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Conventional Milling

Lesson outcomes

By the end of this lesson, students should be

able to understand:

The concept of milling and its different types

Guidelines and troubleshooting for milling operations

Types of milling machines and their components

Milling - definition

Milling: a machining process whereby a

rotating cutting tool is fed against a

workpiece that can travel along various axes

Types of milling operations

Types of milling operations • Axis of cutter rotation is perpendicular to workpiece • surface •

Axis of cutter rotation is perpendicular to workpiece

surface

Relative motion between cutter teeth and workpiece

leave feedmarks on

machined surface

Surface roughness dependent on insert corner geometry and feed per tooth

plain milling=peripheral milling = slab milling Axis of cutter rotation parallel to workpiece surface Cutter usually HSS Straight or helical teeth

Helical teeth requires less cutting force and torque less vibration

Spindle axis: vertical

Versatile: can produce profiles, curved surfaces

Cutter is called an

endmill (HSS or carbide inserts)

Ball nose mill, hollow

end mill

2 types of slab milling

2 types of slab milling • Max chip thickness is at the end of the cut
2 types of slab milling • Max chip thickness is at the end of the cut

Max chip thickness is at the end of the cut

•Contamination on surface doesn’t affect tool life Smooth process if cutter is sharp Tool may chatter

Workpiece may be pulled up clamp properly

2 types of slab milling • Max chip thickness is at the end of the cut

Max chip thickness at the beginning of cut

Scale/oxidation on surface will damage cutter

Workpiece clamped down by cutting forces less clamping requirement

Not suitable for irregular surfaces

Recommendations for

milling parameters

High speed machining

Important in machining aerospace components Spindle speed 20,000-60,000 RPM High stiffness & accuracy machines

Troubleshooting for

milling operations

Milling Machine Types

Column-and-knee type machines Bed type milling machine

Column and knee milling machines

Horizontal spindle

Column and knee milling machines Horizontal spindle

Vertical spindle

Column and knee milling machine

components

Worktable: surface on which the workpiece is mounted. Table moves longitudinally.

Saddle: Supports the table and can move in transverse direction

Knee: Supports saddle and provides vertical movement Overarm: Adjustable to accommodate different arbor lengths Head: Contains the spindle and cutter holders

Bed type milling machine

Knee is replaced by a bed

Bed can move longitudinally

Worktable mounted on bed

High stiffness

Used for high speed, high production work

Other types of milling machines

CNC milling machines Machining centers Etc.

Workpieces are held using:

Plain vise Universal Vise Angle Plates Rotary Table

Angle Plate

Workpieces are held using: • Plain vise • Universal Vise • Angle Plates • Rotary Table

Plain vise

Universal vise

Rotary Table

Milling cutters are held

using:

Arbor Collet Toolholder

Milling cutters are held using: • Arbor • Collet • Toolholder Arbor Collet Toolholder

Arbor

Milling cutters are held using: • Arbor • Collet • Toolholder Arbor Collet Toolholder

Collet

Milling cutters are held using: • Arbor • Collet • Toolholder Arbor Collet Toolholder

Toolholder

Summary

Milling is a machining process whereby a rotating cutting tool is fed against a workpiece that can travel along various axes

Different types of milling (slab milling, face milling, end

milling) are characterized by the cutter’s relative motion to the

workpiece, cutter type and machining output

Calculations for cutting speed, material removal rate, power,

torque and cutting times are important before performing any milling operation

Components should be designed with machining limitations in

mind

Troubleshooting can be performed by identifying the appropriate machining parameter to change and modifying it in the correct amount

Column-and-knee-type are suitable for general purpose milling

while bed-type milling machines are more suitable for high volume production work