NOTES

67
Platonic idiom (he has
~6 5

it

thirty-five times) see

Goodwin, M.

T.,

b 4

TO\JS

66 b
and
<pi\(

equivalent to TOVS yvricriws <Jn\ocro(J)ov$ (cp.


freely used as an equivalent of (/xAocroc/w,
It means those who are
refers to the upOorrjs ovofj.aro)v.

for

6j)0(os

770-$

in

8365.

ol

aXXco uvSpi,

KdOapcrts

narijp

p.

<pt\oi

inf. is

op$?

cos

tip

p.os

r)<rff

ire(pvKaar(i),

preferred after

\iris

eVnv

6464.

for

any one

a more emphatic

else,

XXo>

Orphicism

nvi

(cp.

6ia3.).

have added the practice of Kadupais


the original Kudapcris by abstinence and the like (E.
to

107).

the predicate, and

ivei

Hipp. 1169

this is the central idea of

by science to
is

right to

Tv^eiv}.

The Pythagoreans seem


Gr. Ph. 2

who have a

<iXoo-o<ot

the Socratic circle.

e.

i.

Cp.

trpa.y\La.Ttia
:

errnv

\TTLS

those

are the same as of rWm cos


opdus
For this sense of opOus cp. Eur. Ale. 636 owe

8202

updws, Androin. 376 omi/es:


.
.
.
KTT]o-ao-0ai : the aor.

tXms
(cp. 68 a
f]|xiv

So

opdces rouSe o-copiro?

up

irar/jp

b IO

sense of the word

in the true
.

QiXopafals

b 8

is

</>iXo/ia0fc

>tro(p<>i

name

the

4>tXopia06is,

cp9<I>s

2)

here

is

is

used praeparative.

Cp.

62a2#.

For the other construction

personal.

cp.

74 a 2.
this has not been said in the course of
XtYerai
oirep irdXai
the present argument, and must, I think, be understood in the light
C 5of 63 c 6 uxrirep .
rrdXai Xeyerai and the 7*aXcuoy XfJyos of 7
.
.

Cp. also

69 c

5 TrdXai alviTTecrdat.

referring to the

Word
C

(cp.

ifpbs Xoyor,

E. Gr. Ph. 2

p.

seems to be the regular way of


is said by those of old in the

as

146, n. 3).

As Wohlrab

justly remarked, this is to be


the light of the account given in Symp. 174 c and
220 c of Socrates standing still and silent for hours at a time. The

TO

x w P^

understood

KT ^-

lv

in

religious term for this


Cl

It
(

Orphic

was

6K<rra<m,

stepping outside

the body.

syn. avrrjv Kaff CLVTI/V.


Cp. 64 c6 n.
There is considerable uncertainty about
wo-irep [IK] Becr^wv KrX.
the reading. The commonest idiom is uxmep CK deafjLwv TOV o-w/iaros,
P.OVTJV

Ka0

at/TTiv

but sometimes the preposition is repeated (cp. 8263;


In Tim. 79 a 3 we have uxrirep auAoivoy diet TOV crco/iaro?.

d 8

opOuis

cp.

67 b 4

n.

38

115 b

9).

NOTES

67

The MSS. have ov ye\n


and give the words
we should then expect
ov ye^mov
The Petrie
papyrus has only room for seven letters, so I have deleted ov and
FeXolov TTWS

ov

8*

ioi>

Socrates, but

to

17

given yeXolov to Simmias.


l

...

from

variance

if

Siapt pX-qvTcu,

The

the body.

they are at variance with

original sense of 5ia#aXXf iv

is

estranged
at

to set

ds ex&pQ-v Ka6i(rrdvai.
T omits d, but
4>opoivTo
,

l
its repetition is natural in a binary
protasis like this, especially as there is a change of mood, and d has
a slightly different meaning in the two clauses.
:

this simply repeats eZ


Cp. Apol. 2O C a-ov ye ovdev
TL tTTpClTTf dXXo lOV
TTpayfJ.(lTfVOfJLVOV ... ft
fl

\n-f\

loiciv

cpofiolvTo

form (aba).

fJ.1j

in a negative

TCOV uAAcoj/ TTfpiTTOTfpov


fj

(>l

TToXXoi.

(IvOpwmvuv fjuv w\. A good instance of the disjunctive question,


in which two statements are bound together in a single interrogation
to signify that they cannot or should not both be true at once.
In
t]

such questions apa (a

7)

regular in

is

the

second clause.

We

must subordinate the first to the second ( Can it be that, where


In Symp. 179 b sqq. Alcestis,
as ...? ) or use two sentences.
Eurydice, and Patroclus are given as examples of human loves
whom men have gone to seek beyond the grave. Such loves are
contrasted with the divine beloved of which Socrates speaks in
the Gorgias (482 a 4

</>tAoao0mi ,

TU

e /na

naidtKa).

The MS. authority is in favour


quest of.
f\6(iv, but the p.(Tf\6di> of T is too good for a mere error.
to

HT\0iv,

go

tpwv

<J>povTj<Tecos

oieo-Oai ye
|jnr)8ap.ovj

in

xp ^

dXXoOi KrX.

for ypafperai)

within a hundred

<pi\6(To<pos.

It is

Cp. 666372.

noteworthy that the reading which the

B 2 has added

in the margin (with the mono


that of the Petrie papyrus, which was written
This shows how old some
years of Plato s death.

original scribe (B, not

gram

syn.

should think so

of

is

of those variants are.


5

o-rrep op-n.

i\tyov, sc.

67 69.

The antecedent

to the relative is the

following question.
/

p.tvToi W|

Aia

cp.

65 d 6

n.

used praeparative (cp. 62 a 2 n.} and refers to the relative


clause ov av {dys /crX. This construction is as old as Homer (//.
TOUTO

xiv. 8l

is

/3e Xrepoj>

os (fcfvyw

npo<pvyr)

39

KCIKOV

T)

aAco^).

Cp. Thuc.

vi.

NOTES

68
14

KnXcor apf-ai TOVT* fivai 09 of TJJV Trnrpt So

T>\

19 fyv $t TOITO
(KOVTfS

b 9

pal peya

rjyoi

Xen. OdC.

d>(pe\r](rr],

ap\ofros dperrjs emu,

Tf<p.i/pL<>v

4.

av

7T(i)VTai.

r\v. the use of the imperfect of something just realized was


explained by Heindorf in his note on this passage. "With this
of surprise.
So he isn t a
imperfect //pa represents our So
OVIK

up

first

philosopher after
c 2

all

KCU (JnXoTifios

cj>iXoxpT]p.ctTos

which plays so great a part


are

Xpi]fj.dT.i

(j>i\oxpi][jL<iT<>s

58002
on

c^ta

e.

g.

Kai

yap UVTO

y/VX

jS

551 a

TO /JLpOS

dvrl

So

5/}

t^iXo^pj^LKiroi

psychology

...

(/nXortpoy

is

;/.

et Plat.^ p.

Trpf iTov

Ka\

here implied

We

6vf.u )s.

436 a I

for

find

549 b 2

(J)i\oxpr]/j.aTOi>

di],

TotavTat firi6vpiai t 581 a 5

(J)L\OXpf]p-ClTOV KOt (f)l\OKfp8(S

a regular

of

synonym

dv/j-oftdr/s,

ditftpfav 0iAo^p^pano"rnl

(pi\OTLp.u>v

This somewhat primitive

eyevovro.

for

it

stands in close

Three Lives (E. Gr.


To Plato the soul is really one and in

Pythagorean doctrine of the


i).

divisible, in spite of the use

KiiTao~Kfvdo~ai

is

K(tl

(fji\ovLK.u>v

reXei Tcoi^ref

Ph. 2 pp. 108. 109,

yopov)

ai

KaXoi t TfS

doubtless older than Socrates

is

relation to the

de Hipp,

K(K\i/Kap.(v

paXurra aTroreAou^rai

xi )T]lJLI irc lv

uv Ka\olp.(v.

op6ti)s

Republic

the object of eTridv^ia and rt/n// of


as a synonym of eVt^t pr/TiKos in ]\ep.

(TTidvp.rjTiKoi

TOl TO T1]S

the tripartite division of the soul

in the

p.ev

425

ewai

he makes of the older view.

a>r

*(U o IloaeiStoytos

(pr]o~ii>

Cp. Galen,

exeivov

(Hvd<i-

TO dnypa, JlXarco^a 8e f^fpydoracrdctt Kai

\eyu>v

reXfcorfpoi/ ai ro, lb.

47^

Ho(ret,8o)vios $e

KO.\

Uv6ny6pav

TOV Hvdayopov o~vyypuf.ifj.aTos ovdevbs elsrj[j.ds fiintrto^owv CVLOL


lam/^eVou, TeKfj.aipop.evos de e
fj.u$r]TMV avrou yypd(f)(unv.
blichllS, ap. Stob. Ed. i, p. 369 (Wachsmuth) Oi 5e rrepi IlXarcoj/a Kal
T/n/cru

avTOv

p.ev

TV>V

ApxiTds

KU\ 01 XoiTTol Hvdayopfioi

diaipovi Tes els \oyiap.bv KCU dvpbv

to

/cat

have been mistaken on such a

TI]V

"^svx

eindvpiav.

iv

T P l P- f P rl

d~ro(paivovTaij

Posidonius

is

not likely

point.

for the plural pronouns referring to a


TO. ?repa
dp.(|>6Tepa
42.
single fact see Riddell, I^ig.
Kal T) ovop-a^op-evT)
this is more clearly expressed at c 8 i v KO\ ol
c 5
.

TroXXot ovop.dov(ri.

c 6

c g

OUKOV
f,v

^s OVTCO StaKtip-c vois


is

this

is

repeated by c 10 op

iai ol TToXXol KrX.

This

is

made more

explicit below, c II.

ov.

best explained by

40

Laws

710 a

TTJV

NOTES
We

TO (raxfipove iv.

eivai

courage and

o-w(ppocrvvi] in

68
are not speaking here of

the high Socratic sense in which they are

identical with knowledge.


to be excited.
This verb suggests primarily the
t-n-TOTjcr0cu,
quickened heartbeat of fear or desire. Cp. Horn. Od. xxii. 298 fypeves
fToirjQev, Sappho 2. 6 TO /not ^iiv
Kapdinv v a~Tt]Bf(Ttv eirrvucrev.
\

4v

(/nXocroc/jiu
i

and 61 a

8idyou<n

71 a

you

if

tOtXeis,

Meno

Philosophy

<Lo-iv

<J>iXoo-oc}Ha

is

Cp. Theaet. 174 b

life.

ev

;/.

care.

Cp.

324 a

Prot.

342 d

6.

i.

it is
^eyiXcov KO.KU,V
unnecessary to add flvm to the partitive
but there was evidently an ancient variant TMV peyiarav
etVia
which is hardly consistent with p.t6vu>v KaKwv just

T<iv

genitive,
KciKu>i>

below, by which phrase such things as dishonour and slavery are


intended.
orav

the addition of such phrases is almost a man


no emphasis, and the meaning is merely eVio-rore,
n occasion.
Cp. Enthyphro yd 4 t\Qpn\ d/\Xr;\oiy

vcjo-iv

{i-n-ofxf

There

nerism.

aXoyov

62 b

Cp.

oi Kocrp.iot

is

syn.

Attic tends to substitute

Cp. 8366.

<u

<rM(f>pwe<>.

emphatic words for adjectives implying praise. So dyados is


by
represented by o-7rou<uo?, eViei * ,?, xtJ 1 (TT( ts /^eVptov, and
There is the same tendency in English cp.
Xapifis, KO^UX^OV, &c.

less

>s

o-<><fx

decent

respectable

uKoXao-Ca TIVL KTX.,

The

as substitutes for
it

is

appositive structure

is

73d;

(Riddell, Dig.

good

immorality that makes them moral.


Cp. below
regular after roi-o Trdirxa-v-

The

207).

regular opposite of a-aXppoavvr)

moral sanity, lor which English has no name) is


The literal meaning of a/coXaoros is unchastened
OKO/\UO-/U.
but yet
we say, indeed
Kairoi 4)ap.tv -ye ... dXX CJACOS
.,
For this combination of particles, which marks a concession after
wards partially retracted, cp. below e 7 and Enthyphro 302 KW TOI
(the virtue of

ovdsv ort OVK d\rj6fs


cr\j|a.paLVi

add

eu/ai,

u>v

t"pr)Ka

ojxoiov,

but cp. Gorg.

TO ird0os TO

Trepi

Tr/joetyroi

aXX

K T X.,

u-vufitiivft ptyio-Tov KCIKOV

the condition of -

genitive equivalent).

41

op.a>f

turns out in their case to be like this.

47908

(irepi,

77

T\V

d^iKi n.

c.

ace. as

NOTES

68
,

reads
of

69^6

istam.

naive

uT]0T],

artless
The Petrie papyrus
unsophisticated
but that seems to be an anticipatory recollection
.

dvSp<.nrodd>dii,

69 bS.
P.TJ

Q\JX

perhaps this is not


TJ,
Cp. 67 b 2 n.
judged by the standard of goodness.
Cp.
.

av>TT)

n-pos cip6TT|v,

Isocr.

76 tivtie TrpW dpyvpiov ri]v vScu.p.oi>iav (Kpivov (Riddell, Dig.


128).
We can hardly give npos the same sense as in the next line for
4.

no question of exchanging pleasures and pains for goodness.


Goodness is the standard of value, and wisdom (cppovrjcris) is the

there

is

Nor can rrpov


only currency in which it can be rightly estimated.
mean towards
in the direction of.
That interpretation is
,

a survival from the time of the vulgate text, which omitted d\\ayrj

and had

to

be understood as

//

opdfj rrpos aperrjv (sc.

The

ofio y).

disappearance of dAAay?; from the text is an interesting study in


B has d\\a, and T must have had the same for it
corruption.
;

presents us with an erasure of four letters. The vulgate text


from a copy of T.
and lamblichus preserve the word.

a 7
a 5

a 9

irpos -rjBovds,

for pleasures,

came

contra voluptates.

greater pains and fears for less, and lesser


pleasures for greater, e. g. the fear of slavery for the fear of death,
the pleasures of the table for the pleasures of health.
|Aico Trpos tXciTTCd,

i.

c.

^, i.e. aAXa p) rj, the construction being carried on from a 6.


Pleasures and pains are to be exchanged for wisdom, which alone
makes goodness truly good. If we give up the pleasures of the
<1X\

table, not

merely

to

enjoy the pleasures of health, but because they

way of the acquisition of wisdom, we may be said to


exchange them for wisdom, and that is true aaxppoo-vvii. So, if we
only face death to escape slavery, that is mere popular courage.
To put the thing in a modern way, this is a sort of ethical mono
metallism, wisdom being the gold standard of value.
stand

in the

Kal TOVTOU p.v trdvTa KT\.

is

interpolated.

Hfvd re

jca!

The words

think

TOVTOV

and
wisdom

/j.(v

their

irnrp<wKtiiJ.eva )

it

certain that this sentence

iravra clearly

belong to uvov-

meaning must be

all

things

hardly credible that Plato


should use d^ou/zei/a as a passive, or that he should use 7Ti7rpao-K6fj.ei>a
For vicicrOui in a passive sense, the grammars can only
at all.
quote Xen. Eq. 8. 2 ore /ieV yup e toi/f tro, ncipacrOai e<e\fvop.v (I

bought and sold

for

but

42

it

is

NOTES
6

TaiTa Tromi/, but there

iTTTror

was buying

As

it.

is

it

remark

iravTCi

Ncque

scquiores protrita
occurs only in one other place (Soph.

(Nov. Lect. p. 158). It


224 a 3), where also it seems
fiev

true

is

forma utimtur, sed apud

est

that TOUTOU

the time he

at

clearly active,

Cobet

to 7riirpaarKup.fva,

lones neque Attici ea

69

to be interpolated.
au ovpfva Kal TTLTrpaiTKnpfva

IS

believe, then,
a scholium on

The interpretation is wrong, as Wyttenbach saw;


peTo. TOVTOV.
we are not supposed to buy and sell goodness for wisdom, but to
buy wisdom with pleasures, &c. If we take the sentence thus, the
simile does not break down, as Geddes and Archer- Hind say

Ka

for

it

does.

TOVTOV

|iTo.

TCO ovTx

our goodness really

by b 4

plained

I
(ppoi>7](Tea>s.

is

fjLfTa

when accompanied by

fl,

The words

goodness.

and opposed

(ppovrjffevs

should like to read

/ieTu

/JL(I<

this (i.e.

/zfra

to

wisdom)

TOVTOV are ex

b 6 x^i n C^ ei a

TUVTOV.

If

am

<^

right

about the interpolation,


KO.L

it
implies this reading.
In the Protagoras Socrates shows

uvSpeia KT\.

that true

courage only belongs to those who are OdppuXtm /.ler eVif/T/yju^v.


This is the way in which he interpreted the doctrine, which was

common
The
came

to

him and to the


between

Sophists

distinction
to

be of great importance.

Kal Trpoo~YiY vo

add

Ka

^-TroYiY v

L^

i.

rj

and

my

va)V
>

77

edition of Aristotle

77/>o<rri0ei>ru

S*

KT\.

As

the

pleasures, pains,
Tot.avTT]

apfTr].

participle

&.C.,

there

to Plato

what

is

and

d^xu/jen-,

Trpoo-Kflrrdtii.

agrees with TTCIVTU THVTH


a slight anacoluthia in

Socrates means

depends upon the exchange of


apart from wisdom

Knowledge.
goodness

whether they be aduod or

e.

is

popular

have ascribed

verbs are virtual passives of


and *tO Subtract
Cp. Trpfxrelrm,

x ca P L ^ofieva
(b i),
pr)

vu>v

The

not.
to

Jl/
!

that (ioodness

Cp.

Ethics, pp. 65 sqq. (where, however,


I now see belongs to Socrates).
l

philosophic

the goodness which

fears, pleasures, &c., for

one another

in B, it is probably an inter
[KCU] aXXaTTojieva: as Kai is omitted
is dependent on
polation arising from failure to see that %<api6ueva
The meaning will then be exchanged
d\\aTT<
,p.fva (cp. 6ib2.).

one another apart from wisdom (opp. /zra TOUTOU).


a sort of scene-painting (Cope).
Cp. Photius
o-KiaYpa^ia TIS,
The term does not mean a rough
6 vvv (ritr]voypa$)os.
<rKiaypd(pus

for

43

NOTES

69

but implies the use of painted shadows to produce the


impression of solid relief on a flat surface. This art has two chief
sketch

characteristics: (i)
.

deceptive, cp. Critias 107

is

it

dcTdCpd Kal a7ruT7/Xcp, (2)

only produces

it

its effect

di

trKiayptxpia

from a distance.

Cp. Theaet, 208 e


\eyopevov,

The most

Hoi \eyea6ai.
Kin

(T

p.ei>

7 eVeiSr) eyyvs axnrfp crKLaypafprjuaros yeyova TOV


ov8e crp,iKp6v eats de d(perr^K?7 7r6ppu>6ev, ((p

<rvvirjjj.t

KVK\U>

\rnnn

where the idea

instructive passage

-rrepl

Rep. 365 c 3

is

ep.avrov (TKiaypcKpiav dpfrrjs Trepiypairreov,


*

painted faqade\ on which columns, &c.,


appear solid by skilful shading. Cp. also Rep. 583 b 5
and Farm. 165 07. When Aristotle (Rhet. 1414 a 8) compares the
diction of the public speaker (drj/^yopt/o) Xe u) to
he
does not mean that it is sketchy
but that it requires the light
and shade to be laid on thick
are

made

that of a

is

to

<rKiaypu<pi.u,

av5paTro8co8-rjs

to

Tr)v

so in Rep.

Km

6Tjpiu>8jj

avSpairodtodrj,

(WmW

bodily pleasures

imply preceding pain

b 8

Socrates opposes true courage


in Phaedr. 258 e 5 be says of

and

KeKXrjvrat, just

avpaiTod<ddeis

The old variant e^oinra for


we may easily understand

flaw (opp. aadpos).


construction, but

Vahlen, Opusc.
TO 8

because they

(TO -npo\vnr]6rivai}.

has nothing sound about it.


The word
XT],
used of earthen or metal vessels which have no crack or

ovSev v-yis
vyirfs is

430 b

ii.

gives a smoother

after re in

8.

See

361.

the real thing

dXi]0/s,

6^7?

?j

of

which the a-KiaypaQia gives a

deceptive appearance.

KiiGapo-is,
purgation.
Cp. 61 a 3 n.
son of Hipponicus uses the phrase

In Xen.
avftpda-iv

Symp.

I.

4 Callias

fKKKa8apfj.evni?

ras

uxrrrep vp.lv in

addressing Socrates, Critobulus, Hermogenes,


He seems to have heard something
Antisthenes, and Charmides.
of Socrates teaching on this point, unless he is merely drawing
on the Phaedo.
\lsi>X<>s

c 2

Ka0app.6s: this

is

the specifically religious term for the initiatory


.
The religious poem of Empedocles was

ceremony of purgation

E. Gr. Ph. pp. 256 sqq.).


the mystic
initiations .
The context shows that
the people referred to are the Op^coreXeora/.
The touch of ironical condescension is characteristi
c 4
OVTOL, isti.
It is plain that Socrates did not
cally Socratic (cp. 62 b 5 .).
entitled Ka0app.oi

c 3

Ttxs

TtXerds

44

NOTES
much

think

described

of

actual

the

the Republic

in

itinerant friars, pardoners,

69
of

Op(/)eoreXf0-rai

and

his time,

sqq.) in terms

(36463

who

are

which suggest the

traffickers in indulgences of the later

Middle Ages.
cp. Eur. BaccJl. 21 KaKfl xnpevaaf Kai KaTtiarTTjcraS

The word is regu


to speak in riddles
(awy/znra).
of allegorical statements.
It comes from Ion. alvos,
For iraXai cp. 67 c 5
riddle (cp. 61 b 4 .).
t,

used

larly

fable
tv

Pop(36pa>

the Orpheotelestae) rovs


fv

caropvTTova-iv
2"

flics
TTOV

etT

145

"

^tvov rif

ftop[3opov

saying jrapcodd
ev

T<U

vi.

ev ftopfti ipti)

ft<ipi3(ipiK.(o

nvn.

is

Heindorf quotes a saying of the Cynic


39) y^olov

8tdj-ov(Tiv t

/Jop/^(5/joJ

5 (of

Trr/Xov

evde rocro) Kip.tvovs


doubtless right in

deiv<i)v

CTKU>P

363 d

*l?

cifttKtws

and Olyinpiodorus

en-ov QpcfnKov.

We

vtjvois eiTnvrni.

p.aK.upwv

Kai
I

Cp. Rep.

also referred to in Ar.

is

ftopfinpus

noXvv

KT\.,

Diogenes (Diog. Laert.


va>v8us

tie

The

"Aibov.

TjciiKtjiTf

the Slough.
avoaiovs civ KU\

will lie in

Kia-Tai,

fl

AyqaiXaos

fureAeZf Se rives

p-fv

K<I\

Err ape t-

must interpret Rep. 533 di

TIVI TO Ti ii

\lsv%>js

op-fia

fv rals

p.f/j.vijp.evoi

ovn

r<u

ill

K(iropu>pvyp.fi>ov

the

light of this.

Plato often adapts the beginning of


vap0T]KO(jKpoi \itv TToXXoC
a verse to his o\vn prose, preferring to slip into the verse rather
than give a formal quotation. The original must have been rroXXoi
:

The
(ferula communis) was the plant of
which the Dionysiac thyrsus was made.
f
the true worshippers were so called (cp. the BaKX (H
PCIKXOI

p.ev vapdrjKufjiopoi.

vdpd>)

Euripides).

Schol. Ar. Knights 406 Bu^o^


rfXovvras ra opyiti.

oi>

the Greek States, vol. v, p. 151.


6p0ws, in the true sense of the word.

wv

number
ou5ev

YVo-0ai,

become one

to

rbv

Aio//uo-oi>

Cp. 67 b 4
of

eKiiXow

See Farnell, Cults of

P.OVOV, (iXXa /cat Trui ra? roi S

whom

to join

whose

d-rrtXi-n-ov,

have

left

nothing undone.

The phrase

states

negatively what is positively stated by -n-avri Tp6ira> 7rpov0u|.i.T|0T]v (cp.


Meno 77 a 3 npudvp-ias ov&ev aTroXet v^co), I have done my best in

every way.
Kai TI Tjvvo-ajjuv

singular to plural

i.

is

e.

and the

rest of the

quite natural.

45

To

read

band

f]vvcfdp.riv

The

shift

from

with Heindorf

NOTES

69

would make the plurals which follow (eXdovrss


awkward.

d
d

TO crake s,

ravr

show

Cp. 57 b
ws
.,

for certain.

that

dTToAo-yo{j|.iai

Cp. 63 e

d 8

TOVS

v0i86 Secm-oTas

KaKet

-.

64 a

cp.

aVo /ie$) very

n.

this is the

defence

make

to

8.

62 e

cp.

63 a 6

sqq.

n.

TOIS 8
these words seem to have been interpolated
-rrapf xei
here from 70 a i. They break the sentence awkwardly and spoil
the effect of the phrase when it comes in its proper place.
Such
things do not happen often in the text of Plato, but they happen
.

sometimes.
Cebes points out that all this implies the immortality of the
soul, and asks that tliis should be established (69 e 6
70 c 3).

(3)

e 6

70 a 4

vTro\aj3u)v
tj0t>s

down

to ovdafjiov

>}

Riddell (Dig.
207) takes these words
as explanatory of the preceding clause ( binary

have punctuated

).

Then

will co-ordinate

/cat

will

KJBau>ovcra

understand
r

c 8

structure

and

j^

60

cp.

dTraXXaTTop.evT] KrX.

belong only

irco/^urov

tocTTrep Trvet)|jLa

r\

with

Ka-rvvos

after a 4

aw^aros with Heindorf.

ta$$ei pr/rai KU\ ano\\vrjrai with ot^r/rat,

the second clause.

to

It is

easy to

it.

SLa<rKe8ao-9eicra

this

is

the belief

assumed

throughout the Homeric poems. The ^U^T} is the ghost which


a man gives up the breath which he expires at death. For the
,

KCLTTVOS

IOO ^/v^r] de Kara ^dovos r]\JTf KCITTVOS (a^ero


a verse selected for special reprobation by Socrates in the
11.

cp.

rerpt-yuia,

xxiii.

Republic (387011).

a 6

oTJ8v

for even
ou8ap.oO ^: Plomer does not go so far as this
of Hades there is a v//-^}
e
But it might

i Ti

House

in the

just as well

VVK eVi

be nothing and nowhere

TrdjjLTrdv, 11. xxiii.

aiJTT|

K<H

Ka0

atiTT|v crvv-r|0poicrp,ev7]

irapa|Av0Las,
fj-vdids

Kttl

persuasion

The

TreiBovs.

cp.

it

is

witless (drap (frpeves

meanings

encourage

C 8.
.

Cp.

Laws 720

original sense of /m/ja/zi

(cp. xrapat^^t, Trapetrrov,

proof, not

67

reassurance

talk over

mo-Tews,

for

104).

tda>\oi>.

console

belief.

46

nap<nrfl.6a))

as in 115 d

5,

as in

^eicrtfru

-rrapais

83 a 3.

are secondary.

to

The

NOTES
T|

70

there seems to be no rule for the addition or omission of

the article with

Where MSS.

^v^.

use without the article

differ,

the less

commonplace

be preferred.
even Homer allows that souls are
8vva|juv t)(i KCU 4>p6vT)cnv
somewhere after death, but Cebes wishes to be assured that they
are not merely
Kaprjva (this is the point of ftvvamv r^O, of
whom it can be said 0peves OVK IVi Tru/iTrui Here, then, (fipovnns is
is

to

ap.ci>T)i>a

not equivalent to o-oc/n n, but


to the Homeric (frptixs.
A\T|0Tj,

Xe yets, 6 2coKp J.TTJS

<J>T],

77ci; 78

cp.

a 10

8io.[Av0oXoYwp.v

KwjxcoSoTroios

in its

popular sense, answering

for the interlaced

7805; 8209; 836 4


fire

fl<os

order

(Riddell, Dig.

cp. p.v6o\oy(lv, 61 e 2 n.

appropriate as introducing

The word

is

/>

(<i

Eupolis said
6? raXXa

<TXTJV,

e^oi rourou KaTrj/j.\T]Kfv,

b)

288).

specially

KT\.

Aristophanes was not the only comic poet who

fun of Socrates.
TTTW^OV ddo\e

used

is

Mur

(fr.

352)

/j.ev

rrefypovrtKCV,

KO.\
(TOI>}

made

2o)/<parr;,

TOV

ojrodfv 8e Karnfyaytlv

a fragment preserved by Olympiodorus in

commentary on this passage. The charge of a^oXctr^tn ( gar


was commonly brought against all men of science by the
rulity
practical Athenians and the comic poets who wrote to please

his

them.
about things which do not concern me
For the position of the pre
have nothing to do with
298 and cp. no c 2.
position see Riddell, Dig.
ou

Trepl irpoo-TjKovToov,

things

First Proof of Immortality (70 c 4

77 d

5).

based upon two considerations (i) the doctrine of


Neither of these taken
doctrine of nra>j^rm.
TroXi-yy^fo-icj, (2) the
be said
by itself furnishes a proof, though taken together they may
to do so (77 c 7).
With regard to the proofs of immortality, it should be observed
that the first two are successively abandoned as inadequate, while
even the third is said to require further examination (107 b 5). The
This proof

is

is not one of them (cp. 94 b 4 n.}.


proof which satisfied Plato himself
Nevertheless each contributes something to our knowledge of the

subject.

47

NOTES

70

(l)

The ancient doctrine of

law
c 4

auTo,

-iraXcuos

c
is

rraXiyyevfo-la

(70 c 4

flf dvTan68oa"is

72 e

shoivn to rest on the

zs

l).

the matter.
.

Xo-yos

introduced in

TTfpi TO. dela

Trpaypura

fepficof OCTOLS

cp. the

Meno
.

81 a

a IO Oi

rrep\

/j.e/j.e\rj<

way

which the same Orphic doctrine

in

yap avftpwv

5 a-KrjKoa

XeyovTeV

p.ei>

re

Xeyft Se Kal Tlivdapos Kal dXXoi TroXXot rcoy Troi^rco^


Xeyoucrti
<al

TCIVTL ((TTIV*

rore /L/evreXeurai

aTToXXvadai 5

mistaken
P-

c 6

in

ffxial
^j)

*cai

For

KT\.

flvtii.

ovderroTf.

^pj) roT? TraXatoT? re


\l/v%T)v

yap

r//i>

iepecov re

oiotff

ocr

crofpwv
raiv

<al

fivai biftrtvai

u ^eiot flmv.

a 5e

tyv^rjv TOV avOpunrov eivni dddvarov,

aTrodvtjarKetv KaXovcri

So Epist.

vii.

67

rore de TraXti yiyvea Qai,

335 a

iepols \6yois, o l

Tj-aXaio? cp.

d>]

c 5 #.

7m

$f<r$at

fj.r)vvov<r

iv

6e oi/rcos del

fjfuv

Herodotus

dddvarov

(ii.

is

123)

2
assigning an Egyptian origin to this doctrine (E. Gr. Ph.

95)-

ws

eioptv

v0v8e

u<j)iKop.vai

having come there from

Ket,

this.

that they are in the other world,


is no parallel to justify us in

There

el(T\v
a(pLKop.vai together as
the interlaced order (a b a b}.

taking
C 8

TU>V

/j.Ta)(fipiovTtu Xoyov

u>i>

/cat
yvva.i<u>i>

fieri

if it

were

fl&lv dtyiyuevai.

Note

the regular name for this doctrine in later writers


The word fierf/i^u^coo-tf, though it has found its
way into all modern languages, is quite inaccurate, and is not used
before Graeco-Roman times, and then very seldom (Diodoius,
-n-dXiv YiYveo-Gai:

is TraXiyye^ecria.

Cp. Servius on Aen. iii. 68 non /Mere^u^coo-u sed Tra\iyyvev iav esse dicit (Pythagoras],
Hippolytus, Clement, and other
Christian writers say /ierfyo-co/zaraxns- ( reincarnation }, which is
Galen).

accurate but cumbrous.

TOV TCIVT

elvai,

Riddell, Dig.

of the truth of this.

For the neuter plural

cp.

41.

Meno 76

a 5 Knra yap rravroy a^/ p,aToy TOVTO Ae -ya)


Originally Kara, c. gen., is quite neutral in
meaning, especially in the phrase Kara TTCJI/TWI/ (Isocr. 15. iSgraira
Kara Tracrcoj Xeyofiev rw^re^rcoj/). From this use comes the Aristotelian
KO.T

clvOpomojv: cp.

(Riddell, Dig.

121).

K<I$

to predicate something of anything, and


Kara oXou (lifeno 77 a 6),
oXov, Ka66\ov.
indirect questions are not infrequently introduced by apa.
ap
KaTriyopelv TI Kara TWOS,

48

NOTES
Cp. Lack. 185 d 9
Rep. 526 c 9
ouTtoo-t

(TKOTTf iv

o-Kf\}/wfjL(da

apn

apa

this is explained

by

Meno 93

.,

.,

70

and

just

b 2 ro5e

below e

Cp. 71 a

iiXXodev KT\.

nv<

crKOTrovp.fi>,

n/ju

.,

4.

Socrates

9.

generalizes the Orphic doctrine that the living are born from the
dead, and treats it as a case of the principle, maintained by

Heraclitus, of the generation of opposites from opposites (E. Gr.

Ph. 2

p.

oo-ois

86).

TtiYX"-

VL

v TOLOVTOV TI,

opposite, equivalent to e
KCH

uXXa

p.vpia KrX.

8V|

tion cp. 73 d 10
c

oo-ois

6 o-ot? cp.

8uo

94 b 10

avTo

-yevt o-eLs

this

which has an

is,

way

of breaking off an

(Riddell, Dig.

enumera

257).
to the plural

pronoun referring

(avToii referring to

if

For

everything, that
n tvnnini

tan

for the singular

104 d 2

5 oo-otr

).

opposites arise from one another,

it

follows that

evnvrioai )
between every pair ot opposites
dp. fooTepwv iravrav
there must be two processes (yevfcreis), one by which A arises from B,
another by which B arises from A.
We see from this
increase and decrease.
av7]o-i.s KCU
TU>V

(/ueTa<!>

<J)0Lcn.s,

passage that

much

attention

had already been given

to

accuracy of

terminology.
6

decomposing and combining.


8iaKpLVo-6ai KCU o-vYKpivo-0ai,
These terms were used by the early natural philosophers to denote
the analysis of compound bodies into their constituents, and the
formation of compound bodies out of something more primitive,
such as what were called at a later date elements (oroi^eta).
Kav el |rf| KrX.
The attempt to construct an accurate termino
logy

in

is

any language

In the EtJiics Aris

sure to reveal gaps.

has to say that the mean, or one or other of the extremes,


is CIVU>V\)\LQV.
Cp. Bywater on Poet. 1447139.
The word may be
or horses).
o
cr\jvYLav, pair (originally of oxen
In
than two.
applied, however, to a larger number of things
totle often

grammar

it

is

conjugation

i.e.

class

of verbs

similarly

inflected.
Y"

70 b
I

o-oi,

c
<[>T],

pw, 6

TOLV irepl TatiTa,

i.

to

for the interlaced order

6. rinv TOVTUIV (irepi C. CICC.

OV*K avTa-rroSwo-o^ev

2coKp<iTT]s

5 n.

balance

shall

we not assign

(abab]

= gen.).
it

an opposite process

it ?

49

cp.

NOTES

?i

e 9

lame in one foot . Cp. the advice of


x 40 ^* halt
EAXaSrz ^ (oA/yj , p^]T
rr)V TToXiv erepo^vya Treptidelv
,

Cimon

rr/v

dm.

(Pint.

e 13

16).

case the aorist


tSoKci

air

OTI oils

63 b 8
a

70 d

el

. .

iivj

5)

as below

dva/3ia>vai),

is

but in that

89 b

10.

we were

that

not wrong either

Cp.

should be wrong.
unless there were a constant correspon

dvTcnTo8i8oiT],

The verb

here intransitive, as below b

is

Cp. L.

8.

S.

s.

v,

I.
:

KVK\OV d
is

the

(not

480

KwAo>
the KVK\OS rrjs yfveaeoes IS Orphic.
It was just
-rrepucvTa
from the Wheel of Birth that redemption (\vais) was sought by
means of purgatory observances (/ca$app.m ). On one of the gold
2
plates from Thurii (E. Gr. Ph. p. 88) the ransomed soul says

ence

p,T)

(l-!T<1^id(t)fJ.L

is ava/Sicocracr&u

dence.

(e.g. Crito

2.

dSiKojs KrA.,

!7<5/Kovj/

Sometimes the verb

to life again.

to bring to life again

transitive,

72 a 6

come

to

dva|3icocrKcr0ai,

^TTTav (3apv7rvOeo$ apyaXeoio.

Here, of course, the refer

to cyclical processes generally, but that is characteristic of

way

in

which a

sense

scientific

throughout the passage.


v0id TIS, in a straight

line.

is

given to religious ideas

rectilinear process

is

only in one

direction, a circular has two.

b 3

KT\.
The metaphor is taken from the SmuAo?,
(AT) dvaKa|o.iTTot
which the runners turned round the Kn/irrr^p and came back to

KO.L

in

the starting-point (Diet. Ant. s. v. Stadiiim,


Ag. 344 K( LIJL\IS(U $Lav\ov 6aTfpov KoJAoj. nakiv.

b 9

TeXe-uToovra

dnoC)fiKi>vp.i

is fully

Phaedr. 278 c6
vii.

324 d

7 XP V(T

b).

Cp. Aesch.

bagatelle

illustrated in

\yu>v

693

would end by making Endymion seem


This use of
)
by comparison.

dfToSeL^iev,

a thing of naught (a

ii.

IIVT:>S

Wyttenbach

note.

ra yfypap.p.eva (pavXa
rrjv

"TroSet^avras

Cp.

e. g.

Plato,

aTroSei^ni,

Epist,

eprrpotrOfv TroXiretav,

making

Plut.
the previous constitution seem like gold by comparison.
C. Gracch, I dntdfi^e TOVS uXXou? prjiopus Tialftwv fj.r)dev 5ta0epoz/ras,

Plato, Epist. iv. 320 d6 nnpa(TKfvd(ov TOV rf Aixovpyov fKeivov ap^aiov


drrodei^v KU\ rov Kvpov, to make them seem out of date by compari
son.
Wyttenbach shows too that A^po? is regularly used in such
(

comparisons.
aiav }

Cp. e.g. Arist. Lys. 860

Antiphanes

fr.

232 dp eorl

\rjpos

Ar/pos irdvTa
5

eVn raXAa

rrpos Kii/^-

npos TO xP va LOV

Xen.

NOTES
An.

