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University of British Columbia School of Engineering

ENGR 451: Microelectronics II


Laboratory 2: The BJT DIFFERENTIAL PAIR
BASIC TOPOLOGY
PARTS LIST

1 x NTE912 transistor array chip


6 x matching 10 k Resistors
1 x 10 k Potentiometer
1 x 1 M Resistor
Plenty of jumper wires

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this BJT experiment is to explore the basic topology of a BJT
differential pair and its properties. Try to become familiar with the prelab, before coming to the
laboratory (attempt all of the calculations).
In the laboratory the major component that you will use is the NTE912, a 5-transistor array,
whose transistor array layout is shown as in Figure 1. It consists of 5 matched npn transistors,
two of which share a common emitter connection. You will not use the differential pair but will
use the two separate transistors Q3 and Q4 for the experiment.

Figure1:TheNTE912transistorarray.

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PRELAB

DC PARAMETERS AND CONDITIONS


A)
For the circuit shown in Figure 2, the following measurements are made: at nodes
A and B, -0.082 V and -0.079 V; at nodes C and D, -0.771 V and -0.760 V; and at nodes
E and F, +5.21 V and +5.18 V. The positive and negative supplies are found to be +15.03
V and -10.73 V respectively. Estimate base, emitter and collector currents for both
transistors, as well as VBE, , and , assuming perfect resistors. (Hint: be careful in how
you calculate .)
B)
Estimate the limits on the values of and that you calculate, for the resistorvalue deviations of 1 %.

Figure2:Apairofdifferentialhalfcircuits.

EXPERIMENT

DC Parameters and Conditions

For this part of the laboratory we will be setting up a circuit as shown in Figure 2, using
the NTE912 array. Note that in the array, the npn transistors are fabricated on a common

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substrate whose voltage must be at (or, below) the most negative voltage applied to any of the
devices. Here it is connected (by pin 13) to the negative supply.
The unusual voltage of the negative supply (-10.7 V) is chosen to emphasize the possibility of
benefit of design choice, in particular, to make the currents nominally 1 mA. Note that it will be
convenient if collector, emitter, and base resistors are matched in pairs to 1 % or better.
Furthermore, if their values, as measured by your DMM, are recorded and used in calculations
involving , corresponding results become much more convincing.

1. SETUP Half Circuits


Assemble the circuit of Figure 2 using resistors that are as well-matched as you can make
them. The better they are matched, the more you will learn both about the circuit and the
transistors. Use your digital ohmmeter.

Take a little time to match the resistors, but you should not spend more than five minutes. Try to
keep your wiring neat with short wires and the two half circuits separated as much as possible.

MEASUREMENTS

Measure all of the voltages at nodes A through F, as seen in Figure 2. Also measure the
power supplies with some attention to precision. Calculate all of the current values and / for
each transistor.

Rb1=

Rc1=

Re1=

Rb2=

Rc2=

Re2=

V+=

VB=

VE=

V=

VC=

VF=

VA=

VD=

VBE1=

VBE2=

IB1=

IC1=

IE1=

IB2=

IC2=

IE2=

1=

2=

1=

2=

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ANALYSIS

Calculate the currents in all branches, noting similarities. Would you have expected those
currents, explain (compare with the prelab). Explain any irregularities in your measured values.

2. SETUP and MESUREMENTS Differential Pair


Join nodes C and D (which had nearly the same voltage) as seen in Figure 3, and measure
the voltages on nodes A through F. Note that they are virtually the same as before.
VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

Figure3:Joinedemitterdifferentialpair.

3. SETUP DC offset voltages and currents


Now, with nodes C and D joined, A open, and B connected via a 1 M resistor to the
center of a 10 k potentiometer, Rp, connected between +15 V and -10.7 V (as shown in Figure
4), measure the voltage between nodes E and F as well as the voltage at nodes A through F. Also
measure the voltage at point P, the center of Rp.
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Adjust Rp until this is exactly zero. Measure all of the voltages again.

Figure4:Compensationforinputoffsetvoltage.

MeasurementwithoutRPadjusted
VEF=

VP=

VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

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MeasurementwithadjustedRP(VEF=0V)
VEF=

0V

VP=

VA=

VB=

VC=

VD=

VE=

VF=

VBE1=

VBE2=

ANALYSIS

Consider what this last step has accomplished: You have in effect compensated for the
total input offset including the voltage offset resulting from base-emitter mismatch, and the
difference in bias-current flow (ie, offset current) in the base resistors RB. Estimate the total input
offset voltage two ways. What is the average offset current? Include the values of all of your
calculated currents again.

LAB REPORT WRITE UP

Compose a report with the following subsections:


1. Introduction
2. Results
3. Analysis
4. Conclusion
5. Appendix
Write a short introductory summary about all of the explorations you conducted in this
lab.
Include all of your lab results, measured values, graphs and calculated values in the result
part of your report.
Answer all of the questions in the analysis part in this section in your report.
Write a brief conclusion summarizing your results and explain any deviations from the
prelab calculations and the actual measured values.
Include your calculation in the appendix (one sample calculation for each value is
enough, i.e. you do not need to show the same calculation multiple times).
The report can be written by hand or by computer (please keep it legible; if you do hand
write it).

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