Electrical engineering Microeletronics

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ENGR 451 Lab 2 BJT Differential Pair

Electrical engineering Microeletronics

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 9

Laboratory 2: The BJT DIFFERENTIAL PAIR

BASIC TOPOLOGY

PARTS LIST

6 x matching 10 k Resistors

1 x 10 k Potentiometer

1 x 1 M Resistor

Plenty of jumper wires

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this BJT experiment is to explore the basic topology of a BJT

differential pair and its properties. Try to become familiar with the prelab, before coming to the

laboratory (attempt all of the calculations).

In the laboratory the major component that you will use is the NTE912, a 5-transistor array,

whose transistor array layout is shown as in Figure 1. It consists of 5 matched npn transistors,

two of which share a common emitter connection. You will not use the differential pair but will

use the two separate transistors Q3 and Q4 for the experiment.

Figure1:TheNTE912transistorarray.

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PRELAB

A)

For the circuit shown in Figure 2, the following measurements are made: at nodes

A and B, -0.082 V and -0.079 V; at nodes C and D, -0.771 V and -0.760 V; and at nodes

E and F, +5.21 V and +5.18 V. The positive and negative supplies are found to be +15.03

V and -10.73 V respectively. Estimate base, emitter and collector currents for both

transistors, as well as VBE, , and , assuming perfect resistors. (Hint: be careful in how

you calculate .)

B)

Estimate the limits on the values of and that you calculate, for the resistorvalue deviations of 1 %.

Figure2:Apairofdifferentialhalfcircuits.

EXPERIMENT

For this part of the laboratory we will be setting up a circuit as shown in Figure 2, using

the NTE912 array. Note that in the array, the npn transistors are fabricated on a common

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substrate whose voltage must be at (or, below) the most negative voltage applied to any of the

devices. Here it is connected (by pin 13) to the negative supply.

The unusual voltage of the negative supply (-10.7 V) is chosen to emphasize the possibility of

benefit of design choice, in particular, to make the currents nominally 1 mA. Note that it will be

convenient if collector, emitter, and base resistors are matched in pairs to 1 % or better.

Furthermore, if their values, as measured by your DMM, are recorded and used in calculations

involving , corresponding results become much more convincing.

Assemble the circuit of Figure 2 using resistors that are as well-matched as you can make

them. The better they are matched, the more you will learn both about the circuit and the

transistors. Use your digital ohmmeter.

Take a little time to match the resistors, but you should not spend more than five minutes. Try to

keep your wiring neat with short wires and the two half circuits separated as much as possible.

MEASUREMENTS

Measure all of the voltages at nodes A through F, as seen in Figure 2. Also measure the

power supplies with some attention to precision. Calculate all of the current values and / for

each transistor.

Rb1=

Rc1=

Re1=

Rb2=

Rc2=

Re2=

V+=

VB=

VE=

V=

VC=

VF=

VA=

VD=

VBE1=

VBE2=

IB1=

IC1=

IE1=

IB2=

IC2=

IE2=

1=

2=

1=

2=

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ANALYSIS

Calculate the currents in all branches, noting similarities. Would you have expected those

currents, explain (compare with the prelab). Explain any irregularities in your measured values.

Join nodes C and D (which had nearly the same voltage) as seen in Figure 3, and measure

the voltages on nodes A through F. Note that they are virtually the same as before.

VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

Figure3:Joinedemitterdifferentialpair.

Now, with nodes C and D joined, A open, and B connected via a 1 M resistor to the

center of a 10 k potentiometer, Rp, connected between +15 V and -10.7 V (as shown in Figure

4), measure the voltage between nodes E and F as well as the voltage at nodes A through F. Also

measure the voltage at point P, the center of Rp.

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Adjust Rp until this is exactly zero. Measure all of the voltages again.

Figure4:Compensationforinputoffsetvoltage.

MeasurementwithoutRPadjusted

VEF=

VP=

VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

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MeasurementwithadjustedRP(VEF=0V)

VEF=

0V

VP=

VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

ANALYSIS

Consider what this last step has accomplished: You have in effect compensated for the

total input offset including the voltage offset resulting from base-emitter mismatch, and the

difference in bias-current flow (ie, offset current) in the base resistors RB. Estimate the total input

offset voltage two ways. What is the average offset current? Include the values of all of your

calculated currents again.

1. Introduction

2. Results

3. Analysis

4. Conclusion

5. Appendix

Write a short introductory summary about all of the explorations you conducted in this

lab.

Include all of your lab results, measured values, graphs and calculated values in the result

part of your report.

Answer all of the questions in the analysis part in this section in your report.

Write a brief conclusion summarizing your results and explain any deviations from the

prelab calculations and the actual measured values.

Include your calculation in the appendix (one sample calculation for each value is

enough, i.e. you do not need to show the same calculation multiple times).

The report can be written by hand or by computer (please keep it legible; if you do hand

write it).

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