Vli. 7-

72

HpoArXei S?/ Xfjpoy -uavra eduKd furri

41

TO apyvpiov t^eti
the story of Endyas most editors say.
On the contrary,

The meaning

fK rravTos rpoVou.

is

not

TT/M>?

make

to

mion appear an idle tale


it would be all the more credible.
,

ouSap.o\) &v

he (note change of subject) would be no


like its English equivalent, from the

<j>aivoiTo,

an expression taken,

where,

Cp. Corg. 456 b 8 ov&auov av (fmi fjvui rbv mr/xiy,


doctor would come in nowhere.
Dem. de Car. 310 eV m?

race-COUrse.

the

OVO<I/JLOV

crv

ytyovws

(fxivijCrrj

ov jrputTOS, ov oVTfpos

ov TptTOS, ov rtraorofj ov

ov% CKTOS, ov% OTToaToaoiv.


KaQeviSeiv
3
just as roiro TrnV^ft &c. are regularly followed by a
clause in apposition (cp. 68 e 2 .), SO rovro Trcio-^fi^ (Trerrn^^erdt) is
Tre/zTrro?,

Cp. 73 b 7 74 a
regularly followed by an infinitive in apposition.
6 78 c 2. There is, therefore, no reason for deleting the word with
;

Dobree.

TO TOV
XP//fiura

Avaa-y6pov
2
(E. Gr. Ph.

?];.

in

phrase

Corg.

465 d

3 TO roC

Travra xptinciTa ctpvperu eV


K

TWV aXXcov,

were once
8

tK

Anuxngoras fr. I ad in if. QIJ.OV r.avra


There is a similar jesting use of the

p.

p. 299).

Avagayopov an

TTO\I>

i]v

"^or

di-

aurw.

ro>

from some other source than the dead who

i.e.

alive.

TWV T0vecoTcov KT\.

It

is

important to observe that in this

are simply souls existing in the other world.


They are certainly not dead bodies. All through this argument
of soul to body and diivuros their separa
yeveo-is means the union

passage

ol rftfvtcJTfs

tion.

KCU rats

jAcv

the statement
(2)

Thefe words appear

yt KT\.
is in

The doctrine of avdnvrjns

Forms

tnroXapwv
Kal KO.T

77 a

(72 e 3

Cp.

KtTvov

60
.

to repeat

6306, where

place.

shown

is

to rest

on the theory of

5).

C 8

e 6

11.

Kai.

according to the TniXmo? \t

Kara TOVTOV

>y<>s

the Kni

means as

well as

c 5-

ol 7

ei0as 0a^d Xeyeiv it is surely very difficult to regard this


The doctrine is also ascribed to
definite statement as a fiction.
Socrates in the Meno and the Phaedrus. It is to be noted, further,
ov

that

o-v.

Cebes speaks of

it

as one peculiar to Socrates, while


I

Simmias

E2

NOTES

72

knows very

little

about

did not, therefore, belong to

It

it.

fifth-

century Pythagoreanism, though there can be little doubt of its


Orphic and Pythagorean origin. The legend of Pythagoras makes
a point of his remembering his earlier incarnations, and Empeclo-

remember his (E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 259, n. i).


The
is to be explained as follows.
contradiction
The scientific
apparent
Pythagoreans of the fifth century had to some extent dropped the
cles professed to

2
religious doctrines of their founder (E. Gr. Ph. pp. 319 sqq.), and
their teaching was really inconsistent with a belief in the soul s
2
immortality (E. Gr. Ph. p. 343). The originality of Socrates seems
to have consisted just in this, that he applied the old religious

doctrine of ava^vr]ais to science,

and

especially to mathematical

science.

on

KT\.,

i|p.tv

our learning

that

reminiscence, i. e. that
of what we once knew.

is

it

It

is really nothing else than


simply the process of being reminded
is important to bear in mind that the

process is one of being reminded, not merely one of remembering


or recollection.

above

73 a

p.ddrjo iv

Trplv

d8os

is

yevc o-Oai,

au>jj.a

find

tyTT/araro,

elvat.

d 2

ev

before entering into this

rov \6yov

T<

povov

firstly

of.

rtjv

avafjLvrjo-OevTa

human

idei

Here

frame.

O-O>/M</.

Cp.

^v)(r)v)

avevpziv.

e^ioxrav

ftiov,

K(U els
Ka\6i>,

Rep. 402 d

f t 5et.
.

a lo

t-rreiTa ..

(usually without 8e) in the sense of


.

(sc.

Cp. 77 b 7 nfuv
So Symp. 2IO b 2 TO fV e ^et

a(f)iKfadni.

*v

avrr/v

raXXa -navrn avrov

|xv Xo^co (sc. nTToSfiVj/VTcu)


(TTfiTo.

Trpcorov p.(v

o n tv

a^i co? ov ev tlvQp&irov

Ka

rfi ^l/i xfl

Ivl

practically equivalent to

Phaedr. 249 a 8
a

KaXnvrriv avdpforroL

avdpa>TT(iov

fv re

what we are now reminded

(iva^invrpKofiefla,

8l C 7 ovStv davp-aarov
a ye Kal irporfpov
fi/}

(e 3).

u vvv

e7

TOVTOV repeats and emphasizes xar tKclvov

KCLTO,

KCLl

e 6

This

fixes the

meaning

We

regularly

secondly

after

of eVi Aoyw here.

to sum up
It does not mean
as it does above 65 d 13, but
by
I think Mr. R. G.
one argument
Bury is right in holding (Class.
Rev. xx, p. 13) that the process enl ra BiaypaftfjuiTa ayeiv is opposed
,

to,

rather than included

in,

illustrate his point further


fK

TU>V

the process KnAo)?

from Theaet. 165 a

e /xurai/,

^/zets

^L\a)v \6yojv (arguments without diagrams) rrpos

52

and

would

NOTES

73

I am also inclined to
accept his reading npwrov for
/3
though it is not absolutely necessary. The use of
y as
numerals has certainly affected the reading in several passages of
In any case this is better than altering fVfmi to eVet ro
Plato.

evi,

with Heindorf.

Cp. 64 a 5.
a right account of the matter.

of themselves.

airoi,

opOos Xo^os,

An

oVo/m

is

opflni

when applied to something which we are justified in applying


In the same way a Adyo? or statement is
to (cp. 69 d 2 #.).
it
opdos when it expresses the truth. The rendering right reason is
misleading; for
1

TTt TO.

it

suggests that Adyo? is a mental faculty


this seems a fairly certain reference to
.

8iaYpa[x]j.a.Ta

Mow

82b9sqq., where Socrates questions a slave about a geometrical


diagram, in order to prove that fidflija-ts is dvdpvrjo is. No doubt, if
we hold this doctrine and its proof to be genuinely Socratic, the
reference to the Mcno is less certain
but, on the whole, Plato
;

seems to indicate that, as he has already treated


need not repeat the proof here.
2

it

elsewhere, he

it is proof positive* (Riddell, Dig.


97), it is mani
(velut passim i-ccitrrunt e^/yXcoo-f, TrpoLrr/^mVet, Sa ei et id glints
The verb KiiTrjyopelv is used just like the Latin
alia, Heindorf).
(L. S. s. v. II) and might very well take the impersonal

KdT-riYopei,

fest

arguere

construction of dr/\nvi

which

for

iro\\uxov OTL OVTWS e,Y.

If the

6 uycoi eVi

which

avTo

TII SinypdiJip.aT(i,
.

ToCiTo

iraGetv

cp. Gorg.

verb
is

is

483 d

personal

8^ol

di

TUVTU

we must supply

not satisfactory.

u.vap.v7]crO-qvai,,

to

have done

to

me

the

The MSS.
to be reminded.
very thing we are speaking of, namely,
and iruOdv is a conjecture of leindori s (not of Serranus,
have
1

ij.(it>fii>,

for in
are constantly confused
uncial writing M is very like n, both being written without lifting
This is one of the comparatively few corrections in the
the pen.

as Stallbaum says).

Phaedo which may be

text of the

adopted

55 C 3
7
)

The words

called certain, though

the most recent edition (\Vohlrab, 1908).

in

ai r ? TOIITO Tracr^cot TTfpt


1

"

ov 6 Xdyo?

ecrri,

it

is

not

Cp. Gorg.

K0\a6[j.vos,

Cp. 72 C 3;?.
We see here the begin
attacked the proof.
term of dialectic.
Cp.
nings of the use of eirixeww as a technical
uvafJLV^o-0-fivai

in apposition to TOITO irudeiv.

t-rrexcLp-rio-e \e-yeiv,

also

eTTi^et prj/ua.

53

NOTES

73
c

TLS TI

C 5

if

dva|AV"r]cr0T|cr6Tai,

man

is

to be

reminded of a

thing.

7 n.

Cp. 726

such a way as this.


Here roio^ros- refers for
it is introduced
by the question and
For similar rhetorical
way do I mean ? This.
in

Tporrco TotouTO),

ward, and the explanation of

What

answer

interrogations see Riddell, Dig.


c 6
TLS
Here
tTcpov KT\.

325.

<iv

we have

careful

psychological

meant by being reminded


A modern treatise
would say If a man, having seen A (
also thinks
ere/aov)
of B
The reading rt ere/joi/ is sufficiently well attested (T), and
the double a AAo is used in the same way below 74013, while the
other reading, TrpoTfpov (B), is easily accounted for and yields no
Recent editors mostly adopt Trp^repov and then
satisfactory sense.
analysis of what

is

enclose
rj

square brackets.

in

it

Tiva a\\T]v

Xapcov, equivalent to fj TIVL a\\T) al(rfit](Ti


Plato avoids the juxtaposition of cognate words.
phrase is used below 76 a 2.
cucr07]<riv

alarOopfvos, but

The same
C 7

p.T|

tKivo

fxovov

-yvo>

not only apprehends A, but also thinks

KT\.,

of B.

an important reservation. Certain


must be known together or not at all
It proves nothing that odd reminds us
of even, or that darkness reminds us of light; for in this case the
knowledge of the one is ipso facto knowledge of the other.
TOVTO internal object of ave/jLvfjo-Or] (cp. 726772.) and antecedent
c 9
of 01% that he was reminded of that which he thought of (B).
The
words ou TI}V twoiav e Xa/Se refer to aXXa Kal
eWo^cr?/ above.
C 8

cm

JAY)

avTTj

fj

this is

eTricrTTjp.7]

things, notably opposites,


(TWV evavTLtev /ni a eTrifrr^r;).

Tpoi>

used

SIKCUCCS is

d 6
n

roOro

irdcrxovo-t

Cp. 68 e 3

n.
Cp. 72 a
followed as usual by a clause in apposition.
like opdws.

n.

empirical

Yvcoo-av

much

gnomic

aorist.

Cp. 113 d

3.

equivalent to fvevorjcrav, but with more


phasis on the ingressive force of the aorist.
TO etSos, the bodily form.
Cp. 73 a I n.
v

d 8
d 9

T-fj

TOX)TO

Stavoia

pred.

iroXXciKis

Xa|3ov

and reminiscence
dvep.vrio-0T|

Gildersleeve, S. C. G.

Q IO

Kdi

aXXa

is just this
Cp. 75 d 10.
empirical aorist with temporal adverb.
.

259.

TTOU ixvpta KjX.

em

Cp. 7

e 3

54

"

NOTES
Aia

T|

68 b

cp.

73

7 n.

a painted horse. This is a more complex case.


are reminded of B not by A, but by an image of A, which we

IUTTOV YtYpafip-evov,

We
may

call a.

av/To

Simmias as opposed to the picture


we are reminded of A by a, or of B by o.
:

2tp.fJiiov

In this case

of Simmias.

This is the
case described just below as
the two first being OTTO
It is for the sake of this distinction that the
avofjiuicov.
point is
o/Wo>i<,

d(/>

elaborated.
twoelv

When

in apposition to rrpoa-m i(rxfivf cp. 72 c 3 n.

man

by a or of B by b, an additional thought neces


sarily presents itself to his mind, the thought of the presence or
absence of any deficiency in the likeness of a or b to A or B. This
thought is only forced upon us when we are reminded nc// o/Won
CITC TI t\\Lim TOIJTO
K6ivov
whether this (a or b) falls
short in any respect of that of which he has been reminded by it
is

reminded of

The

(A or B).

Cp. Proclus, in
ol

dp^uta, (paalv

fvprjuara ravra,

.,

intransitive use of eXXdTTdv

gorean geometry.
fiev

nepl TOV

End.

JLv8r)fj.ovt

KU\ rrjs

re TrapaftoXi] roav xcapiav Kai

77

was familiar

/, p.

T;

in Pytha
419 (Friedlein) "Kim
Hvdayopcitov Mourrs

TU>I>

virepfto\f)

/cat

7}

AXeir^ir.

The

use of the words parabola, hyperbola, and ellipse in Conic


Sections comes from this, but Conies are post-Platonic.

ITOU KT\.
Cp. 65d4/z.
have seen already that the

4>ap.fv

\\ e

when we speak

of

triangle

right

forms
,

(what we really mean

beautiful

c.)

are not per

by the senses, but can only be apprehended by thought.


We are now introduced to a second point in the theory. The
forms are types (napadeiypara) to which particular sensible things
approximate more or less closely. A given triangle is never what
we really mean by triangle nor a right action what we really

ceptible

mean by

right.

According

to this view, particular sensible things are

forms

There

/U/Z///LUITU

or

ample evidence that a doctrine like


2
this was held by the later Pythagoreans (E. Gr. Ph. pp. 353 sqq.).
TI ivcu crov
G.UTO TO icTov
we speak of sticks and stones being
but this is not the equality with which arithmetic and
equal
We only call them equal at all because they
geometry deal.
This is something
remind us of what we really mean by equal
fiKoves of the

is

55

NOTES

74

over and above

different (trcpov TL),

ravra), which

b
b

just the equal

is

65d6.

fJuVroi vT) Ai(a)


cp.
the doctrine of Reminiscence, but
:

auro

o to-Tiv

adds

all

these things

Simmias was not

now he

familiar with

home once more.


margins of B and T.

feels at

and so do the

"LVOV

(-rrapd iravra

(auro TO laov).

perhaps, unnecessary, but gives the full technical expression


for this kind of reality, the what it is by itself,
the just what
It is,

it

b 4

is
Jj

iLv

ledge

vvvSr) tXe Yop-ev

we

certainly

(e-Lfrrr^r]} of equality,

but

have an exact

scientific

we have seen (65 d

know

9) that equality

cannot be perceived by the senses.

These, then, are not the source


Sensible objects only remind us of equality.
cannot be reminded of a knowledge which we never

of our knowledge.

But we

possessed.

b 8

TO>

[xv

TO>

rore (i.e. rore)

8 ot
fi

there

is

an ancient variant rore

(i.

e.

Tore)

Either reading gives a good sense.

o j.

fj.tv

Sticks

and stones sometimes seem equal and sometimes unequal to the


same persons, and they appear equal to one person, unequal to
This shows that the really equal (auro 6 ecmv icrov) is
another.
c

something different.
aura TO. ura things that are
:

When

about the plural.

he

just equal
Euclid says (Ax.
.

There
Ta

i)

is
r&>

no

difficulty

aur

lira

KCL\

not speaking of sticks or stones, but of aura


TCI t cra.
The two angles at the
Cp. atra ru opoui, Parrn. 129 b i.
base of an isosceles triangle are an instance of aura ra
d\\r]\ois f(TT\v iVa,

is

?<m.

c 4

TauTd
ra

c ii

. .

ra. icra

the sticks

and stones mentioned above, not auro

Icra.

OuKodv

d 3 Ildvv p,v

otlv:

this step in the

argument

is

not.

perhaps, strictly necessary, and some critics would bracket the


words.
It must be observed, however, that they serve to make the
proof that our knowledge of the equal is reminiscence clearer, by

reminding us of the preceding discussion. The equality of sticks


and stones must either be like or unlike real equality, but in either
case it is different from it, and our conception of real equality
therefore corresponds to the account already given of reminiscence.
Socrates does not assume at this stage that the equality of sticks

and stones

is

like

real equality.

argument.
56

That

is

the next step in the

NOTES
av

cos

...

so long as

dummodOj

74

For the formula which

follows cp. 73 c 6
76 a 2.
2
the process in question.
av,To,
;

have to do with
6

dvanvricns

v8eiTiK6ivov

r\

The

forward.

TI TOIOXJTOV refers

TJ

a<fi

ouSfv

Cp. 74 a

do they

For the rare use of eVdeif as equivalent


y

av

evSey rov

/j.j]8fi>

There

(v&elv.

is

ToioOrov etvcu olov TO

rep

eivai,

TTOI/JL^VLK:]

no need, then,
i

MSS.

insert

by modern
9

/n//

is

it

at all

529 d

TOH

8e

to fXXdneiv cp. Rep.

.or not

345 d

eW

TTO/\U

d\rj8ivci)V

with Madvig.
being such as the equal.
e\-e<.Vo

deficient cp.

Time.

ii.

87.

For
T/

..

to

after

Isocr.

ro",

critics.

aims at being.
The phrase is oiten used to
POV\TCH
etvcu,
express a tendency, especially by Aristotle.
this seems a clear case of an adscript which has crept
[to-ov]
.

into the text.

of Aristippus,

it is not translated
Though it is in
who has simply tale esse quale illitd.

<J>av\oTepov,

evSfea-Tcpws 5

65

in

the version

inferior.
<xiv,

but of which

cannot be repeated afier


9

in

aov,

5.

short of

Paneg, 105 TOPV mis nvcriats cvbfta misunderstanding of this construction late
and various conjectures have been proposed

tvdfrjs eyevero,

Owing

(Trepovs.

fall

to read

the dative of that in which one


TrapacTKfv//

here noted indicates that we

fact

o^ot cor/.

w,

though

ru

it

falls short.

The

relative

ror might have been added.

<>v

Cp.

s n.

upoeiSt vat the point of the argument is that we


AvaYKatov apa .
could not judge the equality of sticks and stones to be defective
unless we were in possession of a standard by which to judge them.
.

Sensible things could never furnish us with such a standard, there


we must have derived it from some other source.

fore
.

2
7

cpe YSTcu

equivalent to fiovXerat, 74 d 9.
I count all these as the
KT\.,

same thing (for the


Irom the reply). Cp.
as
of
the
appears
argument,
present
purposes
5
uv ?;;uj/ UpoSiKos
75 e 2 -navra Tiiira ralrov n Xeyco UTCO?
TauTov S

^-

li

can onl Y be from the senscs that our jungement

of the inferiority of sensible objects originates, and yet that judge


ment
knowledge of the standard by which we

implies previous
judge them and find them inadequate.
57

NOTES

75
b

rd

v rats cuo-0T)o-eo-iv, sc.

common
tKeivov

below d 2

b 4

The phrase

icra.

modelled on the

is

eV txpdaXfj.ols.
.

TOV) 8 to-riv to-ov

terminology cp. 74 b 2

for the

n.

and

The reasoning is quite sound, as we


we remember that we should never call sticks or stones
equal at all, unless we knew clearly what we meant by equality.
T&XXa aio-0dvo-0ai, make use of our other senses
for ruAXa is
ITpo rot) apa apao-0cu KT\.

shall see

if

internal accusative (Riddell, Dig.

b 6

TO,

TWV

alcr0T]o-eujv is

2).

substituted for ra iv Tat?

This

the influence of dvoureiv.

al<r6!
l

<Tiv

under

simply a case of the attraction


of prepositions with the article by verbs of motion. Cp. 76 d 9
is

10964.

to

avotcreiv,

expressed by

on seems

Reference

refer.

dva<peptiv

trpos

be used as

to

instead of cwnVeii/.

Vahlen

.,

if
(i.

to

referre

standard

ad

is

Cp. 76 d

dvafyepovrfs cvvoijcreiv

regularly
9.

had preceded

489) proposes to insert KU\

vvoii<ieiv

before on.

do their best, a still more picturesque


irpoGvfjieiTai,
pressing tendency than /SouXerai or upiyerat above.
iravTO., SC. TCI

b 10
c

y6v6(jLvoi

irpo TOUTCOV

c n

09

v rats alcrdi^creaiv

before

1 1

birth.

heard, &c.

el
f
xovres tYv6(X0a, sc. avrijv, if we were born with it, i.e.
the knowledge of the equal.
TO ixe!ov KCU TO AaTTov
the knowledge of TO wot implies these
.

for together they

we saw,

of ex

tar a.

immediately upon

v0us,

way

make up

its

opposite, TO

ai/icroj/,

and

We see here how the theory originated


mathematics, and was thence transferred to what we call morals
and aesthetics. The beautiful and the good resemble the equal in
iTpl auToO TOV KaXoO KTX.

in

this, that

they are nowhere perfectly realized.


1

ois

mo-<j>paYi6p.0a

KrX.,

Here again we have we


this implies the work of a
cp. Polit.

26 d
TO

258

(TJ?

I
fTri<T<ppayi(r6VTa
"

auro

to-Tt",

6 lort.
on which we set the seal of
connexion with a technical term, and
ni>T<>

in

school.

TroXiTiK//)

Cp. 65 d 4 n.

For the metaphor

p-iav (idtav) cirurtppayiarao-Qai,

Phileb.

TOV p.a\\ov KCZI evavriov ycvei.


the just what it is : so I have ventured to
TCO

5*

NOTES
write for the TOVTO
eo-Tt,
I

and

b eori of

seems

it

to

me

have given accounts

75

MSS.

the

that TO

lamblichus has simply TO

must be

sufficiently for the

The reading which

right.

Most

others.

editors

write roiVo, 6 eo-ri.


i. e.
for question and
Kal ev TCUS epu)TT]crcn.v KrX.
2
?>i(i\cyo/j.(i
see from
answer are the two sides of the Socratic dialectic.
:

<n,

We

78 d

that this phrase also


Cp. CritO 50 C 8 f 7ret(5r/ Kal
I

Kpivecrdai,
oloi T

Rep. 534 d 9

was technical
ei co^a?

EL ... tKdo-TOT*

unless

tmXeXTjcrLuOa,

H.TJ

of our birth.

The

doctrine of

be implied by eKaorore and del -yiyvea-Qai


occasion ) below. There would be no room
birth involved forgetting.

eKnarore

after

stand

Xaj36vra

make

to

Tf

Kal UTTO-

aTTOKpivecrdai

we

forget

TraXiyyei/eo-ta

them on
seems to

born on each

to be

for

reminiscence unless

Heindorf proposed

to insert yiyvuuevoi

this clear

but we

may

under

easily

having acquired knowledge of a thing, to have


e
/etj/ *
a.rro\d)XfKfvai is an instance
it.
,\
p-

tcrX.,

have

to

lost

polar expression

Cp. 86 a

Ei

\rjdrj

-yi-yvofxevoi

5 eVi

loss of

in this sense).

synonyms
208 a 4

it

ot

tTTLo-T-qix-qs a.7TopoXT)v,

are

<al

it.

and not
to

epa>rav

f^wrnv re

/?

ITOVT<U.

each occasion

the Socratic school.

TW

\pr\(j 6ai
e

(SloXe/CTtKi))

in

yap

e<V.u

knowledge
For other

e7ri(JT/}ftr]9

we

aTroXwXefm.

and

<i7ro3<i^X<i)

definitions of X/^;

e^oOov, Pkileb.

if

a.Tra)Xc(raLi.V,

K;II 1^1]

((iTroXXv^ct

lost

it

ill

33

e 3

^ a ri

cp.

"

J
7"/

the process of

birth.

-rrepl

60

aura

76

reference

is

here aura means simply

There

c 2.

is

no need

to

the things in question


Cp.
for the
read TUVTU with \V
.

plain.

almost unexampled in prose


the use ofirpiv as an adverb
(except with the article).
to recover knowledge
oiKLav
dvaAo^pdveiv,
6iuo-TT||ju]v
5
This is the real meaning of the whole doctrine,
which is our own.

irpLv

which can only be adequately expressed in a mystical form. The


It is
the mystery of love.
mystery of knowledge is the same as
a mystical union with what at first seems alien (aXXoTpioi>), but is in
time recognized to be our very own.
cp. 62 b 2 n.
:

6p0u>s

59

NOTES

76
76

These

^ iSovTo KT\.

participles are subordinate to alfftiofiwov,

whether by sight or hearing or any other sense.


irdvTs is opposed to ovs (fra^ei \Lav6avtiv and repeated below b 8.
a 5
We must not, therefore, read TTCIVTOS.
a 6
ou8v d\\ TJ, nothing but.
The phrase oAX fj is used after
It is wrong to
negatives and treated as a single word (cp. 68 b 4).
write uXX (for u XAo) as is shown by 81 b 4 ur/Sej/ a AXo
aX\
.,
oAX
.
97 d 2 ovdev rtXXo
.

b 5

Sovvai Xo-yov,
diahfKTiKos.
\au.ftavoi>Tn

rj

to give

^v

09

an account of

Cp. Rep. 534 b 3 ^ Ka


TTJS ovcrias (cp. 78 d l)

TOV

vv)v8r| eXtyop-ev, SC.

This

it.

is

i}

mark

the

^i-aXfKTiKOV KaXft? TOV

of the

\6yov e/caorou

icrov t

TOV KO\OV, TOV nya^oG, &C.

this time to-morrow.

aijpiov TTjvLKaSc,

KCU TOV /j,r] ^oi^Ta, Kad* ocrov av p.f)


XXo) didovai, Kara, roaovrov vovv rrepl TOVTOV ov

*Xy ^uy ov avTto re Kal

b ii

It

seems

to

me

that, if

Plato originated the theory, he could not possibly have put this
statement into the mouth of Simmias. Cp. Prof. 336 b 8, where

Alcibiades says TOV


8ovi ai

Te

C 12

Kal

v dvOpwirov ciSei,

how

ia\eyfcrdai olos r elrcu Kal

tie

dtt-acrdai

in

human

Cp. 73 a
Kal

We

form.

close fldos in such phrases

ei

liv

6avp.a^otfjL

comes

TO>

e7nWa<r(9ut

\6yov

avOfxcnr

sec from the next words

to the

meaning

of acoua.

n.

4>p6vT]o-iv

and had

etxov,

intelligence.

For the sense

of

here cp. 7ob4.


The doctrine of avdfjivijcns gives the
indication of the intelligence of the disembodied soul.

(j)povi]ais
first

v iTotcp

some

dXXw xP

vc?

sc

) e w T(p

T0 ^ yiyvfcrdm.
It

And

at

The

Here we may reproduce

what other time do we lose

& 0pvXov(a.v

the things

del,

we

we

oticria

TO.

uva4>f

pray

are always talking of. Once more


this doctrine was perfectly

which implies that

familiar to the school.

it,

we have the

d 9

interrogative

always expresses feeling of

sort, surprise, scorn, or incredulity.

the effect by saying,


2
apn 75 d 4.

d
d 8

not a mere equivalent of TIM.

TTO LW is

cp.

TU>V

65 d

13 n.

aio-0T]crea;v

pop.ev

cp.

T)p.T( pav oCtrav

75 b 7

Cp.

75 b 6 n.

n.

equivalent to oiKciav above

60

756

5.

NOTES
ra fv rat?

SC.

76

n cr^^crecrii/.

same way that , just as surely as .


There is no real difficulty in the fact
TauTa, sc. Ka\6v re rt
that rttC Ta here and in the next line has a different reference from
OUTOS

in just the

wo-irep Kai,

<rA.

The

rafru in 62.
4

aXXcos

reference

elpT)|jLvos,

is

spoken

quite plain in
in

vain

all

this

three cases.
will

argument

Cp. L. S. s. v. u
nothing
Cp. 115 d 5 a AAoos Ae yfu
this phrase can hardly have any other than
eis KaXov
.

A\o>v

go

for

II. 3.

usual

its

meaning opportunely. Cp. Kleno 89 eg (is KH\UV fjp.lv *A.WTOS rrapfThe phrase is
Kade(ero, Symp. 174 e 5 els Ka\ov rjiceip, and often.
purely adverbial, and it is not correct to say, with most editors, that
it is explained by the words tls TO 6/zoiW elvai *rA., which depend
directly on /carafe yfi.
t

The \nyns or argument is over


and over again spoken of as the thing hunted (cp. 63a2., and
below 88 d 9 .). I take the meaning to be that it has taken cover
is

Ka.Ta4>6VY6t,

taking refuge.

very conveniently for us who are hunting it. From Rep. 432 b sq.
we see that the idea is that of a hare or other animal taking refuge
in a

bush

(dap-v^s),

caught.

6 f6rjpfv6p.r]i
1

which the huntsmen surround so that

it

cannot

note in loc.\ When the argument is proved, it is


Cp. Lysis 2l8 C4 e^aipOF, axr/rep drjpevrrjs rir, e ^coj/ ayajrr)TS>s

(Adam

escape

in the

ofioicos,

same way

just as surely

equivalent to ouroK

above (76 e2).


The words e/nm-ye
the demonstration is adequate.
diroSf SeiKTai,
5
doKfl are parenthetical, and do not affect the construction.
Cp.
is an attempt to normalize
in
108 d 8. The omission of
a>o-7re/J

Kai

ourcof KUL

TW

<5o*et

the construction.
the only

word

The answer shows

that 8oKfl

that can be supplied after Ti

<$

<V;

is

right

Ke ^^rt

for

it

is

The doctrines 0f iraXi.yytvecria. and dvafifrjo-ts afford an incom


a6
77 d 5
plete demonstration until tfiey are combined (77

(3)

IKO.VUIS,

that the

sc. oVoSc deiKTiu.

its

out,

however,

only proves the antenatal existence


Socrates replies that we
survival after death.

argument from

of the soul, not

Simmias and Cebes point

aW/^au

must take the argument from oWarroSoo-t? and that from nva^vrjais
At the same time, he admits that a more thorough
together.
discussion

is

required.

61

NOTES

77

there

tvfcTTT]Kv,

is

3.

fiiBl/S

TT

TV7TT(ll>

/JL

Isocr. 5. 39

the

still

agonistic metaphor; for

8f O.VTOV

7Tfl8l]

Cp. Lysias,

TJfJ.VVafJLr}V

Hence comes

etp^fieVotr.

originally an

is

stand up to

to

is

)(S LpTjCrfV

TO"LS

v<rTTJvai

This

objection.

eWr>ai

eVcTTUC

the technical

use of evaraais (instantia) in dialectics of an


to an
objection
Plutarch uses the word for the tribunes
(fVt^etpiy/xa).

argument

intercessio.

OTTOJS prj

For the USG of OTTGK p.rj after verbs


There are four or five
5.

SiacrxeScivvtiTai KT\.

of fearing instead of nr/ cp. below 84 b


instances of this construction in Plato.

The verb

is

subjunctive

and has long


but the termination should not be accented -arm as
if it were contracted from -v^rai.
It is really an older form of the
subjunctive (Kiihner-Blass,
281.3). So duurxtddvi vcriv, 776 I, and
t>,

b 6

the opt. 7r/)yi/uro, 118 a 2.


aXXoQe v iTo0ev, from some other source
the other world which have

than from the souls

come

in

there from this (the evdevSe


1
TroOev with Bekker; but,
pevni of 70 c6).
formerly read
apart from the fact that the regular phrase is ap\dfv ye Trotfev, I now
a<j)iK<)-

(i/.u>6ev

think the meaning

by 72 d

settled

is

e<

ptv r^v aXXeuv, where see

note.

EIJ Xtyeis KT/\.

For the

TtXos

z.

V^Lv,

q.

XdH ^t ii fLv, TfXos emQe u

interlaced order cp.

T\fia
ai,

to

crecr#<u,

&c.

5 n.

Cp. re Xos-

Greek philosophy the word

In

always implies the idea of completion or

when

70 b

be complete.
full

growth.

re Xos-

An animal

growth is complete, when it is full


which would be equally correct.
It is impossible to draw any distinction between the two con
For the fut. inf. in this use cp. e. g. Rep. 567 b 8 tl
structions.
or plant

rtXos-

grown.

B has

e^-et

f r

X (lv

its

flv

>

f.L\\fL llp^flV.

C 7

KCU

even as

vxiv,

common

inv 6;

crwOeivcu

is

.,

it

rauTcv,

that the soul exists

and

argument we assented

is.

mine

The
1 cro
to
is

sense of vvv
.

.,

but, as

it

is

the

same

as in the

is.

combine the present argument (viz.


conscious before our birth) with the

to before

it.

This reading comes from


probably due to conjecture alone. It gives, how
ever, a much better sense than the onep Xeyerat of the oldest AISS.,
We should
which is supposed to mean as is said i. e. as I say
o-n-ep

a late

XfYT,
MS. and

the point you mention.

is

NOTES
in that sense,

certainly expect oircp Xey

and

common

-rat is

Practical Application.
of death at all costs (77015

This digression
6
*

TWV ircu8wv,

TO

fishermen do
1

(cp.

children

do.

as children say

TO>V

which

u/Xucoi,

in

77 b 4

is

probably subjunctive and to be pronounced with


The indicative would not be so appropriate
;

should have to render

lest

on each occasion when

it

fcv
jjie-yciXc{>

p.tyus

7Ti>d

That the phrase does not


shown e. g. by Xen. Oec. 16. 7
the context must mean what

is

;/.).

for the fear refers to the future.

Cp. bulow 95 e 9 and

I.

5iacrKe8a.vvvcnv

long v

rid ourselves of the fear

to discuss thoroughly.

above 63 a

as

mean

dvepvTja-drjv TO

We must

78 a 10) marks the end of the First Argument


Second.

Trptiy/xurfuj

necessarily

-T

(cp.

to the

Sia-n-pa-yfj-aTtvcracrOai,

the use of

and the confusion of

both being pronounced alike.

(4)

and leads up

77

verbs were indicative, we

the wind puffs it away and scatters


from the body.

it

issues

TIV L Tvev ^ciTt,


<"ii

If the

in

a high wind/ the regular phrase. So


is, of course, a humorous addition

This clause

(p.os.

to the theory.

ws BeStoTcov,

would require
object of

sc.

,poi

in

dfftiuTus

in

The

ai im-fiCitLv.

spite of the fact that strict

agreement with

genitive absolute

274.
Cp. Riddell, Dig.
p.d\\ov 8f, vel potius,

is

fjpfis,

grammar

the unexpressed

often used in this way.

or rather/ the regular phrase

in

intro

ducing a correction.

A strik
to deoidrcoi but is anticipated for emphasis.
[XT] belongs
ing instance of this is Crito 47 d 9 TTfidopfvot p. ] TIJ r^v eiraiavrwv
,

&&Jr

It is necessary to state this, as it has been sug


in us.
tv TJ^IV,
gested that the words mean among us and refer to Apollodorus
This makes nonsense of the passage. The child in us is often
referred to by later Platonist writers like Porphyry, Themistius, and
!

Simplicius (cp. Wyttenbach s note).


OO-TIS differs from or as qui with the subjunctive from qui with
Its use here is justified by the preceding TLS.
the indicative.

irtipw |ieToiri0eiv

was conjectured by Heindorf, and


63

is

now known

NOTES

77
to

be the reading of

of

BT

which

67

for

W.

resumes

it

quite in Plato

is

It is far

better than the

avn-ntlOeiv

7rctp>

ncipa>ij.eda

above with a

rrfidav

slight variation

manner.

(whose full name was Mopwas a she-goblin used, like AKKOO, "E/XTTOUO-U, and Aa/ua to
frighten naughty children. Cp. Theocritus xv. 40 OVK.
TV, rtwov,
BaKvei ITTTTO?, Xen.
iv. 4.
J <po/3ei(T$ni rovs TreXrncrTu?,
TO.

bugbears.

p.opyioXtJKeia,

Mop/jo>

[JLO\VKTI)

o>

//"<?//.

Mop/zd>,

cofTTrep fj,op/joi

as TToidapia, Lucian, Philops. 2

7rni3o>v

ert

T//J-

Mop/xo)

According to the Platonic Lexicon of


rots- Trmo-i Trpoo-to-ela.
Timaeus, p,opp.oXuKeia were masks, ra
The verb p.opno\vTTea0(ii is used in Ov70 46 c 4 and Gorg.
Kru

fifSiorcor/.

Ap.iai/

T/)I>

</>o/3fpa

473 d

eS

3l

Voi8civ, iiicaiitiirc,

to sing charnis

makes an elaborate use of


157 a 3 dfpaTTGvfoQai 8e
rartr, raf 6

TI/V

(canm na,

this idea in

\/^t

(ZaXjuo^t?),

^}i/ e^r;

cirmdni).

a>

eivai TI]V vyifinv Ka\

fjdr/

TT;

cp. esp.

/zafcapie,

eVcoSay Tavras roi^y Ad-yov? fiVcu rou? KaXous

pqdtov

Socrates

Charm. I55esqq.,
f<

eTrwStitjp

fie rcoi/

a XXcp
Kf(pa\f/ Kdl ro5

roiou-

<ra>p.aTi

The

ascription of this to the Thracian Zalmoxis shows it to


be Pythagorean; for Herodotus tells us (iv. 95) that Zalmoxis (or
TTnpi&iv.

2
Zamolxis) had been a slave of Pythagoras (E. Gr. Ph. p. 93), and
musical
well
with
what
we
know
of
the
KudapiTis
goes
Pythagorean

it

(cp.

e 9

Socrates also used the term in connexion with his

6ia377.).

fji.n(VTtK7]

(Tlieaet.

149 d

i).

This is
you have charmed it out of him.
s which has been confirmed by
fuller knowledge of the MSS.
for it is actually found in a Vienna
MS. and virtually in T\V. The reading of B is f^u urr^Tcii, and it
t

cos civ

till

^eirao-TjTe,

another conjecture of Heindorf


;

appears from the margin of


cannot, of course, be passive

One must
78 a 3

IIoXXTj
Italy,

For
xxiii.

sing
.

i
i

charms

TO.

but

till

It
this was an ancient variant.
we might supply TIP as its subject.

one has healed him.

EXXas, wide enough, for instance, to include Southern

where the Pythagoreans were once more becoming powerful.


s cp. the Homeric rroXX/)
ynla, TroXX^ x^P ! (J/2i*eXi a, Theocr. xxii. 156 rroXX/}
520), Thuc. vii. 13. 3 rroXXi) 6

this use of TroXi

T)

roi Srroprr?, rroXXi) 5

a 4

W that

TWV Pap^apcov

innfaaTos H\is.
yivr]

vSocrates

Thracians and Phrygians.

is

no doubt thinking primarily of


came from the
orgia

The Orphic
64

NOTES

78

the Corybantic
from the latter. Plato
purifications
regarded the distinction between Hellenes and barbarians as an
unscientific division of mankind (Polit. 262 d i sqq.), but it \vas

former,

revived by Aristotle.
LS on av euKcupoTepov
better than the

variant

this is the reading of


els

and seems

far

on

The corruption is
avayKaiorepov.
the omission of av in the variant is. to

an extremely easy one, and


say the least of it, hard to justify, while the insertion of Civ after
on would spoil the rhythm.
Of course eiKuiporepov is the com
parative adverb, not the adjective.
7

Kai

auTotis p.er dXX^Xoov,


by yourselves too (as well as by
questioning Hellenes and barbarians), along with one another (for
We cannot take fur
joint search is the true Socratic method).

mean among yourselves as some do. Apart from the


unheard-of sense thus given to /^ru c. gen., the pronoun dXXqX<j
excludes such a rendering. We should have had ev i]p.lv avrms.

uXXr/Aoji to

av xrX.
The usual hint that Orpheotelestae and
-yci-P
Cp. 69
Corybantic Kada,jTui are not to be taken too seriously.
l cr<os

c 4

//.

