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Disediakan oleh : Mohamad Esmandi Bin Hapni

Untuk rujukan guru

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Title

Page number

What physics is

Do you know physical quantity around us ?

Is there any different in physical quantity ?

How do I write big and small numbers in simplest form ?

What are the other instrument use to measure length besides meter rule?

Uncertainty in measurement ?

Scientific Investigation

Properties of measurement you should know

10

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What physics is

Physics
Textbook

Forming of
rainbow
Physics
Reference book

Mirage

Momentum

Motion

Measurement

Understanding
Physics

Force

Career

Energy

Siti Rohayu

Heat

Esmandi

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Do you know physical quantity around us ?

Physics
Reference book
Volume

Physics
Textbook

Unit
Length
Area
Mass
`Weight
Time

Base
quantity

Physical
quantity

Derived
quantity

Density
Temperature

Electric
current

Momentum
Magnitude

Force
Siti Rohayu

Esmandi

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Is there any different in physical quantity ?

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Unit

Magnitude
Only

Magnitude
and direction

Speed

Velocity

Scalar
quantity

Physical
quantity

Distance

Mass

Siti Rohayu

Vector
quantity

Displacement

Number

Weight

Esmandi

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How do I write big and small numbers in simplest form ?


Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook

Using letter
Big
number

Tera, T, 1012

A x 10n

Giga, G, 109
Mega, M, 106

1 A < 10

Kilo, k, 103
Prefixes
Deci, d, 10

Indices

Standard form

-1

2.1 x 108

Centi, c, 10-2
Milli, m, 10-3
Micro, , 10-6

Small
number

Nano, n, 10-9

1.37 x 10-13

Pico, p, 10-12
Siti Rohayu

Esmandi

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What are the other instrument use to measure length besides meter rule?

Inner jaw

Vernier Callipers

Outer jaw
Main scale
Vernier scale
Screw
Tail

Measuring instrument
Anvil

Micrometer Screw Gauge

Spindle
Main scale
Vernier scale
Sleeve
Thimble
Ratchet

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Uncertainty in measurement ?

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Cannot be
avoid

Surrounding

Constant

Observer

Instrument

Random
error

Can be
minimized

Parallax

Time reaction

Siti Rohayu

Systematic
error

Positive

Uncertainty

Negative

Esmandi

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Scientific Investigation

Making an
observation

Identifying
variables

Make an inference

Manipulated

Conduct the
experiment

Tabulate data

Responding

Formulate a
hypothesis

Constant

Analysing data

Graph

Writing report

Conclusion

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Properties of measurement you should know

Measurement

Consistency

Accuracy

Sensitivity

Same reading

Actual value

Small change

Small relative deviation

On the target

Respond quickly

Can be accurate

Small scale

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Title

Page number

Your position

12

Your movement

13

Equation of Linear Motion

14

How do we analyse movement ?

15

Tendency of an object in their motion

16

When there is action, there is reaction

17

What make an object changes ?

18

The effects of impulsive force

19

Is save to drive a car ?

20

What makes you fall ?

21

How a ship made of iron floats in the sea ?

22

Type of energy around us

23

Factors that affect the elasticity of a spring (i)

24

Factors that affect the elasticity of a spring (ii)

25
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Your position

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Length

Specific
direction

Total length
of the path

Distance

Change
in
position

Scalar quantity

Displacement

Vector quantity

Unit
metre

Siti Rohayu

Esmandi

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Your movement

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Fast

Displacement
Time

Distance
Time
Speed

Slow

Scalar quantity

Velocity

Vector quantity

Unit
m s-1

Siti Rohayu

Esmandi

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Equation of Linear Motion

Equation of linear motion

v = u + at2

Condition

No s is given

as

s = ut + at2
No v is given

as

v = u + at2
No t is given

as

1
s (u v)t
2
No a is given

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How do we analyse movement ?

