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1830

France occupies Algeria, one of the few


present European colonies in Africa.
1831
Young Italy society is founded by Mazzini,
the heart. Its a youth organization for
fostering nationalism.
1839
The First Opium War begins between
England and China, England with a clear
advantage with their military and
technological superiority.
1842
The Treaty of Nanking ends the First
Opium War, demanding major
concessions from the Chinese.

1851
The technological achievements of Great
Britain are celebrated in the Great
Exhibition of London.
1852
Count of Cavour, Camillo Benso,
becomes Sardinias prime minister. It will
be through him and his realpolitik that the
unification of Italy under Victor Emmanuel
II occurs.
1853
Under the threat of war, Japan opens its
trade thanks to Commodore Perry
1857
In response to British cultural
insensitivities, the bloody Sepoy Mutiny
occurs against their British rulers.

1848
A unified constitutional German state is
proposed by the Frankfurt Assembly;
however Frederick Wilhelm IV turns down
the crown from the gutter.

1858
Great Britain, in response to the Sepoy
Mutiny, puts India under direct rule.

1848
Revolutions break out, starting in France
and spreading.

1862
Otto von Bismarck becomes Prussias
chief minister. It will be through him and
his realpolitik that the unification of
Germany under King Wilhelm I.

1849
The Stone Breakers is painted by Gustave
Courbet. It displayed social realism by
depicting two peasants unfit for hard labor
working away at the rocks. It displayed
sympathy for workers and aberration for
the upper class.
1850
The Taiping Rebellion begins in China,
lead by Hong Xiuquan. The civil war
wreaks havoc and sets China back,
allowing the European nations to take the
lead economically.

1869
The Suez Canal is completed in Egypt,
facilitating international travel.
1870
Cecil Rhodes arrives in Cape Town, South
Africa, and would monopolize the
diamond trade.
1870-1871
The Franco-Prussian War occurs. Otto
von Bismarck skillfully uses the war to
unite northern and southern Germany.

displaying emotion and colors realism


never touched upon before.
1872
A full three centuries from Magellans
circumnavigation, Thomas Cook organize
his own trip around the world. Its
completed in two hundred and twenty two
days.
1872
Claude Monet, the famous Impressionist,
paints Impression, Sunrise.
1874
Edgar Degas, another famous
impressionist, albeit with his own style,
paints The Dance Class. This painting
demonstrates his superb understanding of
movement.
1875
Egypt is bankrupt, and Great Britain takes
Ismails shares on the Suez Canal as
compensation.
1882
Troops from Britain land in Egypt.
1882
Great Britain begins to establish a
protectorate over Egypt.
1884-1885
The Berlin Conference meets to organize
the Scramble for Africa. It is from this
where we get the lines on Africas map.
1885
Germany seizes control over German
East Africa.
1886
Burma is taken over by the British.
1889
The famous post-impressionist Vincent
Van Gogh paints The Starry Night,

1892
Pierre Auguste Renoir paints Girls at the
Piano, displaying two middle-class girls
practicing by their living room piano.
1897
Paul Gauguin paints Where Do We Come
From? What Are We? Where Are We
Going?
1897
In Basel, Switzerland, the First Zionist
Conference meets, discussing the return
to their homeland.
1899-1901
The Boxer Rebellion occurs in China. The
secret society of the Righteous and
Harmonious Fists gained support and
fought against the Westerners.
1899
US Secretary Hays sends a statement
proposing an Open Door Policy allowing
all nations access to Chinas ports.
1899-1902
Boer War occurs. The British and the
Dutch fight in South Africa, with the
Afrikaners succumbing to the English.
1904-1905
Russo-Japanese War occurs. After
waiting almost a year for Russian ships to
arrive, the Japanese destroy in the fleet in
less than an hour. Japan establishes itself
as a power, and takes Port Arthur and
Korea from Russia.
1910
The Union of South Africa is formed,
belonging to the British.
1911-1912

The overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty


results in Dr. Sun Yat-Sens inauguration
as the president of the Chinese Republic.