TavTo,

that shall be

vrn-dpei,

For the interlaced order

cp.

70 b

done

you may count on that

Second Proof of Immortality (78 b 4

84 b

8).

based, not upon ancient doctrines, but on a con


sideration of the soul s own nature, which is shown to resemble that

This proof

is

From

of the eternal forms.

this

we may

infer that, like

them,

it

is

indissoluble.

an emphatic nXX//Aou?.

lavTous

TO Biao-KeSavwcrOcu

is

We

of B.

cj 2c^n.) that TOVTO

The

tive in apposition.
TTiidos

better attested than the TOV

is

have seen

article

is

added

Trii<r\(i.i>

in this

8ia<rt(c8dvvv(r6a:

takes an

infini

case because TO

precedes.

some of the early editors deleted Kal


TTOLOJ TIVL (ov)
as a tautology
but the pronoun norfpov in b 8 shows that
must therefore
kinds of things have been distinguished.
Kal rci

r<u

Tivi

We

7,-nta>

two
add

ou with Heindorf, though it appears in no MS. and Olympiodorus


did not read it for he tries to get rid of the tautology by taking the
;

hrst

T&) Trot o) TII/I

i26i

of things and the second of persons.

65

NOTES

78
b 8
b 9

Tro-repov,

which of the two,

Oappetv

SfSitvcu,

T]

whether

not.

to fear or not to fear.

Cp. 63 e 10

n.

which is composite, and the tilings which


invariable are not composite. Further, the
We
things which are constant and invariable are invisible.
have to ask, then, whether the soul belongs to the class of in

Only that

(l)

is dissoluble

and

are constant

constant and invariable, non-composite things, or to


that of visible, variable, composite, and therefore dissoluble
visible,

things (78 c

80

i).

if we take these words


together with
Wyttenbach, they add a fresh touch to TCO o-wTeOtvTi. That sug
this refers to what is essentially
gests an artificial combination
The addition of
and from the nature of the case composite.
the participle ovn indicates that this is the construction and

TO)

...

crvv0tTco O VTI

4>ticrei

makes

very unnatural to take

it

$u<m

rrpoa^Kfi together, as

many

editors do.

TOVTO

C 2

7racr)(eiv,

compound,

The verbs
Cp. 7 2 c 3 n
divide, are the regular opposites.

SiaipeOrvai

fiuupeu/,

(TVVTldfVai.,

avvT0T) e. g., if it is a compound of the four ele


be divided into these.
Kara laura Kal weravTcos, constant and invariable.
c 6
We see that
XXor n AAcor, which is the opposite of
this is the sense from the
TatiTT)

ments

TO.

will

and /^SeTrore Kara


80 b 2.

oHrai ro)?.

Cp. d

fj-n-ep

it

aXXor

Se

aXXcos

is

opposed

to Kara raurd.

the familiarity of the term

and make

the ellipse of e^oi^ra

which

aura,

it

may excuse
unnecessary to read a for Ta with

Heindorf.

cS

ravra
e. g.

Cp.

81 b 8

a-vvQera

113 e

the

for

Lach. 194 d 2 a 5e

resumptive demonstrative with 5e


raGra 5e KCIKOS. So below 80 d 8

a.p.a6r]s }

5.

the reality the being of which


ovio-ia Y[S \OYOV Si5op.v TOV ctvai,
The hyperbaton of dldo/iev has misled the
give account of.
must take \oyov TOV elvai together as
commentators here.
i

we

We

equivalent to \6yov

rrjs ovo-ias

For \6yos

genitive
KaXels rbv \6yov tKavrov
fyr.

is

simply

the reality

rfy?

or

definition

ova-ms cp. Rep.

\a^avovTa rrjs
which we define
66

and as governing the


ftiaXfKTiKov
534 b 3 ^
<al

The meaning, then,


When we define triangle

oufriaf
.

NOTES

78

not this or that triangle, but niro 6 tori


rpiywov,
triangle, that finds expression in our definition.
it

is

what

just

is

KCU

tpcoTcuvTes Kal d-TTOKpi.v6p.Evoi, t. g. dtn Xfyouf vni, cp. 75 d 2 ;/.


In the dialectic process it is by question and answer that definitions
are reached.
When we ask n i an the answer is a Ad ? T
;

>0

>>

ovariaf.

auTo

TO

4.

t
what any given thing itself is or is by
o-Tiv,
what a given thing is
Cp. 74 b 2 ;/.
the real, is added to suggest the opposition of anu and

Kao-Tov o

itself,

just

ov,

yiyvta-Qai.

Ka6 atiro, being uniform if taken alone


by it
regard a I/TO *a$ avro as a reservation here. The triangle,
for instance, has more than one
uW. There are equilateral,
p.ovoei5ts 6v O.VTO

self.

But none of these ei oq enter into


isosceles, and scalene triangles.
the definition of the triangle simply as such.
Ti 8e TWV iroAAwv KT\. (Riddell, Dig.
what of the many
27),
beautiful things ? as opposed to TO UVTU o tan KU\OV.
It is clear
that

we cannot

retain both mi\wv here

and

K<I\(~I>

fj

in e

I,

and most

This, however, commits us to the view


that there are ftSq of men. horses, and clothes, which is a point that
has not been referred to, and which raises certain difficulties which
editors bracket the former.

do not concern us here. It is hard to believe that f/wm would


have been mentioned at all except as an instance of TU TroAAu
K<I\U.

therefore take

together, and
regard people, horses, and clothes as examples of the first, just as
sticks and stones might be given as examples of the second.
It
is only as instances of KU\U that people, horses, and clothes can be
I

T<

said to be o/iwia^a
TOLOUTCOV

of
2

J]

de TCOV

7roAA<u

K.O\U>V

lau>i>

T)

TGJ KCI\) (cp. e 2 n.}.

i.e. Ka\oov.

This,

take

it,

has caused the interpolation

K(l\5)l>,

-TTdvTtuv

Tiv

tKeivoLs 6p.covO(icov,

all

the (other) things (besides

K<I\U

which bear the same name as those, i.e. as alr^v eKncrrov


o earn.
For this way of expressing the relationship between ra
TroAAa e/caaTa and ot To 6 tvnv eKncnov cp. Farm. 133 d 2 TU
Trnp
OVTO. eKfivois.
Observe the tendency to use TUL TGI
r\\ilv TavTci ci/jLMwiJin
of the ideas
of the many and

and

"am]

fay

&c.

KIVOLS,

What we

call

e<flva

Trav TovvavTLov

just the

o[>posite

beautiful things

67

to these,

or

i.

e.

to aiVo TO

equal things arc


F 2

NOTES

78

constant neither to themselves nor to one another.

As we have seen

they do not appear beautiful or equal to different people,


or even to the same person at different times.
(74 b

a 3

79

T
<t>

8),

T ns Siavoias

by thinking.

XoY.cr[xcp,

ally as

a 4

opposed

cxiS-r],

There

is

no distinction

The phrase means thinking gener

here between duivoia and vovs.

to sense-perception.

The

invisible.

correct form

was

first

made known by

the

Flinders Petrie papyrus, and has since been found to be the reading
of the first hand of T and of W.
Cp. the Homeric didqXos, ULO-TOS,
The reading of B, followed by nearly all MSS. and editions,
didvus.
is

afiftf),

which could only mean

quite inappropriate.
a 6
0x[Xv ow j3ouXi KT\.

formless

unsightly

Olympiodorus distinguishes three

and

is

eVi^ffp^-

puru intended to prove that the soul is more like the indissoluble
than the body: (l)
TOV aopdrov atrr)?, (2) en TOV diavorjTiKOv UVTIJS,
e<

(3)

<

TOV $fo~Tr6eiv TOV a obpaTos

The

first eVi^eipfj/ua

begins here.

It is important to
two types of things.
observe that the word oWa is used of both. It means things in
Of course, strictly speaking, visible
the widest and vaguest sense.

8vo

things are not


at

OVTCOV,

TU>V

ei8r|

6Wo>r

oVra

and the things

invisible are not

things

all.

above (70 eg). The words


a\Xo Tt, nonne, just like aXXo n
have become phraseological, but their original sense ( anything
else ) is so far felt that the affirmative answer is given by Ovdev
r)

i\\0.

b 4

4>a[Xv

v etvcu

(fxnpev av dvai.

this

seems better than the equally well attested


6/u.oiorepov av e irj would be quite

In the direct speech

natural.

bo

opara Km pf]. It is left open for us to


see these things Ttp\v eV dvfycoTrei cp
Such
eiSft yei 60-dat or after the soul has left its human body.
a beatific vision is described in the Phaedrus, but belongs to another
T TI T ^ v

vOpco-rrcov

say that in

13

sc.

aspect of the theory than that dwelt upon in the Phaeao.


The inference
cp. 105 d 15 At cipnoi/.
Oux oparov. AiSts d pa
from not visible to invisible seemed more necessary to the
;

Greeks than to
C

<j>ij(ri,

some sense we may

OUKOVV
soul can

us.

The second cTTixeipip-a (cp. a 6 n.}.


apprehend the invariable best apart from the body.
KO.L

ToSe KrX.

68

The

NOTES
2

some time ago/


63 d 5 n.

irdXcu,
TniXat cp.

TOIOUTWV, SC.

The
<?

of

is

Dig".

objects which are fluctuating and confused.


O-VYY^VTIS oucra : we have seen already that reality is oiKtlnv to the
soul (75 05), and this has been reinforced by the consideration
that

For the meaning

sqq.

rpn\7/ OI TOH/ (Riddell,


54).
confused because it is in contact with

a>/ji(va>v

and

Kn\ ev

7r\<ii

soul fluctuates

65 b

i.e.

79

it

Kai

is

more

^TJ

auTT], sc. p.(r

alike to the invisible than the visible.

KCU irepl tKetva

eKelvov yiyvetrdai,

and remains ever constant

tx

in relation to

>

them.
6

TOIOI ITCOV

Kara ravTii

i.e.

... TO

TOIJTO

toCravTUts

e^ tvrwv.

this condition/ i.e. a constant relation to

ira0T]|j.a,

constant objects.
3

this line of

TavTTjs T-^S p.e0e8ov,

The verb

argument.

/MeTtp^o/zat

(88 d 9) and its substantive neQoftos furnish another illustration of


the metaphor from hunting.
The literal sense of /^ruV.u is to go
after

to follow

the Ao yo?

is

the

up

game

especially of going in pursuit of game.


)n TUV ovms, the phrase /neritrtu
t)i]

in the

As
TOJ-

Xo-yov is natural.
oXco Kal

TT-CIVTL

Km Trnvri
the usual phrase is
Mere it is used of likeness.
oX<

totally different.

STJ

"Opa

KCLI

TT]8e

KrX.

Plato

own proof

olov cpxeiv

lead

to

el

Tre4>vKf

vcu,

)?
/

?/

ja

(^ &

The

n -^-

starts

to

]|j.tv

94

e 4;

o-vpSaivei,

by nature such as to rule and


For tins
and leadership
8.
We must understand o uiv

for rule
c

98

whether

this

is

our conclusion.

results of a dialectical discussion are technically called TU


vui Ta,

soul

argument which comes nearest

to be

be naturally adapted

TciSe

third eVi Y fl

the

is

be

of immortality.

use of olns cp. 83 d 9


again with ap^eirdai.

The

This

rules over the body.

to

fttafpcpeiv,

The

crv/.i3tu-

and it is in the light of these that the vnodffns with which it


must be examined. If an impossibility o-v/x^ruVfi, the vrrutiecris

must be given up.


3

6p,oi6raTov

ivai 4v)(T], sc. truju^atVft.

The verb

crvp.(3aii>(i

generally used personally; cp.67C5 KuBufxris &e


so there is no need to read ^vx jv.
TOVTO (Tv^aivfi
:,

sense

is

eii>m

69

cp.

74 a

2 a// olv ov

npn ou

The im

personal construction also occurs

in this

avufiuivti

NOTES

8o

There is no anacoluthon for the pro


$et
merely shorthand for
6/Moioraroj/ elvai
TCO adavarw ouoiorarov eivat
x//i
\[sv\i], &C.
b 4
a play on words is involved in making this the opposite
dvoT]Tcp
firm KT\.

ai dfj-vrjcrtv

T>]V

spective

above

Tt ide

is

TO>

o>

\<-r/,

of

.,f;rw,

sensible

b 6

means

for avtrjTOf properly

true opposite of

intelligible

1/0177-0?,

senseless

foolish

object of thought

The

is alo-GrjTos,

object of sense
This meaning would
oux OVTCOS t xei, to show that it is not so.
be equally well expressed by w? which is an ancient variant and
.

f)

Schanz

well attested.

the readings of
rr/9 arroKpicrftos

The

of the corporeal (80


v

Cp. Theaet. 184 c 4 eTnXapetrdai

(rj).

shown

argument

is

not quite conclusive.

resemble the indissoluble.

to

We must purify our souls and purge it

Practical Application.

(2)

c 3

OVK opdrj.
a hint that this

f/

eryus TI TOVTOV
soul has only been

b TO

however, has the advantage of explaining

r/,

and

(/?)

84 b

c 2

8j.

situated in the visible region.


Ast quaintly
interprets
lying in a visible thing, i.e. a coffin or tomb.
Kai 5t,a,Trveiar0ai is so well attested that its omission inB must be a slip.
c 4
1 cannot see that it is an
inappropriate word to use of a dead body.
f

6pa,To>

Keip.cvov,

c 5

mentis O-VXVQV

xpovov,

fairly

long time.

Cp. Crito 43 a 10

TTlflKa)S TTClXai.

c 6

6iTip,evi,

remains as

edv p.v TIS Kal


of Kdi

.,

it

is

if

Schmidt compares Prot. 323 b

The

indeed

waits

(dist. Trfpi/ueVei,

indeed, even

man
3 *av

).

Cp. 59 e 4

?z.

For the hyperbaton


nva KCU elduxriv on aSi/coy
.

solitarium as in Prot. 361 63 TMV ^v


The meaning,
Trj\iKovTO)v Kal Tvaw (however it may be with others).
then, is that even if a man dies with his body in good condition, it
((TTiv.

piv

is

a long time. Of course a healthy body decomposes


more rapidly than an old and withered one.
xapu vTcos ^x cov equivalent to /caXJ:? or et e ^coi/. We find /uerpi a)?
and err if IMS used in the same sense. Cp. 68e2. There is no

lasts quite

but only of evcgia or good condition


a
at
fine
season
of the year (TOWH/T^ standing
7
for KaXi) implied in ^aptevTo>s, Riddell, Dig.
Decomposition
54).
suggestion of

tv

is

gracefulness

Toicu iTT) topa,

more rapid

in

summer than in winter. Most recent editors


to mean in the bloom of youth
but (i) tv

understand the phrase

70

NOTES

80

&pa without roiavTrj would be sufficient for this. Cp. Meno 76 b 8


Phaedr. 240 d;; Rep. 474 d4; and (2) when
w/m is mentioned in
connexion with death, it means not youthful bloom but a
;

ripe

old age

Cp. e.g. Eur. Phoen. 968 atro? 8 eV


yt \p Tor^m
On the other hand, one who dies in early
fiiov,
6vr]<TKfiv
eToifj-as.
youth (and in that sense eV &pa) is said to die TT/JO wpus or uoopor.
.

a>

o>,>m

The
7

latter

KCU

word

maw

is

common

p.dXa, sc.

a-i

xvuv

in

sepulchral inscriptions.
for quite a long time.

A^cu/oz

reduced to bones and muscle

crv[XTTeo-6v,

clause justifies the preceding

f\\v

pei- TLS

KT\.

emaciated

This

An emaciated body

remains almost entire for an inconceivable time, and even a


body
in good condition lasts quite a long time.
For iTi-^-iirTtiv cp. Hdt.
iii.
in the medical writers o-tV^raxm- is
52 dcrm flo-t o-t /XTTCTrraj/coTa.
technical for emaciation.
Kal Tapixv0v : there is nothing unnatural in Socrates
frequent
references to Egypt, which was always an object of interest to the

known many men who had fought


there in 460 B.C.
This passage has strangely been
supposed to
prove Plato s Egyptian journey.
Greeks.

Socrates must have

oXiyou 6Xov fxt vei, sc. TO


Kal &v crairifj, SC. TO

remains

crto/zd,

(<"XXo)

all

but entire.

owua.

vfOpa, sinews.
Cp. below 98 c 7 n.
The particle indicates that
upa, scilicet.

we have to do with an
argiimentum ex contrario (cp. 68 a 3 n.} put in the iorm of a ques
tion.
Are we to say, then, that the soul
.?
.

TOIOXJTOV

just like itself (cp.

58 d8w.), not equivalent


to itLCirj, for that is expressly mentioned besides.
The meaning is
that expressed throughout the preceding argument by O/ZIHOJ/.
5

eis

"AiSou

the word.

Tpov,

ws

uX-r]9(Ls,

This

to the

refers to the

House

word, for which cp. Lrat. 404 b


del OTTO TUIJ aifioTp (sic

BTj

KU\ TO

67r coi
Ofj.ii<T0<u.

here shows that (rightly or wrongly)


TOV u-ya.0ov

KO.I

Zeus Chthonios
(e.g. at Eleusis

of

c})p6vi|jLov

Hades

in

the true sense of

commonly accepted etymology

0e6v

in

of the

TroXXoG
ovopi 6 "Aifir/f
The denial of the etymology
.

-yf

it was commonly accepted.


the mystic theology Hades or

is called Eubouleus, and Eubouleus is also found


and on the Orphic gold plates of Southern Italy) as

an independent god.
name.

suspect that Socrates

this sacred

71

is

here alluding to

NOTES

8o
arjTTj B

e 2

resumes

8t|

The

tav [xv KT\.

8ia4
t

OVTU>

fj.ev

e 3

Koivcovoucra

(Kova-a eivcu,

servation

67 a

.v ?

is

a after the parenthesis.


interrupted at e 5 and resumed by

"P

Then

e^outra.

e av

p.ev

answered by 8ibi

is

lav

imperfect participle.
so far as it could help
the same as that implied

is

(61 c 4

it

in

on

.).

/AJ)

The

iraa-a

re

avdynr)

4.

TO 8f

this

likely to

ol a

^(

77

yf.

e 4

e 6

3f

protasis

the reading of the Petrie papyrus, and


8e of the MSS.

^\Tcra

TtOvdvai

Most

is

is

more

have been altered than the roro

practising death without complaining.


or delete pafii oK, which is found not only in all

paSicos,

emend

editors

MSS. and citations, but also in the Petrie papyrus. The use of
the perfect infinitive need cause no difficulty for it is often used of
the moment of death which completes the process of TO dnoOvyvKeiv
;

Vahlen (Opitsc. ii. 213) proposes to construe pa8ia>s


with peXeroicrn, but there has been no question of complaining about
the practice of death, while we have had p a&W av edeXfiv niroQv^a-Keiv

(62a5.).

3-

(62 c lo)

and

below by

ouroo paSiias (p/peif.

aTroXXarroii/To

pqdiais

avrwv (63 a 7)

explained just

The

opposite is dynvanrflv dtrodvflO K.ovTUS (62 e 6).


All these passages are quoted by Vahlen himself.
8
icaTo. TWV |jiE(j.tiTjp,vcov,
of the initiated.
Cp. 70 d 7/2. This

resembles the
pio*>,

a 9

and the

SKxyovo-a

use of Kara

we expect

would be easier

It

c.

gen. with eVntroy,

O/KCO-

Btayovary,

which Heindorf

to write nTr^XXa-ypeV?;, for

no reason why the grammatical construction of

is

The

should be kept up.


nominative.

D 3

common

after dmi\\ayp.vr}

to read.

proposed
there

fairly

like.

v-rrdpxei

general sense of the sentence suggests the

fpicra, SC. CLVTOV.


YorjTevo|j.VT]

is

read

Te is

connective here.
in

creasingly frequent

by

not easy to decide between

it

This

Plato

as well as

and
is

by the papyrus.

is

a poetical usage, and becomes in


For a striking instance

s later style.

from his middle period cp. Phaedr. 267 a 6 Teiaiav


b 4
to think
SoKetv,
cp. 64 b 2.
b 5
dXX fj
.
76 a 6 n.
cp. 68 b 4. n.
.

It

the equally well attested yeyonrev-

72

Se

Fop-ymv

re.

NOTES
:j

81

ov: the relative cannot be repeated in a different case (cp. 65 a 5?/.),


o and w which are logically required as the sentence proceeds,

so the

are simply omitted.


alperov

4>iXoo-o4>ia

TotHro 8e

6iiX-r](jL|a. v7]v,

78 c 8 n.
broken up

cp.

The meaning

Stallbaum compares 7 ini. 29 a 6 Xo yw Km

by

of dinXafj-fidvetv

patched

it means
to pick out
Cp. Milton, Connis 453-75.

to colours,
tartan.

o-vp.(J>vTov

tal

though

that sense

is

m /nc/juroy

with

best seen from

is

and

o-i

the

nob 7.

distingucre^ as

/n(/)v)]?

corporeal

As applied
in

a quilt or

usually mean congeni


also find both words

We

excluded by eVTrru ^o-e.

sense of grown together (from a-v^vvm, to coalesce ), and


must be the meaning here. We also find (rvp^vcnt as a medical

in the

this

term, especially of bones.


1

I have not ventured to write KaXivSovhaunting.


7
l.itonica sunt Ka\iv8el(r6(u
though Cobet says (A L. p. 637)

KvXiv5ov[ivir],
Vfvr),

fv a/Midia,

admodum

v Trdar; a^aBia, et ocliose eV Sifcaor^iots KaXii/demu,

quis proprie

v 7r;A(u

aut ev

word

like the present use of the

Very

KL XivSftrni TOV Tf

fj.il

OVTOS Kal TOV

(3opj3o/jw dicitur

oi

is

quem-

Ka\iv&(urdai

Rep. 479 d 4 jumii;

Tos el\lKpivS)S,

The

7,-ou

Suggestion

is

that of a restless spirit which cannot tear itself away irom the
volutantitr
body. Cicero, Somn. Sap. 9 says circum terrain ipsain
of such souls.

which is just why they are visible.


810 Kal optovrai,
touch of Socratic playfulness in this theory. If the soul
we must give some such account ot ghosts as this.
ELKOS
ov

TV.

|xt vTOi
.

cp.

dXXd

.,

65 d
a

There
is

is

invisible,

;/.

common

formula

in Plato.

The ye belongs to

Km.

ofliie.
Cp.
8
Tpo^s, practically equivalent here to 8mm^, way
84 b4 107 d 4.
doctrine see Phaedr. 249,
e vSoOvrai:
2
cp. 82C2. For similar
;

a, 620 sq., Tim. 42 b, 91 sq.


we can say bad characters for people who have bad
use the word of the lower
characters, though we should hardly
are Rep. 496 b 2 7 vnlnv
use
the
to
similar
animals.
English
Very

Rep. 618
3

T\Qr\

e>

Tfdpa^evov r,df, 503 C 9 TO


By water on Ar. Poet. 1454 a 23.

Kal fv

73

jSe

^ain TUVTO

ij8ri

quoted by

NOTES

81
e 6

KCU
for

8u]vXa|3T)p,vovs

\ir\

difiXaftdcrdai

an

means

to

instance

avoid

of

carefully

polar expression
or
scrupulously

(ei Xa/Soos ).

82

a 7

f)

av

some

late

way they would take, a variation for of, which


unnecessarily read.
each class
Note how the gender is varied (i) TOV? .
the

toi,

MSS.

TOs, (2) ras TOiavras (sc. T^u^us), (3) eKarrTa.

a 10

Kai TOVTCOV

even
a ii

among

i.e. KOI

TWC

a\\o)v.

There are degrees of happiness

souls which are not wholly purified.

TTJV 8T]p,oTiKY]v teal TTo\iTiKT|^ opeTTjv,


popular goodness, the goodness of the good citizen.
This is related to philosophical goodness
Socrates admits the rela
just as true belief is related to science.

For the phraseology cp. Rep. 619 c 7 etiei avev


Here TTO\LTLKI] means belonging to

tive value of both.

(f)iXocro(f)ias aperrjs /^ereiXr/^ora.

citizens

(cp.

Gorg. 452 e 4), not political


a race civilized and tame like themselves.
.

and both words are used of men,


tame
cultivated
They mean civilized

regular opposite of j^epof

animals, and plants.


as

The

TOIOVTCV KiX.,

to

opposed

is (iypios,

savage

wild

avSpas |4.Tpiovs, good men, though of course only in the popular


sense.
might have had eVieiKets or a-rrovdaiovs with the same

We

meaning.

b 10

Cp. 68 e 2 n.

uXX $\ ra c|)tXofxa0i the tendency to polar


The sen
expression here asserts itself at the expense of logic.
tence ends as if ovdfi i had preceded.
We must remember that
and 0iXo/*a(9/)ff are synonyms (Rep. 376 b 8 AA/Vi /jo/rot
(faXoo-oc^o-avTt

P.TJ

<iXdcro<os

TO yf

c 3
C 5

<j)i\op.adfs

ol opGvis

(f)t\6(TO<pov

4>iX6o-o4>oi

oiKo4>9opiav,

ol

Kal

cp.

TUVTOV

67 b 4

|).

For

tzXX

rj

cp.

68 b 4 n.

;/.

waste of substance.

c};i.Xo)(pT][AaToi

are contrasted with ot

4>iXapxot

Kal

4>iXoTi-

Here once more we have the Pythagorean doctrine


P.OL just below.
of the tripartite soul and the Three Lives
Cp. 68 c I n.
t-rrtiTa emphasizes the preceding participles.
c 8
(| i
p.(VToi p-d Aia
cp. 65 d 6 n.
.

o-oa(a,a,Ti

TrXaTTovTes

<x>cn

most editors suspect

has been emended in various ways.

The

TrXdrrovTef,

and

true interpretation,

it

how

He pointed
ever, was given by Vahlen long ago (cp. Opusc. i. 83).
out that TrXuTreiv is used much in the same sense as depaireveiv in
74

NOTES
64 d

and 81 b

2,

TOiJ fJ.VOOiS

ttlJTU)l>

Cp. also Plut.


TO

cro>/ua

7TO\V

fj.ll\\(ll>

TCI

t)

E^i

CjlCjciKTOt

rtW?

m*

T(US

awpi

TTA<ITTOI/TU.

TLT0at

and Coiiolanus 32. Vahlcn holds


governed by COKTI, and that the meaning is

which

tO

\pail>,

eVi^eXwsr

f axTTTfp

439

apfr//

77

c 3 KIU n\iiTTfiv ras

CTW/JUTU

TrAuTToumjy

is

(TwfjuiTL

and compared Rep. 377

be added 7 / ;//. 88 c 3

may

passage

82

rmr X f

1
P"

further that
live for the

body, moulding it into shape


though the only example of
c. dat. in this sense which he
quotes is in [Dem.] 7. 17
(V (pavrw
^oJirff *cu ou rfj iavruv TTMT/JI ^I.
Perhaps Kur. A W 646
If this is not accepted, 1 would rather read
TJV fie may be added.
,

<InXiWo>

e<i

TW

than have recourse to conjecture. The rrwpm of


however, the difficilior lectio, and I believe Vahlen s inter
Plis discussion (Joe. cit.} of the use of parti
pretation to be right.
ciples with an object to be understood from the context should

o-w/xfim with

is,

be read.
3

x a ^P

TTJ

dismissing from their thoughts.

LV eiTrovTcs,

Ktivr]s Xuo-ei

dorus quotes some


ideas

"Opyia

TolcflV

this, as

well as Ktiduppos,

3 n.

crv fie
eVreAeVoucn, \vo~iv irpoyavwv nde/uorcov
fj.ntop.evoi.
Xl CTetf K T f ITUl lAV ^ .lAfTTCOJ K(U
K.
fdt\f]O 6(l
j

KpllTOS OVS

^O)l

Cp. 63 e

Orphic.
OlympioOrphic verses, which at least contain some old
is

aneipovos oicrTpov.
i

taking in hand, as a doctor takes his patient in

-n-apaXapoOo-a,

hand

for treatment.

The

vb.

TrupaXanfiuveiv

22

too high

mi-s

It is noteworthy that Socrates now


cp. 62 b 3 n.
the
and
very doctrine which he had put aside as
expounds
adopts

SiaS8ef.uvr|V

for the flpyp.6s

The reason

clearly the (jipovpn.

is

able to give a more scientific account of it.


Here the word means
cp. 81 d I n.
KvXivSovfi.evi]v

that he
2

technical in this

is

Cp. Rep. 541 a

sense, especially of teachers taking pupils.

is

is

now

wallowing

Cp. Polit.

309

TOVS

K v\iv$oi iJ,evovs, Theaet. 172

c8

<=v

dpadia

ol tv diKna-ri-jpiots

KUI
.

simply

razm
.

><>

TI

KuXu/Sou-

fiVOl,
TTJV Seiv^T-qra,

see,

none

the cleverness

the ingenuity

of the editors take the

just that the prison-house

is

point

is

make
on

the prisoner co-operate in his


8t

tm9unias

to-rCv, sc.

in this

sense

So

far as

can

own imprisonment.

ipyp6s,

75

but surely the


ingeniously contrived so as to

word

that

it

is

effected

by mean?

NOTES

82
of desire,

that

i.e.

has desire as

it

instrument

its

As we

shall

and pains, with which emOvaia is concerned, are the


agents by which the soul is imprisoned (83 d 4
84 a 4).

see, pleasures

e 6

an extremely rare construction


prose, the nearest parallel being Xen. Cyr. i. 3. 8 KOI
ws av

This

tiT].

is

in

Attic

di86a<rt

rpicrl

daKTV\OiS

KTTu>fj.a

OTTO)? c.

rr/v

oxovi>Ts

rw ue\\oi ri

fi\i]7TToraTa

Kal

<j)id\r)v

fut. ind. after verbs of

ws av

7Tpr)(T<j)tpov(TLi>,

It is

Tvivfiv.

TO??

dolfv TO

ei

equivalent in sense to
(the idea of con

ways and means

trivance being implied in SfivurrjTa). In other words, ? is a relative


adverb of manner, and av is to be taken closely with the optative.
so as best to secure the prisoner s co-operation in his

Tr.

imprisonment

83 a

TOO StScVOcu

the

MSS. have

normal construction of
person with

whom, gen.
fie

av\\ij\l/<>fjiai

am

TOV&C

croi

otJTco

Trapap-tiOetrai

on

av

TW, but

co-operate (dat. of the


of the thing in which).
Cp. lur.Mcd. 946
TTOVOV, Xen. Mem. ii. 2. 12 ivn
dyudov
.

Kayo>

$2 dyadrj

"J.

<rvXX/;7rrpia

TU>V

ei>

flpijvy

in this state.

go together,
70 b 2 n.

Heindorf s ror restores the


to

a-iAXa/n/Sdmi/,

ib.

yiyvyrat (JuXX/y/rrcop,

3.

own

C;).

OVTCOV
here it is once more implied that both the
and the objects of thought are oWa. Cp. 79 a 6.
rcoi/
opp. avrr) KaO* UVT^V, and virtually equivalent to

TWV

objects of sense

8t

aXXcov,

<na

alvfl^aftdv.

v aXXois ov aXXo, opp. aiiro Kad nuro, that which varies in


varying
conditions, as opposed io TO dd UKTCUTUIS ex 01
OVTCOS emphasizes the preceding participles.
Tr.
It is just
6

because she does not think


Kai
It

is
cj>6/:>cov

looks as

if it

it

right to ... that she

omitted by T, the Petrie papyrus, and lamblichus.

had been inserted

to

make

this clause

symmetrical

with the next, in which


Xvir-rjOr] appears to have been inserted for
Plato avoids exact symmetry of this sort, though
a similar reason.
-fj

his editors, ancient

b 9

and modern, often

Too-oOrov. here practically

so small

foist

it

on him.

iv: lamblichus has cb?, which would be more regular, but is to


be rejected for that very reason. The partitive genitive is used as
if only oudev, not o^fieV TOO-OVTOZ/, preceded.
c 3
Kal ou Xoy^erai auTo, and does not take it into account.
the emphasis falls on a/j.a,
A
C 5
a.va-yKueTai ap.a re ... Kal ...

76

NOTES
belief in the reality of its object

must

uxriTep

is

easily

have been dropped by

after /^a/Wrn.

T|Xov

with a rivet,

t^ovara,

Prometheus, as Geddes sug^es


9

any
have really to deal, there
real, which is another way of

knowledge.

seems necessary and could

(rei)

haplography
4

is

arise simultaneously with

We

strong feeling of pleasure or pain.


fore, with a wrong view as to what

saying that goodness

83

s.

like

and

KpciToy

Bui in the

pleasure and pain that rivet

It is

the fetters of the bodily prison-house.


ol a
cp. 80 a 4;;.
:

Heindorf conjectured Kaflapns, comparing 67 a


but the Petrie papyrus confirms the adverb.

KctOapcis

82 c

contaminated

dva-n-Xc a,

211 e

Km

avQpu>iTivuv

("tp.fiKTOv,

Tim. 42 a

3 OTTO-*

15
1)

80 e2

67a5/z., and Symp.

Cf.

dXAu

p.!)

The feminine form

xpo>p.dTvi>.

cp.

tp.<j>TJ(r0a.i

"tainted

KadupuVy

el\iKplves,

ai
is

iirr\fu>v

crupK.ooi>

Ionic.

awpaoiv p.(pvTv6f ifV favayKrjs

(\l/v)(<n).

ol

SiKa>cos

who deserve
6

synonymous with

4>iXona06is,

the

name

01

op^a>?

$Xoo-o(oi,

Cp. 67 b 4

of philosophers.

those

;/.

equivalent to o-dxppuves. Cp. 68 e 2 n,


not for the reason given by the mass of
i veKcl
men (cp. 82 c 5 sqq.). It is not necessary to discuss the precise
The Petrie
nature of the ellipse here for the meaning is plain.
KOO-JXIOI,

oijx

4>acriv,

papyrus omits

f^iatv, as

Hermann

originally proposed to do.

This

the only case where it conh rms a modern conjecture.


It is better to punctuate after yap than to
ou yap,
No, indeed.
2
take oi yap AAu together with the older editors and Riddell (Dig.
is

156).

We must subordinate and say that,


KrX.
soul, the soul should
philosophy s business to release the
hand itself over to pleasures and pains to fasten its chains once
rV]v

while

more
4

p-tv

it

<J>iXo<ro4>iav

is

aOr-riv,

of itself,

of

its

own accord

Cp. 64 a

5.

the correlative of irapa\appAvtiv (820


Once more pleasures and pains are represented as the agents
I
.).
The elpyp-os is & fjri.dvp.ias (82 65).
of the soul s imprisonment.
SC.
Cp. 62 b
iv,
endless task
?
^To X ipi5o|iVTis, to engage in the
PY ov

8204)

T-apa8i56vat (cp.

TU>

is

3.

(ra>p.(iTi.

77

NOTES

84
of a Penelope handling her

web

in the opposite

The

way.

vulgate

HfTaxfipt^o^fvijv is a late conjecture

and has nothing- to commend it.


I
formerly read /uera^etpt^o/uevT? with Peipers, which is certainly
better (cp. R. G. Bury in Class. Rev. xx,
But ^ra^ipi^np. 13).
pevijs is the reading of BTW, attested by the Petrie
papyrus and
lamblichus, and would not be a natural mistake. It would be
safer to write nvos for nva if
any change were required but the
web is the real point of the metaphor, and the indefinite
pronoun
;

attach

may
a

itself to larov for

that reason.

TOTJTOJV, SC. TO)V f1Tl6vfJLl)V.

a 8

v TOIJTCO ovcra

59

cp.

a 3

11.

what is not the object of belief (8oa), but of


knowledge. The word is found only here in this sense. Cp. the
similar use of av6i)rov above 80 b 4.
TO dScgao-Tov,

tive
all

b 4

human

465 b

Umi

as

fi^ti/,

shown by the nomina

is

soul believes that after death she

|XT|

oidsi

last

8 ovdev

[ravra 8

there

4>o/3ir]0TJ,

Gorg. 520 d

8eiv<>v

fjn]

rrore

eiriT^Sevo-acj-a]

no danger of her

is

de ddi uv prj tv

more probably an ancient

e/j.oi

there

err/;,

5 ovSev deivov ta
.

ra>

is

OTTOS
tv

[ATI

(70 a

The whole

2).

Narrative interlude.
to

Cp.

fearing.

no

fear of

my

^t^ocrrar^cr^.

take this to be an explanation

variant for, CK

d>]

of,

TTJS Toiavrrjs r/io^r/y.


is

or

To

to hide the

cp. 77 b 4 n.

aTraAAayT) TOTJ

TT]

done with

/^Trore ddiKrjQy, Rep.

change 6 into y with Stephanus and most editors


wound, not to heal it.

O 6

is

ills.

ouSev Scivov

being the

The

dcjnitofjifvr}.

Apol. 28 b

not

dTT7]\\cx x 0ai, sc. owrai,

crco|JLaTOS

i.

6.

7TtOQ.V cnrn.\\n~yT] TOV (TWLtciTOS

clause refers back to what Cebes said at 70 a.

Socrates

what he says (84 c

is

as ready as ever to hear objections

85 b

9).

This long interlude marks off the first part of the dialogue from
the second, in which more serious objections have to be faced than
those of

01 TroXXoi.

irpos TCO

Xo-yw

There are scientific objections too.


was absorbed in the foregoing argument.
TJV,

yiyvo
Cp. Phciedr. 249 C 5 npbs yap fKfivnis dei ecrrif, d I rrpus Tw
Trpos rco KaQ f)p.epav dvayKafavrai
pe^oy, Rep. 567 a I Iva .
deiu>

Dem.

19.

127 oXos rrpbs

roS XiJ/z/iari.

78

NOTES
is

ISetv

t4>atvTo,

his

appearance

the

Same

as

o-fjuKpov

little

to

for

ftx.<i)v,

Cp. Tim. 52 e
cos

opdv

^mWro,

TTni>ro^am]v

Opposite Of

Idelv
<<uVeo-$m,

IlaXXnf.

went on talking

SieXtYf o-O^v,

The

).

lit.
as he appeared to look at
to judge from
In this usage the epexegetic Idelv means much

tyiv.

rfjv

Eur. Her. IOO2

84

in

(o-)p.ixpov Xcyeiv,

a low voice

&C.,

is

for

(not

peya Xtyeiv, &c.

speak loud.
xei.

Kal avTiXa^as
it admits of,
suggests, gives room
misgivings and is open to many forms of attack
like dvTi\r)^ig t 87 a 6, is a metaphor from
the
wrestling,
:

vn-ovl/uas

many

Xa/3?;,

(<U<TI-

opponent

grip ).
that you will find a way out of your difficulty, evnopin
being the opposite of oVopia.
trdXcu, for some time.
Cp. 63 d 5
5
.
2
P-T)
BtdKeinai of fear for something in the present, whereas d 7

tvnropT]o-i,v,

p.rj

ft

refers to the future,

lest

should prove to be

it

It is

incorrect to say that the present indicative implies certainty.


