You are on page 1of 20






The major equipment in thermal power stations are

Power transmission and

In boiler fuel fired and steam is generated and superheated under high pressure. This
superheated steam under high pressure is supplied to high pressure cylinder of steam turbine
and expanded the low pressure exhaust steam from HP cylinder is taken again to the boiler
and reheated.
The reheated steam is used in the intermediate pressure and low pressure cylinders of the
turbine for expansion and finally steam is dumped in to the condenser the condensate from
the condenser is extracted by a condensate extraction pump and flows to the desecrator
through a series of low pressures heaters. The feed water from the detractor is pumped back
to the boiler by the boiler feed pump through a jet of high-pressure heaters.
HP bypass station
The HP bypass station while operating with a LP bypass station enables boiler operation by
establishing steam flow from main steam line to cold reheat (CRH) line and from hot reheat
(HRH) line to condenser with out co-ordination with turbine.

What is HP bypass system The process of by passing the steam from HP turbine directly to cold reheat line (CRH) line is
known as HP-bypass. The equipment, which passes steam into the re-heater by passing the
HP casing of the turbine, is known HP bypass.
What is LP by-pass?
The equipment, which passes, steam directly in to the condenser by-passing the IP and LP
turbine casing and is known as LP bypass.
Why HP/LP bypass system?

E or quick rising of steam parameters.

Holding of seam parameter
Attaining steam purity
Protect the reheater from overheating as well as overpressuristation

The by-pass system will be operation during the following conditions

Warm start
Hot start
Load rejection
House load operation
Quick shut down of turbine
Turbine trip

HP bypass station consists of the following

Combined pressure reducing and de-superheating valve with electrohydraulic actuators of HP by pass (BP1 & BP)
Spray water isolation valve with electro-hydraulic actuator (BD valve)
Spray control valves with electro-hydraulic actuators for temperature
control (BPE1 & BPE2) of HP bypass.

LP bypass station consists of the following

Combined stop and control valves with electro-hydraulic actuators for LP bypass LPBP1,
Spray control valves with electro-hydraulic actuators for temperature control (LPBE1 &
LPBE2) of LP by pass
NECESSITY How by pass system works

During turbine trip/load rejection

When turbine into takes place. The steam supply to turbine totally cut off from the main
steam line.
The high pressure and high temperature steam passes through the HP (high pressure) by pass
valve where the pressure of the steam is reduced and de-superheated steam than passes
through the re-heater to ensure minimum flow through reheater.
The hot low-pressure steam from the reheater outlet is once again isolated from the
intermediate & low-pressure turbines and by-passed through the low-pressure by-pass system
to condenser after pressure reduction and de-superheating.
Reheated steam after by passing IP and LP will pass through LP by pass station where its
pressure reduction & de-superheating takes place and finally dumped in to the condenser.
During short trip/load rejection
By this by-pass system a minimum circulation is maintained in the boilers tubes super heaters
and re-heaters with low firing rate during turbine trip.
When the turbine is ready for rolling the by pas system can be gradually closed to allow
steam to pass through the turbine as the high temperature high pressure steam in the main
steam line and the re-heater outlet are readily available for quick re-start.
Following the turbine trip if the boiler steam temperature is maintained just above the turbine
metal temperature. The unit can be put into operation as soon as the turbine is available for
Necessity of HP-LP system

To establish required steam parameters at super-heater and re-heater

outlets in short time for best matching of turbine metal temperatures.
To handle the difference between team generated and that consumed by the
turbine under transient conditions the difference is fed to the condenser
Enables quicker warming up of steam lines
To protect re-heaters
To maintain main steam pressure of pre set value is main steam line during
start up

Graph between temperature and time for turbine and boiler

During shut-down
In this screen a graph is drawn showing the temperature of the boiler steam and the turbine
metal versus the time following a shutdown. The boiler steam temperature is shown in green
and that for the turbine metal temperature is red.