Motion Graph

Displacement against time

Velocity against time

Acceleration against time

Displacement

Initial velocity

Acceleration

Total distance

Final Velocity

Deceleration

Time interval

Time interval

Time interval

Gradient = Velocity

Gradient = Acceleration
Area = Displacement

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Tendency of an object in their motion

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Non-physical
quantity

Property of
matter

Inertia

Mass

Siti Rohayu

Animal shakes their


body to dry wet fur

Run in zigzag pattern


when we chased by a
bull

Give a quick
downward shake to
chilli sauce bottle to
force chilli sauce out
of the bottle
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When there is action, there is reaction

Momentum

Explosion

Elastic collision

Inelastic collision

Apart after collision

Combine after collision

Initially at rest and in contact

Momentum conserve

Momentum conserve

Momentum conserve

Kinetic energy conserve

Kinetic energy not conserved

Kinetic energy not conserve

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

m1u1 + m2u2 = ( m1 + m2)V

(m1 + m2)u= m1v1+ m2v2

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What make an object changes ?

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Change the shape

Change the size

Effects of
force

Change the speed

Siti Rohayu

`Change the state of


motion

Change the direction


of motion

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The effects of impulsive force

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Time of
impact

Crushes the
food

Serious injuries
During accident

Drives the nail


Into wood
Positive

mv mu
t

Negative

Defecting an
object

Kicking a
football

Drives pile into


The ground

Siti Rohayu

Change in
momentum

Destroying
an object

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Is save to drive a car ?

Physics
Textbook

Shatter-proof
Glass windscreen
Physics
Reference book

Soft Headrests

Safety seat belt

Tyres with
tread

Safety features
In vehicles

ABS
Break systems

Rear and front


crumple zone
Padded dashboard

Siti Rohayu

Passenger safety
case

Rear and front


bumper

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What makes you fall ?

Earth
g = 10 m s-2
g = 10 N kg-1

Physics
Reference book

Moon
g = 5/3 m s-2
g = 5/3 N kg-1

W = mg

To the centre

v2 = u2 + 2gt

Gravity

s = ut + gt2

Vector quantity

v = u + gt

Siti Rohayu

Physics
Textbook

Free fall

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How a ship made of iron floats in the sea ?

Physics
Textbook

Inclined plane
Physics
Reference book

Newtons third law

F`y

Horizontal plane
F
F`x

R
Forces in
equilibrium

Fx = F sin

F2

Resolution of forces

F1

Fy = F cos
R
Friction

Addition of forces
Resultant force = 0

Siti Rohayu

Esmandi

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Type of energy around us

Work
Gravitational energy
Power

Kinetic energy
Elastic potential energy

Force
Energy

Heat energy
Sound energy

Efficiency

Chemical energy
Electrical energy

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Factors that affect the elasticity of a spring (i)

Longer spring

Flexible

Bigger diameter
Of coil

Replace frequently

Made from copper

Weak
spring system

Breaks easily

Made from thin


wire

High maintenance

Arranged in series

Spring easily extend

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Factors that affect the elasticity of a spring (ii)

Shorter spring

Not flexible

Smaller diameter
Of coil

Seldom replace

Made from steel

Strong
spring system

Does not breaks easily

Made from thick


wire

Low maintenance

Arranged in
parallel

Spring does not easily extend

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Title

Page number

Can you feel and see the pressure?

27

Physics Principles Involve of Forces and Pressure

28

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Can you feel and see the pressure?

Pressure

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Depend on contact area

Depend on the depth

Depend on temperature

Depend on the weight

Depend on density of the liquid

Depend on volume

Bigger weight, higher pressure

Depend on the strength of gravity

Depend on number of particles

Smaller contact area, higher pressure

Immersed more, higher pressure

Higher temperature, higher pressure

F
A

Higher density, higher pressure

P = hg

Smaller volume, higher pressure


Many gas particles, higher pressure
Higher altitude, lower pressure

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Physics Principles Involve of Forces and Pressure

Principle

Bernoulli

Pascal

Archimedes

Enclosed system

Involve of floating object

Involve of liquid flow

Pressure transmitted equally

Involve of immersed object

Involve of gas flow

Involve of piston

In liquid and in gas

High speed area = Low pressure area

Apply in fluid

Weight of fluid displaces = Buoyant force

F1 F2

A1 A2

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Title

Page number

Why do hot drinks cool if left over?