TWV KTJKVCOV for the swan-song cp. Acsch. Ag. 1444
5e mi
4
TOV va~TaTov fifX^acra 6avd(rtfj.ov yoov
Kflrm.
(Cassandra) KVKVOV
:

17

di<rv

Aristotle, Hist.

2 codixol Sf (oi KVKVOI) Ktn nfp\ rds TfXfvrds


(ivairtToi Tai ydp Ka\ els TO TrtXciyos, /cot Tives tf^Tl

aoovcrii
res

napa

yocoSei,

An. 615 b

A(/3ur;v irepierv^ov

TI]V

TOVTCVV

Acal

ea)/)coi/

Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds,


KaXXicrTa

is

this

now known

has written

xa\

is

Blomfield

eV

TTJ

6a\aTTr) rroXXo??

cnr<>dvr]0~KOi>TCis

fviovf,

106 sq.
correction of the

Cp.

MS.

fidW-ni, and

be the reading of \V, though the first hand


We cannot defend /ua/Wru
p-dXto-ra above the line.
to

TOV 0e6v

Arcy

p.

loudest
That would be
by interpreting it as
was known.
I had conjectured before the reading of
2

u8nvo~i

Apollo, as

we

/j.iyiaToi>,

which

presently learn, and, in particular, Apollo

2
Hyperboreus who, as I have shown in E. Gr. Ph. p. 97, ;/. 3, was
the chief god of the Pythagoreans (cp. 6od2#.).
Aristophanes
too was aware that the swans sang to Apollo. Cp. Birds 769 ruuide

KVKVOl

(TVp.p.iyJ]

(3or]V,

6 ;($a) f(p(6p.evoi rrap

6fJ.OV

"Efipov

TTTfpoIs

K/JeKOVTf, UlKftOV

ATTuXXdJ

jroTap.6v.

their own fear of death.


TO aviTwv Stos TOV GavaTou,
(Some
editors wrongly take TOV davaTOv with /carafe VOOVTCII.)
There is some reason to
to sing a song of departure.
5
t^aSeiv,

79

NOTES

85

believe that the last song of the chorus was spoken of as ra ca>StKa
as well as TO egodiov.
The scholiast on Ar. Wasps 270 says so,

though the

text

Enn.

8 (p.

6.

is

generally

emended

to

TO.

egodind,

and

Plotinus,

xP^

1404. 10) says olov


ft;a8a>v.
Cp. Polyb.
xxxi. 20. I p.drrjv eacrur TO K.VK.VUOV, Plut. Synip. l6ic
(of Arion)
K.VK.V&V
f^aaai 8e KCU TOV fiiov rcXeurcof, /cat fj.rj yei>eo~@ai, Kara TOVTO
9.

TU>V

ay

rj

re cnrjSuv Kal

formalism of the

Ktu 6

x^<-Sa)v

(note

tiToij;

article, Riddell, Dig.

how

Plato avoids the

These are the three

237).

birds of Attic legend, Procne, Philomela, and Tereus.


Philomel
is the nightingale in Athenian
legend.

Procne, not

in a higher degree than, cp. below 9503.


The
Sia4>6p5vTcos fj,
construction duxfrepeiv rj is as regular as
c.
gen.
we know from the Apology that Socrates
tepos roO auroO 0eoO
5
regarded himself as consecrated to Apollo by the answer given to

b ^

<5m<epetv

Chaerephon at Delphi. The view that Plato invented this does


not merit discussion.
With the expression o/xofiuuXor cp. ApoL 23
C

b 6

did ri]v TOV Oeov \aTpfiuv.

ouxetpov
that

I
possess the art in no inferior degree
provided than they are with the gift of pro
hands
Cp. Hdt. iii. 130 <p\avpa)s ex LJ r n v

that

Xiv,

am not worse
at my Master s

phecy

rexyriv.

b 8
b 9

TOUTOV

so far as that

/ ?vKa,

is

Cp. 106 d 2.
normal, and the position

concerned.

the absence of the article


A0T]vcuuv
of the word suggests the official style.
:

is

The Objections of Simmias and Cebes (85b 10


(i)

03

The Objection of Simmias (85 b 10

86 d

95e6).

4).

TO p.v o-acj^s eiSt vai, sure knowledge.


As we have seen (62 b 5),
Plato represents Socrates as speaking with a certain reserve as to

the details of the doctrine.

04

P.TJ

oux<-

first is

Ka 1

H-TQ

and therefore takes


tive

the negatives are not co-ordinate. The


eivai avftpos (which implies a negative

dependent on fiaXdaKov

statement of

uj)

ou).

rrnvrl rpoTrcp

every way without desisting


ing

them on every

side,

The second merely


f
Tr.
To
Xey^eij/.

till

one

is

introduces a nega

shows a very poor


80

spirit

them in
by examin

fail to test

utterly exhausted
.

NOTES
7

TJ

p.a0tv

f\

Cp. Soph.

either to learn (from another) or find out

evpelv,

This contrast had an almost proverbial


currency.

(for oneself).

731 ra

fr.

tvKTa irapd

85

6eu>v

SiSaKra navQdva,

p.ev

r/rr/crd/xr;!

So below gg

el

6xovfXvov: Cp. Ar. Knights

raOra dSvvarov

Cp. Parln.

60

rti

vp(T(\

(TJTU,-

TIZ

<5

c 8.

a 2 ravrn 5e dftrvarnv

fW

t(f)di>r).

244 Xen-rr; n? ATTIC


;r o^oiVe^".
wo-TTtp t-rri o^tBids
cp. Cic. 7 w.sr. i. 30 taniquam in rate in ma>i
immenso nostra vehitur oratio. Simmias is thinking of the raft of
\

Odysseus.
\6yov Geiov TIVOS

this

must

refer to the

Orphic and Pythagorean

quite in keeping with all we can make


out as to the history of Pythagoreanism that Simmias and Cebes

doctrine of the soul.

It

is

they can no longer accept the \oyos of


are just about to learn that they had adopted a
view of the soul which was wholly inconsistent with it. I assume

should

feel regretfully that

We

their society.

that Heindorf

is right in deleting
for otherwise the whole phrase
must go. The conjunction is never used to introduce an explana
tion. Even, however, if Ao-you 6f iov
is an adscript, or a question
asked by some reader, it gives a perfectly correct explanation of the
/}

fj

TIV<IS

*;

meaning, as

is

irpos t|xavTov

i\JLOiye,

shown by c 9
cp. g5 e 7 ^P

TU>V

dvdpatnivwv \6yo)v.

eaVTQV

TL a-Kf^dp-fvos.

SC. ov fpaiffTiii iKavons elprjtfdat.

with regard to the tuning of a lyre and its strings.


important to remember here that dpp.nvia does not mean what
It has its literal sense of
we call harmony
tuning in a certain
key or mode, from which its other senses, scale and octave are
iTpi dp^ovias,

It is

easily derived.

Cp. 86 a
o

tv

rfj

\Vhat we
r]pp,o(rpfi>rj

call

Xvpa,

harmony
in the

is

tuned

Greek

in

a-vp.<po)via.

lyre.

framework of the lyre, Sia-i-/^ and 8iappT]^T)


Kard^
Schanz (Stud. p. 36) regards
cut and break ) to the strings.
It is true that in a 7 we have
to
an
as
it-rj.
adscript
diarep-r]
Plato s way
only ditppia-yviuv and not StdTcr/z^eVcoi but that is just
refers to the

di<ippi

of avoiding formal

symmetry.
Bekker brackets t*v, which restores the normal
dv eu]
6
ou86|xia
construction on the assumption that eu; is indirect speech for W.
But the direct speech might very well be av tirj, which would remain
.

i,

unchanged
)

dXXd

in oratio obliqua.

4>aiTj

dvdYKTj

eCvau

the original protasis


Si

el TIS

NOTES

86
.

w? KT\.

resumed, but

is

Of

parenthesis.

no

effect

course,

in oratio recta, as

r/xitr?

upon the construction.

still

is

natural after the


in

depends upon

the parenthetical

It is

adapted to the construction of the long protasis.


d\\d
dvdyKrj KTC.

but has

4,

0^n

We

inquit,

might write

(<j)aiT])

b 5

ow KT\. Simmias here interrupts himself. He thinks


as
well drop the imaginary ns and state plainly that the
may
The
comparison of the soul to a appoviu is their own doctrine.
KCU yap

he

hesitation with

of the sentence,

he expressed
KCU avTov

which he does so is responsible for the cumbrousness


and is the natural consequence of the feelings which

in the interlude.

KT\.

o-

it

is

assumed

that Socrates

is

familiar with

the recent developments of Pythagoreanism, though he

may

not

accept them.

b 6

who are we this time? Most editors suppose


xmoXap.pdvop.6v
that no particular school is meant, and that the theory under dis
:

cussion was simply a popular belief.


This is most improbable.
It has all the marks of being a medical theory, and we now know
that Philolaus was a medical writer (E.Gr. Ph. 2 p. 3221.
Further,
the doctrine was held at a later date by Aristoxenus, who was
2
acquainted with the last of the Pythagoreans (E. (Jr. Ph. p. 320).

We shall see below


disciples of Philolaus like Simmias.
(88 d 3) that Echecrates, another disciple of Philolaus, had accepted
too.
I
have pointed out elsewhere (E. Gr. Ph. 2 pp. 339 sqq.)
it
how such a doctrine would naturally arise from the attempt to
who were

adapt Pythagoreanism to the views of the Sicilian school of medi


cine, which were based on the Empedoclean doctrine of the four
elements

identified with the

opposites

hot and cold, wet and

2
dry (E. Gr. Ph. p. 235). Further confirmation of this view will be
found in the following notes. Aristotle says (De An. A. 4. 407 b 27

KUI a\\rj df TIS


TJTTOV

da

yivoptvois \6yois
\fyova~iv
rrco/na

Tra^aSefiorai nepi v^u^r/y, mdavrj

TWV \yo/j.V(0v t \6yors


Kol

(i.

yap

avynf Icr^ai

e.

&

rroXXoZs ovdefiias
1

fj.ev

axrnfp tvdvvas fiefito/cvla /cat rols ev


dialectical discussions) &pp.oviav yap riva avrrjv
KOiv<a

rf/v dpfj.ovt.av Kpdcriv KCU

avvdefriv evavriatv fivai, KOI TO

fvavrioVt

The body is thought of as an instrument


uxTTTcp lvTTa|jLvov KT\.
tuned to a certain pitch, the opposites hot and cold, wet and dry
taking the place of high and low (ou KOI fiapv) in music.
82

NOTES
g

86

KCII <rwxo(Xvou,
and held together.
It is the presence of the
opposites hot and cold, wet and dry which keeps the body to
gether, so long as neither opposite prevails unduly over the
other (cp. Zeno, ap. Diog. Laert. ix. 29 *al ^in^> *c/j/ua

iinipxeiv

f<

T(ov

(the four opposites)

irp06lpr]p.(V(av

Kara pydevos TOVT&V

fTTt-

K.paTf](Tiv}.
iiiro

This was the characteristic doctrine of the


Me no s lm-/Hvri)

OepixoO KT\.

Cp. Anon. Lond. xx. 25 (from

school.

Sicilian
$tAtOTta>I

TfTTupav

(Herat

t(3ea>v

rerrci/jco^

f<

TrvpoSj

CTToi^eicoi

cri^eordrai

uepos, vdarof)

yrjS.

rorr

?//t"jf,

eariv

df KCU

fivai

CKI HTTOV

dvi dpeis, TOV p.ev nvpus TO depp.6v t TOV de ae/jo? TO ^I ^pnr, TOV Se ufifiTO^

TO

vyn6i>,

6epp.u>,

$e

rfjs

Eryximachus

TO

yijs

in Synip.

Cp. the speech of the physician

gj]puv.

l86 (16

TTiKpov y\VK~i, ^rjpov

vypw

Kul otiovoiav 6 TjfjLeTfpos Trpoyovos

?O-TI 8e
.

e\ ^cfrra ra fVa^T-icorara, \lsv\pni

TOUTOI? enKTTrjdels

Ao*/<Xj7rio

<Tvi>

c-

/xura

t.(m]<.r^v

e/j.rroiijiKii

Tr v
t

ijj.Lt~tpuv

The word was properly used of the


Kpacrtv, temf,c}-atnram.
mixture of wine and water in the Kpnr^p in certain fixed proportions.
This seems to have been an earlier way of describing what the later
Pythagoreans called a ap^n-ia. Parmenides (fr. 16) already speaks
Laertius ix. 29 ascribes the theory
/nfX/cov, and Diogenes
above b 8 ). The whole doctrine of the temperaments

of the Kpiuris
to

Zeno

(cp.

a development of this.
Eryximachus (Symp. 188 a i) uses both
TOV eviavTOv (TVCTTCHTIS)
in connexion with climate (// rcoi/
re tifppa Kin ra ^t ^pa
.
. . TT/JOS uXXr/Xa
erreidav
which is

is

terms

u>pd)f

good

KU! ^r/pa xai i^ypu

. .

TO"

dropped.

is a regular synonym of <meW, relaxarc^ to


intcndcre.
opposite is emrcivetv,
In Attic the word <f)t)uyyng is
in musical notes.
TOIS ^OoYYO -s,
note (whether in music or
confined to the

oTav xa\ao-0TJ
loosen a string.
^v

x<i\ai>

The

practically
the notes of birds)
1

Apfjiovlav /cat Kpaffiv \aj3y croXppova.

After the
if then our soul is just a tuning.
cl ovv Tvyxavei KT\.,
the protasis is resumed
explanation given in the last parenthesis,
el TLS Sucr^upi C HTO
(hence ovv) in another form. For the present
KrX. is

opa

ow:

words

tav

meanings
and accent
.

this introduces the apodosis,

TC

d|iol,

which also contains,

a reminiscence of the original protasis

83

in
<t

G2

the
TLS

86
d

TU>V

(2)

v rc3 0-wp.aTi,

which the body

of

NOTES

The

of the elemental
opposites (hot-cold, wet-dry)

is

composed.

objection of Cebes (86 d

588 b 8).

with a broad stare


(aor. pep. synchronous to
This verb occurs nowhere else before Aristotle
eWz/tW
Aia|3X>as,

12

wW

TV

7(ip

ei 6 coXa

?<fo).

462 a

Ilepi

vcuTfpav Kai ndp-rrav

TroXXa Kivovp.(va,

where

it

8iapXeirov<riv,

cav

rj

o-KoYor,

means

having the
The words
eyes wide open
tltodu suggest that the
reference is to the well-known
peculiarity of Socrates eyes de
scribed in Theaet. 14369 as TO
ruv fypaTw, a
peculiarity
also referred to in Xen.
Symp. 5. 5, where Socrates says that his
<f>nivTat

a>o-7rep

plainly

eo>

eyes are able to see, not only what is in front of him (TO KUT tvdv),
but also TO
irXayiov (obliquely) 8ia TO eTrnroXaioi flvai (because they
are afleur de tete}. That this is the
r&v op.ud.Tw
meaning of TO
is, I think, proved by the opposition of
Theaet.
e6<f>0aXpos (so Plato,
f<

ea>

209 c i) to KoiXo^daXpos in Xen. Eg. I. 9, though in itself Campbell s


suggestion that TO eco refers to the position of the eyes and the
width between them is perfectly possible. It is the same
peculiarity
which Aristophanes intends when he makes the Clouds say to
Socrates (Clouds 362)
does not mean through

Ta><j>6a\p.a>

but

patience.
Cp. Gorg.
already Hdt. ix. 48 TI

d 8

dTrTOjjLivcp rot)

a 2

509

Xoyov,

81}

ov

is

e 2 TI ovx CIVTO ye
.

pn

epa^ad^Oa

TOVTO dneKpira)

rpunov atyoiVTo rov

here used reprehendendi

So

handling the argument.

eirtcrKorrovv riva TTOTC

that aTTTftrQat

with a piercing glance


The phrase Tavprfbit wro/SXe \^ns below (117 b 5) means something rather different.
TI OUK diTKpLvaTo ; the aorist in such
questions expresses im

not translate

If this is so, 8ia7mpa/3dX \is.


as in 8ta(3aiva>, so we must

apart

Ad-you.

et

Cp. Euthyd. 283

Heindorf

impugnandi

view

potestate

seems improbable, though adopted in L. and S.


xP VOXJ fYYevop-c vov, when we have had time.
Cp. Symp. 184 a 6
ivn xpovos eyyevTjTai.
The phrase is common in Thucydides.
tirctTa [St]

the balance of evidence

is in

favour of omitting

8e.

Cp. 73 a 7 n.
auTOis, SC.

S.ip.p.iq

KCU

tdv TI 8oKwcrt irpoa-^Stiv,

if it

appears that they are at


84

all in

tune.

NOTES
The

86

voice and the accompanying instrument are said irpovaSfu- or


Socrates gently rallies the musical terminology of the

d-rradfiv.

Thebans.
3

4
5

Cp. 92 c

5.

turn i/cwum, then


anacoluthon, as f} has preceded.

OVTUS

t]ST],

ti-rrepSiKeiv is

and not

till

There

then.

is

a slight

a poetical word found only in late prose.

what is troubling you.


Here we have an old
word (Find., Aesch.), though with Att. -TT- for
Cp. the
Homeric reV/^^a. The reading
is
well attested, so n-imidv
nnpl\ei is probably due to the same hand as the interpolation at
TO ... Oparrov,

-<ro--.

T<*

The change

6963.
jecture

auTw

TO>

oirep

made

con

clearly a

is

xtLv,

our former argument

in

this

OUK uvaTtGepicu,
*ai rn? KeKivrj/jievas

177 b

sqq.).

(human) body.
Cp. 76 c 12.
do not retract, a metaphor arro

fjftrj

\|/i ,</)ous

pieces

Cp. Hippurch. 229 e 3 wirrrep TTtrreiwv


the construction of verbs of denying.
3

MSS.

have got no further.


to be open to the same criticism as we

to

civai,

TO.VTCV

ToSc TO fiSos,

of TO to 5 in later

)
e

T(^T ~frrei

o/"ro>i>

(Harpocration).
It takes
iiBtvOui.

ftiopdovvratv
^t/Xco

ai

KaAc?K.
Cp. 80 c 6 n.
The word is applied not only to arrogant
exaggerated.
OVCI
fV.-ix^f? X<V) ^ ut a so to
self-praise (Dem. Cor. 10 Iva
done or fulsome * praise of others. Cp. Laws 688 d 6 Aoyro
ire,

xapi/vTcos, syn.

irax0

fi>,

s,

"-

ni]8(i>

a)

tTTtuvfiv

|ere,

errax^fs

68
5

It
firax^^orepov.
for the

which accounts

is

this

just

way

sensitiveness

of speaking

to rn

described

in

e 2 n.

ov

SOKEL TT]8, sc. tKai Ms nTTofiefif tx^ u


deficient in this respect.

jxot

think the demonstra

>

tion

is

metaphor from wrestling

objection, a

(IvTiX-fuJm,

cp.

84

c 7 tun-

XajSay.

6 Xo^os
the argument is often personified in this
TL oviv dv
or the position of M V
way. Cf. Soph. 238 b 4 &s faaiv 6 Xoyoy.
that (fxiuj nv was not
familiar
was
so
a
i.
102
The
cp.
parenthesis
:

4>cuT]

I-

consciously to the speaker a separate clause. (Riddell, Dig. 295.)


The
with as much right as if.
Xtyoi,
wo-rrep dv TIS
OP.OLCOS
.

whole of this section


and
between 6 Xe

is

thrown into the form of a reported dialogue


amoTuv.

-yo>i>

85

NOTES

87

dvOpomov v4>avTov Trp6o-|3uTov, simply an old weaver*. It is idio


matic to add avQpanros to the names of trades. In Scots we might
say a

on

webster body

OUK o.Tr6Xco\v KT\.,

man

that the

not dead, but

is

is

safe

and

sound somewhere. Of course this is not supposed to be an argument


for the continued existence of the weaver s soul, but is meant to
disprove the fact of his death in the ordinary sense of the word.
The weaver corresponds to the soul, and the garment to the body.

cr^s

MSS. have

all

IO-OK,

but

difficult to reject

is

it

Forster s

view of the next line and c 5 below.


this touch is not necessary to the argument,
auros v4>Tjvd|Avos
nor indeed is it strictly necessary that the old man should be a
correction

in

<ra>s

weaver

at all

the body as

view that

The

its

it

but Cebes has in view a theory of the soul weaving


garment, which is pretty nearly the opposite of the
the appovia or Kpaa-is of the elementary opposites.

is

makes the soul a resultant of the bodily organization, the


former makes it the organizing principle. The view that the body
latter

the garment of the soul is primitive (cp. the Orphic x iTMV anc^
fr. 126 Diels cmpKwv aXXoyvam jrepurreXXovcra ^ircon,
E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 258,
but the theory of Simmias is essentially
i)
is

Empedocles,

uTTio-TouT] is

to involve

Such eclecticism was characteristic

Heraclitean.

Heindorf

an incredible anacoluthon
in b 4, not that in b 8, for

have the ns
c 3

of the time.

MS.

dmo-rav, which seems


seeing that ai/epcuro)^ must

correction of the
;

its

subject.

me

as a not very successful attempt at botching


the sentence after (ITTLO-TOLTJ had been corrupted into dmo-rav. The
TIVOS strikes

argument surely requires that the person asked, not some one
should give the answer, and we can easily supply O.VTOU from the
,

context.

C 6

TO 8(), whereas, cum tamen. This is a fairly common Platonic


idiom (cp. 109 d 8), though it can hardly be said that it has been
satisfactorily explained.

irdf

[-yap]

av

{."iro\a|3oi,

any one would retort, rather than


is more likely to have been

The yap
every one would understand
inserted in B than dropped in TW.
.

The asyndeton

is

quite

correct.

on

curves Xe -yei KT\.,

that this

used twice over in order to

make

is

silly

argument.

The verb

the construction personal.

86

is

NOTES
c 8

this

OVTOS, istt,

weaver of yours.
the relation of soul to body will admit of the

^ V X^\
o^p-a,
same comparison.
"""pos

(xtrpi(a)

&v

d 7

d 8

Xtyeiv

. .

cp.

4>aiT]:

pf oi

Y<ip

87

/.

q. fu Xe yttz/.

96 d

Cp.

6.

87a7w.

KT\.,

even

for,

man

perishing while the


alresh the web that

if

the

is in

body

a state of flux and

is

always weaves
is worn out.
This is a parenthesis intended to
The
justify the statement that each soul wears out many bodies.
optative

is

is

living, yet the soul

still

regular in the parentheses of indirect speech, and

<iXXii

means at. For the theory (which is just that of modern physiology)
Cp. I till. 43^4 TQ.S T1)S ClOuVUTOV \[rvX )S TTf^toSoD? (V$OVV (IS fTTlpuVTOV
o-co/za Kal dnuppvTov.
pp. 161 sqq.).

TVXIV

e 3
e

TTJV

4>uo-i.v

It

xovcrav,

is

must have

it

Heraclitean

essentially

its

TT,S uo-Geveias,

(E. Gr.

IMi.*

at the time.

Such words as

natural weakness.

are often used with the genitive to form a mere periphrasis


for the noun which they govern, but their proper meaning may
(pvcris

emerge more or
tmSeiKvticH

e c

less,
.

Xt yeti/, iff
P.OL ({laivoiTO

There

is

much

as here.

SIOIXOITO
.

the construction reverts to d


All this

is Still

the speech of

stronger instance of an

5
/>

fiV,

<7/

UTTKTTUV.

oblique optative with

depend on below 95 d 3.
These words are addressed, not (as Heindorf
el -yap TIS KrX.
and Stallbaum thought) by Cebes to Simmias, but by the supposed
Even if, he says, we were to make a still
objector to Cebes.
nothing to

(TOJ /Vyon-i
greater concession to the man who uses this argument
than the concession which you (Cebes) mention
(above 87 a i

<

sqq.).
e. the soul.
Cp. below 109 a 9.
Ihe
after
clearness
for
added
xV W)
xV
7
more regular construction would be to say either avrijv or yi-yi/d/zerof.
tnese words continue the protasis and still
8
avyx^P ^
\f.-r\Ktr\.
he were to stop short
If, having granted this,
depend on ft, 88 a I.

a 6

avn-6,

4/v

the thing in question,

r v
( ^\

i.

is

/u

l
l

y(.yvujj.ti>i]v.

of

making the further admission that


was technical for \v-neia6tu

irovetv

Cp. Anaxagoras (quoted in Aristotle


87

in

fifth-century

Ethics 1154 b

philosophy.

7) del 7ri-i

TO

NOTES

88

03

TOVTO OVTCOS ^x

8e

ei

KT X.

The

fl

original protasis,

TIP

which has just been continued by b 2


is dropped,
and a new protasis, resuming the argument of nr, is begun.
otStvi irpoorTjim,
no one has a right
is entitled
Stephanus

o-uy^copj^o-fiev,

<a/r?,

reads Tr/joo-^Km
GdvaTov OappoxJv-ri
h 4
1

(cp.

b 6

e 10 n.)

63

ivai

dvaYKTjv

which

is

as Qappflv is equivalent to ou (/*(})


naturally takes an object accusative.

it

(j)n^flcrdiu

dependent on b 2 (pair]. The reported speech


moment at b 4 npocrfjKei reasserts itself here.

is

for a

dropped

Dramatic Interlude.

The importance

The effect of the

objections (88 c

89

a 8).

argument is marked by the fact


and Echecrates, and that the
dramatic form is resumed. It has to be shown that current Pytha
gorean views about the soul are inadequate and that we must go
that

of this break in the

takes us back to Phlius

it

deeper.

C 4

-S

dmo-riav KaTaj3a\iv

cp. Phlleb.

1564

anop uiv avrov

e ?

/cnru/SaA Acof.

ou P.OVOV rots
tion

c 6

fir)

aXXd Kal

els TO.

The change

of construc

characteristic.

is

the

first

opt.

p,!)

ip.ev

the change of

TQ

mood

due to the

is

fact that

verb refers to the present, the second to the future. The


flfjifp is the indirect form of prj
tapfv, while ^17 ... 77
.

The subj. here might also


means lest they should prove to be
have become opt., but this would have obscured the difference of
meaning. For other instances cp. Riddell, Dig.
89.
.

tiTf pxeTai,

it is

ws

borne in upon me.

<3v

exclamations, like interrogations,

may be conveyed

by a participial phrase.

d 4

dvTiXa[x/3avTcu

this

a different application of the metaphor

is

from wrestling, explained 84c6. Cp. Farm. 13062


OK en airiXr/\^erat.
dvTeiXrjTTTai

OUTTO)

crov

(f>i\0(TO<pia

|j.eTT]X0

hunted.

252 b 8
this
\>.

is

)yt)v

TOV Xoyov

cp.

So Meno 74 d
CTI Toivvv

av

The

7669 n.
3

ei

olv

cocrTrep

\6yos

is

the

eyob utrrjei

Kara-yeXncrrorara

fj-GrioLfv

game which

the meaning appears from the equivalent phrase


Theaet. i66d8.

88

is

TOV Xo -yoy, Soph,


That
TOV \oyov.

NOTES

88

TI is internal object of dx^dfj.fvos.

(^orQei TOI

Here we have a

\iyu>.

different, but

almost equally

common, metaphor.
1

tKelvos

ws

cp. Riddell, Dig.

KrX.

T)8eo>s

uYa,puva:s

Plato

194.

5864 n.

cp.

uses

often

nyap.ai of the

produced on

effect

Socrates by his interlocutors.


interlude

Protreptic

(89 a 9

9105).

Warning

against

p.i(TO\oyia.

TIVOS

eirl xL|Ji.a,iT]Xou

Xa/Ltot^Xoff* dlfppiov

umpin

*i

Time LVOV

O-KI/JTTO-

(Timaeus,

fiiov

z/.).

This

KaTavi/tjo-as oviv KrX.

is

imitated in

Xenophon

Apology 28

Xeyerai Karn^//crnvra nuroi} rr/i Kf<j)a\f]V elirflv KT\. In Xenophon,


however, it is the head of Apollodorus that Socrates strokes. This

TOV

fie

for he would hardly wear his hair long like the


pointless
the following words that
It appears from
youthful Phaedo.
Socrates wishes to see how Phaedo will look with his hair cropped

is

as a sign of mourning.

What then ? Heindorf shows from Aristophanes that


TI
was a regular colloquial formula.
The metaphor here implied is the
10
cp. 716 13 77.
clvap\iocracr0ai
88 e2.
same as in fiorjBelv

AXXd

this

rcf>

X<

y<o,

el

SiacJ^iiYoi

p.e

here we have the other metaphor, the

hunting of the Xoyor.


C 2

wcr-rrep

ApYetoi

KaT(tKlp(lp-fVOi

vupnv Tf

C 5

0^8

plained in Eutkyd.
OS

rov

10

Jus

IIVTUV

TT(l8fj

loXcoji/

TI

TOI/

82

JJLIJ

A/r/ftoi ptv

dpe\l/fiv

HpaKX-qs

297CI
eXuTTfl

vvv

dirt)

Kop.rjV

Apycuav

the proverb

TOVTOV TOV

is

ov X
llpciK\ ovs, bs

roO

OVTCOl-

ficn^on

TOV

fV

a/mTTf/JU

erre/caXeaaro,

p.i]Ctru

more
* re

fie

cp. 61 e 4
the poetical form (cp. Soph. Track. 476)
:

ou

x/"^

fViU nyKff KO/JLfOVTfS, f7TOli](TaVTO

77/)()Tf/)or

npoTepov

dSeX^tfioCv

to-Tiv
<^uis

TOV HpaKX-q

i.

K6r/JaA<lf,

KaTt iprjv

Kcil

upos Svo

Hdt.

TtlS

fully
rjv

aira)

rfj

ex
Tt

duKfO)!

tKavisr

is

purposely

NOTES

89
used to suggest a poetical

reminiscence (Vahlen, Opusc.

i,

p.

485).

haters of discourses

fiio-oXoyot,

as appears from d 3 \6yovs

or

arguments (not reason


Minucius Felix, Octav. xiv.

pio-rcrar.

),

4,

quoted by Geddes, translates quite correctly igitur nobis providenditin est ne odio identidem sennonum omnium laboremus.

TOVTOV

-f]

Crito

cp.

C 2

44

ris-

av

mV;(iW

ravrr^s

etr;

doar) doKflv KT\.

Riddell, Dig.
163.
the meaning of this is made clear

^ VU Txvr]s
Tav dp taffeta.

by e

5 tivev re^^r/r

rr/f rrepi

Q 2

ou8v vyits Cp. QO C 3, Ar. Plut. 362 ws ovdev are^J/co? vyies


So Ct at. 440 C 6 Km avrov re
TCOJ/ OVTCOV
KmayiyvioaKfiv
ou^ev vyiep ovfievos
For the meaning of uyter cp. 69 b 8 7?.
qualifies xp^^rovs /cal Trovrjpovs, not oXt youf, as is shown by

oviSevos

ecrriv ovdevos.
dbs-

90

o-c}>68pa

a 4 T&V

a 8

TO.

(T(j)68pa (rp.iK[j(ov KOL

... aKpa

and the
b

b 4

aK/ja
:

<J>avTJvcu

the eV^ara are opposed to ra /iern^u,

are the extremes of these.

Cp. 72 C

ravTT] p.v ovx

comparison but

fj.(ya\a>v.

TCOV ccrxaTCJV

<iXX

this

tKeivT],

that

.,

is

not the point of

the term LogiC (XoyiK7/, SC. T%VT])


TTJS TTpl TOTJS XoyOVS TXVT]S
originated from phrases like this, though neither ?; Xoyifo; nor ra
Xoyim are used till a far later date. Logic is thought of here as an
I

dealing with arguments, just as the art of life


8965) teaches us to deal with men.

art of

(f)

Trepi

ra av-

dpurrfia re^frj

b 8

being

wv,

true

with

supplied.
Kai p.aXio-Ta

forgotten

We

so.

some
BT|

cannot take

editors.

KrX.

If

The

djv

here as equivalent to

anything,

protasis which

ol rrepl Totis

dvTlKeifJLfVOVS

(Diog. Laert.

ix.

drexvcos wo-ircp

change

must be

b 6

eireiddv is

began

dvTiXoYiKovs \6yovs SiarpLvJ/avTcs

was Zeno

of Eiea,

at

its

aXXjJXots, oiy
51).

Cp. 101 e

v Euptirc.)

/cat

the true originator

who was some twenty

2
older than Socrates (E. Gr. Ph. p. 358).
oi view Protagoras maintained duo \6yovs

C 4

being

^evd/js that

and never resumed.

of dvTL\oyiKol Xdyoi

ro?,

is

it

From
emu

cruv^pcora,

years
quite another point

nepl airavros irpdyiiaTrpcoroy

roOro irpdus

2.

the current in the Euripus

direction seven times a

day (Strabo

90

ix.

403).

was

said to

In reality

NOTES
the TTaX ippoia

more

is

go

irregular, being partly tidal

and partly due

to

Cp. Pauly-Wissowa, vi, col. 1283. The current is strong


enough to stop a steamer. For urexyvs introducing such expressions

seiches.

5ga4.

cp.

KUTOJ

uvco

is

2
(E. Gr. Ph. p.

ovruiv

417 n.

KaTnyi.yviciarK.fLv
K.n.1

pet,

KfpujJLia

Cp. Crat.

3).

a>?

ovdtv

are^i/oif

ol

a>tr7rep

440 c

ovfievos,

iiyits

Karuppu)

cu

czXXu

re

TMV

mil

Truira

vocrovi rfs

tovrrfp

("ivdputrroi

ra Trpayuaru diafcctcr&u, dno pip.<iros re KIU Kuriip^p/^tara e^etr^at.


Now, in the Theaetetus Plato makes

dieo dai

OVTU>S

rravrci

pov

KT\.
The language of this sentence is
elsewhere used of the followers of Heraclitus

o-Tp<|>eTai

which

just that

/cat

Socrates say that Protagoras justified his

avdpunos by basing

TTUVTOOV

xp^urooi ptTpov

on the doctrine of Heraclitus.

it

It

seems,

It is certain, at
then, that Protagoras is mainly intended here.
any rate, that Plato would not have made Socrates refer in this

way

either to Antisthenes or Euclides

for

both are supposed

to

be present.
9

ST]

TIVOS

the particle

the indefinite
i -n-eiTa

Sr}

follows the interrogative


108 c I 115 a 4.
7

Cp. 107 d

TLS.

marks inconsistency

n?

but precedes

or inconsequence by emphasizing the

preceding participle.

IQ
2

jx-r]

let

irapicop.ev,

iroXv |xd\Xov

us not admit

(from Trap/^u).

we must supply

eVi

owpef or some such word from

the context.
ot TTO.VU duai8etJToi

l 2

istic

applies the
ot

word

Atrio-tftVeioi

4>tXoviKcos

v<n

u for ignorance of Logic.

to the followers of Antisthenes (Met. Z.


ni

admissible here.

33

here we have the beginnings of the character

Aristotelian use of an-mO f

the

ot

ourcof

Cp.

go

arraidevToi),

but no such

(see

is

usual,

have -a-

for -/-, but

it

<pt\oveiKns,

is

very

strife-

from VIKTJ in Rep. 581 b 2


<J3i\oviitov
In every passage where the word occurs in
Here the sense
victory-loving is appropriate.

and Plato certainly derives

Adam,

Plato the
is

c 5 n.

MSS., as

doubtful whether there ever was such a word as


loving,

Aristotle

1045 lj
reference
3.

in loc.}.

meaning

clearly that Socrates

may seem

to be arguing for victory rather

than truth.
a

d auTol tOevro,

what they themselves have

6i(TflS.

91

laid

down,

their

own

NOTES

gi

a 8

i7) -nrdpepYov,
except incidentally.
Cp. Polit. 286 d 5 ir\r\v
T) rrdpfpyov TI.
b i
is TT\ovKTiKws Socrates playfully suggests that he is taking an
unfair advantage.
It is
Heads I win tails you lose
d\X ouv
b 3
at any rate.
The emphatic word is placed
ye,
between aXX ovv and ye in this combination.

el (et

[i.-f\

p.f]

04

T|T.

company by
b 5

avoid,

shall

oSvpofxevos,

be

less

likely

to

distress

the

lamentations.

Most

folly.

apparently without
the resemblance of

editors follow

Stephanus in reading

ay^ota,

MS. authority. B has Siaroui, a mistake due to


A and A. Schanz s de dtj ayvoiu implies a much
17

less likely corruption.

C 3

05

omitted in B, but this may be an accident.


C P- the description of the oratory of
Ktvrpov tYKaTaXiTrwv
Pericles by Eupol S (fr. 94 Kock) ourco? eY-^Xet KOI novns rwv prjrupwv
cuXa/3ovp.evoi is

TO

TO Kevrpov

Reply

to the objection

of Simmias (91

695 a

3).

The

objection of Simmias is fully dealt with, but that of Cebes is


found to raise a larger question, and leads up to the Third Proof of

Immortality.

C 7

C 8

The two views are resumed and carefully


2i[xp, as p.v yap KT\.
There is (i) the view that the soul is the appovia of
distinguished.
the body and must therefore perish even before the body, and
(2) the view that the soul weaves for itself many bodies, but perishes
with, or even before, the last of them.
in spite of its being.
6v,
op,cos.
.

by the

cv app-ovtas

oiW by

5ei ouo-a,

adv.

O/LUB?

is

attracted

a periphrasis which only differs from dp^oi/tn

being more emphatic.

ToBt d5ir)Xov iravTi, sc.

aTToXXx )p,vov ouSev Travcrai,


el

The

participle.

(pi ivai

to

Cp. above

8764

rrjv

cp-caiv

TJJS

be supplied from

unceasingly perishing.
Cp. 87 d 8
Dis
yap peoi TO awp.a Kal d/roXXvoiro en ^coj/roy TOV ai Opunrov.
is

tinguish owSeV tTaverai, ftnem nullumfacit, from ov navfrai.

Q2

a 5

v80T)vat

aXXo

cp.

iroTe TI

62 b
I

3 n.

now observe

ing, though he did not print

it

that Heindorf suggested this read

in his text.

92

NOTES
AXXd

dvaYKT] KrX.

iipp-ovUi

Simmias accepts.

shown

It is

with

inconsistent

is

92

first

the

that the view of the soul as

doctrine of

which

dvdp.vi]ai<;

could exist before the body of which


is
the attunement just as little as it could survive it.
it
This
brings out the fundamental inconsistency of the later Pythagorean
app.orla

doctrine.

riv Kara TO

be composed

to

VTTa|Atvcov crvyKtla-Qai,

(rcop.a

the elementary opposites, hot and cold, wet


here spoken of as the strings of the body.

and

for the phrase cp. 92 e 2


0-auToO XiyovTos
96 e 7. It
rou because B has nvroi.
superstition to read
cru[xj3aivt : the regular term for the consequences of a
:

of

which are

dry,

is

mere

<u

i -o$fcr<r.

Cp. d 6 n.

e56s T Kai

5
8

paring

it

the two terms are synonymous.