During start up
During the operation the steam temperature entering the turbine should always be higher than
the turbine metal temperature.
Once the short tripping is over turbine requires steam at higher temperature as the
temperature of the turbine parts have not cooled much during the short period due to effective
insulation and high mass of materials.
If a re-start is needed after shut down interval on its the boiler steam temperature Tbs is
much lower than the turbine metal TM temperature as can be seen from the graph.
Hence it will be necessary to raise the boiler steam temperature to a value higher than the
turbine metal temperature before any steam could be admitted in to the turbine.
This is necessary to avoid thermal stresses due to temperature change in the thick walled
component like the turbine this temperature rise is shown by the dotted line.
This temperature rise is shown by the dotted line for 1 and for 2 and for 3 at three different
rates of temperature rise which takes the time of T1,T2 and T3 respectively where T is a time
taken for the boiler to give the steam temperature higher than the turbine metal temperature
reduction in time T will allow a quick re-start of the unit
How to the reduce the time TB?
The boiler steam temperature can be raised faster by increasing the rate of firing, thus
increasing the boiler load this is due to the fact that the steam temperature is dependent on the
boiler load.
Boiler load can be increased only by opening of HP/LP bypass valves as turbine valves
cannot be opened due to temperature difference between main steam temperature & turbine
metal temperature.
Re-heater protection Function of reheater
Reheater is used to increase degree of superheat of exhaust steam from HP turbine.
Why re-heating is required If we consider the Rankin cycle with out reheating. The nos. of stage handling the steam
below the saturation line are more the blades of these stages are subjected to heavy erosion
caused by water droplets.
To minimize the erosion steam is taken from HP exhaust to re-heater where the heat is added
to increase the temperature of steam.

The nos. of stages handling wet steam is reduced.

Besides providing an effective means of reducing the moisture content of steam in LP
turbines I also reduces blades erosion and improves the stage efficiency. Re-heating makes it
possible to achieve higher thermal efficiency and larger power output.
ADVANTAGES Advantages of HP-LP bypass system are
The main advantages of HP-LP bypass system are

To attain required steam parameters of super-heater and re-heater outlet in

short time for best matching of steam and turbine metal temperatures.
To handle the difference between steam generated and that consumed by
the turbine metal temperatures.
To attain steam purity prior to steam entering into turbine by damping the
steam directly to the condenser.
To enable house load operation of the machine
To achieve quick start ups and faster loading
To reduce startup and shut down losses
To save considerable amount of DM water
To enable quicker warming up of steam lines.
To minimize operation of safety valves
To improve boiler stability under transient condition
To enable boiler to be kept in operation after a load rejection
To enable independent operation of boiler and turbine
To maintain the steam flow through the re-heater and boiler tubes


PRDS valve
Water pressure control valve
Temperature control valve
Hydraulic servo system
HP by-pass interlocks

Function of HP bypass
HP bypass system is utilized for the following tasks
To establish flow at the outlet of super-heater for raising boiler parameters during startup.
To maintain or control seam pressure of preset value in main steam line during startup.

To warm up the steam lines during startup

To control steam temperature down stream of HP bypass of the preset value
To damp steam from boiler into condenser via LP bypass system in case the generator circuit
breaker opens.
The HP by-pass supplies steam to the re-heater to keep the re-heater to keep the re-heater
metal temperature within the allowable limits.
The steam supplied to the re-heater should be more or less of the same parameters as in the
case when the turbine is operating.
HP bypass station of the following

2 nos. pressure reducing and de-super heating valves with electrohydraulic actuators (PRDS or BP1 and BP2 valve)
2 nos. spray water control valve with valve electro hydraulic actuators for
temperature control (BPE1 and BPE2 valve)
1 no. Spray water pressure control valve with electro hydraulic actuator

Design capacity of HP bypass station 210 MW set

The capacity of HP & LP bypass valves is 60% or 100% as per requirements of customers.
Maximum main steam temperature
Maximum steam pressure
Down stream temperature