30

Why there is changes in themperature while boilling water then it fixed at 100 oC ?

31

The Gas Laws

32

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Why do hot drinks cool if left over?

Physics
Textbook

Energy transferred
Physics
Reference book

Newtons third law


Thermometer

Rate of heat flow = 0

Two fixed points

Lower fixed point, l0 = ice point


Resolution of forces

Hot
Thermal
equilibrium

Upper fixed point, l100 = steam point


Addition of forces
l l
xo x 0
l100 l0

Cold

Warm

Resultant force = 0

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Why there is changes in themperature while boilling water then it fixed at 100 oC ?

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Heat
involved
J kg-1

J kg-1 oC-1

Heat absorbed
Specific latent
heat

Specific heat
capacity

No changes in
temperature

Heat lost

Changes in
temperature
Mass
involved

Use to changes
The state of
matter

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The Gas Laws

Gas Law

Boyles Law

Condition

P1V1 = P2V2
Temperature = constant

as

Charles Law

as

Pressure Law

V1 V2

T1 T2

P1 P2

T1 T2

Pressure = constant

Volume = Constant

as

Universal Gas Law

P1V1 P2V2

T1
T2

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Title

Page number

Does the image in the mirror is really like you?

34

Does star really blinked as seen from the earth?

35

Reflection of Refraction ?

36

Forming total internal reflection (shine like a diamond)

37

Image formed by convev lens

38

Image formed by concave lens

39

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Does the image in the mirror is really like you?

Physics
Textbook

Plane mirror
Physics
Reference book

Convex mirror

Newtons third law


Concave mirror

Changes in light direction

Shiny surface
Resolution of forces

Focal point
Reflection of
light

Angle of reflection

Normal line

Addition of forces
Angle of incidence

Resultant force = 0

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Does star really blinked as seen from the earth?

Physics
Textbook

Transparent medium
Physics
Reference book

Newtons third law


Two different mediums
Snells Law
Critical angle
Changes in light direction

Speed changed
Refraction of
light

Resolution of forces
Angle of refraction

Total internal reflection

Apparent depth
Addition of
forces
Angle
of incidence
Normal
line force = 0
Resultant
Real depth
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Reflection of Refraction ?

Physics
Reference book

Physics
Textbook
Light

Angle of
reflection

Angle of
Refraction

Angle of
incidence

Direction
changed

Refraction of
light

Reflection of
light
i = r

Shiny surface

Speed
changed

Images

Normal
line

sin i
sin r

Two different
mediums

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Forming total internal reflection (shine like a diamond)

Light travelled from air to


glass

Light experienced
refraction away from
normal

A new incident angle at the


boundary of
glass-air

Air less optical


density

Adjust the angle of


incident at the boundary of
air-glass

Until all the light at the


boundary glass-air
reflected into glass

Total internal reflection


occur

Air less optical


density

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Image formed by convev lens

From the object, draw a


ray parallel to principal
axis to the lens.

The ray does not bending


when pass through the
centre of lens.

From the lens, the ray


refracted to pass through
focal point

Identify the intersection


point from the two rays.

From the object, draw a


ray go through the centre
of lens.

Draw the image

Magnified or
diminished

Real or virtual

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Image formed by concave lens

From the object, draw a


ray parallel to principal
axis to the lens.

The ray does not bending


when pass through the
centre of lens.

From the lens, the ray


refracted and appear to
come from focal point

Identify the intersection


point from the two rays.

From the object, draw a


ray go through the centre
of lens.

Draw the image

Magnified or
diminished

Real or virtual

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