Cp. 73 a I
w anciKd(is, like the thing you are com

Cp. Rep. 349 d IO

tO.

86

e 3

TOIOLTOS- iipa

truis

uveu diroSeL^ecos (xerd CLKOTOS TLVOS Kai

(ruvgcreTai

9o8co/;oy

eV)9 ^oi ou

TOI

XXa

cp.

aXXos

J}

oi/S

o -ye

(vTrpirreiav p,aX\ov
.

\j-n-pTTias,

demon

without

Cp. Theact. 162

TWV yeu^rp^v x
Rulhyd. 305 e I Trcifu

Xdyoy e^fi

fKarepos airuv

e 4

iir>ot\.l~\.v

<5e

rir

v eif?,

TOIS iroXXots

C<JT\I>

"

from a specious analogy.

stration,

o-wfxa

d-neiKd^is: i.e. olov

co

ij

rti

V7rpTTiav TMV

ovydp

Kai yap e^et orran

aXifoiav.

most people who do hold it. We


it was a widespread popular

dvGpumois,

f^ eiVoros Xoyou
dfS/Jcoj.

cannot infer from this expression that


belief.
[

Rep.

impostors.

aXac<riv,

avdpvnois

560

C 2

Cp. Lys. 2l8 d 2

Xnyois runv

ahafr><riv

^v8ecs

8/)

TOIOVTOIS

Kat aXfi^Ji/es

(/>oou,im

[^tvdtaiv]
Tf Kai

utnrep

(nfTv^Kap-iv.

8<>at.

Xc5>oi

Socrates assumes that the mean


to his hearers from its use in geometry,
(
familiar
is
vrr60
of
ing
which is illustrated in a well-known passage of the Meno (86 e
8t

vtroeeo-ews igias uiro8Sao-0ai

<ns

Even Xenophon knew

sqq.).

the term

cp.

Mem.

iv. 6.

13

ei fie

rts

>

TO
/<r\

____

We

7ri

T^

V7rd^ f (7if

emv riytv

shall learn shortly exactly

93

av iravra rov \oyov ific

what a hypothesis

is.

It

NOTES

92
be

will

truth

sufficient to say here that

(TO. crv/jiftaivovra).

ceeded

Xoyoy

(6

acceptance
+
<j

it

is

a statement of which the

we deduce its consequences


The phrase literally means the argument proetp/jrat) by means of a hypothesis worthy of

postulated and from which

is

we are not told here, nor were we told above,


only
why the hypothesis in question is worthy of acceptance.
know that Cebes and Simmias accepted it at once. The position
of the argument, then, is this : Simmias declares that he cannot
d^ias aTroS^ao-Oat

We

give up the doctrine that /ad^o-i? is avdpvrjo-is so long as he accepts


the hypothesis, and this he will not give up.
The vnodeans is given formally above 76 d 7
epp-qO-q -yap irov KT\.
fl

fcrrtv

dpv\ov/JLfi>

Now

aet,

KaXov re

TI Kal

ayaOov

/cat

7ra<ra

r)

roiavrrj ov-

has been shown that we refer all our sensations to


this standard, and that this means that our soul already possesses
o-i

it

and rediscovers

lowed
a

it

in turn that

human body.

From this it fol


it in the process of learning.
our soul must have existed before entering into
These steps have been rigorously demonstrated

(liuivas aTroSeSeiKrai),

we must accept
d 8

and

therefore, so long as ive accept the inrudeins,

the conclusion.

of the soul
wcrirep auT-qs ecrnv KT\. : i.e. the pre- existence
certain as the fact that the reality which bears the name of TO 6

is

as

belongs to it (cp. 76 e I VTrdpxova-av rrporfpov avtvpiorKovres


This is the interpretation of Wyttenbach and Heindorf.

ova-(iv).

Most recent editors adopt Mudge s emendation ucnrfp avrf] eamv KT\.
That would, no doubt, give a correct sense ( as certainly as the
6
exists ), and would even
reality itself which bears the name of
be a more accurate statement of the ultimate VTTO&O-IS. But aur^y
serves to remind us of the point on which the whole argument

6<TTii>

namely that this ovo-i a is really the soul s original possession,


what we call learning is really otKfiav
dvaXanftdveiv
For the form of expression cp. Theaet. 16007 T^S yap
5).

turns,

and

that

(75 e
ffj-rjs

7ri<rTT)/jiT]v

ovcrias dei ecrriv

(17 ep-rj

TatiTT]v, sc. Trjv vnodeo-iv.

aladrjcris).

There

is

no doubt about the conclusion

what Simmias says


(TO o-vfjipaivov) being correctly demonstrated;
here is that he firmly believes himself to be justified (op6S>s) in

64

accepting the vn-oOea-is which forms the major premise.


the following argument proceeds on independent
TL 6^ . . TQSc
.

94

NOTES

92 -3-

and is based upon the nature of appovia itself. Socrates first


gets Cebes to make two admissions. These are i that every
uppovla
is determined by its
component elements, (2) that no
admits
lines,

<ipp.oWu

of degrees.
SOKCL croi
4

first

opoXo-yr^a (92 e 4
93 a 10). Every
component elements. The note which
give out depends entirely upon what it is made of. Jt

anything will
does not lead
8

The

KT\.

determined by

is

appovia

IloXXoxi

cvavTia

follows.

it

8ei

its

the subject

nppon n.

is

to move (vibrate) or give out


a sound in opposition to its parts, i. e. to the tension and relaxation
which produces it, as explained below 94 c 3.
Tt Be; KT\.
The second 6po\oyr)pa
a
No
.

KivT]0^vai

admits of degree.

-q

4>0f

Y^aa-0ai,

(93 11-137).
either in tune or it is not.

is

string

the language of the Philebus, dp/Wa


not admit TO p.a\\ov
T]TTOV.
OXJTUS
.
ws &v dpfioo-07], just as it

is

a form of

Trt

(ipfinvui

To

use

pu? and does

K<U

is

tuned to the fourth

octave (dia

is

Modern

tuned,
the

rtcro-dpwv},

(<Wi

i.e.

fifth

(&

according as

it

7rWf ), or the

editors suppose the

meaning to be just
what sense one appovla can
be more a appovid than another; but the meaning is stated quite
clearly below 93 d 2. Olympiodorus, representing the school tradi
Traaooy).

and vainly

the opposite

tion, is quite explicit

dXXa

e Xarra),

p.rjde

try to explain in

\moTi6cTai

fj,a\\ov

tm

p.r;$

eu/ai

p.!]

appoviav appovias

n\eiu>

nt/fte

TJTTOV.

Olympiodorus refers the first term to


and the second to the intervals. If a
string is in tune it cannot be made more in time by tightening or
Nor is it correct to say that the octave is more of a
loosening.
p.aXXov

Kal

pitch (eV/rno-iy

(ip/jioi

and

than the

ui

irXeov

(ivevis)

fifth

or the

fifth

iiTp evSextTai TOVITO YLyvcr0ai,

than the fourth.

supposing this possible, a plain

Socrates is only explaining what


not possible.
would be implied in saying that one 6pp.ovia is more a appovia than
It would mean that it was more tuned, which is absurd
another.
indication that

it is

we

e II the musician, in tuning a lyre,

as

will

not be willing povaiKov avdpos fv

TT\OV(KT(~IV
2

learn from Rep.

for,

*/

349

rfj

eVa-acrei Kal iiveafi

some inferior MSS. read


Kal tXaTTuv
more symmetrical, but the evidence is against it.
T^TTCDV

rwv ^op8

(ilOVV 1T\fOV ^X flV


i

95

TJTTUV re,

which

is

NOTES

93
*H ow

b 4

soul

That being so, we must further admit that, if the


no soul can be more or less a soul than another.

KT\.

is

dpfjiovia,

Socrates does not express a view one way or the other on this
He only wishes an admission from Simmias that, on his

point.

vTrodtcris,

must be

it

so.

So below 103 e 2. Cp. Lat. est ut,


some editors bracket /uuXXoy here, and it is
a sense redundant. We may say that it is more fully expressed

t 0-Tt

...

O>CTT

p-aXXov Irepav Irepas

5
in

by the words

b 8

<f>

p6

eVi TrXeov

Socrates

KT\.

8if]

TJTTOV.

now proceeds

to

We

but in the reverse order.

o/xoXo-y?}jLtara,

make

use of the two

have seen

that,

if

the

no soul can be more or less a soul than another,


i. e.
more or less a app.ovia. But goodness is also a dpp.ovia, and
souls differ in that one is better than another, which would imply
that one ap/.iovia is more or less of a appovia than another, which is
soul

is

ApfjLovia }

absurd.

03

TI

What

may

will

V rats vj/v)(cus

(eivai

c 6

\Ve can say n eVn ravra and the


being what ?
be asked by a participle in Greek. We must render
he say that these things are which are in our souls ?

ovTa

question

go together).

KT\.
Are we to say that both the good and the
bad soul are appovim, but that the good soul also has a appovia and
If we
is in tune, while the bad soul has none and is out of tune ?
TT|V p.v

T|p|i6<r6ai

we

say that the soul is a tuning,


be tuned or untuned.

TOUTO 5

e<m

TO o^oXoYTjio-a,

shall

this

is

have

just

to say that a tuning

may

Here we

our admission.

have an explicit statement that our admission was that no appovia


can be more or less a dp/zoi/t u than another. Editors who do not
see this are obliged to bracket dpp.oi-ias in d 4, or to explain it
unnaturally as the particular harmony which is the soul
.

TT|V 8

at

-ye,

The application of this to ^/v^r] only begins


here made depends on 93 a 14, where it was

sc. appoviav.

The point
that being more or less tuned would involve being

12.

shown

less a app-ovia,

d 9

94

which

is

i o-Tiv OTL uXov


fjLT6 X i
on is ace. neut. of oo-rtr. Cp.
MaXXov 8t Y* uov
y es
.

>

TOV

more

or

absurd.

6p06v Xoyov,

does

it

partake more in

e 7 up av TI n\eov KUKLUS

?
.

Here

p.fTex oi

or rather, surely
according to the right account of the
.

>

96

NOTES

94

to put the

matter correctly.
matter,*
It the soul is a
Appovin, no
soul can be better than another (for no
d/^omi can be more in tune
than another).
Indeed, no soul can be bad at all (for no appuviu
can be out of tune).
12
Do you think this would
Tvdo-xeiv & v ravra,
to our

argument

our

if

happen
Here the a-v^nivovra are

were right?

vrr^decriy

inadmissible, and therefore the vTn idearis is destroyed (nvmpt iTai).


For the use of rrao-^fti/ in dialectic cp. Farm. 128 d4 TOVTO &ov\,\perov 8n\ovv, cos en -yeXotorfpu TTUO-^OI uv avrcov
6OTII/, ?} T) TOV tV (ll dl.

r;

v7id$e<nr,

ft

jroXXci

Tt 8
Socrates now takes up the first of the two
n^oXoy^mra
and tests the hypothesis by it. It is the soul which rules the body,
whereas a appoi-ia is dependent upon that of which it is the cippju
;

.i

(93 a 6).
v TOIS
irpocrGcv

P.TJTTOT

dv

ots tiruTeivoiTO Kai

Km

av

Both negatives are legitimate

Here they are alternated

after dp.o\oytlv.

ga 64.

c 6 OUTTOT

xaXcoro

x (l ^ c l(T(rLV

fKtii

internal accusative.

tKeiva

lor variety.

equivalent to rtns fTiriiaf n iv

wv, ols representing TOVTOIS

This

is

sthenes (cp. Shillcto on de Fals, Leg. 415), but

Observe that

Plato.

\n\iiv

a,

where

is

Demo
common in

a favourite construction with


is

not

equivalent to avunn (icmitiere) the

is

usual opposite of t-mrelvfiv (infenderc}.


i};aXXoiTo is the reading of Stobaeus and seemingly of T before
5
correction.
As \// iXXfti- is the proper word for striking strings, it is
to refer to vibrations.

The vulgate reading rraAAon-o is supposed


The verb is used of brandishing weapons

and shaking

in

very appropriate here.

lots,

and

the passive of the heart

quaking

but

never of strings or instruments.


2

TCUS tm6vp.Cais
to Hermann

due

8iaXt?YO[Jitvir]

the

comma

after vovdcTovtra is

and makes the construction more

regular.

be observed, however, that such a construction as ra ptv


TU 8e vovdtToiij-a,

mis

(7ri6vp.iais is

It is to

inrfiXovati,

not indefensible.

The passage

is quoted in a similar
connexion in Rep. 390 d 4 441 b 6.
Ka6 dpnoviav in such phrases Kurd means in a line with
on
f\
the level of.
Tr. far too divine a thing to be compared with a

tv

OSuorcrtia

Od. xx.

ij.
;

appovia.
1!2DI

Aiistotle

made

use of the preceding argument in his

97

NOTES

94
Eudemus.
ovro>?

Cp. Olympiodorus

(vavr iov

ov$i>

on

TT;

yoVos

a>oi;

4-e

The
of

apfj.ovia

17

ai/
<IT;

vyieia

Objection of Cedes begun,

M<?

dXX ou^i

but broken off (95 a

6).

Etev

95 a 4

ApwroreXijp eV

dp/zoWa fvavriov fcrrlv f) ai>app.o(rria* TJ?


ovaia yap. KOI TO cru/z7repaorp,n $TJ\OV.
en* ei

e/rt^ftpei*

Thebes

now goes back

Socrates

KT\.

SY|

transition

(eijjSniVcijff,

to the objection of Cebes.

means

of a pleasantry about Harmonia


not Qrjpaiaf, for the KT^TIKOV, not the tffviKnv, is

effected by

is

used with names of women).

She has become fairly propitious.


and we must now tackle Cadmus (who married Harmonia in the
Theban legend), e. the objection of Cebes. There is no need to
i.

seek a deeper meaning in the words.


are to be taken together.
a 8
0avp.aorTJis
Cp. 102 a 4.
Forster s conjecture 6 n (or, as I prefer to write in accordance
ore
a 9
with ancient practice, on) is attractive, but it is hard to account for
.

u>s

the ore of

Tt

all

p-*Y a ^-*Y

other sense

ma.

b 6

MSS.

unless

original.

Cp. Theiiet,

no ^ boast.

/zr;

fieya

is

Ae ye-

malign influence,

the effects of which those

Linde proposes o ye
165 b 7 fi yap XP
f

Cp.

do not speak loud

T
295a7 A

pao-Kcuaa,

it is

Xoyc*)

TO>

\pi\<raa-Qa.i.

to

pe-ya ff)povflv,

be proud (the

less appropriate here).

Cp. Hipp.
Eur. Her. 1244 tV^e oro /i cos /xn
,

fascination of the evil eye


to
boast of their luck are specially

lit.

who

exposed.
TrepiTpc 4/T),

turn

to

flight,

keeps up the metaphor of e$oo?

above.

OfjuipiKus

7
is

kept up.

YY^ S

coming

Lovres,

Homer nowhere

The metaphor

to close quarters.

the phrase eyyvs


IOVTCS, but O/zr/pixcos may
uses

and

lovre?,

Herwerden would read aa-crov


mean like
Homeric warriors not in Homeric phrase
the sum and substance.
TO Kec|)aXaiov,
The word is derived
b 8
1

from the ancient practice of writing the sum of an addition

at the

Cp. Lat. summa (sc. lined).


top.
. .
not immortality, but only that
c 7
dOavao-uav |xv fx-q, on 8
the optatives are due to the indirect speech,
diroXXvoiTo
d 3
cpti
.

98

NOTES
though there

95

no principal verb with

is

STI (or
on which they
can be said to depend. They cannot, as some editors
say, depend
on c 7 07/f, for
only takes ace. c. inf.
Cp. above 8705 w,
where also the optatives occur after a clause introduced
by A\a
o>?)

<pavai

282.
Riddell, Dig.
. . .
eft) : the simplest explanation of this optative
i8i )Tt as
equivalent to ei
eidfirj.

yap.

cl in]

[7
TO)

fii)

The origin of

Narrative Interlude.
102 a
.

19

to regard

new Method (95

the

e 7

2).

Ou
s.v.

is

/j.>]

TrpdYjia,

<J>a{)Xov

irepl

no

no easy

light matter,

task.

Cp. L. S.

I.

I.

KCU.

Yv<reu>s

4>0opas

TT|V

the cause of coming into


is the title of

alriav,

being, and ceasing to be.


Uepl yewrcas
one of Aristotle s most important treatises, best
K<U

f/>^>/m?

scholastic

name De generations

et corruptione.

the

c.gen. is used
ace. under the influence of the

instead of the simple gen, or ire pi c.


verb diatrpayiMTfvo-aardai. Cp. 96 e6;

58 a

known by

llepi

9706; 97 d

98 d

6,

and

n.

my own

It has been strangely


so unwilling are interpreters to take the Ph. .etio in its
that these are either Plato s own experiences or an
plain sense
ideal sketch of the history of the mind in the search for truth.
TO. -ye

jjia,

irdOr],

experiences.

supposed

Besides the

general

considerations

stated

the

in

Introduction,

be noted, that the questions raised


are exactly such as were discussed in the middle of the fifth
century B.C., when Socrates was young, and that they correspond

there

is

this special point to

closely with the caricature of Aristophanes in the Clouds, which


was produced in 423 B.C., when Plato was a baby. iJy the time
of Plato s youth quite another set of questions had come to the
front at Athens.

18

irp!

4>vo-b>s

this is the oldest

lo-Topiav:

natural science

(cf.

E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 14 n.

name
2>.

for

what we

Heraclitus

(fr.

call

17)

said that Pythagoras had pursued iVropu; further than other men,
and it appears that even geometry was called by this name in the

Pythagorean school (E. Gr. Ph.


the term to what we call history
*

p.
is

107 n.

due

followed his predecessors in calling his work

99

>.

The

restriction of

Herodotus
and his pre-

to the fact that


Ivroplr],

"

NOTES

96

decessors belonged to Miletus, where all science went by that name


2
*
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 28). The term Natural History partly preserves
the ancient sense of the word, a circumstance due to the title of
Aristotle s Clepl ra coa lo-ropuu (Historia Ammalium).

a 8

tWopm and clScvai is added to it


Heindorf compares Gorg. 462 c 8 OVKOVV KuXoV croi
The vTrepfjprjTopiKr) fivai, ^apiea$ai olov r eLa6
of Eusebius and Stobaeus would simplify the construction,
agrees with o-ocpm or

xOTpY]4>avos

epexegetically.
doKel
<pavov

f)

ai>$p&>7rot?;

but the evidence

b
t>

d vo) K /ITCI)

is

it.

against

we say

backwards and forwards

Cp. 90 c 5 and
Gorg. 481 d 7 ^vca Kal KaTco /zTa3aXXopei>ov.
ws nves eXc-yov. This is the doctrine of Archeiaus, the disciple of
3
Anaxagoras, and, according to a statement already known to
i

Theophrastus, the teacher of Socrates


6 *A.dr)vatos

co

/cat

Soo/cpar?/

(cp.

avyyfyovevat

Phys. Op.

(pacriV,

fr.

4 Ap^eXao?

Avaay6pov

yevopei/cp

Vors? 323, 34; 324, 26).


The following are the
relevant quotations and rest ultimately on the authority of Theo

pa$r/Tr;,

Diels,

phrastus.

HippolytLlS, Ref.
OTT

aXXr}Xcoi/ ro

i.

2 elvai 3 ap\

9,

6epfj.()i>

v Trl ? Kivrjcreots

Kal TO ^fv^pov, ib.

ori 6(pp.aivofjL(vrjs rtjs yi]S TO Trpcoroj/ *v

Ka\ TO v|/v^p6r epuryero, avefpaivfTO


(ll

(ilTdVTa

dp(t}1TOl )

Diog. Laert.

ii.

T>]V

QlCLlTdV

(IIT>]V

17 yevvaadai 5e

(p^o-i

ra

^a

(K.

e /c

{TO) ano-

9. 5 TTf/Ji Se

{"foco^

Karoo juepci, OTTOU ro

re a XXa

TO.

%OVTCl

TU>

i.

TTjS

^"wa

TroXXa

/cai

tXuOS Tpffpo/.lfVa.

6fpp.rjf ri)r

y^f

<at

tX^v

This last touch explains


yaXaxri olov rpoCprjv ai>ieio~r]S.
the reference to putrefaction (cr^TrfScof). As Forster already pointed

Trapa7r\rj(TLav

medical theory made

out, early

and Galen says

(in

7m//i9, cibi concoctio,

Empedocles
Cp. Gen. An. 777 a 7 ro

8ie(p6apfj.i>oi^

/jifTt]VfyKf

rov

fie/air?/

7"P

EpTreSoKXr;?

TTUOV ?7rXero XCVKO^

ya^

OUK

77

used a bad metaphor

TTVOV crcnrpuTTjf TIS evTiv, TO de

cr?}\|ns-,

crwrjOeia TOL

Now

r/^els- arreTrra Xeyo/zei


for applying the afj\^Ls theory to

Aristotle criticizes

ou

a form of

aarjrrTa KaXelv arrfp

Tot? rot? ai opacrii

milk.

vi. i) -nakaia rtf

Hippocr. Aph.

irfTTe^evov alp,d

6pda>s

noujfras

cos

to-riv,

aXX

vn\d/JLlBavfV rj OVK eu
ro yaXa fj.T]vbs cv oySoa-

oinrpOT^s yap KOL rre^is fvavTiov, TO 8e

yaXa

TU>V

TreTrffjLjjievwv.

The meaning

then, that the warm and cold gave rise by putrefaction (o-^TreScoz/)
to a milky slime (IXvs) by which the first animals were nourished.
are thus able to give crwTpe
its natural sense.
It is signi
is,

We

ficant that Socrates should

<J>eTai

mention the theory of Archeiaus


loo

first.

NOTES
4

96

what we think with.


The question of the srat of
or sensorium was keenly debated in the first half of the
fifth century B.C.
The views that the soul is blood or breath are
primitive, but both had just been revived as scientific theories.
cS

4>povo\)p.v,

the soul

Empedocles had said (fr. 105 Diels) nlpa yap ttvQpwxms T7(piK>,p^u n
and he was the founder of the Sicilian school of medicine
vorjfjiit,

ta-TL

The doctrine that the soul is air was as


(E. Gr. Ph. p. 288 ;/. 3).
old as Anaximenes, but had just been revived by Diogenes of
2
Apollonia (E. Gr. Ph. p. 4i_:),ancl is attributed in the C/t Uits (230)

The Heraditcans

to Socrates.
their

master

68

fYK<4>

at

a ^s KT\.

The

of course maintained

Ephesus

view that the soul was

lire.

credit of being the

first

to see that the

brain was the seat of consciousness belongs to Alcmaeon of Croton


2
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 224), and the same view was upheld in the fifth
It is one of the
century B.C. by Hippocrates and his school.
strangest facts in the history of science that Aristotle, followed by
the Stoics, should have gone back to the primitive view that the
heart was the seat of sensation.

the optative

VOLTO

Kara Tavra

-"Y

is

due to the general sense

of indirect speech.

equivalent tO OVTUS.
note firm (b 5)
yiyvotro (b 7) ... yiyvtirQcii (b 8),
yLyvatrQai
a gradual transition from the direct to the most pronounced form
of the indirect speech (Gedcles).
:

emo-TY|p.T]v

Diels

(Vur\- 102,

18)

attributes

explanation of knowledge as arising from


they have reached a state of quiescence
.

of

it

An.

in Aristotle

ylyvfrai

p.vt]^r),

Post. B. 19.

e<

<5e

ico a

Alcmaeon

this

when

belief

\Ye seem to have an echo


c/c

3 sqq.

e^TTfi/u a,

p.vfjp.r]s

to

memory and

wv

ptv

tK 5

alo6in^,^

epneipias

iravros f]pffJ.i]aaVTOs TOV Kn$dXou tv TJJ ^i X l


Te\i r?v npX
/xr^s.
Gorg. 448 c 4 sqq. we learn that Polus of

T/

6/c

K<lt

f7Ti<m/-

From

Agrigcntum

There is no reason lor doubting that


derived rex vr from
It is
is pre-Platonic.
the distinction between eVi^^tr; and
Isocrates in Helena 5 on 770X1; KP^LTTOV tan rrfpi r^v
alluded to
l

p.ireipi<i.

?>6ga

by

Xpr](riito)v

eViftKws- ^o^i^etv

*;

irtpi

iwi>

a y/n^rrcoi/ aKplft&s

and Blass dates the Helena before 390


said to have written
Laert.

TU

B. c.

four books Ilf/n fiii^v

CTritTTairda

Antisthcncs

is

KIU (iriarTj^rjs

(Diog.

is

highly

vi. 17).

irepl

TOV oCpavov

(i.e.

TOV

ovpitvnv)

101

iraQi]

it

NOTES

96

characteristic of the middle of the

mentioned

fifth

and

B. c.

century

that the theory

somewhat perfunctory way.


For the time, the rise of medicine had brought biological and
psychological questions to the front, while astronomy and cosmo
logy remained stationary in eastern Hellas until new life was given
them by the Pythagoreans. The state of science here indicated is
quite unlike any we know to have existed either at an earlier or
of

TO.

is

[j.fTa>pa

a later date.

It

last

in a

belongs solely to the period to which

attributed, a period

which

is

it

here

have endeavoured to characterize

in

E. Gr. Ph. 2 pp. 405,406.


C 2

the Ionic XP*llJLa on ly survives in Attic in a few


^s ouBev xp HHphrases like this (L. S. s. v. II 3.) The Athenians only used freely
the plural ^p^/uara, and that in the sense of property
Cp. Laws
.

C 5

640
C 5

&>S

ov&evi ye 7rpa.yp.dTL.

Tavra)

(sc.

TV<J>Xa>0Kjv

cp.

Soph.

O.

T.

Kai

Kpurepov KT\.

389

Tt]V

Tf^vrjv

<pv

TV(f)\OS.

c 6

irpo To-0

o>[AT]v

ci8( vai

im6dv Yap KT\.

"

(a.

b a).

another great question of the


Socrates means that his former beliefs were upset by the

time.

question of Anaxagoras
K<u

repeats c 4

this refers to

rrap

tK.

a-apKos

prj

(fr.

77

10)

This led

6>?

yap av CK

p,f)

rpi^o? yivoiro dpl

to the doctrine that there

were

portions of everything in everything. Cp. also Act. i. 3. 5 (Do.v. 279 a)


eftuKfi aiVco aTropcoraro^ dvat TTMS ex rou p.t] OVTOS dvvarai n yiveadai //
(f>6fipecrdai

TO

els

p./)

ov.

rpo^)f]V

ocrra Kal ra \onra popia.


ev

TIJ

rpoc^fj

TTJ

Tvuvra numeral.

d 6
d 8

yovv rrpoo fpfpop.fOa anXrjv KOI povofidr],

Kal (K raiV/j? rpe (/)frat dpif;

(IpTov Kal vdcop

aprrjpLa crap^ vevpa

navra earl ra 6Wa, Kal


2
Ph.
E.
Gr.
p. 303.)
(Cp.
irpocr(j)epr>[j,Vi}

e/c

e<n(.v

OTL

TOOV bviotv

z.
Cp. 68 e 2 n.
q. KaXw?.
(jierpicos,
This refers to another set of questions, which
4Vnv Y^P KT ^stand in a close relation to Zeno s criticism of the Pythagoreans.
Roughly, we may say that the difficulty here touched upon is the

nature of the unit, whether in measuring, weighing, or numbering.


This is an example of
aur-n T-Q Ke4>aXfj,
just by the head.
a popular unit of measurement.

e 3

<pXe\^

TOVTOHV ovv -yt^o/ieVcoy, 6p,oXoyr]Teov

-n-poo-ttvai

of B.

(TW)

That

is

is

Cp.

//.

iii.

193 peiW

virtual passive ofnpoadflvai,

a natural

slip.

102

which

is

p.ev

the reading

NOTES
5

TOVTCOV

irepl

TTJV aiTiav

95
The

cp.

KT\.

y6

e 9 n.

difficulty here is what is meant


by the addition of units. How can it be that when one is added to
one the result is two ? How can either the original one or the one
which is added to it become two or how can the one which is
added and the one which is added to it become two ? The nature
of the unit involved real difficulties which we need not discuss here
it is more important for our purpose to obserxe that in the Parmenides Plato actually represents the young Socrates as discussing
The two dialogues
such subjects with Parmenides and Zcno.
confirm each other in the most remarkable way for here too we
Ivi TIS irpoo-0fj tv

t -ireiSav

are dealing with the youth of Socrates.


T 6 p.v

...

TT6t

.,

Another instance of the disjunctive

hypothetical sentence (cp. 68 a 3 n.) What causes surprise


the two things should be true at the same time.
A

sc. TO -n\T]i7ui(Tai uXAryXoir,

this,

aijTT],

to the predicate cuYi u,


-

o-uvoSos TOO

i]

is

that

but assimilated in gender

and further explained by a-vvodos KT\.


the coming together which consists
TeOfjvcu,
?/

in their juxtaposition.
oiJBt

ws

Tr6i0a0ai

We

J>s

The

repetition of

a>?

is

a collo

dealing here with the difficulty of conceiving


a unit. In the Republic (525 d 8 sqq.) Socrates refers to the same
for he has come to see that
difficulty, but he is not troubled by it,
quialism.

the unit

have

is

felt it

81

OTL

>4

Arist.

seriously at

6.

fOL<aai.v

itself

comes

into being at

6e TO Trpajroy tv

aweary *X

all.
Gl>

/-^

Cp.
ye^of,

HvOayupcioi).

|xe068ov,

came

unit

loSo b 2O 6Vco?

(ot

Plato can hardly

any time.

how a

v yiyverai,

Tpo-rrov TT,S

by

still

an object of thought and not of sense.

Met. M.

aTropf iv

)6

are

method of investigation. The noun pedoSus


meaning, as method always cioes in our

to bear this

usage.
I make up a confused jumble of my own.
avn-os elKTJ
There can be no doubt that (pupeiv is to make a mess (cp. 101 e i),
and eiKf/, temere, emphasizes that meaning. Cp. Aesch. P. V. 450
*

>

<j>vpa>,

ec/n-pov eiKfj jrdvra.

Of

doubt
course, Socrates has not the slightest
is only

this description
of the superiority of his new method, and
a piece of characteristic eip&vcia.
it is natural to think of the
J 8
TIVOS, . . . dvaYiYvwo-KovTos
:

103

Anaxa-

NOTES

97

gorean Archelaus, who was said to be the teacher of Socrates


b 3 .).
ws upa KT\.

(cp.

96
C

Kal OTTG UI

The

actual words of

The

^LeKoa-^cre vovs.

avTa

summary
C 7
(1

irepl

Anaxagoras were

TJV,

ciircra

vvv

/j.rj

ecrrt,

familiar Travra ^prjfjLnra

rjv

(fr.

12 Diels)

Kal OTTO IO. eart,


o/zou, etra vovs

(Diog. Laert. ii. 6) is not a quotation, but a


of the doctrine (E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 299,
i).
^KKoo-fjirjcrfv

irepl IKCIO-TOVI

onola

/j,f\\fv eiTfcrdai KOI

cp.

tKeivovi

aviTOti

95
:

e 9

de

11.

lllo ifiso, SC. TTfpi

avrou rou avdpoajrov,

formerly bracketed fKfivou, which rests only on the authority of B


but Vahlen has since shown (Opusc. ii. 558 sqq.) that avrov CKC LVOV
;

is

too idiomatic to be a mistake.

Kara

that

voviv

to my mind/ as we say.
I cannot believe
phrase involves any reference to the vuvs of
Such a joke would be very frigid.
this was still a living problem in
T)
crrpoyyvK^

tp-avrcS,

common

this

Anaxagoras.

-n-Xareta

the days when Socrates was young, but not later.


The doctrine
that the earth is spherical was Pythagorean
the Ionian cosmologists (including Anaxagoras himself and Archelaus) held it was
;

flat,

with the single exception of Anaximander,

who regarded

it

as

cylindrical.

63

ev para)
so far as we can tell, this was not only the doctrine
Anaxagoras and Archelaus, but also of the early Pythagoreans.
:

of
It

important to observe that the geocentric theory marked a great


advance in its day as compared, e. g., with the belief of Thales that
is

2
the earth was a disk floating on the water (E. Gr. Ph. p. 32). Plato
does not commit the anachronism of making Socrates refer to the

Pythagorean doctrine that the earth revolved with the planets


2
round the Central Fire (E. Gr. Ph. pp. 344 sqq.). That was
familiar enough in the fourth century B. C., but would have been out
later

of place here.

98

{jTTodrjuofjLfvos

TOLXOVS
TpoTTtov,

this

TT0060-CJX6VOS

is

B has

of Eusebius.

of

now known

W looks

like

trpos aAX-qXa,

to

again, which

is

as well as

right,

and the

their relative velocity.

This refers to the annual movement of the


tropic* of Capricorn to that of Cancer and back
the cause of summer and winter. The Greeks gave

turnings.

sun from the

be the reading of

which cannot be
an emendation of this.

vnoQcufvos,

104

NOTES
name of rponai to what the
of view, called solstitia.

the

I,

irdo-xei

"

98

Romans, from

a slightly different point

symmetry would require the addition of

<a\

TTOK I, but

Plato avoids such symmetry.


(Kao-TO)

Kal

each

to

irdo-i,

KOIVTJ

and

individually

to all

collectively.
>

OUK &v

a^op-i^v

oV

<liT656|j.7}v

<t>ep6p.evos

e\iri&og

woul

TfoXXoO,

not have sold for a large sum.


on the usual phrase

this is a slight variation

(cp.

another Hephaestus

38

eyo)

n*v

(pfpo/i^, II.

i.

592).

cc

uvop ontono

rjdij

nor

dtio*

n\tu>v
p.u>pias

Ach. 1128).

vco ovjSev

own person

his

fJLf

expresses strong feeling, here dis

1150 tyw

6pa.ofvv t

yXcocrcr^

(cp. Arist.
TO>

iy/Luxp

my

Knr3uXoov /nfynXr;?).
cast down from Olympus like

f\ni8t>s

Wyttenbach compares Soph. Aias 1142

appointment.
tivSp*

(irav 5

The word

a man.

avSpa,

was dashed down from

KareTTfaov,

KaTf[B\i]6r)v,

EuthypkrO 1565 OTT


Socrates speaks as if he had been
hope

xpw[j.vov

in L.Cl

Plato expresses the same feeling in


rives eroXp-UV TOITO ys ai ro rrapd-

WSQG J b4

KivSvvfveiv Kal Tore, \eyovres

u>s

<

vovs

<

ir]

dtaKKO(7fi^/ca}r iravd

/car

o<ra

eV^f averptijfav rraXiw *crX.


Xenophon (Mem. iv. 7. 6) preserves a faint echo of this criticism of
Anaxagoras. Aristotle (Met. A. 985 a iSj simply repeats it (E. Gr.

ol piivi iv.

01

Ph. 2 pp. 309

de avrol

anavti

QJ? flrrflv

sq.).
l

b 9

Ttvas airias erraiTicoficvov, SC. rov vovv, nor ascribing to it


For the double ace. cp. Dem. Phorm. 25 TIP
causality.
oviSe

(ivrov

mTiav aiTicurduevns

Aristotle

Tr v yvvalKa raurr^v.

(/tff.

ytyroaticoi

vevpcov,

?*/

V.)

AntlpllO,

says mivra

I.

29

*/

eirniTia>p.nt

p.a/\Xov

a/narat

TWI^

voGi/.

tendons/ not nerves. The nervous system only

sinews,

became known
et Plat., p.

fiiK.u(oiTo

any

in the third century n. c.

Epao-iaTparos ptv

647

<nv

Cp. Galen, de plac. /////.

(floruit 258 B.C.),

Kal /^/

ft

eVt y^pco? ye T?)I/ czXr/^i) TCOV I fu/jcoy (ipX


-rrpocrdev, ciXXa
uevni TravTOS (zyi/omra? fi/<ora)? a/Topei
e

C 8

Stands

?x cl

<are
>

ii.

ni
8ta</>i

are the

KaTfvuri<rev

eirrfii

xpciai>

same thing

looked at from another point of view.

(rup.,SoXai (d 3),

D.

The

jointed.

Cicero,

as the

tie

Nat.

139 says commissurae.

alwpovjjitvwv

tv rats

crv^poXats,

105

swinging

in their sockets.

NOTES

g8
5

crvYtca}xc|>0LS

4>covds

14)

TOL>

Cp.

60 b

2.

re KrX.

Cp. e.g. Diogenes of Apollonia (Diels, Vors?


KetyaXfi depos vno TTJS (pcoyi)? Tvirrofj.fi ov KIIL

r?;

(i>

p.

332,

not running away.


We have no English word for
It is the
any more than for Oappelv (cp. 636 ion.).
negative of dTTobtSpdo Ketv (99 a 3).
Cp. 115 d 9.
V1Q T ^ v K\Jva
e 5
such euphemisms seem to occur in all languages.

e 4

irapa|XvovTa,

Trapa[j.veiv,

Cp. parbleu. ecod!

It is true that in Gorg. 482 b 5 Socrates says


p\ rov Kiva TOV KlyvnTlwv 6fov (Anubis), but that seems to be only
a passing jest. A euphemistic oath of this kind was called PaSa-

p.dvdvos

99

/ir

<p"

o/j/coy

(Suid.

Mc yapa

that Socrates

found friends

s.

v.

).

BOICOTOVS

-f)

Crilo

cp.

might escape

r)

Qr]$ae

?*/

53 b 4 where
Meyu/iaSe.

both places, as we know.

in

it is

suggested

He would have

This whole passage

is

reminiscent of the Crito.


KCU raOra

a 8

irpaTTcov,

va>

and that too though

act from intelligence,

98 c 4. The MSS. have Trpurrco, but Heina great improvement and gives /zi ravra its proper

as was admitted above,

dorf s npdTTwv

is

idiomatic force.

TO

60

P.T)

Y<ip

otov T* ctvat KT\. is

infinitive justifying a

matory

and Sytnp. 177

5 n.

another instance of the excla

strong expression of feeling.

TO ouv TOIOVTOJV p.tv Trepi rro\\r]V

Cp.

o"rrov8r]i>

Epcora 6

avev ov

Z>v)

here

we

see the beginning of the technical term o* (or


qua non. Such causes are called

OVK nvev, the conditio sine


in the

cruj/Gu rta

Timaeus.

tSf a^ arrorfXait

flVai

b 4
fi

TTUI- TCOJ

v|/-r]\a4)J)VTs,
fj.tv

T0)l>

ouv

is

6v6iJ.aTi,

not their

defended, though

b 6

TrXeurreoi

groping in the dark.

\|/r;Xa^)/}creiap

dXXoTpicp

rcii

{^TTO

ouv Tra^ra

TOI) dpicrrov

rr/i>

eorii

TO>^

Kara TO 8vvarov

ou (jv^a/ria oXXa atrta

/CT/\.

e\l/Tj\a(pu>iJ.fv

apa ye

which

So^a^fral 5e

TMT

Cp. 46 c 7

cruj/am coi/ oty ^eo? vrrriperovaiv ^p/)rai,

it

CTKUTU>

TU

avrro repeats o (cp.