540c cent
140 ata
380c max

Preparation and operation procedures of HP-LP bypass valve

1 Check before charging HP-LP by-pass
Boiler stop valve are open
Cold reheat and hot reheat steam line
drains are open
Vacuum in the condenser is 600 mm Hgcl
HP bypass oil units oil level normal its
pump is running and oil pressure is
LP bypass rack is lines up and all its
seating and tripping values checked up
HP bypass down stream temperature set
point is at 200c

UCB operation
UCB operation
UCB checks
Local checks
Local operation
Can be altered to maintain desired HRH
steam temp up to 380c

HP bypass spray pressure set point is at 70

All isolating valve before the spray
pressure controller

UCB operation
Local operating are open

2 Transfer LP bypass control to auto and switch on the automatic control interface
3 Transfer HP bypass control to auto
HP bypass transfer to auto
Reduce HP bypass upstream pressure set
HP bypass valve (BP-1/BP-2) start opening
it ms pressure is more than set point
CRH pressure starts in creasing
HP bypass temp controller transfer to auto
and maintain set value of down stream
temperature and spray pressure

-------UCB operation
UCB alarm HP bypass valve open
comes on

4 Adjust/increase main steam set point to ordain desired ms pressure as soon as boiler
firing in creases.
PRDS valve
Function of PRDS valve
It reduces /maintains pressure of main steam equal to CRH line
Construction details
This screen shows the cut away view of the HP bypass valve. The main components are

The valve body

The valve steam
The value seat of the jet cage
The pressure seal plug
The bearing carrier and
The packing nut

Valve body
The valve body is made up of low alloy steel 2 and chromium and 1 molybdenum suitable
for high working temperature and pressure since these valve are normally kept closed and are
required to come in operation very quickly the design of the body has been arrived at after
considering the thermal stresses. To keep these thermal stresses low an attempt has been

made to keep the valve thickness as minimum as possible by selecting the shape of the body
as spherical and using a forged material instead of casting.
Valve system
Valve steam is o high chromium alloy steel with 11% chromium and 1% molybdenum this
material has a very high yield strength from a very high pressure to a low pressure this is
associated with sonic velocities resulting in large turbulence noise and vibration. Cross
turbulence creates high noise level whereas the fine turbulence disintegrates faster and causes
less noise. This can be achieved if the steam flow in its narrowest cross section is divided into
individual partial flows, which is sufficiently separate from one another.
Valve stem
This graph shows how the noise level is reduced by using a slotted stem.
A close up view of the slotted stem is shown in this screen.
The valve stem is guided at both its ends as shown in the diagram.
Valve seat
Valve seat is shown in red and is made up of low alloy steel with 2 and chromium and 1
molybdenum. To ensure complete seat tightness, this is sufficed with fast deposits at valve
stem-seating portion using heinous alloy.
Jet cage
Is made out of low alloy steel, which prevents direct impingement of spray water to the valve
body. It also creates turbulence in the steam water mixture for rapid evaporation. The shape
of the jet cage makes it flexible against stresses induced by vibration.
Pressure seal plug
Pressure seal plug is made out of low alloy steel to keep the bottom portion of the valve end
closed. Spray water is injected inside the valve through the inclined holes drilled in the
pressure seal plug. This also provides the bottom guide for the valve stem.
Bearing carrier
Shown in the red is the bearing carrier made out of satellite and provides upper guiding of the
stem. The link seat construction of the bearing carrier presents the transfer of vibration to the
gland packing.
Packing nut
Screw tight packing nut as shown in red is made out of 13% chromium steel and keeps the
gland packing sufficiently tightened to ensure leak tight gland.

Water pressure control valve Spray water pressure control valve or BD valve
The spray water pressure control valve (BD valve) maintains the pressure of the spray water
fed to the temperature control valve.
Constructional feature
Construction feature of BD valve and BPE1 and BPE2 are similar and it will be discussed
with BPE valve

Temperature control system

Spray water flow control valve
The HP bypass spray water flow control valve BPE1 and BPE2, maintain the HP bypass
down stream temperature at the pre-set value.
The down stream temperature is measured by thermocouples in both lines and each downstream line temperature is separately maintained to the common set temperature.
Constructional feature
Construction feature of BD valve and BPE1 and BPE2 are similar.
This screen shows the cut away view of spray water flow control valve. The main
components are

The body
The valve stem
The valve seat
The guide bush
The gland nut and
The pressure seal plug

The valve body is of cylinder shape and is made up of carbon steel or carbon moly steel
depending on parameters.
Valve stem is made up of 13% chromium steel and is guided at its both end.

The valve seat is made up of satellite investment casting. The seat is attached to the valve
body through a ring, which is welded to the seat at works leaving the welding of the ring to
be carried out at works during assembly or at site during replacement of seat. The valve seat
is pre-stressed before welding to the body.

Hydraulic servo system The valve in the HP and LP by-pass system are actuated by means of electro hydraulic servo
system. This system meets the requirements of high forces and quick positioning. Let us look
into the more details of the system.
The main items in the system are

The oil supply unit

The servo valve
The blocking unit
The hydraulic servo motor
The feed back transmitter
The final element i.e. the control valve and
The control unit

HP bypass interlocks HP-LP bypass system shall come into operation under the following conditions

Opening to the generator transformer circuit breaker on the operation of electrical

protection provided the vacuum in the condenser is healthy.
Closing of one or both emergency stop valve provided the vacuum in the
condenser is healthy.

Fast opening
By activating fast opening signal, bypass valves are fully opened in about 3 secs. The fast
opening device is activated by the followings

Generator circuit breaker open

Turbine load shedding relay operated
Turbine trip
Pressure deviation too high and
Fast opening push button

Opening As the HP bypass valves open more than 25 or PI demand is more than 2% an auto
command is initiated to change temperature control to auto BPE valve open to minimum
value (set by MIN set0 to ensure that certain amount of water is injected into the steam
flowing through BP valves.

Closing interlocks
When the temperature at downstream of the HP bypass valves rises above a preset limit an
alarm is initiated.
If temperature still rises above the very high limit, a closing signal is given to bypass valve
followed by an alarm.
Spray water pressure valve (BD) closing INTERLOCKS
When by pass steam valves are closed (below 2%) and the PI output is less than 2% the
monitor will give a closing to BD valve.
Overrides and interlocks
By pass valve-closing interlocks
As soon as the bypass valve is les than 2% open the monitor gives a signal to close bypass
fully this is to void bypass valve from drifting open.
Spray water pressure valve opening INTERLOCK
When by-pass steam valves are more than 2% open the monitor gives a single to the BD
valve for full opening.


Combined stop and control valve
Water injection valve

LP by pass system is used to monitor the pressure in the re-heat system. In the event of start
up, shutdown load shedding or trip-out the amounts of excess reheat steam is passed to the
LP bypass system is utilized for the following task

To control the steam pressure after reheater

To establish the flow of steam from reheat lines to condenser by opening it
proportional to the opening of HP bypass valve.
To release the steam entrapped in HP turbine and reheater circuit in case
the generator circuit breaker opens.

The LP by pass of KWU system has the following components

Combined stop and control valves

Stop valve servomotor
Stop value slide valve
Control valve servomotor
Pilot valve for control valve
Spray water control valves
Electric controller
Electro-hydraulic converter for LP by pass
Following piston for LP by pass
LP by pass limiting device
Condenser safety device or low vacuum trip
Water pressure switch
Solenoid valve for temp protection
Other solenoids like for spray water etc.

Combined stop and control valve By pass stop and control valves are combined in a common valve body. This valve
combination dumps the steam not accepted by the turbine to the condenser.
By pass stop valve
The by-pass stop valve is arrangement in the inlet branch of the valve body and is either
closed or fully opened. The by-pass steam enters the body through the inlet branch and is
admitted to the valve cone.
The stop valve has the following parts

Valve body
Valve cone
Valve spindle
Guide bush
Packing rings
Gland nut

By-pass control valve

The by-pass control valve follows the signal of the by-pass controller to dump the necessary
flow by-pass steam. This is arranged in the exhaust branch of the valve body.
The main components are