A.ct& Apostoloruni

?rpo rot)
&.

Vll.

27

avrov KM! eupoiev.


1
by a name that does not belong to them,
6 t/oua.
The vulgate op.pan cannot be
the reading also of BW.

olnflov
is

Cp. Ar. Peace 690

Trpdyp-iira,

104 d

.).

106

NOTES

Once more we have the scientific problems of the


The first theory is that the earth does
century.

& |Xfv TIS KT\.

middle of the

99

fifth

fall because of the rapidity of the revolution of the heavens.


This was the western theory, and was originated by Empedocles,
who supported it by the experiment of swinging a cup full of water
2
Cp. Arist. de ado 295 a 16 oi
rapidly round (E. Gr. Ph. p. 274).

not

o*

E^TreSo/cAf)? Trjv TOV

cocrTrfp

OO.TTOV (bfpouevrjV Ti]V

yf]<i

<j)opuv

vti\Kov yii o/jifvov Ojucof ov (peperai KUTCO

(E. Gr. Ph.

rrtpiBtowav KUI

(pfpop,cvov
Trf<f)VKos

TroAAci/a?

(pepfffBcu

Kv^tOois

KUTCO

diii
T>]I>

TOV

avrtjv

vortex theory of Leucippus was more subtle than this


In Clouds 379
p. 399) and is not referred to here.

The

alriav.

KVK\U>

KCi)\veiv } KaBdirep TO ev TOLS

yap TOVTO KVK\W rov KvdBov

Ka\

iid&p

T>JS

ovpavov (popdv

Aristophanes makes fun of the aWe/nos Au or who has taken the place
of Zeus.

TOV oupavoC \itviv

\)Tfo

Geddes says
in

its

these words are to be taken together, as


ptvetv is a virtual passive, is kept

place by the heavens.


This is the eastern theory, which originated with
KT\.

8t

Anaximencs and was

As

Hermann) and

(after

Aristotle

airiov

tii ai.

upheld by Anaxagoras and Democritus.


Caelo 2941314), they said TO TrAaror
d\\ em~b>p.aTi(ii> TOV
avTijv ov yap Tffirfiv

still

tells

us

TOV

P.CVILV

(de

breadth prevents it from cutting the air


It is absurd to
on it Mike a lid
it,
crude notions of this kind,
suppose that Plato was ever troubled by
and even Socrates must soon have learnt better from his Pytha
no
Everything points to the Periclean age and
gorean friends.

dfpa

TOV

KuratBev.

its

and

lies

beneath

it

(rrS>fm).

later date.

This, however, does not seem to


believe we should read icapdoiricp
the lid of a
TO 7Tup.a,
Kapdorrtov T^S K apo6rrov
The
Aristotle s fWco/WC^ quoted above.

a kneading-trough

KapBoTvco,

be a very appropriate image, and

from Hesychius
kneading-trough

cp.

K dp8oiros in Arist. Clouds 670 has another


refers to the speculations of Protagoras about gram

discussion of the word


It

bearing.
matical gender.

TT]V Be

w? olov

words,

TOV KT\.
T

Constr.

jSeXrwrra

8vvap.iv

has

best possible place

Mi

its full
is

r!]V de

Kfiadai
8vvap.iv rof ovrto vvv (avTa)

As we
meaning. The

TcB^vai.

see from the


fnct that

following
in the

they are

which keeps them there.


regarded as a force
107

NOTES

99
That being
C 3

TOXJTOV
is

so, TCUJTTIV (TTJV Svvap.iv) is the subject of Sat^oviav

icrxvporepov,

an Atlas stronger than

one

this

laxv

(TOVTOV

masc.).

C 5

ws

TO d-yaOov Kal 8tov : I think these words must be taken


is often used to call attention to an
etymo

dX-r]0ws

together; for ws dXrjd^s

logy (cp.

binding

itself cp.

80 d6.)> an d here
The hyperbaton is
8co"p.os

TOV Seurepov ^n-Xovv

used

eVi

ro>i/

tlcr(jf)aXcos

TTporepov TrXoGv
this,

the

Crat. 418 e 7 dyadov yap I8fa ovaa

TO 8eov (paivfrai

C 9

deov,

emu

fitting,

is

taken as

the

of a normal type.

<al

For the etymology


being a form of good

KcoXu/ia (pnpas.

the paroemiographers say this expression is


Kadoarov ol dtap-apTovres Kara TOV
TrpdTT6vTa>v,

T4

rrapacrKcvd^ovrai TOV 8evT*pov.

(ia(f)a\a>s

According

to

the reference would be rather to a less adventurous than to

second-best course. See, however, Eustathius in Od. p. 1453,


2O devrepos TT\O(S Xe yerut ore a7roTV%(av TLS ovpiou
rr\er) Karti
Uavaraviav. Cp. also Cic. Tusc. iv. 5, where pandere veil orationis
KU>TT(ILS

method of proceeding, viz. dlalecticorwn


In any case, Socrates does not believe for a
moment that the method he is about to describe is a pis alter or
The phrase is ironical like etKy fyvpa above. Cp.
makeshift.
is

opposed

to the slower

remis* (Geddes).

d
d

Goodrich in Class. Rev. xvii, pp. 381 sqq. and xviii, pp. 5 sqq., with
whose interpretation I find myself in substantial agreement.
these words depend on eVi Sei^ij/ 7rouy(ra;^cu and
fl Tr6Trpa
j

y|a.a.T6t>[Acu.

govern TUV SfvTtpov TT\OVV.


TO. OVTO like rd Tvp^y^ara. just below (e 3) are
things in the
5
It seems to me quite impossible that
ordinary sense of the word.
these terms should be applied to the OVTCDS ovra, ra
aXrj&cas OVTU.
a>?

They must be
that

is,

makes

the

same

as ra

OVTO. in

97 d 7

TTJS

alrias rrepi TWV

<>VTU>V,

It is quite true that Plato


the things of the visible world.
but I know
Socrates use the expression ro ov for ro 6Wa>r
<">i>,

which he is made to usera 6Vra simpliciter of the iidrj.


the
whole
Further,
point of the passage is that Socrates had become
exhausted by the study of physical science, and what he calls the
of

no place

in

Seirrepo? ir\ovs

is,

we

shall

see, nothing else

than the so-called

Theory of Ideas.
This is a mere
the sun during an eclipse.
Socrates keeps up the irony of the phrase devrepos
1 08
*

TovrjXiov tKXtiirovTa,
illustration.

NOTES

99

TrXovr

by suggesting that his eyes are too weak to contemplate the


He had to look at them in a reflexion,
things of the visible world.
he says.

rots

that TU
}

c(j-i.iao-L

ot Tu,

Kal tKao-rT) Tiv a

a-07 io-ecov

makes

this

quite clear

it

ra Trpay/Mara are the things of sense.

els TOVS Xo-yovs KdTCKf^YovTa,


taking refuge in the study of pro
or judgements
or
definitions
positions
It is not easy to
translate \oyovs here
but at least it is highly misleading to
speak
of
in Plato s
concepts (Begriffe), nor is there
.

any

justification

writings for contrasting Socratic Xoyoi with Platonic dftrj. It is just


in Xoyoi that the etfir/ manifest themselves, and what Socrates
really
means is that, before we can give an intelligible answer to the

question

what causes

to be

we must ask what we mean by

So far from being a


saying A is B
a previous question.
.

8eiVf/;or TrXoG?, this is really

urcos [i(v o*v KrX.


Here Socrates distinctly warns us not to take
his ironical description too seriously.
It is not really the case that

the Xoyot

are

mere images

oWa

of ra

On

or ra Tr/xiy^nra.

the

contrary, it will appear that the things of sense may more fitly be
called images of the reality expressed in the Xoyoi.
To use the
language of the Republic, we must not contuse Suirom and enia-rr^r/

with eiVioi a.
CO

12

lKCla>

tv [TOLS]

i.

6. TOl

Tfj)

0)

lK(l(t)

in realities

pY ot s,

and npayp-ara, and

TO fV TOLS XnyOLS

(TK OTTfKT&al T(l

OVTd.

The word

fpyu is ecjuivalent to 6Yra


used here because it is the standing opposite

is

to Xoyoi.
I -

in any given case assuming as true.


KrX.,
saying that Socrates had recourse to the method of

v-TToOtfxevos iKclo-TOTe

This amounts

to

Here it is important to remember, first, that in the fifth


century B.C. geometry had advanced far beyond all other sciences,
just because it had adopted the deductive method, and, secondly,
deduction.

that this advance


all

a 4

science should
ov dv KpCvco KT\.

was due to the Pythagoreans.


become exact science

The

ideal

is

that

We

start

from a proposition

(Xoyof)

which

\ve

judge not to be open to attack. If this is admitted, we may pro


ceed
if not,
we cannot do so until we have established our
;

ouStv KCUVOV

if

Plato

had been

the real author of the

109

Theory

of

NOTES

ioo
Ideas
the

and

as

if,

is

commonly

believed,

was propounded

it

time in the Phaedo, this sentence would

first

be

for

a pure

mystification.

ou8v

Latine
Lect.

b 3

Ou TraiWat

TT(-rTav|xai.

em non

fin

facit

et

ovdev

et

Trai

finem nullum

ercu

difTerunt Ut

sic

Nov.

Cobet

facit,

500.

p.

pxo|Acu
tmxeipwv . cmSetgaaOai, I am going to try to show
In this construction cpxopai usually takes a future
but,
participle
as Heindorf says, eVi^t/xL? cVidta<rd<u is
instar futuri eVi8eid.

alrias TO l8os,
the sort of causation I have worked out
phrase like this shows how far tl8ns is from being a technical
term. When Socrates wishes to be technical, he speaks of the
just
T-fjs

what

b 4

it

(TO aiVo 6 earn/).

is

cKciva TO. TroXv0pu\T]Ta

more the doctrine of eidrj

What

accepted.
{i7ro(9cfTif

is

cp. 76 d
assumed

is

new

is

and deduction.

TT|V

the application of

This time

doctrine without hesitation

b 8

aiTiav eTTiSei^eiv KCU

ae[.
Here once
be well known and generally

8 a 6pv\o\ nev
to

last

time

clvevpYjCrtiv

it

J>s

characteristic interlacing of words here


avevp-fjo-fiv

and

e7ri8ei{;(.v

the

it,

method

Cebes who assents


was Simmias.

is

it

there
(a b

a curious and

is

b)

of

to the

for

r/)i/

MS would naturally go together.

air lav

Riddell,

Dig.
308 classes this under the head of Hysteron proteron.
You may take it that I grant you this, so
is 8i86vTos
KT\.,
<roi

lose
*iv

no time

in

drawing your conclusion.

Cp. Sywp. 185 64

oi

/c

(pudvois \tyoiv,

Cp. 64 C IO n.
more emphatic than
If we say
p.T( xi K.r.X.

C 3

SKO-rrei

C 5

ovSe 81 tv
fj

SIOTI

tdv

is

<V

oi SeV.

that a, a, a are beautiful, that

implies (l) that beautiful has a meaning quite apart from any
particular instance of beautiful things, and (2) that this meaning

(A)

is

somehow

partaken

These have a meaning

in

in

by the particular instances

common, and

their relation

a,

to

rt,

a.

it

is

expressed in the relation of subject to predicate. This too Cebcs


admits at once.
The parti
XP^P- 01 evav0s exov, because it has a bright colour*.
ciple explains Si on,
evavdi]s is

common

which

in

is

the indirect form of 8m

TL.

The

adjective

Hippocrates, especially of the bright red colour


I TO

NOTES

ioo

As applied to colour, fivQot is bloom


brightness
and is sometimes almost synonymous with xpwpa. Cp.
Rep, 429 d 8
and 557 c 5 with Adam s notes. The point is that it is
meaningless
to say a, a, a are A because they are
*, y, 2, unless we have first
shown that x,y, z necessarily partake in A.
of blood, &c.

airXws KO.I a.T)(Vcos Kai icroos 6uT,0cos as opposed to the


atruu
mentioned above. The irony of 97 b 7
c/n pco is here kept up,
and this should warn us against taking the expression 8ei>Tepus n-XoGp
as seriously meant.
(Distinguish dre^i/co? from drf^ws.)
<ro(f>m

e^//"

iT6 impovo-ia KrX.


predicate and subject

The

precise nature of the relation between

be expressed in various more or less


say that the predicate is present to
the subject, or that the subject partakes in the common nature
of the predicate.
Socrates will not bind himself to any of these

We

figurative ways.

may
may

it ; he
only insists that, however we may express it,
beauty that makes things beautiful.
OUT) T| KO.L OTTUS K.T.X. These words are an echo of the formula used

ways of putting
it

is

in the public prayers, for


vop.os ((TTIV
TUTJTO.

Km

fore, that

lp-

/cat

It

seems

ovou.aop.(vot t

to

me, there

s suggestion, Trpofrayopfvoptvr) for Trpocryc vo/xeV^,

Wyttenbach

must certainly be

wrrTrep fv raly finals

ftirnBtv xciipnvtriv

avroiis (sc. TOVS deovs) Ka\( iv.

f)p.as

manuscript

which cp. Crat.^ooe,

v^cr6(ii) OITIVCS TC

though he did not adopt it himself. The


goes well enough with napovo-ia, but not with
whole question is one of names; for Socrates

right,

rrpoa-yevofjiev^

The

the other terms.

has no doubt as to the

making use

Plato elsewhere represents him as

fact.

of this formula.

Tfpirvuv Aeyef?

are OTrodev

Cp. Prot. 358 a


/cat

OTTCOS"

^cupftf

tire

yap ybv

ra rotaira ovopi

etr
i(i)i>

Phileb. 12 C 3 TIJV peV A.tppo8iTr)Vt OTTJJ eKeivfl <pi\ov ravrrj Trporrciyopfiio.


So Tim. 28 b 2 6 8/j tras ovpavbs fj K^crpof Kai a XXo on nor* ovofj.a(o~
pevos pdXto-r av St ^otro, roC ^ fjplv a)i/opdcr^a), Laws 872 d 7 o yap di}
t

f;

pvdos

rj

\oyof

r/

on

%pr]

Trpovayopevtiv nvrov.

The formula

arose

from fear that the gods should be addressed by the wrong name.
(pi Xoj/ /cf/cXnCp. Aesch. A.g. l6o Zeu?, oo-n? TTOT eariv, el ro(V
This connexion is made quite clear in
TOUTO viv Trpoo-fi eVa).
p.(vq),
the passage from the Philebus quoted above, which is introduced
ai>|ra)

by the words To
/car

aj/^pco7roi/,

ou VO.P

In

8 fp.ov deos

dXXa

KrX.,

dfi

Trepa TOV
I

npbs ra

TCOJ/

6fu>v

oyopara OVK

peyiarov
do not go so far as to insist on that

fcrri

<f)6{3nv,

in

Cp.

NOTES

loo
Aristotle Met. A. 6. 987

av

r&v

etr?

i.e.

they

left

utvroi

r\)v

at YlXurutv) eV

as a point for dialectical inquiry

it

An.

of eV KOLVW cp. de
Aristotle

b 13

(sc. ol TLvdnyopeioi

d<p(laav

(I8a>v,

A. 4.

407 b 29 quoted in 86 b 6n.).

referring to the present passage.


about the Pythagorean origin of the theory.

KOIVW C^^if,

(for this

Pie

is

[YiyveTat] is omitted both here

and below e

by B

is

meaning
I

think

quite clear

and W, which

a different place from T. Most likely,


ra KaXd *aXd is
then, it is an interpolation, and the formula
much neater without it.
inserts

it

63, has

in

in

it

TU>

d 9

TOVITOV txP- v
do~(f)a\ovs TTJS

IOI a 5

holding to

s>

Cp. lOld

this.

KO\U>

e^ofievoy eneivov TOV

vnoOf(Tu>s.

The EuthydemUs shows that Socrates is


oifiai KT\.
making no extravagant supposition in suggesting that the dvriXoyiKoi
might make such criticisms as (l) if A is taller than B by a head
B is also smaller than A by a head therefore the same thing is the
cause of greatness and smallness, and (2) that a head, being small,
<}>opoijp.vos

cannot be the cause of greatness.

a 6

for the personification of the Xo yor cp. 87 a 8 n.


a portent.
The word seems to have been common in
dialectic as equivalent to Kronov or ativvarov.
Cp. Meno 91 d 5

vavrios X6-yos

Tt pas,

KCILTOL

repay Xeyeiy

d 6 ~epus yap av

TT)v -TTpoorfieo-Lv

et

tit]
.

.,Parm. 129 b 2 rtpns av

aXXcos TTWS

. .

-q

Theaet. 163

I TT)v

14 e 3 rt pnra ^ir/vdyKacrTai cpuviiL.


divi
crxLcriv : addition of unit to unit or

sion of the unit into fractions.

C 2

ot/uai TJV,

o Xe yet?, Phil.

p-tracrxov KT\.,

Cp. above 96 e 7 sqq.


otherwise than by participation

in

the proper reality of any given form (c/cdcrrov) in which it partici


pates. The theory is thus summed up by Aristotle, de Gen. et Corr.

335 b 9
cl8u>v

eras TO IS
f i8ij t

(Idas,

oi fj.lv iKai ijV (i)ijdi]uav

"XX

rw

oxjTrep 6 ev

(fovcriv,

aXXois

cos

ovSev

rn 6e ufdeKTiKa

TU>V

yiyveadai 8e Kara

alriav (ivai rrpos TO yiyvevdai TIJV


"2u>Kparr]s

flprjKocriv, vjrOTi.6fTai

cluvv*

/cat

on dvai

ri]v ueTd\rj\l/iv,

04

in the cases just

v TOUTOIS,

earl

T&V

eKelvos, fTTLTiur]TU>V

p.ev e/cacrrov

OVTU>V

ra ^tv

Xe yerai Kara TO

this theory to Plato, but to

mentioned.*

The form seems

to occur here only.


\Vyttenbach points out that Socrates has in mind the
112

p,T<io-xcriv,

Kojx\|/vas

on

yap

Kal (p6eipfO-6ui Kara ri]V d.7ro^o\rjv.

Observe that Aristotle does not ascribe


Socrates in the Phaedo!
C 5
C 8

KCU

<J>aiScoi/i

z.

q. peBegiv.

NOTES

101

words of Euripides Antiope which Plato makes him quote

48606,

uAAoiff

man s way
new theory of

while the

It

a(/)eip (ffo^lajjicira).

the plain

irony that
subtlety
naive.

KO/^v/m rnur

TO.

o-avTov cnadv

of speaking

is

is

predication

in

Gorg.

part of the
described as a
is

and

called artless

Aristophanes is said to have used


It probably (like our
Babylonians.
phrase
take umbrage) referred originally to horses shying at their shadows.
SeSiws

TT|V

this expression in the

We

have to go warily with so many ayriAoyuoi lying

in wait

for us.
I

KLvov KT\., holding fast to the safe support of the


100 d 9), which is regarded as a staff (Ar. Ach. 682

xP- VOS
vTtoBfais

(cp.

ols Iloafidtov acrc/wAfto? CCTTIV

el

TIS KT\.

the sense of

17

attack

and Madvig

verse of convincing.

It

any one fastens on

conjecture ec/miro

does, however,

seem possible

sticks to the l-nadta-is

or

to consider the (Tv^jBaivovra

The method

established.

(S(tKTr)pia),

does not seem possible to take c^cr^u here

It

till

that

to

is, if

is

in

the re

render

if

he refuses

the inrnPeai? has been completely

of Socrates

is

He

different.

first

con

siders the a-vuftaivovTa to see whether they involve any contradiction


or absurdity.
If they do, the hypothesis is ipso facto destroyed.
If the ffvp-ftaivovra are not contradictory or absurd, the u^otffo-ir

not indeed established, but

is

has been verified, so far as it can be,


we have seen that the axioms of geo

it

by its application. When


metry lead to no contradictions or absurdities

in their application,

they are at least relatively established. Cp. Mcno 86 e 2 vvyx^w


vov f vnodf (Tfcos avro o-Ko-rreicrtfiu. For the terminology of the method
cp.

Parm. 13569

(TKonflv ra

a-i

6cm.v eKa&rov

ei

fjLJSuivovTa

mediately after (a

e/c

a given thing ) i-oTiOt^fvuv


Cp. e.g. the example im

rtjs inroQeffeas.

5) el rroXXd

(<ITI

(the

v-i>6rts),Ti

\P

(rv^aivfiv KT\.

of experimental science is the same. The i7ro0e(m is first


seeing whether it is verified or not in particular instances ;

The method

tested by
the deduction of the

which must be kept


4

tws av KT\.

It

Kodfcris

from a higher one

is

another matter,

distinct.

is

doubtful whether av can ever be retained with

the opt. in oratio obliqua, though there are several examples in our
texts (G. M. T.
702). The better explanation is that given in L. & S.
(s. 11.

fwf

I.

c)

that

av

is

added

to the Optat. (not to

eW)

if

the

NOTES

ioi
event

is

struction
17.

represented as conditional
is eta?

o-Kf\l/aio av,
.

be

In that case, the real con

and av

is

anticipated. Cp. Isocrates,


av ra\r]Qfi do^eifv avro is \eyfiv.
The mean
you have a chance of considering

ecor

till

ra eru/^cuVoj/ra.
In e 2 below the
wp^^v^v, and those who regard the sen

air

TO.

15 pavTiyovv

ing, then, will

d 4

Kivrjs 6p[jnr]0evTa

5.

e.

phrase is T&V e (Keivrjs


tence as spurious hold that the aorist participle is incorrect. But
(i) the aorist is appropriate, because it is only after the conse

quences have been drawn that we can compare them with one
(2) it is more likely that Plato himself should vary the
tense than that an interpolator should do so.
another, and

el

Bia^covet

Jackson holds that this clause

is

inconsistent

with the account of the method given at 100 a 4 a ^ev civ poi ^OKTJ
TOVTCO crvp.(f)ct)ve1v Ti6r]p.i us dXrjdr] ovra KT\., but that is a different stage

We

in the process.

posit as true whatever agrees with the

first

and then we

by considering whether
the things thus posited agree with one another.
Socrates recognizes that the V7r60ecns is not estab
ireiST| 8e KT\.
vTrodfa-iS)

test the hypothesis

by the process described so far. That can only be done by


subsuming it under some higher {modeo-is, and that in turn under
a higher, till we come to one which is unassailable. This is the
lished

process described at greater length in Rep. 533 c 7 sqq.


TWV avwQcv, higher/ i. e. more universal. Cp. Rep. 511 a
7
*

v7TO$eVecoi>

em

TO>V

avcorepco fKJBaivfLV.

TI licavcv

i.

e.

to

an

apxfj

which no one

will question.

This

is

A vnodfa-is
(Rep. 510 b 7).
adequate without that (cp. below

not necessarily an apx^ dvvTroderos

may

be,

107 b

9).

humanly speaking,

you will not jumble the two things together.


(|>vpoio,
the middle does not appear to occur elsewhere, (frvpeaOai
(
to jumble one s argument, seems very natural Greek,
TOV \6yov,
OV-K

dv

Though

and

it is

hardly necessary to read

<pupoi?.

(pvpoto as passive, comparing Gorg.


<TG<pi(FTa\

465

Otherwise we must take


c 4 cpvpovTai ev

TOJ

at>ra>

Kal prjTOpes.

Socrates is no doubt thinking of the attacks


wairep ol dvTiXoYiKoC
on mathematics made by Protagoras and others. When we study
geometry, we must accept its fundamental imoSecreis the question of
their validity is a different one altogether, and one with which the
:

NOTES

ioi

geometer as such has nothing to do. Only hopeless confusion can


from mixing up the two things.
TTJS ap x -qs,
your starting-point, i.e. the vrrodevts. Though up\r}
is sometimes used of an ultimate
ap A as opposed to an inoOeais, it
can be used of any starting-point whatsoever. When we are dis
result

r/

we take

cussing the o-vupau ovra,


to give

any account

iKavol

the fai dcvis as our ap X

and decline

it.

vivo
their cleverness enables them
KT\.,
a slight redundance in the use of fivvatrdm after (/curoi, but

o-c>4>ias

There
it is

is

They can make a mess of everything without


own self-complacency.
The distinction which Socrates has just made

easily paralleled.

disturbing their
3

of

NTJ Aia KT\.

appeals at once to a Pythagorean mathematician. We are taken


back to Phlius for the last time, in order that the next stage of the

argument may have

its full

weight.

Third Proof of Immortality (102 a 10 107 b 10).


The first two proofs were based upon analogy. They both de
pended upon the Doctrine of Forms but in neither was Immortality
deduced from that doctrine. The Third Proof is intended to be
;

such a deduction.
2

raXXa
TT|V

i.e.

particular things.
are called after them.

iro)vv|juav icr^fiv,

Cp. Parm. 130 e

5 ftoKel

is

how

Socrates
.

\ajJifiavovra ras fntavvfj-ias a\jru)v ia^fii


OfJLOOVl

This

of a class as opposed to its intension


dvai f ibr) (iiTd, fav Tiidf ru u AAa /zfraaoi .
.

extension

expresses the

Cp. 78 e 2 iravr^v

TU-V (Ktivois

p.to)l>.

AXXd

The

-yap KT\.

attribute.

We

notion here formulated

is

that of the essential

say, indeed, as a.fu$on de parlcr (rots

pV]p.ao-i)

that

greater than Socrates but it is not qua Simmias or qua


Socrates that they stand in this relation, but only in so far as great
The emphatic
ness and smallness can be predicated of them.

Simmias

is

words are ire^vKtvat and TUYx av L x wv ^^ie ^ rst e x P resses participa


tion in an eldos which belongs (fivcra to the subject, the latter parti
tis a matter offact,
cipation in an eldos which belongs to the subject
but not essentially.
TO ... vu6pe X

10

tTtcovvjxiav

>-v

is

tx* 1

The

sentence

is

anacoluthic

for the subject

dropped and a new subject TO cAr^c s


ivoi,

has the
115

name

is

substituted.

of being.

Heindorf

12

NOTES

102
quotes Hdt.

ii.

often ovofjui^eiv

C II

44 ipw Hpn/cXeo?

iir(avvfj,ir]V

e^ovroy Gno-iou

So

eivat*

elvai.

TOG p.v KT\.,


submitting his smallness to the greatness of A
(Phaedo) to be surpassed by it, and presenting his own greatness to
B (Socrates) as something surpassing his smallness. The reading
imf xoiv is not merely a conjecture of Madvig s, as even the most

recent editors say, but the best attested MS. reading (TW). The
meaning of virexew is much the same as that of Trape ^eif, and it takes
the

same construction, the epexegetic

which we express by a passive.

"EoiKa

o-iryYP a

a prose style.

language
ojfTTrep ot

in

ev

>tK

^s

epctv,

it

looks as

Wyttenbach took

which

ro>

^i?$;0>iara

^ptu)

infinite

active (urepe^etv),

Cp. Gor%. 497 b 9 {morris

2a>.<prei

were about

to acquire
as
to the
referring
(rvyypatyiK&s
if I

were drafted, comparing Gorg. 451 b 7


Heindorf derived it from arvyypn-

a~vyypa<f)6fjLvoi,

a bond or indenture and thought of legal phraseology. On


(f)Tj,
the whole, it seems to me more likely that there is a reference to the
balanced antitheses of Gorgias and his followers, of which the pre
,

ceding sentence certainly reminds one. The word <Tvyypn(j)i.K6s only


occurs in late writers, but there it is the adjective of crvyypa(peus
and always refers to prose style. This interpretation makes the
fut. inf. epetv

TO

in

d9

fv TJUIV

us or

more natural than the


p,Y60os

others.

the form of greatness, so far as

it

is

present

we

participate in it.
SVOLV TO eVepov KT\. This alternative

is important for the argument,


and the terminology should be noticed. If any form is in a given
thing, that thing will not admit (8execrdat) any form which is
opposed to it. The original form will either (i) withdraw from (or

evacuate

The metaphors

the thing, or (2) perish.

are military

throughout this discussion.


e 2

It refuses
These words explain the following.
something other than it was by holding its ground and
Here vrro/jLevetv to hold one s ground
admitting smallness.

viro|juvov 8e KT\.

to be

is

used as the opposite of

withdraw
e 3

in favour

of

(its

vTreKxopeli>

to get out of the

way

to

opposite).

Socrates can admit either greatness or smallwo-7Tp l^oo KT\.


ness without ceasing to be Socrates but the greatness which is
smallness.
in Socrates cannot admit
;

116

NOTES
5

v TouTCd

ou

its

We

for covert

\6-yois

70 d

meanings.

7 sqq.

the reading of \V, but V^ LV O T) is also possible.


to be this, a change of construction from TO ^ d
Both the personal and the impersonal construction arc
yiyvfo dai.
i

lp.iv is

avTT] eivai,

(>

admissible with
II

cb/xoXoyf ITO.

TTJV

7mpa|3aXu>v

would
3

is

probably nothing more than a couch of

is

need not look

fv -rots irp6cr0v

it

opposite.

p,e p.vTf])j.ai

o-a4>JJs

realism.

be suggested by the military metaphor.


when this happens to it, i.e. when

to

ira9fjp.a.Ti,

TO>

attacked by

seems

TToX|j.T]K6v

102

head

turning his

Kc{>a/\T]v,

new speaker

to a

bending

(not

as one naturally

).

i. e.
the thing in which there is an opposite
a cold thing that becomes hot and a hot thing that
becomes cold; hot does not become cold, or cold hot. In ilie

TO tvavTiov

form.

It

-rrpdY|j.a,

is

previous illustration Socrates is the afuKpnv ir^un which


become /^V though smallness cannot admit greatness.

may

TO tv

TTJ

far as

and

<j>L-<ns

ra

ideal

fj

THVTU

^.ev fldrj

ru de (iXXa TQVTOLS eoiKi

o>,

77Tf/>

ftTTuval

fi T/,

word
The lonians meant

of that which they regard as most real.

a clearer

vavrCa:

r>/

7rpu(5ty/inT<i

All C.reck thinkers use the

fu.

it

TWV dvovTwv Td
TT

For this way of speaking of the tK/; cp.


bed is spoken of as tv
(punei ot tm,

a thing.

is

2
the primary substance (E. Gr. Ph.
the world of e ^rj.

by
>6

which

where the

Parill. 132 d

<f)va-(i,

it

iip.iv

in

is

it

Rep. 597 b

the Opposite form in TO xaff OITO as


chosen as an instance of the form so

(SC. (Viivriov) is

<{>vcrei

to TO ev

opposed

p.

13)

means by

Socrates

expression for

TWI>

fi-uvrum

puyutiTutv.

tKlVO)V

TT)

wv evovTwv

TTCOVV|J.La

Cp.

IO2 b

2.

(not gen. abs.).


cira>vv[ua.v
governed by
turning
becoming one another
^XX-qXcov,

Y V(TLV
another

T<]V

into

one

OuS au

TX.

On

86 e 5 we have heard
previous occasions (77 a 8
he does not feel his doubts return on
;

of the doubts of Cebes, but


this point

KCUTOI

doctrine

,07 b

(Geddes).
X Y W KT X.

<nm

is

Here we have another

not fully worked out.

hint

Cp. above 100 d

that the

and below

NOTES

loa
C lo

teal roSg KT\.


We now advance beyond the merely
judgements with which we have been dealing hitherto,
to judgements of which the
subject is a thing and the predicate
a form. We have seen that hot will not admit cold or cold heat
we go on to show that tire will not admit cold, nor snow heat. We
advance from the judgement A excludes B to a excludes B
"En

tautological

C II

Gcpfiov TL KaXets

cp.

this simple instance in

013

o-rrep

e 3

TOX)

EcrTLv

with
WO-T6

dXXci KCU aXXo

6 5

T1H V

Q3 b 4

cp.

ati-rov 6v6p.a,Tos,

fKivou

its

not identical

n.

own name,

the

to be entitled to

p.opc}>T)v

i.e.

of the

i.

e.

tKfivov

TTJV

fldos, e. g.

TOV ovo/jLaros TOV

always hot and snow

for fire is

name

).

SC. a^iovtrdai CIVTOV,

TI,

and snow

e. g. fire

is

b.

hot or cold (dioCo-0cu,

e 4

regularly used to express identity.

is

with a nor
e 2

64 C2 n. It will be found helpful to keep


mind all through the following passage.

l$(ai>,

is

ei Sous ,
1

always cold.

TO fKfivov

The

eldos.

three words are synonyms. Observe how the doctrine is formulated.


There are things, not identical with the form, which have the form

e 7

as an inseparable predicate (di, oravirep


^ ^
TV-yx av lv i $ a^nivTCit.
oirep vvv

104

3.

[X6TO,

that

TOT)

may

(TOUTO

a 3

\iyopev, SC. TO TrepiTTov.


lavToO 6v6|xa,Tosj along with

In addition to

be.

sc.

KdXelv,

Tre4>VK<;vai)

-ft).

its

TnpiTTov}

its own name,


whatever
own name we must also call it odd

because

it

is

essentially

(</n

o-ei,

cp.

odd.

I mean by the case mentioned


Xt yu) 6e avTD ctvai KrX.,
(CIVTO)
such a case as that of the number three, which is not only entitled
but also, and essentially, to the name odd
to the name three
.

not only entitled to the name fire , but also, and


essentially, to the name hot
Most editors adopt Heindorf s conjecture
OVTOS oux oirep KrX.
a 6
*

Similarly

fire

is

ovirep for oTTfp,

to

which

be followed by

?/

is

demanded by grammar

Tpuis (sc.

eo-r/i>).

On

for Srrep

the other hand,

ought
it

may

be urged that onep was so common in geometry, especially to


express ratios, that it may hardly have been felt to be declinable.
or =,and nothing more.
It is a symbol like
one whole half of the numerical
I T||ju(rtjs TOV dpL0fJLov a-rras,
a 8
:

series.

For

6 r/Mtcru?

instead of TO ^irrusee L.

118

&

S. s v.

I. 2,

and, for

NOTES
the expression, Theaet. 147 e 5 TO
we divided into two equal parts ).
(
the other row
6 t repos
.
2
O-T-IXOS,
.

tmovcrrjs

up.
1

c 2 v7rop,eivai

104

or

series

the military metaphors are

still

kept

Cp. 102 d 9 n.

(l-n-o\XtjjLva

vmeKxwpotivTa, as

T|

dependent on (/;atWrm, b 7, the


\Ve are now able to say that

if

intervening eoiKe being ignored.

things which have opposite forms as their inseparable predicate


in
them, but
refuse to admit the form opposite to that which is
either perish or
is that of snow

withdraw at its approach.


which is not opposite to

The
heat,

simplest instance
but melts at its

approach.
1

rdSe

... a

KT\.

\Ye are not defining a

class of

d S^, but

a class

of things (c 8 u XX arra) which are not avra evavria to the attacking


It has not been suggested in any way that fire and snow
form.

are

f idr],

and

it

seems improbable that they are so regarded.

On

which, for the purposes of the present


argument, is quite on a level with fire and snow, is spoken of (d 5)
It is this uncertainty which creates all the difficulties
as an ific u.

the other hand,

three,

of the present passage.


That, however, is not surprising; lor, in
the Parmenides, Plato represents Socrates as hesitating on this
he ought to speak of an etSos of
very point, and as doubtful whether
or water
This, however, does not affect the argument.
man,y?r<?,
of things without deciding whether they are
need
.

We

only speak

forms

or not.

av Karao-xi) KrX.
Things which, though not themselves
do not withstand its attack, are those
opposite to a given thing,
of anything, it compels
which, if one of them has taken possession
but also in every case that of
it not only to assume its own form,
form). The illustration
something opposite to it (i.e. to the attacking
clear that this is the meaning,
it
makes
below
quite
just
given
and will be dealt with in
though the pronouns are a little puzzling,
verb Karfx fiv keeps up the military metaphor
The
notes.
separate

on

for to

occupy

a position

is

>lov

x<*P

wrtx eiv

TOV K aTa<Tx<nvos. There is nothing abnormal


T^V avjTo-u I8 av, sc.
After an
in a case like this.
from
in the shift
plural (a) to singular
as any one of them is often
indefinite plural some such subject
be singular in meaning as well
to be supplied, and Karda-xn is felt to
119
T.>

NOTES

104

as in form, as is shown by on av and at/ro, whereas at d


5 we have
a av Karacrxii duly followed by ainols.
For the change of number
cp. also

70

e 5 n.

and Laws 667 b

ocrois avuTTapfTTfrai TIS ^aptf,


TO (TTTOvdalOTarOV (LVdl KT\.

auro refers to on av

pleonasm

99 b 6

cp.

me

aurw

del T 68f

TOVTO avrb p6vov (sc.

jcnrao-^j;,

avTois referring to a av

77

8.

the thing occupied.

The meaning

is

vTrdpxfiv anao-iv
rr]v

lv
X<*P

For the

fixed

avrov
slight

by d 6 dvay^

Karaa-x^.

omitted by most editors, but the meaning of t vnvrinv is by


no means clear without a dative. If we remember once more that
we are defining a class of things which do not hold their ground be
is

an opposite, it is not difficult to interpret mVu as


the opposite in question implied in TU t-vavria ou\ vrroutvei cniovra
above. This is also borne out by the illustration given below.
It

fore the onset of

is

the form of the odd which prevents the approach of the even to
is the form of cold which
prevents the approach of

three, just as it
heat to snow.

(Cp. below e 9 TO yap Ivavrlov del avrca fTri(f)ep(i.


passage is strongly against the reading Set for aei, which
I
regard as a mere corruption (AEI, AEI).
12
There does not seem to be any other
irepiTTTi, sc. uopt^rj.
instance of this brachylogy.
The normal use is seen just below in

This

last

-i]

e 5

rov upriov.

Avapnos cpa. The precise point of this step in the argument only
odd, does not at first
emerges at 105 d 13 sqq. The term Trfpirro
seem parallel to a term like dvddvaros. As Wohlrab says, the point
would not require to be made in German
for in that language the
s-,

odd
e 7

is

called das Ungerade.

opicrao-Oai
is

W has

opitra<rdat

Set?,

probably due to interpolation.

define

which gives the meaning, but


What I said we were to

Tr.

iroia KT\.

Fire, for instance, is not opposite to cold

nor snow to

heat, yet fire will not admit cold, nor will snow admit heat.
e 8
atiTo, TO tvavrCov. It is plain from avrb Several in the next line that
fivro

must

refer to the

same thing as

rii>t,

and, in that case, TO evav-

can only be added if we suppose nvi to mean virtually T&V


one of a pair of opposites, and take cuVo as the
tvuvri&v rivL,
I cannot attach any appropriate sense to the
in
question
opposite
vulgate avTo TO fvavriov, which ought to mean what is actually
TIOV

120

NOTES
opposite to

it

which would imply

e. g.

104
that

snow

will

not admit the

The same

cold.

objection applies to the variant ULTOJ TO tvavridv


adopted by Schleiermacher and Stallbauin. Wyttenbach proposed
either to delete TO fvarrinv or to read TO or* fvavrlov.
The former

proposal would simplify the sentence


understood it.
i

10

m((>i

the

shows

latter

that he

the present case.

in

vuv.

p6i.

another military metaphor (cp.

is

bellum injcrre, orr\a

cm<pep(iv

&c.).

Tr.

it

eVifp/petv

TroXfi/m-,

always brings into the

tield its opposite


i.e. TO TTfpn-ToV.
It is very important to notice
that eTTKJitpeiv is always used of the thing attacked
while f-niivai
and Kdrexfi" are used of the thing which attacks it.
ETritfifpav
,

refers to the

which

means

same thing as
1]

l I

of defence.

It

is,

fvnvrlov ri emtpepfi TCO emi ^ri.

Suds

we may

say, TO appropej/oi/

Further, fV.tVni

is

not the

Karfx fiv which implies a successful Vpo5or.


>

TO) TTtplTTCO, SC. TO fVClVTlOV fVl^Cpel,

dXX Spa KrX.

I.

G.

T<>

ipTLDl

aXXu resumes after the parenthesis with a slight

anacoluthon.
a 2

H-TI

Taking the same instance as

P.GVOV KTX.

before, not only does

opposite, heat, but so does snow, \\hich


always brings cold (which is the opposite of heat) into the field
against it in self-defence.
clXXd KO.L K6ivo KTX. All editors seem to take tKf ivn as subject of
a 3
^6^(KT6ai. and antecedent to 6 uv eVifpe pr/, but that leads to great

cold refuse to admit

its

to
the chief of which are that we have to refer
nvro t// of the
something other than eVeifo and to take e cp on
thing which is being attacked instead of the attacking form.
as an accusative pronoun
Riddell (Dig.
;)
19) took cKelvn (sc.
I prefer to take it as the object of
in apposition to what follows.
The subject of Stfyin&n
6e nr0ru and closely with eV// 6Vi av aiVo ti/.
TO eTri^tpov
Then
will then be 6 av enKpepri n evuvr tov eKtivcp.
repeats 6 av eVi0epr; KT~\. and T/)V TOU emfapafjievov f vainior^Ta repeats
fKeii o.
We have thus an instance of interlaced order (a b a b)
which is, I take it, what Socrates means by speaking
fWro>

difficulties,

j-

o/><C

{>ro

<rvyypa(f>iKus.

a 5
a 6

ay

ust as we llit i s
x ^P ov
Cp. IO4 d 14.
TTJV TOU c PTIOV, SC. Idetiv.
TO Si-n-Xdo-iov, in apposition to ra St ica, which

ou

>

and therefore an even number.


121

is

the double of

five,

NOTES

105

ToOro p,v ovv KT\.


I
formerly inserted OVK before evavriov with
ovv without
editors, but this leaves Km and the concessive

a 8

most

/xei>

now

quite true that this (the


double) is itself opposite to another thing (viz. the single, TO airXovv) ;
but at the same time it will also refuse to admit the form of the odd

any meaning.

interpret

It

is

it is not itself
opposite). The reason is, of course, that TO
always eVic/^fi TO apnov, brings the even into the field to
resist the attack of the odd
for all doubles are even numbers.
It
goes without saying that it will not admit TO dnXoiv which is its own

(to

which

dLirXda-wv

opposite.
ou8 STJ KT\.

The

almost accidental mention of double and single

suggests another opposition, that of integral and fractional. With


Heindorf, I take the construction to be
df) TO TJ/JLL iAioy (f ) ovde
oi>8e

Ta\\a ra ToiavTo, TO

rjp.

.crv

(^j K.CU

TpiT>j/j.6piov

av (J)

fcal

iravra

TO.

roiavTa

TOV S\ov (Idenv).


If we observe the slight colloquial
hyperbaton of ri]v TOV oXou, there is no need to interpret TO fjfjuav in
an artificial way (as fractions whose denominator is 2 like f and )
(Se^eTai)

TI]V

or to delete

No

it.

given fraction

all
bring into the field
against the attack of TO o\ov.
in the terms of
o av epcoTw,

they

b5

opposite to TO oAoi/, but


TOV popiov Ideav in self-defence

is

T>}V

readings of the
from the sequel.

MSS.

itself

The
(Church).
question
clear
is
but
the
meaning
vary considerably,

my

b 6

t>

I
Xf^co BT) KT\.,
say this because, as a result of our present argu
ment, I see another possibility of safety over and above (irap ) that
safe answer I spoke of at first (100 d 8).
what must be present in anything, in its body (i.e.
9
co av TL KT\.,

The text is not quite cer


body ), to make it warm?
with Stephanus,
would no doubt be simpler to omit eV
It is possible,
thus making the construction the same as in c 3.
however, to understand eV TCO crco/itm as a further explanation of
in a thing s

tain,

<u

av

and

it

TO>

e y-yeV/Tcu,

so

have

let

it

stand.

Cp. 100 d3. The irony is kept up.


of crafyos, and npi^y
c 2
KonvJ/oTe pav : KO^OS is the urbane equivalent
are taking a step
is the regular opposite of o-o$or (cp. 101 c 8).
towards the Kop.\l/tlai which we deprecated before. K TWV vOv cp. b 7.
av -rrvp. It is safe to say this because $fp/ucm?r is an inseparable

TT|V (l|xa0T],

foolish.

We

cp

predicate of

n-up,

and so the presence


122

of fire

is

a sufficient

am a

of

NOTES
This does not mean

bodily heat.

105
the least that

in

fire

the only

is

such cause, as appears clearly from the other instances. There are
other causes of disease than fever, and other odd numbers than the
number one (?) p.ovds).
3

dpa KT\.

VXT|

form of

in the

Previously

we could only say

was the cause

life

of

life

but,

f<

that participation

TWV vvv

Xe-yo/^ vco//,

we may
To f,

substitute \|/u^^ for W/, just as we may substitute rrt p, nvpfThere is not a word about
p.(n ds for depfjLUTiis, vdoros, Tre/HTToTr/?.

the soul being

The

itself

a form or

elfins,

nor

is

such an assumption

perfectly well be said to


occupy the
It is a simple military metaphor
without being itself an ioVfi.

required.

soul

may

body
(cp. 104 d
IO

I n.\ and
implies no metaphysical theory.
ObKoiJv vj^x 1! KT ^The point is that, though \^i ^?; itself is not
opposite to anything, it always brings into the field something

which has an opposite, namely life. We may say, then, that soul
not admit that opposite (i.e. death), but must either withdraw

will

before

or perish.

it

The point here is mainly verbal. It has to be shown


what docs not admit Bdvaros may be called dOdvaros.

Ti ouv KrX.

13

that

A.p.ovtrov

TO B

uSiKov Stands for TO

by an idiom of which Plato

Theaet. 181 d

aXXo, TO Se aXXo,
nXXoiGxrii
17

IO

rt]i>

5 afiovaos

8e $)Qpdv t

Rep. 455

(ifiovu

[iti>

^<-

^^V

Xeyco

i (lT

1
"")

P LKrli

TO &

oi>,

dOiKOV

Cp. Prof. 330 a 3

specially fond.

is

KH

eirtij

Ktt
>

IJIT(U>S,

p-waiKr),

f/)uo"fi.

has been proved that the soul will not admit


for
still to deal with two possible alternatives
This alternative actually
withdraw or perish
it may either
exists in all other cases but in the case of TO dddvurw the second is
Tt

KrX.

oxiv

death

It

we have

but

excluded
soul
l

for TO aduvarov is ipso facto nvwXefyov.

withdraw

must

dXXo

TI

but cp. 106 e

nonne.

i.

There

The
is

Therefore the

approach of death.
interposition of the subject is unusual,
in saying that the un

no contradiction

If there were, three would be imperishable


perishable.
may be substituted for the uneven
TO dOepjiov, though the reading rests only on the authority of the

even

is

because
L

-f],

at the

it

corrector of T, must be right (6epp>v BT\V Stob.).


to dddvaros.
coined, like avdpnos, to furnish a parallel
TO aQep^ov as soul

is

to TO addvarov.

123

The word
Snow is

is

to

NOTES

io6
a 4
a 8

irayoi

TO

another military metaphor.

dvj/vKi-ov

Wyttenbach conjectured u-^v^pov to correspond with


what cannot be cooled, is a better parallel in

adeppov, but U^VKTOV,

not in form, to dddvarov.

if

sense,

avTOVI, SC. TOV 7TplTTOVl

d 2
d 3

TOVTOV

-ye

tveKa

5xoiTo

H.T)

cp.

aVT*

85 b

K61VOV, SC. aVT\ TOV TTtplTTOU.

8.

can find no parallel

are instances of

introduced by

p.f)

TTU>S

to this use of prj.


There
with the potential optative in interrogations

We

or rlva Tponov.

might have had

TTMS av

how

could anything else avoid receiving? and this


is virtually what the sentence means
(G. M. T.
292).
dvapdXXotTo is an instance of the optative without av often found
107 a 5
after such phrases as (OUK) cad otrnr
., (oik) {&& oVcoy.
fiti

^e xuiro;

b 6

emo-Kcirrcat

cra4>f

if

crTepov,

the text

is

anacoluthon due to the parenthesis.


the reference to the p-aKporepa
Ttpa

504

ib.

Trepiodos,

b.

It

6<3o?

is

is

sound,

a very striking

This sentence
in

is

just like

Rep. 435 d and the naxpu-

clear that

the Trpomu

vrrodta-eLs

which are to be re-examined are just those mentioned above,


100 b 5, that is to say, the Theory of Ideas in the form in
which it is presented to us in the PJiaedo. Whether Socrates was
the theory required revision, I am not prepared
The re-examination of
clear that Plato was.

conscious that
to say

these

but

is

it

V7ro6ea-fts is

to

be found chiefly

in the

Parmenides and the

Sophist, both dialogues in which Socrates does not lead the dis
cussion.

b 9

viz. that you have followed up the argument as far as


humanly possible. If you make sure (crafpes) of this, you need
seek no further. The argument ends with a fresh confession of the
weakness of human arguments. Cp. 85 c I sqq.
ov)8V T]TT)oreT TTepcuTt pco
Cp. 7z /W. 2Q c8 dyanav xp*), /Lie/nj/T/jueVou?

TCI JTO

G,V>TO.

is

if

6 Xtycoj eyii) vp.f is re of Kpiral

TUVTUV TOV CiKOTa

The conclusion

<pvo~iv

dv6pu>nlvi]i>

fJLVUOV (inoSf )(Op.6l>OVS TTptTTd

of the

whole

matter.

TOVTOV

The

coare

ex.op.ev,

fJ.rjd6l>

TL TTfpfl

Myth

(107

ci

115 a 8).

C 2

etirep

TJ

T7pa.yfjM.Ti

navTos

tyv\r\

dOAvaTos KT\.

Cp. Rep.

6o8c9

Tt ovv\ O LSL ddavdra)

dXX
vTTfp TOCTOVTOV Selv xpuvov ecTTrouSaKeVat,

124

ov\

VTrep

TOV

NOTES
.

107

TO f,v, for which what is called life lasts.


cp KaXov^ev
3
this way of speaking cp. //. xi. 757 *,u \\rj<riov Zvdu
Iv

For

/coXo>i/r?

Wyttenbach quotes several

KfK\r)Tcu.

HelL
;

4
6

IO 4vBa

V. I.

and Xen.

poetical parallels

Tptirvpyla Ka\flrat.

r)

Cp. 6ie6 ;/.


a godsend, Schol. TO njrpoa-SoKrjTov Kepfto?. The word
was properly used of treasure-trove ( windfall, aul aine), which
vOv

nuncdemum.

5-f|,

tpjicuov,

was sacred

Hermes.

to

Cp. Symp. 217 a 3 ( )/j.mov //y^o-u^it^ov 6av(jL(i(rT()i> and the expression KDLVUS
Ey^jjj,
t<W

KIU
;

(iTvxrj in

Shares

(Jebb on Theophrastus, Characters, xxvi. 18).

v\)v Be,

TpocJ^s

but, as
:

\tyfTa.i, sc.
1

TO>

Menander

/zo)i/

Tin

evfli-s
I

Kock)

55

(fr.

re
TO>

8aifj.atv

it

as

els

5 n.

r^

ftdificov

The

fiim>.

di tipl

crv^nnpiffTd-

idea that the

^(lifjaov

portion appears in the Epita-phios of


ruifrtpav p.o ifxiv fiXr/^ w?, and Theocritus
8uip.ovos ov

/jiuXa.

common

is

fi

XeAoy^fj.

denied by Socrates

TT/n^/yrr/?

says: ov%

in

It

the

was doubt
of Er

Myth

vpii? dai^cDV X/ /^enu,

Vfjifls daifj-ova (lipi/aeo-df.

8r]

Ttva

Gorg. 524 a

of Judgement

TOTTOV

is

We

KrX.

OVTOI nvv

learn

what the place was from

8iKd(TDV(nv tv rco

\(tp.>

Note the use of $f/


Cp. 108 ci; 115 d 4.

Orphic.

i^

L.

The

meadow

TIS in allusion to

So

or

some

1076!, 2.
is used to suggest something known
All through this passage
to the speaker and to those whom he addresses, but of which they
shrink from speaking.
8
8ia8iKao-ap.e vovs KrX. In Rep. 614 c4 we read that the Judges, e /mfV/
bade the righteous proceed to the right upwards and
duitiiKwreiai
the wicked to the left downwards. The active is used of the judges
and the middle of the parties who submit their claims to judgement
The meaning cannot be, as has been suggested,
(cp. 113 d 3).
when they have received their various sentences, for that would
means to submit rival
require the passive, and <3u5iKuea$ui always
thing mysterious.

<V/

Cp. 67 c

its

6 TIJV

(TK\ripu>

view, but
(Rep. 61761), where the

"Arra/

yfvofjLfvw (jLvarayutyus TOV

Lysias 78 o
iv. 40 cum

dXX

mystic doctrine.

cp. for the mystic doctrine of the guardian

has a soul allotted to

less the

Xoyco, in the

Itcdo-Tou Scujiuv

6
5<u

it is

cp. 81 d 8 n.

claims to a court
:

(p 5-r)

cp.

7 n.

125

5/y,

NOTES

107
e

v0v8e

TOVIS

62

wv

r\)\eiv

ST|

n.

I have
adopted
which reads awkwardly.

cp. d 7 n.

MS.

than the

76 d 8

cp.

fiei,

^v^i]?

^LK.I]V difiovarjs TTJS

from Stobaeus rather

>

Cp. Crat.

40005

(referring to the

cov drj eveita didaxriv

o>r

Orphic

doctrine).

64

v iroXXats

In

/?<?/.

of a

615 a

ircpioSots (eV of the

we have a

time a thing takes cp. 58 b 8 n.}.


consisting of ten irepio8oi

^tXteVr/? iropeia,

hundred years each.

In the Phaedrus

249

a) the Trc/u oSoi are

longer.

65

Aicrx^Xov TiqXf^os. The references to this quotation in other


seem to be derived from the present passage, not from the

writers

108 a 4

original play.
KCU Tpi68ovs,
o-xio-ecs T

partings of the way and bifurcations.


The reading rpioSovs was that of Proclus and Olympiodorus and is
much better than the MS. nepiodovs, which is probably due to
irepioftois in

e 4.

a"

Cp. also Gorg. 524 a 2 eV TW Xei^iom,

\ureis.

rco

(^eperoi

0vcrt(iv

that

is

ft?

y^eV

77

/6>a^J

vrjcrovs,

p.ciK.apa)i>

eV

et?

r//

rpiofico

Taprapoj/.

c^

ry?

Virgil,

ubi se iriafindit in aitibas.


Stob.) than the 6o-iW of B, though

est paries

better attested

r)

(TW

The MS. of Proclus, in


an ancient variant (yp. W).
6 Kroll), has ovcriuv, which explains the corruption

is

Remp.

68co,

540 ///V

^4^;/. vi.

a 5

the only reading which gives a proper sense


(see next note), and goes much better with

It is

to the next clause

(85.

The reading Qvawv

(O for 9).
piodorus,

(ITTO

TO)V

alone

TpiodniS Tl^WV

TT/S

fits

the explanation of

EKaTlJS (cp. laSt nOte).

Olym
Tll6

Hecate (Trivia) at the meeting of three ways are well


and
Socrates means that these shadow forth the rpiodos in
attested,
sacrifices to

the other world.

a 7

OVK

a-yvoel TO, irapovTo.

i.e.

the purified soul

is

familiar with the

region through which it must travel.


Iv TCO t lAirpocrOev
a 8
8l C IO.
:

irepl

tKetvo (sc.

The verb

TO

aw^a)

tirTo-rjfxtvrj,

in

eager longing for

always refers to fluttering or palpitation of the


For desire of the corporeal
heart, often, as here, caused by desire.
in a disembodied soul cp. 81 e I.
t)

Trroeto-tfai

.
Cobet proposed olnep, but Cp. 113 a 2 ov
a(ptKvoui>Tai
form
is not out of
The
reads
Schanz
poetical
ot).
(where, however,

oGnrep

place here.

126

NOTES
)

TOIOUTOV

Tav-rqv

o-wfjiuopos

i.

jju

e.

nudQapTov.

resumes

the use of the simple

by

a{,TT),
:

itself

...

dv

cos

rf]i>

pev above.

Timaeus.

a-vvodonropos

108

e/iTropos-

alone

for

The word

wayfarer

is

poetical, like

The
they have passed.
Cp. Prot. 320 a 7 nplv (g /if^ar yeyoj c nu.
cp. 107 d 7 #.
va)VTai

till

>

xp

t/>1"-

ai~e

the Kfpiodoi.
8-r]

rives

wv

v-n-

XGovTcov,

when they

dvaYKir]s is

are gone, i. e.
equivalent, as often, to

when they have


e

passed.

There

avayKr,?.

is

no

personification.
Z

fxerptcos

TWV

Z 7

-n-epl

i.

6. AcnXwf.

Cp. 68 6 2 n.

yf\s eltoOoTCJv Xtyeiv.

Hecataeus the construction of


Ionic

Anaximander and
had been a feature of

the time of

rrepiodoL

yr,s

(E. Gr. Ph. p. 53, n. 4).


Aristophanes mentions
containing the whole earth as among the furniture of

science

TTfptofios-

From

In this passage, as we shall see,


the (ppovTHTTjjpiov (Clouds 206).
Socrates abandons the central doctrine of Ionian geography.
It is best not to inquire too curiously who this
v-n-6 TIVOS mimo-p-ai.

was.

It

was not Archelaus

for he believed the earth to be a flat disk

was not Anaximander; for he regarded


for the
It was not a
the earth as cylindrical.
Pythagorean
*
hollows are distinctively Ionian. The influence of Empedocles
on the details of the description is well marked. Such an attempt
to reconcile opposing views may well have been made at Athens
hollow in the centre.

It

during the second half of the


other time or anywhere else.

fifth

century B.C., but hardly at any

Personally, I am quite willing to


It ran scarcely
that of Socrates himself.

believe that the theory is


have been seriously entertained by Plato at the time he wrote the

continued to have great influence. The cosmology


we know it from the Ilepi KUO-^JLOV wrongly included
in the Aristotelian corpus, is based upon that of the Phaedo, and it
was in substance the cosmology of Posidonius which ultimately

Phaedo; but

it

of Posidonius, as

prevailed over the

more

scientific doctrines of the

Academy, and

The
the time of Copernicus.
dominated European thought
there must be other
thought is that, if the earth is spherical,
till

leading

oiKovfjifvm

than the one we know

of the sphere.
portion of the surface
127

for our

olKov^^

is

but a small

NOTES

io8

d 4

oux TJ rXavKov TXVT) : Eusebius has oi^l 17, so perhaps we should


with Heindorf, who shows that later writers quote
read ou^i for
17
oi>x

the proverb in this form. The paroemiographers give several ex


planations of it, the simplest of which is that it comes dnb rXni

/<ou

2n/Lu ou

os-

-nputrov nu\\r]criv

Hdt.

tridfipov (cp.

e<pevpf

i.

25).

believe,

however, that the more complicated explanation is right, and that


is to a working model of the
harmony of the spheres
originally designed by Hippasus, for which see Appendix II.
the reference

Y t&TW) SC. a

"

ws

TTtTTf icr/nat,

JJUVTOI d\T|0T], SC. rreireta p.ai } xaXeirooTepov,

SC. dirjyTjcraa dat,

d 9
e 4
e 5

the best attested reading, but that of B, enpKft, might


pot doKfl as a parenthesis.

is

^apK6tv

we take

if

stand,

IIt-n-6i.crp.ai

<Ls

Bctv

anacoluthon.

the original Pythagorean doctrine


3
Note the propriety with which oi-pavus is
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 345).
used for the world i.e. everything contained within the heavens
v

p.o-co

TTpL<j>epT)s

ovcra

~.

commit the anachronism of


Pythagorean view, that the earth
revolves round the Central Fire (E. Gr. Ph. 2 pp. 344 sqq.).
(E. Gr. Ph.

Plato does not

p. 31).

making Socrates adopt the

log

dpos

TT|V

later

the accepted Ionian doctrine (cp.

its

6p.oioTT]Ta,

This

equiformity.

historical accuracy in terminology

99 b
is

.).

another instance of

for the terms o/zocor

and

6pou>Tr)s

were originally employed where tros and tVor^r would have been
used later.
Cp. Proclus Commentary on the First Book of
Euclid, p. 250. 22 Friedlein Aeyerru yap fir] trpwros fKtwos (0aX)s)
(TTLcTTija ai
i crai

flfj iv

Kal flrrav

(Eucl.

i.

a>s

5)?

apa

icrocrKfXovs al rrpos

7rai/r6?

TTJ

/3aVfi

yto vial

8e ras Irras opoias irpocreiprjKsvai.

apxa iK&Tepov

we call equal angles were called similar angles, so


Aristotle ascribes
a sphere was said to be similar every way
both the theory and the use of the term O/ZOIOT^S to Anaximander (de
Just as what

Coelo

295 b

1 1 fieri

ue feif, (bfTirep
i/

(Is

TU>V

TU TrXaytn (pepeffdai

TTpus TU
K!VII<TIV

eV^ara

coar

see, the

world

oyuotor J/ra

irpocrijKfi

f%ov,

ap.a

(f)aaiv avrr)t/ (SC.Tr)vytjv)


p.ti>

yap

ovofvctvoi

Kara)

TJ

TOV p.eaov idpvp.fvov Kal Of


advvarov elf ravavrla Troielcrdai

TO

errl

It is quite wrong to take


homogeneity of substance or density. As we

uvaynrjs pevfiv.

as referring to

a 3

df rives ol 5ia ri]V

apyaicov Avnfciuavopos uaXXov

is

not

TTJS YTJS O.CTTJS TTJV

homogeneous
l<roppo-rriav,

in

substance at

the equilibrium of the earth

128

shall

all.

itself.

NOTES
Anaximander
like the

109

cylindrical earth could hardly be called iVopporruv


in the centre of a spherical

Pythagorean spherical earth

world (ovpavos).
a 6

OHOIGOS

ov

equivalent to o/imov oi^mivrrj).

<x

dt. (a 2 n.) o^oi cor rrpus

TO.

Cp. Aristotle

loc.

fcrxara e^oy.

Kal 6p0ws Y- The ready assent of Simmias marks the doctrine,


so far, as Pythagorean.
a 9
TI eivai is a direct contradiction of Archelaus, who
ira.p.p.Y<i
Said KficrOm 5 eV /ieiro) (T^V yi]v)
pepos oucrav^ toy eiTTfLV, TOV TruvTits

a 8

ov8fi>

(Hippolytus,

/\

i.

/".

9. 3).

Cp. 88 a

avtro, SC. TT]V yi]V.

xpt K T ^-

p.

punrrjs

Acrt aj rfpp.6va

fieyav ^5

YlovTov

otroi re

A/. AT.

rfp/jLOixjuv

Te\p.(i

/car

f^o^ 7/i

Hdt.

cp.

iv.

8.

i.

p.acrLV (

As Wyttenbuch saw,

avTT]V (TIJV yr\v] Kol\ip xa\

yap

Ava^ayopiiS

c/jr;fri! ),

are KvitXtp p.fv ovaav

which

is

dwelling round the Mediterranean


round a swamp.
(Cp.

TOTTO? 7rr/XcoSf;f vtiaip eycor.

flvai

II;f>p.

like frogs or ants

theory comes from Anaxagoras (and Archelaus).


Ref.

So Eur.

45.

vaitrutriv turo).
|

aXXovs aXXoOt KrX.

Kal

4>dcr(^),

fi.T\(ivTiK.Sav

GaXarrav olKouvras,

TTJV

-n-epl

(the dti\ciTTa

b 3

6.

Pillars of

of the olnov^evi]

boundary

b 2

The

Herakles are well known as the


on the west, and Aeschylus spoke of the
Phasis as the boundary of Europe and Asia (fr. 185) 8iSvp.uv x^ ov! ^ ^^~
TOWS

ib. 9-

vtyrj Xjjv,

^ip-^1

^iaov

fit

y<

t\f>.v

this part of the

Cp. Hippolytus,

vbup

tv TO IS KoiXo)-

p fivui TO Trp ^Tov

KOI\T}V

Ap^eXnos

(ri]i>

(prjatv),

yr;v),

a view

obviously a generalization from the Mediterranean basin.

Here it is combined with the theory ot a spherical earth (Anaxagoras


and Archelaus believed in a flat earth), and it is assumed that there
are several such basins with water in the middle and inhabited land
According to Posidonius, too, there were many O IKOIthey were islands, not hollows.
TO re uScop Kal TT|V 6p.ixXf]v Ko.1 TOV cU pa. Here again Plato correctly
b 6
which water is con
represents fifth-century science, according to
densed air, mist being the intermediate state between them (E. (ir.
The discovery of atmospheric air as a body dif
Ph. 2
w.
round them.

pevai, but

p. 79,

i).

ferent from mist

309)
older view.
(ib. p.

aWrjp

was due

Empedocles

(ib. p.

263) and Anaxagorar

it

(>

K(t\i>vp.(vos,

1251

to

adhered to the
appears that the Pythagoreans
TO p.tv evayea-rarov (rrixK^v
Cp. Tim. 58 d I afpos (yfvrj}
but

$f

6o\(pa>T(iT<>s

opl-X^ 1! re KnL

12 9

"

K T r
"

NOTES

iog
b

avTTjv

earth

true

the mist

the true surface of the earth (called below

TT|V YTJV:

the

as opposed to the basins or hollows


It rises above
air
It is clear that we are to
suppose considerable

),

and

distances between the basins.

b 8

aWrjp is properly the sky regarded as made of blue


This, as we see from the passage of the Timaeits quoted in the

aiGepa
fire.

was supposed

last note,

intermediary between

fire

to be air

and

still

further rarefied.

as opix\rj

air,

is

It is

the

that between air

and

water.

TOVS iroAXotis tcrX. This implies that Socrates knows the divergent
views of Empedocles and Anaxagoras, the former of whom gave the
name ul6i,p to atmospheric air (E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 263 sq.), while the

used

latter

of

it

fire (ib. p.

ToiavTa

TiLv irepl TO.

instance of nepi

one

am

n. i).
:

do not know any other

ace. after Xc yeu/ in Plato (Gorg.

c.

for TrXe ov *x flv

312

etcoOorcov Xtyeiv

and

understood

inclined to think the words

Xe yets

is

490 c 8

not

is

parenthetical).

have been wrongly


added from 108 cj. For the resulting phrase cp. Phaedr. 272 c 7
ov (Xoyoi ) TWV TTfpl Tavrd rivwv aKrjKoa, ib. 273 a 5 rol? rrepl ravra.
elcadorcoi

\eyetv

sediment, lit. lees (rpvyia, rpvg Hesych.). Note


and water are the sediment of the aWrjp.
d 4
Socrates is thinking of a whole people dwelling at
irapd o-^io-L
the bottom of the sea.
This is not inconsistent with el TIS above
for el ns is continued by a plural oftener than not.
(04)
Sid TOUTOV, SC. 8in rov depos.
d 7
TO 8 eivai rauTov, whereas it is just the same thing with us as
d 8
with the imaginary dwellers at the bottom of the sea. For TO 8e cp.
87c6. I see no reason to suspect the text. 7 he asyndeton

c 2

viroo-T(i0n7]v,

that

air,

mist,

explicativum
ravTuv

ir

5i)

aKpa

quite in order

is

TOLTO

Km

?//za?

for

eivai

jrerrovdevai (cp.

the surface of the

air

TCIVTQV is

72 C 3
is

explanatory of

n.).

parallel to that of the sea

(d i).

the 8^ of Eusebius is probably a trace of the


(AN, AH), which might easily be dropped by haplography.

KaTiSeiv

e 3
<"v

dvaKviTTovTes

e 4

lost

<av)

cp.

Phaedr. 249 c 3

(^X )) avaKv^raa-a els TO ov OPTUS.


1

article and
position of the attributive participle outside the
noun is normal when there is another attribute. Cp. Phil. 21 c

The

r&>

nap(i\pr]pa

rjSovrjg 7rpo<rnUTTOvo

i)S t

130

its

NOTES
e 5

OUTCOS

nva

av

illustrated

after

...

d\T]0cos

stated (perhaps only in outline) before the


illustration,

is

and re-stated
e 7

.
KariSeTv is a good instance of a form of
noted by Riddell (Dig. 209), in which the fact

binary structure

109

it
(a b a).
TO u\T]9ivov
.

ws

Y)

d\T]0J,s

observe ho\v Plato

varies the expression.

T]Se

...

i]

this earth of ours,

Y"i

we

dwell and which

o-Yipa-yyes,

a 6

water.
is

a 8

fI
<^P

av Kal

OTTOXJ

y,

there

Though

e.

rrerpa p^y/juru

v<f)a\os

yr\

[f|]

5.

the hollow in which

we

take to be the surface of the earth.

TJ,

is

e
x<n<(Ta,

Hesych., Suid.

wherever there is earth to mix with the


no good authority for the omission of r, it

certainly better away.

as
ttcetva, the things above on the true earth which are in turn
superior to what we have as those arc to the things in the sea.
l
KaXov is far the best attested reading, though
-yap ST|
(<n>)

omits KaXov and alters

and

Set

Sr;

KuXoV, for he finds

called beautiful.

It is to

to

Olympiodorus apparently had

Set.

necessary to explain why the p.vt)v is


be observed thata/if
is only in place where
it

tf"?

we cannot apply
mythical

the strictly scientific method.


There is nothing
about the ei S?/, but all we call natural science is neces

sarily so, as

is explained at the beginning of the Tiniaeus.


pp. 50-2.
probable tale
Cp. Taylor,

best, a

b 6

TI

Y"n

a ^ T1H5

It is, at

Pl<ito,

the true earth.

wo-rrep a! 8co8eKaaKVToi o-^atpai,

like balls

made

of twelve pieces

an allusion to the Pythagorean theory of the


dodecahedron, which was of special significance as the solid which

of leather.

This

is

To
(E. Gr. Ph. p. 341 sq.).
pieces of leather, each of which is
the material were not flexible, we should

most nearly approaches the sphere

make

a ball,

we take twelve

a regular pentagon.

If

have a regular dodecahedron as it is flexible, we get a ball. This


has nothing to do with the twelve signs of the zodiac, as modern
editors incorrectly say. Cp. Tim. 55 c 4 en 8t oua-ijs o-ucrrmrfan- puis
;

the pyramid or tetrahedron,


(a fifth regular solid besides
the cube, and the icosahedron), eVt TO irav 6 6d.s aiV/} Karexpf) araTO
The
see next note).
when he painted it
Kcivo

TTffj-TTTTjs

dtafayptxfr&v

of
perfectly right in his paraphrase
ciKuva TOV TTOVTOS evTi iiraTa, tyyitTTa (T^atpas

author of the Timaeus Locrus


this
ov.

(98

e) TO 8e

8u>dKiie8pnv

The whole matter

is

is

fully

explained
1

in

Wyttenbach

note,
2

no

NOTES

from which

will

it

and

Simplicius,

it was
clearly understood by Plutarch,
Proclus, in his Commentary on the First

be seen that

others.

Book of Euclid, shows how the whole


to the inscription of the

up

ax^iV-arii) in the sphere.


xP H a riv 8ii\T)jijxevTi.
7
of different colours (for
t

The true earth

>

<

SifiXij.M/ie wj

Elements leads

edifice of the

regular solids
is

(KOO-JLUKO

nXaruwKu

or

represented as a patchwork
This must be the
.).

cp. 81 c 4

explanation of the words eVcetvo Suia)ypa0a>i/, painting it in different


colours (cp. dtan-otieiXAa)).
Each of the twelve pentagons has its

own
b 8

colour.

pieces

c 2

way our

precious stones are

of the stones of the true earth (below, d


8).
K Xap/rrpoTe pojv
for the position of
cp. 70 c i n.

(/io/ji a)

n-oXu
fj

In the same

samples.

Sei-ypaTa,

TOVTCOV

Dig.

Laws 892

assimilated to that before

fj

Meno 8308

Cp.

168).

ypapM*)

e<

the case after

ovarrjs

OTTO

(wrijs

peifrvos
(sc.

^v^s)

it

?}

(Riddell,

ToomTijy

irpfafivTepas

rj

<T

CO /AUTOS

TT)V p.ev

C 4
c 6

TT)V 5

*al

oo-T]

Y<ip

hollows

.,

sc.
yr)i>,

all

XeuKTj,

one portion of
the part of

aura ravra KT\.


are

full

of

air

it

one pentagon.
it,
which is white.

The meaning is that, as the basins or


and water, the surfaces of these produce

the appearance of glistening patches among the other colours, so


that the general appearance is that of a continuous (<ruvx s) surface
of various colours (ironciXov).
c

tKirXea is quite a

good word, and there

is

no need

to read ffiTrXen

with inferior authorities.

d 3
d 6

dvd Xoyov,

e 3

and so

makes the almost

inevitable mistake

at first did

T, but erased it in time.


raOra rd d^aTrwfjLeva, the precious stones that are so highly
Prof. Ridgeway has some interesting observa
prized in our world.
tions on the relation between the Pythagorean solids and natural
rijv TfXetor^rff,

proportionally.
so W.
B
i

TT)V re XeioTTqTa

crystals in Class. Rev. x (1896) p. 92 sqq.


ox,8v OTL ou, every one of them.
The phrase is regularly treated
as a single word equivalent to rravTa.
Hence the plural KaXXico.
ou8e
(a b

Cl

5ie4>0ap(jLvot

b}\

closely

for

together,

Another instance of interlaced order

KrX.

axnrep

and

ol

fvddde

vrro

VTTO

a-^Trefiovos-

132

TU>V

KOI

6efpo

avvfppvrjKOTUiv

aXp.rjs

goes

with

go
Ste-

NOTES
<f>0aplj.i

air (cp.

oi (so

Stallbaum).

109 b

6).

to animals

rots aXXois,
V7TO
a,

TTO\ITU)V

TU>1

TU>V

and

a-wfppvrjKOTn are water, mist,

and plants

a\\d)lf

exposed to view,

tK^avfj,

Kill

The

no

besides.

Cp. Gorg.

47307

ei>a>V.

not, as with us,

hidden beneath the

earth.

This

vvf]croisKT\.

is

an attempt

to

fit

the Blest into the mythical landscape.


VIIITOS vKfavififs

the old idea of the Islands of

Cp. Pindar, 01.

which

130

ii.

tv(\i

is

humourously
paraphrased by as irepippelv TOV dcpa, the air being the sea in which
But they are close to the mainland otherwise
these islands are.
The suggestion of Olympiowe should see them from our hollo\v
dorus, that these men feed on the apples of the Hesperides, is

/jidKapcov

avpai Trfpnrv-oKriv,

therefore not so wide of the

Cp.
2

HO d

oirep

TOUTO

am

b4

as might appear.
way of expressing a proportion.

\oynv.

86b9//.).
:

TO.

It

therefore,

aXo-rj

has

o TOTTO? ev

in Plato, this

better.
<|>T|(ias,

to,>a>i/

wrong

to

read

o>

with Ileindorf.

uirfppr^rd

c 7 oinv optus, aKOveiVf (ppnveii

the apographa.
/ceil

The

sight

irdvTa
is,

the hot and cold, but also that oi the wet and dry
TMV
is
climate
Kpii<ns

oi

and hearing stand for the senses generally (hence


ToiaOra), to which intelligence must of course be added.

^povqa-et

367

mark

the regular

.,

In Greek, however, as in French, the


temperature.
word has a wider sense than in English. It is not only the due

(cp.

Kpucriv,

temperamentum

b 6

Cp. Rep.

and this reading was adopted by Heindorf from


In the Lexicon of Timaeus we read eSos
In pvTiu, and, as the word does not occur elscuhere
(tirj,

may

T<>

<<y,\im.

indicate that

Timaeus read

Cp. Livy, xxxv. 51 in fano luLoqne.


Like r/xiriv and
sacred voices.

it

here, but a\ov;

K\r;<Vji/,

^, ,/nj

is

seems

used of

omens conveyed by the hearing of significant words. Virg. Acn. vii.


deorum colloquio.
90 Et v arias audit voces, fruititrque
The
not in dreams or visions, as some say.
b 8
alo-0Tio-is TWV 0cwv
|

the gods with their waking senses.


point is just that they see
Here rrpo? CWTOVS (TDVS dens)
auTOis trpos a^rovs, face to face.

belongs to o-wowitis and tivrols (rotr


as the y reall y are
VTa
ola TVYx ivl

di><9pa>7roir)

C 2

>

vision of blessedness.

133

to yiyvecrdtn (a

This

is

l>

i>

a}.

an astronomer

NOTES

in
C 6

Three sorts of TO TTOI are enumerated (i) deeper and


TOIJS |i.ev KT\.
broader (than the Mediterranean basin), (2) deeper and narrower, (3)
shallower and broader. The fourth possibility, shallower and nar
rower,
kind.

C 8

is

auTous

not mentioned.

Heindorf read

conjectured

au.

VTTO yr\v

It assists

223.

MSS., and I formerly


necessary. For the pleonasm

inferior
is

the shift from ovrns to ex

are connected

o-vvTeTpfjcrOcu,

from

however,
*

lv *

by subterranean open

come from Diogenes of Apollonia. Cp. Seneca,


28 sunt enim perforata omnia et invicem pervia.
The geological conformation of the country made such views seem
very credible in Greece.
is Kparfipas
Cp. Soph. Oed. Col. 1593 Kot Xou 1Tf\as Kparr/pns
ujcrirep
5
near the basin in the rock Jebb). A scholium on this passage
This seems

ings.
A"af.

avrcov

No change,

cp. Riddell, Dig.

Plato does not care for symmetry of this

Quaest.

to

iv. 2.

of Sophocles runs
o6tv KOI ra ev TJ]

The
understand how

names

as

TOV p,v%nv
PUTVTJ

Devil

TO.

yap Kol\a OVTIOS enaXovv

KOiXoofjuiTa

Punchbowl

K p,era(popds

Cp. such

KaXovvTCit.

KpaTJJpes

in English.

It

is

easier to

the crater of a volcano got its name, if we may


trust this scholium, and the rocky basins fit in very well with the

present context.
v 2iKeXia KT\.