Valve body


Valve cone
Valve spindle
Pressure elements
Guide bushes
Piston rod

Stop valve actuator

The function of the actuator is to operate by pas stop valve according to the signal from the
LP by pass valve governor.
The by pass stop valve is opened hydraulically and closed hydraulically with the assistance of
the springs in the piston.
The main components are

Piston rod

Actuator for bypass control valve

The main components are

Valve cone

Feed back of bypass control valve

The feed back unit is flanged to the actuator of the bypass control valve. Depending on the
valve lift the unit counteracts the signal oil of the bypass stations in the PILOT valve.
The fed back unit consists of 1

Cam bush
Feed back linkage system
Follow-up piston
Bell crank

Pilot valve for bypass control valve


The pilot valve controlling the actuator of the bypass control valve opens or closes the control
valve by admitting pressure oil in accordance with the signals of the by-pas controller.
The main parts of the PILOT valve of by-pass control valve are

Valve body
Spring disc
Thrust ball bearing
Valve bush
Helical compression spring
Wheel disc

PILOT valve of by-pass stop valve

The pilot valve controlling the actuator of the bypass stop valve opens or closes this valve by
admitting control oil in accordance with the signals of the LP by-pass controller valve.
The various parts are

Valve body
Thrust ball bearing
Screw plug
Retainer ring
Wheel disk

Water injection valve Function

Water injection valve injects condensate into steam. The unused steam is then dumped into
the condenser.
The water injection valve consists of

Valve spindle with cone

Valve body
Valve seat
Neck bushing
Packing support ring

Pilot valve of injection water valve

The pilot valve operators the injection water valve in accordance with the oil pulse signals
given by the by-pas controller.

It comprises of the following


Valve body
Compression spring
Spring disc
Thrust ball bearing
Wheel disc sleeve bush
Screw plug

Protections For the protections of the condenser the following items are monitored and incorporated in
the bypass safety equipment.

Protection against vacuum too low

Protection against insufficient spray water pressure measured up-stream of
the spray water valves.
Protection against excessive steam flow to the condenser measured as
steam pressure up-stream of the by-pass valves.
Protection against excessive temperature in the condenser, measured in the
condenser wall opposite to the bypass steam inlet.

The LP by-pass valves will close automatically under the following condition to prevent
damage to the condenser.

Condenser vacuum is low (0.6 kg/sq. cm. abs.)

Spray water pressure is low (8 kg/sq. cm. Or both condensate pump off)
Condenser wall temperature at exhaust hood is high (90c) this will
automatically switch on exhaust hood spray water.
If the downstream pressure of LP bypass valve is high.


HP by-pass system
LP bypass pressure control valve
LP bypass temperature control valve
Interlock and operation

In LMW Russian design turbines the capacity of each HP and LP bypass system is 30%. In
this case if turbine trips he boiler also trips and each of these system is capable of handling
30% of the total steam capacity generation of the boiler.
In case of KWU turbines connected with a BHEL (combustion engineering) boiler , the Hp
by-pass is 60% bypass, there by, meaning that it can handle 60% of the steam generated by
the boiler and LP by pass is a 100% by pass, capable of handling the total steam generated by
the boiler. In this case on a turbine trip, boiler does not trip.
HP bypass systems in both LMW as well as KWU sets are the same. But LP by-pass system
is of different construction.
The main features of LPBP used in LMW are explained.

LP bypass pressure control valve The function of the LP bypass control system is to monitor the pressure in the reheat system
and to control it under certain operating conditions during start up and shut down and at
operation below minimum boiler load.
The volume of steam not utilized by the IP and LP cylinders of the turbine must be passed to
the condenser via the LP bypass valves.
This requires the bypass control system to maintain the pressure in the re-heater constant in
accordance with the pre-set value.
In the event of disturbances e.g. load shedding or trip-out the amount of excess reheat steam
passed to the condenser depends on the capacity of the condenser.
LP by-pas station is utilized for following tasks

To control the steam pressure after re-heater

To establish flow of steam from reheat lines to condenser by its opening
proportional to the opening of HP bypass valve.
To release steam entrapped in HP turbine and reheater circuit in case the
generator circuit breaker opens.