This seems

to

come from the

Sicilian

Empedocles,

who explained

the hot springs of his native island by comparing


2
them to pipes used for heating warm baths (E. Gr. Ph. p. 277).
The pvoi is the lava-stream. Cp. Thuc. iii. 116 eppvy de Trepi avrb TO

63

Hap TOVTO 6 pva rou rrupus CK TTJS AiTvr)S.


ws av : the MSS. have v iv, but Stallbaum s conjecture
t

now confirmed by
e 4

ravra

iravra KrA.

Be

t/cd,

The theory

355 b 32 sqq. ro

is

8 Iv TO

a\\T]\a a-vvTcTprjTai VTTO y^v t apX


6 KaXovfJifvos Taprapo?, ire pi TO

<^

p.e<rov

TWV

yap

ra

p.r)

thus stated

>aiSww

av

is

TTavrvv

vdaros

ptovTci ai/aSt Scocri -rravra

Ktil
e"r)

nepi re

TU>V

a)? airavTO. p.ev ets


Trr^yrj

TMV vddraiv

77X^09, e^ ov

ri

Tt]V

Aristotle

in

yfypappevov

Xf yerat -yap

v KUI rr}? duXaTTrjs advvciTOV ecrriv.

Kin

co?

Stobaeus.

enippvaiv

KCII T(\

rroielv e

del TO irp&Tov Kal rrjv apxr/V OVK


peu/xaroi/ Sia TO ffaXfveiv
aXX del Trepl TO p.e(rov etXcicr^ai (/. lAXftraat, oscillate )

efipav,

Kivovpevov 5

ai/co

Kal KUTCO noielv TIV enxva-iv

\invtiCfiv, o iav Kal rr]v nap*

134

rjp.lv

TUI>

pfuparcoi/.

ra

fie

elvai QdXacraav, tiavra de

NOTES

in

TTO\IV KvK\o) TTfptayeiv (Is rrjv opx^v, o&ev rjp^avTo pf ir, TroAAa p.ev Kai
KO.TII

TOV avrbv TOTTOV, ra

TO yap \OL7TUV TTpOS

6 4

wcnrep alupav

fie Kai.

ni>ClVTS

TIVO. (cp.

fj$T]

66

KarnvTiKpv

-rfj

Becrei rrjs tVpoJ/r,

TTfUTLV fLVClt T1]V (pnpl lV.

b 4

77.),

loi>

ptlv

TUVS

a sort of see-saw,

Olympiodorus, cp. French balancement from Inluncem. The term


aiwpr/tjif, gesiatio, was familiar in medical practice, where it was
used of any exercise in which the body is at rest, sailing, driving, c.
(cp. Tim. 89 a /), and alwpu meant a swing or hammock (Ln:cs
789 d 3). Aristotle s paraphrase has du\ TO (ra\fvfu>. The whole
description shows that a sort of pulsation, like the systole and
diastole of the heart, is intended. The theory is, in fact, an instance
of the analogy between the microcosm and the macrocosm (E. Gr.

Ph. 2

p. 79),

and depends specially on the Empedoclean view of the


between respiration and the circulation of the

close connexion

2
blood (E. Gr. Ph.

253).

p.

Tartarus has
perforated right through.
We are not
another opening antipodal to that first mentioned.
told that it is a straight tunnel, but that seems likely, and we
8ia[XTreps TerpTjp-c vov,

shall see that

Dante

Hell

it

is

passes through the centre of the earth. So, too,


a chasm bored right through the earth (Inferno,

xxxiv, sub Jin., Stewart,

Myths of Plato, p. 101).


The Arcadian form
for the singular
name
the
was
special
gpedpov,
"Opipos

Arcadia

viii.

//.

14.

Cp. Strabo,

(Geddes).

Ktn

p.

ApKufier epe$p,
account of Stymphalus, from which
Tv(p\wi>

OI>TC*V

p./)

of ftcpcdpov,
"

389 TMV faptQpav,


fie^op.eVo)!

this

is

airfpaaiv.

taken,

is

scil.

Katavothra

"

KaXovaiv

of
ai

The whole

very suggestive

of the

a 4
a 7

present passage.
aXXoGi //. viii. 481.
:

81

otos &v

-yTjs

Aristotle

(/.

sub fin.} specifies taste and

c.

colour as the characteristics the rivers derive from the earth they
flow through.

t>

There is no
.
.
pdtriv : Aristotle (loc. tit.) says Z8puv.
comprendra la pense e de
at the centre of the earth.
une pierre jete e dans

irv0p.va

bottom

On

Platon en se rappelant que theoriquement


traversant la terre selon un diametre
un
puits

d une extremit^ k

We
T

autre

(Couvreur).
135

irait

indefiniment

must keep

in

mind

NOTES

ii2
this

throughout

The impetus
time, but

b 3

passage that everything


of the water takes

(opp./?)

Aristotle (he.

centre.

indefinitely.

says

Ctt.}

past the centre every

it

back again, and so on

falls

it

cucopeiTcu ST| KTX.

the earth

falls to

del TTfpl

TO

fj.eaoi>

eiXft-

which we must read tXXeor&u, thr proper word for oscillatory


or pendulum motion.
(Cp. Tim. 40 b 8, where I take the meaning
to be the same.
E. Gr. Ph. 2 p. 346 sq.)
adat, for

KCU Kvp.aivei
tides

the doxographical tradition connects this with the


the ebb and flow of the tides (Dox. p. 383)

Ae tius on

Cp.

nXttVtof fVt rr]v altapav (pepfrul


vdaTuiv flvai ydp
(pv<TlK^v alwpav
Tivny eyyfiov rp/^aro? Trcpifyepovo a.v rt]v TTaXinpoiav,
rjs dvTiTU>V

Tii>a

5i<i

v<//

T(\

Kv/jLcuvfadai

From

TTfXdyr).

we may

this

infer that there are

two

oscillations a day.

b 4

Tfpi O.UTO, sc. ro

The

r6 vypov.

Trfpi

nveifj-n is

mentioned be

cause the whole theory is derived from that of respiration. Cp. the
account of dva-rrvori in Tim. 80 d I sqq., where much of the phraseo
ro rijs dva-n-vorjs
logy of the present passage recurs
TtflVIU TOS fJ.fV TCI (TLTia TOV TTVpOS, OlCOpOVfJifVOV 8e fVTOS
:

(cp.

avvfTTo/jLevov

pnvi Tos rcy

much

in

the

b4),

TCIS

(p\e[3as

TTJ

as Plato

ytyovtv

r&J

crvi/niwp^rei (cp.

Brunetto Latini

e-navr\iiv (cp. 03).

same way

7TVfl>p.cnl

7) n\r]-

speaks, very

does, of waters circulating in

channels through the Earth, like blood through the veins of the
body (Stewart, Myths of Plato p. 103).
,

TO

*Ls

K6tva

TT

side of the earth

side

tirl TiiSe,

(the antipodes),

in the direction of the further

in

the direction of the hither

TOV

TO

els

SY|

Kara) caXovp.evov

the words

5r/

and

Ka\ovjjifvov are

against the popular view that the antipodes are down


to avoid this incorrectness that Socrates says ru eV

a protest
It is just

/ceii/n,

or ra

the streams flow into the regions on


Tots Kar tKetva
elcrpel,
the further side of the earth, as opposed to TO. v0d8e. I apprehend
that rots- /car (Kelva niust be explained in the same way as b 5 ro eV
.

eK.flvn,

and

we omit
together.
1

in that

case ra p6\jp.aTa must be the subject. Further, if


we may take rols KCLT* cKewa r^s yijs

with Stobaeus,

8ui in

03
Even if we

understand

phrase

(loc.

rr}?

did I

retain

yfjs after roty /car

dt. Ill e 4 n.)

rr]V

have no doubt that we must


tK.elva.

Cp. Aristotle

fnippvcriv iroiflv
I

36

ty exacrra

para

TU>V

pev

NOTES
where TWV pei7tura>f is governed by fmppvinv, and
eKnvct Km (TT\ raSe.

fx

ec/ J

means eV

wo-Trep ol

TravT\o{JvTfs, sc. 7T\T]pova-iv,

The word

like irrigators.

used of raising water to a height for purposes of


No stress is to be laid on the
irrigation (Did. Ant. s.v. Antliii).
(TravrXflv

is

particular process by which this is done the point of the simile lies
in the way the water rises to a point further from the centre (whether
;

on

this side of

it

or the other) and then flows off through the channels

(o^fTo/, rivi) like irrigation waters.


:

4
6

tKeiOev

from the antipodes

Sevpo,

towards

us.

the streams are raised by the mw/m


above the centre (on either side) and are drained off to TOTTOI on the
surface of the earth, from which they once more find their way

back
;

to

All

TOTTOVS KT\.

TOIJS

els

Tartarus by subterranean channels.


a way is made lor each of them.
u>8oiToiT]Tai,

KacrTots

Tie

The etSoTroietrm of \V
simile of the irrigation-channels is kept up.
confirms the (uSoTroi rjTm of Stobaeus, and T has eKaorroi? as well as

The

Stobaeus.

reading of

(ds ovs tKiurroi

6o,7oiirw)

inferior

is

to this.
(T))

and

14

there

TJ

in d 5.

has

77

some doubt

is

seems

It

and T\V

ry.

f)

*/

/.

than the point of


not nearer the
really means nearer the centre of the earth,

vTroKarco eio-pet TT,s tKpo^s,

issue

as to the necessity of inserting ij here


In Symp. 173 a 6

however, to insert it.


In Crito 44 a I5T\V have

safer,

at a

lower level

antipodes.
\

Aristotle (IdC. Clt. TIIC4//.)


Kara. TO auro ^.t pos
KaravriKpt)
and aiwd(i>. by which he clearly
interprets these words by KarwOcv
means on the other side and on this side of the earth s centre.
.

The

choice of words

criticism

on them)

antipodes

down

is

for

is

unfortunate (especially as he bases his


(c I) that to call the

we have been warned

only a popular

however, Aristotle seems


Kara TO
I do not see how

way

of speaking.

In substance,

me

quite right in his interpretation.


on the same side of
ui ro /i/po? can mean
to

The phrase must


as many recent editors suppose.
,
.
of e 2 TO etunepudev
//
surely be interpreted in the light
which certainly refers to the sections of Tartarus on either side of

Tartarus

the earth

centre.

The

difficulties

"*

which editors have raised about


So long as a stream falls

this interpretation are purely imaginary.

137

NOTES

H2

into Tartarus at a point nearer the earth s centre than it issued


it, it may correctly be said to fall into it VTTOKUTM rr/s fKpor)s,

from

quite irrespective of whether


centre or on the other.

d 5

("n)

"Q

[eio-pel]

we can take

it

debouches on
If \ve

sc. carpet.

4|irc<rv,

this side of the earth s

omit

do-pel

with Stobaeus

e^ireafv together as equivalent to rrjs e/cpof/s.


It is important to observe that enniirTfiv is the verb corresponding
to expo!], and that the reference is to the point at which the stream
issues

d 6

77)

77

from Tartarus.

We have had the case of streams which issue from


one hemisphere and fall into it in the other; we are now
of streams which come back to the hemisphere in which they

CO-TI 8

Tartarus
told

(or

i)

a KT\.

in

They may even make this


each circuit they will be lower i.e.
Their course will therefore be a spiral, and

started after circling round the other.


circuit several times, but with

nearer the earth


that

is

As

to

Ka0 vTa

o~ot

wo-TTcp 01 6

TOV

p.xpt

tKartpcocre

<j)ei.s,

for

to

i]8r^

objectless

round

Cp. Ar. Knights


(of a wind], and

KIU p.eyas Kadids

condescend.

\itcrov,

in either direction

far as

as

middle, that is to say, from either opening of Tartarus to


which coincides with the centre of the earth.

e 2

means

Ai

does not necessarily mean


Cp. 113 b I n.

\ap.rrpbs

(jvyKaQuvai (sc. eavroy),

intransitive or rather

is

e^ ft ^ 4 y^P

43

TTJV yf\v it

-n-epl

(the outside of) the earth

d 8

the point of irepteXix^vTa

spiral

just

s centre.

its

the

middle,

avavres yap KT\., for the part (of Tartarus) on either side (of the
centre) is uphill to both sets of streams, i. e. both to those which
fall

into

it

/carui/riKpu

Kara TO avro

T)

?J

The

p.fpos.

f^trrea-fv

Trpo?

and

which

to those

B and

which

fall

places is probably due to an ancient variant rrpocrnvrfs.


that variant must be is shown by the fact that Aristotle

has

Trpos avavres.

into

it

insert in different

How

old

(loc. czL]

Heindorf conjectured Trpr o-co, and recent editors


is a non-Attic form and not used by Plato.

follow him, but that

6 5

Tvyxavei 8

dpa

OVTO, KT\.

770Tajuo! Kat 8eiva peedpu,


els

A^epovra

evnv

Hvpi<p\fyfda>v

Cp. Od.

xi.

157 /leVaaJ yap p.yd\ot

ilxeavoff p.ev Trpcora KT\., ib. X.

re peoucri

KWKVTOS 6\

o$

8>]

513 fvBa

"2rvyos

p.ev

vdaros

aTroppco^.

e 6

e^cm-arco,

e 7

rap!

from the centre.


There seems
round in a circle.

furthest

KVK\O>,

138

to

be no doubt that

NOTES
can be used as an adverb

-rrepi

i>fip.ns

Cp. Tim. 40 u6
LaiVS 964 e 4 nepl oXrp KI<\M TI]V
also found written in one word (v. L. & S.
in this phrase.

nepl -rravTa Kr/cAop rov oupavov,

The phrase

iro\ti>6pav.

s.

112

and

v. TTfpiKVKXos)

is

how B

this is

writes

it

Perhaps Hermann

here.

show that it is an adverb. We are not


by Oceanus is the Mediterranean, but that

right in accenting ncpt to


told that the XipvT] made
is

is

doubtless

so.

KaravTiKpu, diametrically opposite,


the centre of the earth (cp. 112 d 5/7.).

i.e.

on the opposite side of

Acheron

is the
antipodal
It is
counterpart of Oceanus, running in the opposite direction.
fitting that the place of the dead should be in the other hemisphere.
In the Axiochus, an Academic dialogue of the third century B.C.,

we

are told

TO

~fpov

VITTO

ov

TU>V

the gods below

(371 b 2) that

took possession of

ijpto (paiplov.

yj\v

:
f>a>v

io8b

cp.

iroXXoov

the Acherusian

Lake

is

subterranean.

4.
all

al

except

T&V opdcos

0iXo(ro0oiWo>i

Cp. 114 b 6

sqq.

tis TO.S

TWV

for the births of animals.

Jcocov Y^vtcrgis,

TOUTCOV Kara JA(TOV

and Acheron.
centre (112 e 6

i.

e.

at a point intermediate

As Oceanus
Acheron

n.),

flows

will

amiTa>,

branch

off

i.

e.

Cp. 81 e 2 sqq.
between Oceanus

furthest

from the

from Tartarus nearer the

The point intermediate between


on the other side.
these eKpi,\ai will therefore be above the centre on the same side as
centre, but

Oceanus.
t

tK^aXXci,

issues

synonymous with
I

branches

off

eWiVrrfi (112 d 5 n.)

(from Tartarus).

and so

is e /c/3oXij

The word
with

is

eVpo/}.

It seems to me that this may have been sug


Ka6|j.vov.
of the Cartha
gested by the remarkable statements in the TlepiirXovs
with fire which
the
about
Hanno
blazing
regions
11-14)
(
ginian
.

"n-vpl

were seen on the voyage southward from Cape Verde to Sierra


The
If so, Pyriphlegethon is doubtless the Senegal.
Leone.
well known in Sicily in the fifth
nfptVXouf, if genuine, would be
century B.C.
)

is generally assumed to mean


winding
ITJ YT1
irepieXi-rronevos
whereas it is clear that, like Cocytus (c 3),
round the earth
earth after leaving the At /zi/q in
Pyriphlegethon must go under the
order to reach the Acherusian Lake, which is certainly subter,

139

NOTES

H3

In the erroneous belief that Eusebius omits

ranean.

editors bracket the words

but this

rfj yfj,

most

quite unnecessary.
They
coiling itself round inside the earth (ambire
;

is

can quite well mean


terram intus in ipsa, Stallbaum)

;
cp. //. xxii. 95 e\ia-crop.i>ns nfp\
of a serpent coiling himself round (the inside of) his nest
(Monro). Cp. 112 d 8 uxnrep ol 6 0eif.
ou <rup.(jieiYvt p.6vos TCO viSaTi
cp. //. ii. 753
y f (sc. TiTapfjcrios)
3
aXXa TC JJLIV Kadurrtpdev eirippeei TJVT
HrjVi( oa /ZjUtcryerai apyvpo8iv*] 9

Xfiy

opKov yap dfivov Srvybs vftaros

e\aiov*

b 4

a7roppa>.

the earth s

at a

nearer the centre than the

<TTLV

lower point in Tartarus, i. e. nearer


centre than the Acherusian Lake, which must itself be

KaTOJTe pco TOV Taprapov,

of Pyriphlegethon, though on the

e/c/SoX^

opposite side.
av Tijxcoo-i
6
o-n-T]

at various points on the earth s surface.


TTJS yfjs,
This shows that Pyriphlegethon in its subterranean spiral course
passes under Etna. For the pvaKf s cp. in e I n.
TOUTOU
KaTavTiKpv i. e. on the other side of the earth s centre,
.

but nearer

than the

it

fnfioXr)

of Acheron,

though further from

it

than the Acherusian Lake.

b 8

d 2

olov 6 Kvavos
it is not certain what substance is intended.
In
Theophrastus Kvavo? is lapis lazuli and that stone is probably
meant here. In any case, we are to think of a bluish grey, steely
:

colour, in strong contrast to the fiery plain of Pyriphlegethon.


For 5/y cp. 107 e I n.
cv St), sc. T0770V (not iroTap.ov).
SieBtKacravTO
piobcravTes

like this,

though

form became

d 4

ot

107 d 8 H.

cp.

in place in a solemn passage


the Attic PIOVS. Later, the Ionic
as in the XaSe piuo-as of Epicurus.

the Ionic participle

in

95

trivial,

&v 86cocriv,

c 3

is

we have

those

who

are found to have

a regular

forensic expression.
*

pc o-us,

middlingly, to be distinguished from

/zerpt co?

which stands

for eu.

Another allusive and mysterious fir/ (cp. 107 e I .).


on
which they embark must be boats of some kind.
oxrjfJ-dTa
Charon s bark is familiar, but there are other boats of the dead
d 8^ KTX.

The

besides that.

d
d

TT]V Xip.vir]v, SC. rrjv

KaGaipojxevoi

A^fpovamfia.

Purgatory

is

an essentially Orphic idea.


140

Cf. Suid.

NOTES
(j.

A^epoov) 6 5f *A^epo)V KaOapo-iu* toiKf

V.

Kal (r^T]x ti)V ra

d/inpr^ara

ra>j/

ou KoXnoT^piw, pYrrrcuj/

Kcii

They

di^pajTrcoj/.

are purified by

fire

as

by water.

well as

SiSovTts SLKO.S

113

is

subordinate to

Ka@aipofj.evoi,

purged by punish

ment.
8

good deeds, seems

etiepYecriwv,

this

connexion (opp.

ddtKry/zara).

to

Cp.

have been the regular word in


I\ep. 615 b 6 d TIVUS eixpyfa-Las

evfpyTT]KOT(s KOI ^LKdini KII\ oaLoi yeynvoTfs d(v.


dviaTws tx lvKT ^- The dor-trine of the incurable sinners occurs also
in

the

c sqq.) and the Republic (615 e sqq.).


are to be found in the picture of the three
Tantalus, Ixion, and Sisyphus in the NC KWH of the

myths of the Gorgias (525

The rudiments

of

it

great sinners
eleventh book of the Odyssey. From the Gorgias
are eternally punished as Trap adely para.

we

learn that they

is more solemn than the everyday OU^VOTF,


Neoplatonists are very anxious to get rid of the
doctrine of eternal punishment, but it is stated quite explicitly.

The

never.

nevermore,

ov-rrore,

p.Tap.fXov

have lived

accusative absolute, cum cos paenituerit. Tr.


(aor. subj.i the rest of their life in repentance
:

impersonal verb

may

take this construction

cp.

(rv\n\,i.pnv oi-rw,
(

1 c

Apol. 24 d 4
for him.

when it is good
ye crot,
TOIOVTCO TIVU aXXcp Tpoircp, in some other way of
viz. as those who have done wrong VTT opyrjt.
Rep. 346 b 4

the

same

and

Any
p-t\ov

sort,

This fits
Kal Kara).
Cp. 112 b 3 Kvpaivfi
scheme. Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus rise
\Vhen the water in T.irtarus rushes Vi
in opposite hemispheres.
fKflva by
ru5f it casts them out by Pyriphlegethon, when it rushes
TO Kvp-a,

the reflux.

avu>

in well with the general

Cocytus.
Kara TDV KUKVTOV,
Cyr.

vii. 5.

Xip-v-Tjv

we

Heindorf compares Xen.


down Cocytus.
In ay Kara TTJV
l6 TO uScop Kara ra? T(i(j)povs f\0>pflt
have another meaning of Kara, on the level of, oppo

It must be remembered that the waters of Pyriphlegethon


and Cocytus do not mingle with the Purgatorial Lake.

site to

8ia<J>p6vTo>s

irpos TO co-tcos Piuvai,

to

have led exceptionally holy

contrasted with those who have lived /ze crwr (113 d 4).
lives,
For
\Ve must understand &V or some such word with
a 5 r b opfos (sc.
281
Stallbaum
Euthyd.
an
compares
such
ellipse
n vnepyatopivr), Symp. 181 b 6
as

<7iW.

C<TT\V

141

NOTES

H4

rov KciXws (sc. dicnrpda(r8ai) r] pi), Phileb. 6l d I


npa . . rov KO\&S av
For similar brachylogies designed to obviate
/uaXtara eVtrii^oi/zev
.

same word

the repetition of the


trtW yiyvovrai

01

ayaQoi

Meno 89 a 6 ov/c

pei yevfcrdai,

ai/

irl

c 3

avev

O-COJAOLTCOV

760

cp.

rw

(pvcrft ot

3 o-Ktyai

davpa-

o>$-

8e KaKcp (xaxo)) OUK


eyA/&)

dyaOoL

The

(sc. dya$ot).

an obvious interpolation.

is

the Earthly Paradise.

12

344

f?fj>

added by Theodoret
yns: i. e. on the true earth

7TpoKKpi(T0ai

C 2

325 b

cp. Prof.

(sc. dyaflol),

(rwparwv.

^copls-

This

ment which brought upon Plato the condemnation

the state

is

Church

of the

as being inconsistent with the resurrection of the body.


Eusebius
has Ka/jLUTw for o-co/^dTtof, which looks like a deliberate falsification.

C 4

olKTjo-eis

We

TOTJTOJV KaXXiovs.

are to think, perhaps, of the

Timaeus

natal stars of the

(Stewart, Myths of Plato, p. 109).


In any case, those alone reach the Celestial Paradise who have
undergone the philosophic Kadapcris. The ordinary purgation is not
sufficient.
-rrav

c 7

to leave nothing undone.

troieiv,

TTOIOVCTLV (0(TT

BiKlJlf

KaXov ... TO aQXov

C 8

orros

OV-Y

5oKeI,

To

probable tale
63 C I sqq., IO8 d

?}

608 b 4 Meyay

K.O.KOV yfi//tr^a(,

7r)o/<ei.e^a

is
5

de

aiov,

d
e

irXt ov

<j

ol/j-ai

ci

it is

fJ.eyas,
.

ra ye

ovaa

av

dia/j.a^niprjv,

evidently

is

).

worth while to take the risk of thinking

at>r<u

to do more harm than good.


Euthydemus 280 e 5 TrAe ov yap TTOU

ciTrepYa^o-Gai,

occurs twice in the

l<ava>s

r<H

OTWOVV

TTJS d8e\(prjs,

that, in these places, the

al TT\COV

p.r)

op65)s Trpay/nart

loXecor HpaKXel), 6 d

ffioTjdrjcrev (sc.

rov TaXa iTTtopov ovde\s rcov vvyyevav


K.al

Trepl roi;rou Traz^u

.,

r)

e /Mos

eav eu,
loXecoy

Cp. also Isocr. Aeg. 25 rolrov

f\6oi, 7r\fov av ddrfpov TroLTjaeiev.

fjLTjrpbs

i.

ddrfpov eVnv, fdv TLS XP*l

C 7 6 5e

cp. 77 e 8.

Odrepov

The phrase
297

that

Cp. 85 d

ciraSeiv

p.i]v

Siicr^vpiVaa^ai.

sc. e?i/fu,

so.

it is

6 dycuj/,

Kal

oa ou

^i^^)) (paiverai

17

irpt ireiv, SC.

...
C

i>

Xoyou Sacr^upicratp.^v, on
Contrast d 4 eVeiTrfp a^ai/arov ye

TTCLV

difference between scientific knowledge and


once more insisted on. For the expression cp.
Sqq., Meno 86 b 6 Kal ra /ze ye aXXa OVK av Trdvv

VTTfp TOV

The

KT\.

[xtv otiv

Rep.

cp.

ro xp^oTOf
KCU

<j

Cp. Gorg. 479 c

SldoJ al.

p.1]

eVifT/ce^o/iei/os

Odrepov

meaning

is

142

to

erroi^crav.

d^iKfTO,
I

77X17^ rf/j

do not think

make bad worse

(Hein-

NOTES

114

dorf), or that Qiirepov has anything to do with Pythagorean views


about the other
should hardly find the phrase in a private
speech of Isocrates if it had. More likely it is a colloquialism like
n\fOV Tl TTOlflV, Oll&fV 7T\(OV TTOieiV.

We

ws

It is

of his

own

Hirschig for once seems to be justified in an a&VjPlato should spoil the effect
words two lines below by anticipating them here.

KaXfj:

o-if.

difficult to believe that

very

av dvT|p rpa^iKos,

4>cuT]

phrase does not occur

veKpov Xoveiv
(l

in

tmo-Ts XXcis

Cp. 116 b

<.lT7OK.pil>(T0(U

-n-Xcov

will profit

Ou

<rroiT]o-Te,

nothing
is

Kn\ TO

ft

TOV

ru

009

ru>v

pei.

Xoya>f

"(.\vi]

will

you

do no good

ye ciVTQS TrTri(TTfVKfV
(j)apfj.aKov

OLfTdl TOV oXtyOV VCTTfpOV

(I yO-O

for the last wishes of the dying.

nil profit ietis,

ATToXXofico^jo? So^a^etj

h.6i]val(i)V (piXorrjaifiv

fp.f

(115 b

The
it
,

T1]V

,iie

KrX.
Aelian, V. //. i. 16, has another version of this,
not likely to have composed himself: Ki TTCO? v-rrtp i^wv

TT6L00)

which he
Kci\(cs

urfyn npfo-puTy

4.
I

ouStv

Meno 76 a 9

7 he real Socrates will not

too-trep KO.T IXVT]


cp. Rep, 365 d 2
hunting metaphor once more.

The

vox propria

the

is

would say

in the play

for the construction cp.

TTpO(TT<lTTtlS

Practical Application.

man

as the

any extant tragedy.

elvai, 8rj\6s

faTL ^e OVK

fluu>s.

ppl/J.p.(

VOV (V

This

on

fitra

TTJV

e^

tri oi/ra)? otytral Scovpa-

7ru>p.a

may

7TO<Tl

K(IL

KftCTOfjUVOV

be a fragment

of

Aeschines or another.
7

oOros

when
i

TTWS

6-q

used

is

of

<>

is

idiomatic

deiKTiKv?.

indirect deliberative.
Goodwin, /I/.
once more the allusive and mysterious
:

Odin-fl

\L*

Tivas

The omission

Socrates here.

ScjKpciT-rjs,

the pronoun

7".

drj.

677.

Cp. 107

d 7 n.
5

aXXcos

r\v

X YIV

OUTOS

30 minae

may

Cp.

76

riYY u5 TO
-

e 4.

does not refer to the

become

offer of Plato, Crito.

security for the fine of


which Socrates proposed in his ai/rm /i^nr (Apol. 38 b 6).
infer from Crito 44e2sqq. that Crito had further given

Critobulus,

We

and Apollodorus,

security that Socrates

to

would not run away


143

(y

fi

NOTES

ii5

C 3

mony
K.OI

ere

7reprreXot}<rt

/jiev

ocrra irpOTidevTai

dvio-TdTo

means
a 5
I

a room

(116 a

and the

eVeiSaj/ 5e

rj

itself

Cp. Eur. Ale. 663-4

Ttpo&r)<TovTai

vcxpov,

(K(popa

?J

Thuc.

34. 2

ii.

(inaccurate language) goes

118 a 17).

Cp. Prot. 311 a 4 e^avacrraip-fv

Tore 8 av, as

1056
b
b

els

their dead

so far as the thing

LS atiTo TOVJTO,

The Closing Scene


Il6 a

K<U

for burial

are the regular parts of the cere


The middle voice of Trporidfa-^ai is

because people lay out

davovra

ra

(Maying out

TTpodfCTLf

carrying to the tomb


before the actual burial.
(

justified

e 5

The

irpoTL0Tat KT\.
fK(j>opd

cts TTJV av\r)V.

oiKT]|j.a

if

rore

fjifv

had preceded.

Cp. the omission of

o /xeV,

8vo yap KT\. Cp. 6oa2.


at olimcn ywaiKts
.
tKetvav.
.

and eWi/aif

is

certainly the original reading

be construed with

fiinXe^^ets) is apparently a
be implied that the women of Socrates
In fact,
family were well known to Echecrates and his friends.
eWtmi has much the same effect as the yiyvoxrKfis yap with which
Xanthippe is introduced (Go a 2). It is surely impossible to believe
(to

It

conjecture.

seems

to

with some editors that Xanthippe is not included among the oixemi
The mere fact that the youngest child is brought back

yvvalKcs.

seems

b 3

to

show

that she

SC.

BioAex^eis,

O.VTOIS,

vulgate reading eKeivms


his sons.

xpovov.

began

iroXiJVKTX.

in the

is.
I-

e.

roly

iraiSiois

Kal

rals

yvvai^iv.

would imply that he had no

As

morning, and

last

The

words

for

\htPhaedo
upon sunset on one of the

the conversation recorded in


it

is

now

close

longest days of the year, it is plain that Socrates spent several hours
alone with the women and children. There is no trace of indiffer

Cp. 60 a 7 n. Of course Phaedo can only narrate


conversations at which he was present.

ence to them.

b 8
C 5

d 6

stepping up to him.
XP VCP? during the thirty days (cp. 58 a 4
Socrates had been in prison.
CTTCLS irap

To\JTo>

auTov,

TC

dv8pu;v XOXTTOS,

the best of men.

a few phrases.
144

In Attic Xoxrro?

is

.)

for

which

confined to

NOTES
7

airoBaKputi

6 avGpwTTos.

cp. 117 C 8 (m(K\aov.

It

Cp. App.

not the

is

this sense of

that there
cp.

77X10$-

meaning cannot be

Hdt.

is still

viii.

He means

ytXcDTa ocjAf.o-eiv imp

own

4>ti86p,evos

it,

that,

though no longer

to

p.auTc3,

6eiXr)

make myself

don

dXXcos TToUi,

HT|

45 a

Rep. 328 a

(/Jci

is

my

ridiculous in

Begin

the lees

refuse me, a

rep iraiBi,

auro iron ]o-i,

maioribus nostris,
is

it

common

Cp.

colloquialism.

10.

it

In the medical writers Troutf

will act of itself.

is

Heindorf quotes Uioscorides

it acts against poisons.


For
very cheerfully indeed.
the adverb.

-rrpos (})(ipp.aKa,

Kat p,d\a
iXecos- is

otiSe

est

spare halfway,

(Geddes).

used technically of the action of drugs.


Troifi

to

to his servant.

a
^

95

For the Latin version

Sw.

nam, ut visuin

est,

when you reach

sorry saving
Crito

TrufyieVi

ei>\

of the saying cp. Seneca, Ep.


sera parsinionia in fundo

b 4

it

visible,

ouSevos *TI evovros,


sparing the cup when there is
a proverbial way of speaking. Cp. Hesiod,"E/>> 367

fiea-a-oBi (pfideadiiL,

n.

The

77X10) o-Kifiixj/xeW.

eyes.

nothing in

i.

sunlight on the hilltops.

23 a^a

shining on the hilltops.

still

b 3

juice.

that the sun has not yet sunk behind Cithaeron

for Crito says of/im.

of the

I.

TI tjXiov etvcu KT\.,

administers

same person as the officer


The seeds were pounded in a mortar to extract the

Eleven.

For

man who

to be observed that the

is

the hemlock-draught

116

i Xecos,

8ia<J>0ipas

Plutarch

uses

cf)6(ip(ii>

and

/cal

paXa cp. 6ie

<p6op<i

of mixing

colours (L. S. s. ?/?/.), and the expression employed here seems to be


derived from that technical use.
Cp. //. xiii. 284 rou 5 aya&ov OVT
ap

rpf.T7f.rai

XP^ S

K T\.

Tavp-qSov viropXfvj/as.

with
bull.

An

picture here.
KOTO) is, indeed,
v7Toft\6\l/iis is

bull

from

This does not seem to have anything

to

do

of an angry
dnoravpovadai, which refer to the glare
angry or threatening look would be quite out of the

Tuu/>oua-$m,

about to
its

In Arist. Frogs 804 t/:iXe\|/e yovv mvprj^uv ey*ci^9


pet, but
given as a sign that Aeschylus fiupfus
different from (yKv-^as Kiiru, which suggests the
<>f

quite
toss.

It

means

to look

askance

use in Hippocrates and Aristotle (L. S.


J

at

(UTTIJS/JH),

J.z/.),

we

and,

see that

NOTES

ii7

meaning was

the original
then, a

to look with the eyes half open.

It is,

mischievous look

rather than a threatening one.


6
irpos TO diroo-rmo-ai -ma.
Perhaps Socrates thought of pouring
a libation in honour of Anytus, just as Theramenes had toasted
Critias in hemlock-juice.
Cp. Xen. Hell. ii. 3. 56*01 eVet ye drro6vrjTO K&veiov eVie, TO Xemopevov eVpaoviz/ dTroKorrujSitraiTa
di>ayKa6pei>os

(TKtLV

avrov

6i77ti

KpiTia TOLT

Synip. 174 b

%is

I Traiy

C 4

-mcrx6p.6vos

phrase.

for

mv, he

Stesichorus

e. g.

Cp.

TpCKayvvov

lips

KaAai.

e& Xfiy

TTI"
|

ai>

For the use of


levai

Trpo? Cp.

eVt Selnvov.

("mXr/ros

held his breath and drank

Stallbaum shows that

last drop.

a>s

rcw

eVra>

Trpos TO

fr.

-nlvfiv

2*u(pioi>

de

SeVas-

Xapui>

The rendering

eTTicr^d^f vos KT\.

to the

it

fnnrxopfvns was a standing


epperpov
it

putting

to his

though grammatically possible, does not seem strong enough


this and other passages where the phrase occurs, so I
prefer
,

Hermann

K. F.
pevos

is

The

interpretation.

not unlike that which

has

it

in

sense assigned to eTrtcr^dSymp. 216 a 7 fmaxopevos

TO. d)T(l.
*

icai

p,d\a euxepws,

means

without the very least disgust


As
8vo-xepnii>fLv fastidire, the meaning

8v<rx

he drank the poison as


C 5
c 7

cmciKws,
do-raKTi

fairly

not

and

fastidious

if it

1251 flOTdKTt Xfi /^cof

}*

was quite a pleasant drink.

pretty well

in single

l>

that

is

drops, but in a flood.

Sa/cpuot/,

1646 acrraKTi

Cp. Soph. Oed. Col.


(TTtvovTfS.
has

which would mean the same thing, and also preserves an


ancient variant a/Sao-To/m, which would mean unbearably
I covered
Q.-rrtK\aov t p.curr6v,
C 8
my face and wept for my loss.
oi ou dvBpos KT\.,
to think what a friend I was bereft of.
This is
C 9
another dependent exclamation
Cp. 58 e 4 n.
d 5
KaTK\ao-6, which Stephanus conjectured for /care/cXauo-e, is actually
do-Ta\(iKTi,

the reading of T.
Plut.

Timoleon

Cp. Homer, Od.

7 TO de TipoXeovTos

iv.
.

481
nddos

Kare/<Xao-/9^
.

cfciXov

/cureVXao-e

KO.I

r/

T op,

avve-

Tpi\lsfv CIVTOV Tf)V oicivoiav.

tv evx^^P-ia

Il8 a

TO.S

TfTpippevr)
^ti^pciv ye

a 2

-n"r)-yvuTO

f)

/cat
I

Cp.

KVTHJias

60 a 3

n.

Frogs 123 AXX earn/


Apa Ktoveiov Xeyeis

Cp. Arist.
dia dvfias.

Sucr^ei /afpoi/*

Cp. 77

fvdvs yap dTTOTrrjyvvcrt

^uvrnpos

arpaTro?

MaAiora
|

-ye.

TavTLKvrjjJiia.

b 4 n.

Kal avTos TJITTCTO,

the

man himself
146

(not Socrates).

It is

im-

NOTES

had touched Socrates by the executioner

plied that the others


directions.

&

"HTpov

Arrows
a

TU>

6 fJLfra^v op.(pa\ov re KU\ alftoiov TOTTO?

vTroyacrrpiov E\\t]ViKws

AcrKX-qTTico 6c})eL\ojiv uXeKTpvovo,

TOL^WV

awake cured

KrjpvKci

iv. II

^uco,

i/\e&>

tjrpov

for the offering of a

cock to

rou aXcVropos roriV

<5eiVe
|

Ta7ri8op7ra

who

like those

TimaeuS,

MoeriSc

Asklepios Cp. Herondas


OLKirjs

118

(Vmcr$e.

ui Tiv

Socrates hopes to

are healed by (yKoi^a-is (incubatio] in

the Asklepieion at Epidaurus.


1

-fifxeis,

we, his disciples.


of the men of his time.

The phrase is regular in such


Stallbaum compares Hdt. i. 23 Aplova
Ki6ap(p8i>v
Tore fi ivTW ovftevos 8evTpni>, Xen. All. ii. 2. 2O Ki/prKu apiarovT&v
Tore.
fp.ol Trpea-ftinfpuv
Cp. Plato, Epist. vii. 324 d 8
T-iv Tore,

appreciations.

TU>V

<\)(\w

2o)K.)aT/

17

oy

e -a)

KCU d XXccs,

(Tdbv

and

i"n>8pa

OVK av al

in general.

characteristically Attic.

We

The ralm
find the

of the closing sentence

same thing

in

tragedy and

the Orators.

147

L 2

is

in

APPENDIX

DEATH BY HEMLOCK
IT

is

expressly stated by

menes was put to death by


the same of Phocion (PJwc.

Xenophon (Hell. ii. 3. 56) that Theraa draught of Kvvfinv, and Plutarch says
As described in the riiacao, the
36).

drug acts by producing a gradual refrigeration proceeding from the

upwards to the heart. Death ensues when the heart is affected.


is accompanied by a spasm or convulsion (eW//$r/, 118 a 12).
The same symptoms are implied in the passage of Aristophanes
(F