Components of LP bypass system

The LP bypass station consists of the following

Pressure reducing valve

A spray water control valve and a
De-super heater

Now we discuss the construction of LP by-pass system

The constructional feature of this valve is exactly same as HP bypass valve except that it does
not have any integral spray arrangement.
The main components are

The valve body

The valve stem
The valve plug
The valve seat
The valve bonnet
The bearing carrier and
The packing nut

LP BY-PASS TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE This screen shows LP by pass spray control valve the main components are

The body
The valve seat
The valve stem
The guide bush
The bonnet and
The packing nut

INTERLOCKES AND OPERATION The HP/LP by-pass is influenced by the following interlocks

Generator circuit breaker In this case station opens when generator circuit
breaker opens.
Condenser vacuum too low The station will close if the vacuum in condenser
drops below 540 mm of hg.
HP bypass valve position below 2% of its full stroke the memory sends
continuous closing signal to the valve
Down stream temperature of HP or LP bypass station become too high the closing
signal to the station is forwarded
LP bypass station is interlocked with HP bypass station during start-up or


Alarms /annunciations

Fault indications for HP-LP BYPASS system control are done through

Visual alarms are provided for some abnormal and unique process
conditions requiring the attention of the operator to be posted in the by-pas
Through flickering lamps in the control desk
Through LEDs in the control cubicle. The led; s go off for faulty

The list of alarms used are as following

Alarm 1
For pressure deviation in the steam line with respect to set point greater than 10%
Alarm 2
For opening of by-pass valve BP1 or BP2 greater than 2%.
For down stream temperature of either bypass valve high or too high. High setting is for 340
centigrade. Too high setting is for 380 centigrade at which point the corresponding steam
bypass valve closes.
Alarm 4
For opening of LP bypass valve LBP1 or LBP2 greater than 2%
Alarm -5
Is for downstream temperature of LBP1 or LBP2 valves high or very high. High setting is for
210 centigrade.
Alarm 6
Is for the auxiliary pressure reducing and de-super heating system.
Alarm -7
Is for indicating collective control failure namely, control for any particular control loop
having failed
Alarm 8
Indicates overall power supply failure
Alarm - 9
Hydraulic oil supply unit failure


Blocking of the small control
holes in the spool or in the
filter holders.

Blocking units
Choking of sintered bronze

Seizing of the piston of

blocking elements in deblocked condition

Blocking of the small control
holes in the spool or in the
filter holders is primarily
caused by extraneous matters
in the hydraulic system.

Cleaning small control holes

as per the recommended
procedures given in O & M
Cleaning and if necessary
replacing the sintered bronze

Whereas, choking of sintered

bronze filter can be caused
either by extraneous matters
in the hydraulic system or by
the precipitation of paraffin
like substance from the oil on
the filter
Fine extraneous matters
Seized blocking elements
getting into close clearance
cannot be serviced as such
(0.004 to 0.006 mm) between but can be repaired by
the spool guide bush and
1) Replacing the
piston with a
new oversized
2) Increasing the
bore of piston
guide bush to
eliminate any
damage marks
followed by
cleaning etc.

Step 1
BP1 valve not opening on pressing push button.
Check if flickering lamp is on.
Tap indicator if indicator is lightly stuck up it will move .
Step 2
Check if sufficient oil pressure from SOL10 card
Step 3

The inoperative servo valves
can be serviced by

Check LEDs in card fronts in BP1 control loop.

Step 4
Check voltage at cubical terminals
Step 5
Check if valve is opening actually.
Step 6
Check voltage at junction voltage
It is advised that spars blocking elements to be kept on stock as recommended in O & M
If power supply fails by which HP-LP bypass control system becomes inoperative closing
signal impulse under REMOTE MANUAL operation will no larger be available to the
concerned valves.
Under such conditions the valve may change its position in absence of stay-put facility due to
seized blocking elements.
To avoid this you should have an un-interrupter power supply to HP-LP bypass system.

Assessment -